You are on page 1of 35

QUOTES: THE TEACHER

 “What the teacher is, is more important than what he


teaches.” (Karl A. Menning)

 “When you study great teachers ... you will learn much more
from their caring and hard work than from their style.”(William
Glasser)

 “A teacher who loves learning earns the right and the ability to
help others learn.” ( Ruth Beechick)

 “He who dares to teach must never cease to learn.” (Richard


Henry Dann)
QUOTES: THE TEACHER
 “A teacher is one who makes himself progressively
unnecessary.” (Thomas Carruthers)

 “It is the supreme art of the teacher to awaken joy in creative


expression and knowledge. (Albert Einstein)

 “A teacher affects eternity: he can never tell where his


influence stops.” (Henry Adams)

 “The mediocre teacher tells. The good teacher explains. The


superior teacher demonstrates. The great teacher inspires.”
(William Arthur Ward)
QUOTES: TEACHING
 “The art of teaching is the art of assisting discovery. (Mark
van Doren)
 “Good teaching is more a giving of right questions than a
giving of right answers.” (Josef Albers)
 “There are three things to remember when teaching: know
your stuff; know whom you are stuffing; and then stuff them
elegantly.” (Lola May)
 “Teachers who inspire know that teaching is like cultivating a
garden, and those who would have nothing to do with thorns
must never attempt to gather flowers.” (Author Unknown)
 “Teaching should be full of ideas instead of stuffed with
facts.” (Author Unknown)
 TEACHING A FOREIGN LAGUAGE  SPEAKING A FOREIGN
LANGUAGE LIKE A NATIVE

 SPEAKING A FOREIGN LANGUAGE


 USEFUL AND IMPORTANT
 A SIGN OF EDUCATION AND NOBILITY
 POSSIBILITY OF PROFESSIONAL AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
 FOR TOURISM
APPROPRIATE FUNCTIONING IN CONTEMPORARY SOCIETIES
(SCHOLARSHIPS, JOBS, COMPUTERS, INTERNET, TOURSIM, ETC.)
 WHAT WE WANT TO ACHIEVE & HOW WE WANT TO ACHIEVE

 WHAT WE TEACH & HOW WE TEACH  WHY SS LEARN A


FOREIGN LANGUAGE

 WHAT WE TEACH  CLOSELY RELATED TO LANGUAGE AND


SOCIETY

 HOW WE TEACH: METHODS + TECNIQUES + CREATIVITY


 KNOWLEDGE OF A FOREIGN LANGUAGE  BASED ON THE
PROCESS OF COMMUNICATION (SAUSSURE)

SENDER  MESSAGE  RECEIVER

(PRODUCER/ENCODER) (DECODER)

 THE CODE IS THE COMMON LANGUAGE SPOKEN BY THE SENDER


AND THE RECEIVER OF THE MESSAGE

 THOUGHTS (MEANINGS) ARE PUT INTO WORDS  STRUCTURES


+ RULES  THE MESSAGE
LINGUISTIC COMPETENCE

 LINGUISTIC COMPETENCE  THE SPEAKERS’ ABILITY TO


DECODE AND ENCODE LINGUISTIC MESSAGES THANKS TO
THEIR KNOWLEDGE OF THE CODE

 LINGUISTIC COMPETENCE  LINGUISTIC PERFORMACE


(language knowledge) (language use)
LEARNING A LANGUAGE MEANS

 VOCABULARY ACQUISITION (words, lexical units e.g.


collocations, idioms, etc.)
spelling + pronunciation + meaning(s)
denotations/ connotations

 GRAMMAR ACQUISITION – structures of the language


FEATURES OF COMMUNICATION
COMMUNICATION IS
 MEANING BASED – speakers communicate meanings
through language and paralanguage
 INTERACTIONAL – interaction between at least 2
participants
 STRUCTURED – each discourse has a specific structure
 CONVENTIONAL – speakers have to observe social and
linguistic conventions
 APPROPRIATE – speakers adapt their discourse to the
social status of the participants, physical and temporal
setting, discourse type
COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE INCLUDES

 LINGUISTIC COMPETENCE – using the language correctly


 SOCIOLINGUISTIC COMPETENCE – using the language
according to the requirements of the social environment
 DISCOURSE COMPETENCE – using the language according to
the type of discourse envisaged
 STRATEGIC COMPETENCE – using the language functionally
i.e. to perform actions (e.g. peace talks) and strategically i.e.
to prove tact and/or politeness
 CULTURAL COMPETENCE –using the language bearing in mind
the elements of culture and civilization of the foreign
language environment
COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE
COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE = ABILITY TO USE THE
LANGUAGE

 ACCURATELY i.e. correctly in terms of grammar and


vocabulary
 APPROPRIATELY i.e. adapted to the social/situational
context and to the discourse type
 FUNCTIONALLY AND STRATEGICALLY i.e. using language
tactfully and politely to achieve real-world aims
 COMPETENTLY in terms of cultural background
LANGUAGE SKILLS
KNOWING A LANGUAGE 

LINGUISTIC + COMMUNICATIVE + SKILLS /ABILITIES


COMPETENCE COMPETENCE
(grammar and vocabulary)

 SKILLS allow the speakers to interact linguistically with the members of


the group
LISTENING SKILLS
SPEAKING SKILLS
READING SKILLS
WRITING SKILLS

 EACH SKILL HAS A SERIES OF SUB-SKILLS


e.g. pronunciation- L, spelling – W, grammar and vocabulary - L,
S, R, W
LANGUAGE SKILLS

 SKILLS RELATED TO ORAL COMMUNICATION: LISTENING


AND SPEAKING

 SKILLS RELATED TO WRITTEN COMMUNICATION:


READING AND WRITING

 RECEPTIVE SKILLS: LISTENING AND READING


 PRODUCTIVE SKILLS: SPEAKNG AND WRITING
TEACHING METHODS

 THE GRAMMAR TRANSLATION METHOD (GTM)


 THE AUDIO-LINGUAL METHOD (ALM)
 THE COMMUNITY LANGUAGE LEARNING (CLL)
 TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE (TPR) - THE COMPREHENSION
APPROACH
 SUGGESTOPEDIA
 THE SILENT WAY
 THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH
THE LANGUAGE COURSE

 AGE GROUPS
 LEARNER PERSONALITIES AND LEARNING STYLES
 THE LANGUAGE CURRICULUM (programa)
 THE SYLLABUS (planificare calendaristica)
 THE LESSON PLAN
THE LANGUAGE COURSE
 AGE GROUPS

 THE SS’ AGE CONDITIONS THE ACTIVITIES AND THE TEACHING


STRATEGIES USED
YOUNG LEARNERS (AGE 5-12)
TEENAGERS (AGE 12-18)
ADULTS (AGE OVER 18)

 LINGUISTIC PROFICIENCY:
BEGINNERS,
PRE-INTERMEDIATE,
INTERMEDIATE,
UPPER INTERMEDIATE
ADVANCED
LEARNER PERSONALITIES &LEARNING STYLES
 LERNING STYLES:

 VISUAL – pictures, posters, flash cards, graphs,


videotapes
 AUDITORY - audio materials, verbal instructions,
explanations, dialogues, discussions
 KINESTHETIC – dynamic activities (games, role play)
TACTILE – label a diagram, fill in a grid
LEARNER PERSONALITIES &LEARNING STYLES
 LEARNING STYLES:

 INNOVATIVE LEARNERS – look on personal meaning


and draw on their values while learning
 ANALYTIC LEARNERS – draw on facts; want to know
important things so as to develop intellectually while
learning
 DYNAMIC LEARNERS – judge things by reaction;
enthusiastic and adventurous challenging activities
COMMONSENSE LEARNERS – are practical and
straightforward, value useful things, try to find solutions
and make things happen.
LEARNER PERSONALITIES &LEARNING STYLES
 THE THINKERS  INNOVATIVE AND ANALYTIC LEARNERS
- need explanations
- analyze and process information carefully
- require more information and further explanations
- creative, eager to work, able to learn faster
 THE DOERS  DYNAMIC AND COMMONSENSE LEARNERS
- restless, need action
-learn by trial and error
- rarely use visual or tactile clues and hardly ever process
information
-learn by heart without understanding
- impatient, rebellious, hard to teach  concentrate on one
thing + try out
THE CLASS

 CLASS  a group of individuals brought together for


educational purposes
 The Ss have different personalities  the T observes and
respects each S
 The T should encourage the Ss to work together
 Ss should be encouraged to cooperate, not to compete  the
class can gradually shape its GROUP PERSONALITY
 Friendly and fun course vs. hostile and frustrating
 T must select materials and adapt techniques according to the
Ss attitudes and interests
THE LANGUAGE CURRICULUM
Modern language curriculum

- focusses on language skills development, the content to


be taught being subordinated to the skills to be
developed
- values and attitudes are more important than the topics
to be discussed

Modern language curriculum  skills + language functions


THE LANGUAGE CURRICULUM
A LANGUAGE CURRICULUM may include:

 GENERAL SKILLS

 SPECIFIC SKILLS AND CONTENTS

 VALUES AND ATTITUDES

 METHODOLOGICAL SUGGESTIONS
THE SYLLABUS
Curriculum + textbook  the syllabus

THE SYLLABUS

  used to organize the didactic activity and to provide a


framework for the language course (time management)

  meant to match the requirements of the curriculum with


the conditions provided by the classroom and group of
learners
THE SYLLABUS

ELABORATING THE SYLLABUS IMPLIES:

  a careful reading of the curriculum and of the books


  analysis of course objectives and matching the contents
with the course objectives
  establishing a sequence of the lessons
  matching contents with material resources
  managing time according to the course objectives and
class characteristics
THE STUDENTS’ NEEDS
The learning process and the T- S relationship trigger the
following needs:
 The need to get informed
 The need to be motivated
 The need to be actively involved in the learning process
 The need to practice for habit formation and skill
development
 The need to communicate and negotiate meaning
 The need to make an apprenticeship and develop an
individual style
THE LESSON PLAN
used to plan and organize each unit of the language course
by suggesting concrete activities, techniques, interaction
types for the amount of time considered

1. THE LINEAR MODEL


2. THE KALEIDOSCOPIC MODEL
3. THE MIXED MODEL
THE LESSON PLAN - THE LINEAR MODEL
THE T DECIDES THE AIMS AND THEN SELECTS THE CLASSROOM
ACTIVITIES SO AS TO ACHIEVE THE AIMS

The aims are formulated in the form SWABT = at the end of the
lesson the Ss will be able to … and
The aims refer to the new vocabulary / grammar to be taught,
specific skills, cultural representations

AIMS  design the activities, select techniques, materials,


interaction types
THE LESSON PLAN - THE LINEAR MODEL
ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES

- visible, easy to implement, - too teacher focussed;


predictable results; - too rigid and inflexible 
- effective management of time different from the current trends
and resources  effective in education;
transitions between courses ; - it does not account for
- classroom order; differences among learners;
- smoothly flowing and controlled - the primary focus = teaching
teaching; not learning;
- the T and the Ss are aware of - it can inhibit unplanned
the aims they have to meet  activities and learning.
they are prepared for academic
assessment.
THE LESSON PLAN - THE KALEIDOSCOPIC MODEL
Modern education aims at: formation rather than information
process rather than the product
means rather than the ends
Learners must be taught to learn - to locate new information
and use it for the real world purposes

THE KALEIDOSCOPIC LESSON PLAN


- starts from interesting and motivating activities (selected
by T/Ss)
- allows for planned and unplanned interactions
-  to fulfill various educational goals
THE LESSON PLAN - THE KALEIDOSCOPIC MODEL
ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES

- it encourages creativity and - rather difficult class management


spontaneity; - activities may easily become
- it encourages divergent and chaotic ;
critical thinking; - unclear objectives  hard to
- Ss can innovate and develop find appropriate ways to assess
the topic according to their results;
personality; - the materials brought by the Ss
- activities may lead to may be of low quality;
unexpected conclusions; - the materials may deal with
- all Ss can be included in the topics that the T is not
activity according to their comfortable to talk about.
capacity .
THE LESSON PLAN - THE MIXED MODEL
- The T plans the activities according to some well-defined
aims and objectives;
- The T allows for flexibility, innovation and creativity in class
activities;
- The Ss’ contributions are most welcome.
THE MIXED LESSON PLAN
- offers organization and logical structure , clear objectives and
practicality of assessment;
- encourages creativity and spontaneity ;
- Involves Ss in the educational act;
- promotes motivation, excitement about unexpected
discoveries and challenging activities.
LANGUAGE COURSE – PRACTICAL CONSTRAINTS

The T should conceive the lessons according to the Ss’


strengths and weaknesses.

Lesson planning implies:


- Considering the Ss’ interests, needs and difficulties
- Carefully reading and analyzing the contents to be taught
- Matching the lesson with the curriculum and the syllabus
in terms of objectives, contents, skills and functions
- Matching lesson contents with material resources
- Managing time
THE TEACHER’S ROLE

 The lesson depends on the T’s


- personality and interests
- teaching style
- attitude and relationship with the Ss

The T’s personality and professional experience is reflected by:


- selection of topics and texts
- selection of topics
- selection of techniques
- the atmosphere in class
LESSON PLANNING: ASPECTS TO BE TAKEN INTO ACCOUNT

 The Ss’ age and linguistic proficiency


 The Ss’ personality, interests and needs
 The Ss’ ability to learn easily and their interest in the
language course
 The number of Ss in class
 The frequency of lessons
 Availability of teaching materials
 The size and the organization of the classroom and the
nature of the furnishing