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2 просмотров8 страницGroup and phase birefringence
dispersion of pure and doped lithium
niobate crystals obtained by analysis
of interference pattern observed
behind a plane polariscope

Apr 21, 2019

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Group and phase birefringence
dispersion of pure and doped lithium
niobate crystals obtained by analysis
of interference pattern observed
behind a plane polariscope

© All Rights Reserved

0 оценок0% нашли этот документ полезным (0 голосов)

2 просмотров8 страницGroup and phase birefringence
dispersion of pure and doped lithium
niobate crystals obtained by analysis
of interference pattern observed
behind a plane polariscope

© All Rights Reserved

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niobate crystals obtained by analysis

of interference pattern observed

behind a plane polariscope

Norbert Tarjányi

Daniel Káčik

Norbert Tarjányi, Daniel Káčik, “Group and phase birefringence dispersion of pure and doped lithium

niobate crystals obtained by analysis of interference pattern observed behind a plane polariscope,”

Opt. Eng. 58(3), 034101 (2019), doi: 10.1117/1.OE.58.3.034101.

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Optical Engineering 58(3), 034101 (March 2019)

doped lithium niobate crystals obtained by analysis of

interference pattern observed behind a plane polariscope

Norbert Tarjányi* and Daniel Káčik

University of Žilina, Department of Physics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Žilina, Slovakia

Abstract. A sample of lithium niobate crystal with known thickness is set on a vertical rotary stage, placed in

between two crossed plane polarizers and illuminated by a collimated beam of white light. The sample is rotated

to an appropriate position, and interference fringes observed behind an analyzer are recorded by a fiber-optic

spectrometer. The recorded channeled spectrum is then analyzed, and from measured positions of interference

minima (dark fringes) and known crystal’s thickness, the group birefringence of the crystal sample is obtained

as a function of wavelength. The fringe order versus position of the fringe within the spectrum is fitted by

appropriate dispersion function, and as the result phase birefringence as a function of wavelength is found.

The measurement is performed for a sample declared as undoped, a sample doped with 0.025 wt. % of Fe,

and a sample doped with 0.025 wt. % of Fe and 0.075 wt. % of Mn in the wavelength ranges (470 to 780) nm

and (900 to 1700) nm. A good agreement between group birefringence dispersion obtained from positions of

interference minima and known sample’s thickness and that calculated from phase birefringence dispersion

given by Sellmeier dispersion model (used for undoped sample) and Cauchy model (used for doped samples)

is found. © 2019 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) [DOI: 10.1117/1.OE.58.3.034101]

Keywords: phase birefringence; group birefringence; lithium niobate; polariscope; interference fringes; channeled spectrum.

Paper 181761 received Dec. 9, 2018; accepted for publication Feb. 15, 2019; published online Mar. 5, 2019.

Lithium niobate (LiNbO3 or LN) belongs to one of techno- existing cases. It is understandable as these include various

logically the most important crystalline materials intended combinations of dopants mixed with various mutual concen-

mainly for holographic data storage1,2 and constructing trations. So, according to the definition of birefringence,

integrated optics and photonics devices, such as optical for determining the birefringence of an anisotropic sample,

waveguides,3 modulators,4,5 lightwave circuits in combina- one has to measure directly the dispersion of the refractive

tion with silicon,6 sensors,7 photovoltaic optoelectronic indices, both no and ne first, and after that use them for

tweezers,8 and substrates for manipulation and patterning of calculating the birefringence.25 In general, performing the

nanoobjects,9 to illustrate the wide scope of its use. However, measurement of refractive index dispersion is not, indeed,

due to its natural uniaxial birefringence, a crystal plate with an easy task. Fortunately, there is another way of determining

appropriate thickness can be utilized also as a passive optical the birefringence of an optically anisotropic sample that does

retarder or even an active one due to existence of rather not require knowledge of dispersion of refractive indices.

The method is appropriate to use in case we need to know

strong electro-optic effect observed in LiNbO3 crystals. The

just the birefringence itself. It is based on observation of bire-

birefringence, for example, can be used for determination of

fringence by means of a set of polarizers and analyzing the

the Li/Nb ratio in LiNbO3 ,10 and, recently, Twu and Chu11

intensity of light behind the analyzer.26,27

showed usefulness of measuring the so-called photorefrac-

tive birefringence for analyzing the photorefractive effect in 2 Experiment

photorefractive crystals.

As doping influences the refractive index,12–15 the bire- 2.1 Principles of the Method

fringence of a crystal will depend on the type and the amount

The method of investigation is based on a well-known fact

of the used doping element. Naturally, in order to determine

that a monochromatic linearly polarized light wave entering

the birefringence, it is necessary to know the dispersion of a uniaxially birefringent medium in a proper way exists in-

ordinary and extraordinary refractive indices. In case of side the medium in two mutually orthogonal linear polariza-

LN, such dependences were derived for undoped congruent tion states that propagate within the medium with different

crystal16–18 and magnesium-doped crystal18–20 but are not velocities and are characterized by refractive indices no and

available for crystals doped by many other elements or by ne . The resulting polarization state of light wave at the end of

combinations of multiple elements and in different ratios. the birefringent medium is determined by a phase retardation

Though measured data of dispersion of ordinary (no ) and δ between these two polarizations, i.e.,

extraordinary (ne ) refractive indices do exist for LN crystals

doped by some elements significantly influencing the crystal 2π 2π

δ¼ · d · ðne − no Þ ¼ · d · Δn; (1)

λ λ

EQ-TARGET;temp:intralink-;e001;326;118

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Tarjányi and Káčik: Group and phase birefringence dispersion of pure and doped lithium. . .

metrical thickness of the medium, and Δn denotes the phase

birefringence.

If the wave at the output of the medium is linearly polar-

ized again, by rotating a plane polarizer (usually called ana-

lyzer) placed between the end of the birefringent medium

and a detector one will experience changing intensity of light

depending on the analyzer’s angle of rotation.

In case a polychromatic polarized light source is used

for illuminating the birefringent medium, the situation is

basically the same. The only difference is that with an angle

of rotation of the analyzer the intensity of light will change

for each color in a different way. This effect is due to depend-

ence of the phase retardation δ on the wavelength, as the no

and ne are functions of wavelength, too. Thus, for the prop-

erly oriented birefringent sample and rotating the analyzer, Fig. 1 Experimental setup for investigating the birefringence in LN

one will observe modulated spectrum of light, i.e., interfer- crystals. The double-sided black arrows denote the orientation of the

ence pattern or interference fringes.27 In general, the intensity plane of polarization. “z” is the optical axis of the crystal.

observed behind the analyzer depends on the angles of rota-

tion of the analyzer, the sample, and the polarizer used for

polarizing light incident on the sample. For example, if we of two plane polarizers and a white light source. The inves-

set the polarizer and the analyzer to be fixed in a mutually tigated samples were small plates of lithium niobate declared

crossed positions, i.e., their planes of polarizations are per- as pure, doped with 0.025 wt. % of Fe; and with 0.025 wt. %

pendicular to each other, the intensity of light leaving the of Fe and 0.075 wt. % of Mn with thicknesses ð1.072

analyzer will depend on the retardation δðλÞ and the angle γ 0.001Þ mm, ð1.055 0.002Þ mm, and ð0.995 0.002Þ mm,

that makes a chosen axis (fast or slow) of the birefringent respectively. The undoped sample was provided by Crytur,

sample with the analyzer’s plane of polarization27 Ltd. (Czech Republic); the provider of the doped samples

was Photox, Ltd. (Great Britain). A crystal sample under

I ∝ ½sinð2γÞ2 · fsin½δðλÞ∕2g2 :

EQ-TARGET;temp:intralink-;e002;63;455 (2) investigation was set on a rotary stage enabling rotation

by 360 deg and placed in between two crossed plane polar-

The dispersion of group birefringence of the sample with izers. Two sets of polarizers were used: one designed for VIS

known thickness can be evaluated from positions of the (400 to 800) nm and one designed for NIR (900 to 1700) nm

successive minima (or maxima) of the interference fringes. spectral region. As the light source, a halogen lamp-based

Applying the condition for observing the minimum of inter- source SLS201/M (from Thorlabs) was used. Light behind

ference from Eqs. (1) and (2), we get for the group bire- the analyzer was focused by a lens with a focal length f ¼

fringence25,27 25 mm onto an optical fiber end and collected by optical-

fiber spectrometers (OFS) HR2000þ (from Ocean Optics) in

λ1 λ2 VIS and NIRQuest 512 (from Ocean Optics) in NIR spectral

Δng ¼ ; (3)

ðλ1 − λ2 Þ · d regions. Both spectrometers were equipped with optical fiber

EQ-TARGET;temp:intralink-;e003;63;358

where λ1 and λ2 are the wavelengths corresponding to suc- 0.22 (Fig. 1).

cessive minima of the order m and m þ 1, respectively.

Knowing the dispersion dependences for ordinary and extra- 3 Results and Discussion

ordinary refractive indices, one can calculate the dispersion Prior to investigation, all samples were put into an oven and

of the phase birefringence Δn from which one gets the group kept heated at 110°C for 4 h to ensure any possible photo-

birefringence according to [e.g., Ref. 28] refractive inhomogeneities induced due to previous acci-

dental illumination were erased. After placing the sample

∂Δn on the rotary stage, it was rotated to a proper position.

Δng ¼ Δn − λ · : (4)

∂λ For all investigated samples, the value of the angle γ between

EQ-TARGET;temp:intralink-;e004;63;247

If dispersion dependences for the material are not known, axis) of the crystal was set to π∕4 in order to excite ordinary

one can follow the approach used by Hlubina29 and obtain and extraordinary waves inside the crystal equally, thus get

the phase birefringence by finding the appropriate dispersion the best observable interference pattern behind the analyzer.

function that fits to the measured dependence of the fringe However, any other values from interval ð0; π∕2Þ could be

order versus position of the fringe within the spectrum. chosen, just the magnitude of the signal would change. The

The dispersion function found in this way can then be used end of the optical fiber collecting light did not change its

to calculate the group birefringence dispersion according position during the whole measurement for VIS (NIR) spec-

to Eq. (4). tral region, only samples and polarizers were replaced. The

magnitude of the signal measured by spectrometers could

also be controlled by integrating time, which was set to 5 ms

2.2 Experimental Set-Up when measuring samples with HR2000þ in VIS spectral

The birefringence of LN crystal samples was investigated region and 100 ms for measurements with NIRQuest 512 in

by an optical setup called plane polariscope. It consisted NIR spectral region.

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Tarjányi and Káčik: Group and phase birefringence dispersion of pure and doped lithium. . .

EQ-TARGET;temp:intralink-;e005;326;752

λ − ½a3o;e þ b2o;e · fðtÞ2

2

In Figs. 2(a) and 2(b), there are shown channeled spectra þ b3o;e · fðtÞ þ a4o;e · λ2 ; (5)

measured for undoped LN crystal in VIS and NIR spectral

regions, respectively. From the measured dependences, we where fðtÞ ¼ ðt − t0 Þ · ðt þ t0 þ 546°CÞ, t0 ¼ 24.5°C, t ¼

determined wavelengths λm and λmþ1 (m denotes the fringe 25°C, λ is the wavelength in nanometers and coefficients

order) corresponding to neighboring minima and computed appearing in Eq. (5) are as follows:24 a1o ¼ 4.9048, a2o ¼

group birefringence according to Eq. (3). However, the value 1.1775 · 105 nm2 , a3o ¼ 2.1802 · 102 nm, a4o ¼ −2.7153 ·

of Δng obtained from wavelengths λm and λmþ1 is an average 10−8 nm−2 , b1o ¼ 2.2314 · 10−2 nm2 °C−1 , b2o ¼ −2.9671 ·

value corresponding to the wavelength interval (λm , λmþ1 ) 10−5 nm °C−1 , b3o ¼ 2.1429 · 10−8 °C−1 , a1e ¼ 4.5820,

so when plotted, these values of the group birefringence a2e ¼ 0.9921 · 105 nm2 , a3e ¼ 2.1090 · 102 nm, a4e ¼

were assigned to wavelengths corresponding to central wave- −2.1940 · 10−8 nm−2 , b1e ¼ 5.2716 · 10−2 nm2 °C−1 , b2e ¼

lengths of the particular intervals (λm , λmþ1 ). −4.9143 · 10−5 nm°C−1 , and b3e ¼ 2.2971 · 10−8 °C−1 .

As can be seen in Fig. 2, the visibility of the interference The values of Δn were then used for calculating the group

pattern is lower for shorter wavelengths. This is due to a lim- birefringence dispersion according to Eq. (4) and the result

ited resolving power of the spectrometers the measuring is shown in Fig. 3.

steps of which were 0.4 and 2.3 nm for VIS and NIR spectral

regions, respectively. 3.2 Group and Phase Birefringence of LN:Fe and

Moreover, in case of VIS spectral region, the effect could LN:Fe:Mn

also be combined with increased absorption of short wave-

lengths in LN crystal. These facts are reflected in the calcu- The same measuring procedure was repeated also for the LN:

lation of the group birefringence and as the result Δng shows Fe and LN:Fe:Mn samples. The recorded channeled spectra

increased variance in the spectral region with lower visibility. for the investigated samples are shown in Fig. 4. The dis-

persion of the group birefringence was obtained in the same

To reduce this variance, the computed values of the group

way as in case of the undoped LN, i.e., we determined the

birefringence were smoothed by the piecewise use of a sym-

wavelengths of neighboring minima and computed group

metric nearest-neighbor linear least-squares fitting on each

birefringence according to Eq. (3).

element in originally measured data set, in which the number

As Eq. (5) with coefficients listed in Sec. 3.1 cannot be

of nearest neighbors was adaptively chosen. correctly used for calculating the phase birefringence for

Since dispersion relations for ordinary and extraordinary doped samples, we used an approach applied by Hlubina.29

refractive indices of undoped congruent LN are known, one We fitted the fringe order versus position of the fringe within

can calculate the phase birefringence dispersion Δn and then, the spectrum by appropriate dispersion function and found

using Eq. (4) also the dispersion of the group birefringence phase birefringence as a function of wavelength.

Δng . The Δn was calculated using Sellmeier equations for From Eq. (5) and according to comparison between the

ne and no given in the generic form24 characters of the dependences shown in Figs. 2 and 4, one

(a)

(b)

Fig. 2 The channeled spectra for LN crystal obtained in (a) VIS and (b) NIR spectral regions.

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Tarjányi and Káčik: Group and phase birefringence dispersion of pure and doped lithium. . .

Fig. 3 Group birefringence dispersion for undoped LN crystal obtained from recorded channeled

spectra (and smoothed) and calculated from phase birefringence according to Eq. (4).

(a) (c)

(b) (d)

Fig. 4 The channeled spectra measured in VIS and NIR spectral regions for (a, b) LN:Fe and

(c, d) LN:Fe:Mn crystals, respectively.

can deduce that used samples of LN, both doped and un- d 104 · d 109 · d

doped, behave like a material with normal dispersion. Aþ 3

Bþ C ¼ m þ k; (8)

λ λ λ5

EQ-TARGET;temp:intralink-;e008;326;319

able for describing no and ne 30 k being the number of observed distinguishable interference

minima. Fitting Eq. (8) to the dependence of the fringe order

104 · Bo;e 109 · Co;e versus position of the fringe within the spectrum gives the

no;e ðλÞ ¼ Ao;e þ þ ; (6) values of the parameters A, B, C, and m. Figure 5 shows the

λ2 λ4

EQ-TARGET;temp:intralink-;e006;63;275

where λ is the wavelength in nanometers and Ao;e , Bo;e , Co;e from the channeled spectra for LN:Fe and LN:Fe:Mn (in VIS

are the parameters of the equation characterizing the birefrin- and NIR spectral regions) that are shown in Fig. 4.

gent medium. For simplicity, the form of Eq. (6) considers The parameters A, B, and C obtained by fitting were used

the used LN crystals are a well-transparent media. From for calculating the phase birefringence according to Eq. (7).

Eq. (6), we get for the phase birefringence dispersion From the phase birefringence, the dispersion of the group

birefringence was calculated using Eq. (4) and comparison

between measured and calculated dependences for samples

104 · B 109 · C LN:Fe and LN:Fe:Mn is shown in Figs. 6(a) and 6(b).

ΔnðλÞ ¼ A þ þ ; (7)

λ2 λ4

EQ-TARGET;temp:intralink-;e007;63;177

phase birefringence dispersion if the wavelength λ of the

where A ¼ ðAo − Ae Þ, B ¼ ðBo − Be Þ, and C ¼ ðCo − Ce Þ. minimum is known with an error δλ and the thickness d

According to Eq. (2), the interference minimum is observed of the sample is known with an error δd.29 For the error

when δ∕2 ¼ mπ. Applying Eqs. (1) and (7) into this condi- δλ given by the measuring step of the spectrometers that

tion, we can write for k interference minima observed in the equals 0.4 nm for VIS spectrometer and 2.3 nm for NIR

channeled spectrum spectrometer and the error δd ¼ 1 μm for undoped sample

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Tarjányi and Káčik: Group and phase birefringence dispersion of pure and doped lithium. . .

(a) (c)

(b) (d)

Fig. 5 Dependence of the fringe order on wavelength obtained from channeled spectra measured in VIS

and NIR spectral regions for (a, b) LN:Fe and (c, d) LN:Fe:Mn crystals, respectively. Crosses and squares

denote measured data; the fitting curve is represented by the solid line.

(a)

(b)

Fig. 6 Dispersion of group birefringence for (a) LN:Fe and (b) LN:Fe:Mn crystals computed from

recorded channeled spectra according to Eq. (3) and calculated from phase birefringence according

to Eq. (4).

and δd ¼ 2 μm for doped samples, the relative error of the The obtained dependences of the group and phase bire-

measurement of the phase birefringence dispersion is less fringences on wavelength for all investigated samples are

than 2.2 · 10−3 for all measurements performed in VIS spec- shown in Figs. 7(a) and 7(b), respectively. It is apparent that

tral region and less than 3.2 · 10−3 for measurements in NIR all curves are well distinguishable from each other. This

spectral region. means the doping affects the dispersion of refractive indices

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Tarjányi and Káčik: Group and phase birefringence dispersion of pure and doped lithium. . .

(a)

(b)

Fig. 7 (a) Computed data representing group birefringence dispersion and (b) phase birefringence

dispersion of LiNbO3 samples with different dopants.

and thus the birefringence of the LN crystal significantly. region. One can achieve higher accuracy using the spectrom-

The result is consistent with findings of Bodnar and eter with the smaller measuring step and/or using a thicker

Yarunichev who explored the effect of impurities introduced sample. The obtained results confirm that the method is suit-

into LN crystal on refractive indices dispersion.31 According able for determining the dispersion of the group birefringence

to their findings, the extraordinary refractive index of without knowing the dispersion dependences of the refrac-

LiNbO3 increases due to Fe doping and decreases due to tive indices and can be used for simple and nondestructive

Mn doping. estimation of the crystal composition.

From Fig. 7, it can be clearly seen that the birefringence

of LN:Fe sample is higher than that of the pure LN crystal. Acknowledgments

The birefringence of the LN:Fe:Mn sample is higher than This work was supported by Slovak National Grant Agency

birefringence of the pure LN but lower than that of doped No. 1/0069/19, Slovak Research and Development Agency

by iron. In this sample, the effect of Fe and Mn impurities under the projects Nos. APVV-15-0441 and APVV-SK-

acts against each other resulting in birefringence dispersion FR-2017-0017 as well as by project ITMS: 26210120021,

curve being in intermediate position comparing to LN:Fe and cofunded from EU sources and European Regional Develop-

LN cases. ment Fund. We declare that we have no financial interests in

the manuscript and no competing conflicts of interest with

4 Conclusions any persons or organizations.

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21(2), 225–227 (1991). ing in 1999, and in physics of condensed matter and acoustics in

20. K. Maaider et al., “New approach to study the influence of the defect 2004, respectively. His current research interests include photoelas-

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Moroccan J. Condensed Matter 12(2), 155–158 (2010). ticity of polymers and birefringence. He is a member of the European

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properties of lithium niobate,” Opt. Commun. 136(3–4), 231–234

(1997). Daniel Káčik: Biography is not available.

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