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KUWAIT OIL COMPANY (K.S.C.)

STANDARDS PUBLICATION

KOC RECOMMENDED PRACTICE

FOR

HDPE PIPES AND FITTINGS:

ENGINEERING DESIGN AND

INSTALLATION

DOC. NO. KOC-MP-022 PART 2

I STANDARDSTEAM I
KUWAIT OIL COMPANY (K.S.C.)

STANDARDS PUBLICATION

KOC RECOMMENDED PRACTICE

FOR

HDPE PIPES AND FITTINGS:

ENGINEERING DESIGN AND

INSTALLATION

DOC. NO. KOC-MP-022 PART 2

STANDARDS TEAM
I O C . NO. KOC-MP-022 P T . 2 Page 2 o f 65 REV. 1
...

KOC RECOMMENDED PRACTICE

FOR

HDPE PIPES FITTINGS:

ENGINEERING DESIGN AND

INSTALLATION

DOC.NO. KOC-MP-022 PART

ISSUING AUTHORITY:

STANDARDS TEAM
DOC. NO. KOC-MP-022 PT. 2 1 Page 3 of 6 5 REV. 1

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page No

FOREWORD 5

SCOPE 6

APPLICATION 7

TERMINOLOGY 7
3.1 Definitions 7
3.2 Abbreviations 10

REFERENCE STANDARDS, CODES, & SPECIFICATIONS 11


4.1 Conflicts 11
4.2 List of Standards and Codes 11
4.3 KOC Standard Drawings 15

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS 15

HDPE PlPE BASIC CHARACTERISTICS 16


6.1 General 16
6.2 Favorable Characteristics 16
6.3 Unfavorable Characteristics (Limitations) 16

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS 16
7.1 General 16
7.2 Design Pressure 19
7.3 Design Temperature 21
7.4 Surge Pressure (Water Hammer) 23
7.5 Static Effects 24
7.6 Dynamic Effects 24
7.7 Vacuum Effects 24
7.8 Chemical Compatibility 25

PlPE SIZING 25
8.1 General 25
8.2 Pipe DR and Pressure Rating 26
8.3 Surge Pressure (Water Hammer) 26
8.4 Flow Estimate 27
8.5 Pressure Drop in Pipe 27
8.6 Pressure Drop in Fittings and Valves 28
DOC. NO. KOC-MP-022 PT. 2 Page 4 of 6 5 REV. 1

9.0 INSTALLATION
9.1 Aboveground Piping
9.2 Underground (Buried) Piping

10.0 STATIC CHARGE ON HDPE PlPE

11.0 HDPE PlPE JOINING METHODS


11.1 Heat Fusion Qualification
11.2 Butt Fusion: Generic Procedure
11.3 Electrofusion
11.4 Mechanical Joints

12.0 INSPECTION AND EXAMINATION


12.1 Examination Responsibility
12.2 Examination Requirements
12.3 Extent of Examination

13.0 HYDROTESTING
13.1 Preparation for Test
13.2 Procedure for Hydrostatic Testing
13.3 Test Records

14.0 DISINFECTION OF POTABLE WATER LINES AND MAINS

15.0 DOCUMENTATION
15.1 General
15.2 Deliverables
15.3 As Built Records/Mechanical Dossier

16.0 APPENDICES

APPENDIX-1 - CHEMICAL COMPATIBILITY OF HDPE PIPES

APPENDIX-2 - SUPPORT SPACING FOR HDPE PIPING

APPENDIX-3 - SAMPLE CALCULATIONS

APPENDIX-4 - TRENCH. PlPE LAYOUT AND TERMINOLOGY

APPENDIX-5 - STATIC CHARGE ON HDPE PlPE

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
DOC. NO. KOC-MP-022 PT. 2 1 Page 5 of 65 1 REV. 1

FOREWORD

This document "KOC Recommended Practice for HDPE Pipes and Fittings:
Engineering Design and Installation, (KOC-MP-022 Part 2)" is intended t o provide
basic guidelines and minimum requirements for engineering design and installation
of high density polyethylene (HDPEI pipes and fittings t o be used in KOC facilities
in Kuwait. The Part 1 document of this series (KOC-MP-022) of StandardIRP has
covered the requirements for "Material" of HDPE pipes and fittings.

This Recommended Practice (RP) has been approved by the Standards Team in
consultation w i t h the Standards Technical Committee (STC) for use throughout
the corporate engineering and operational functions of Kuwait Oil Company,
(K.S.C).

This RP sets out t o achieve the following objectives and benefits:

a) To recommend the basic technical specifications for Engineering Design of


High Density Polyethylene Pipes and Fittings, that has applicability in KOC
domestic and industrial facilities, and t o help ensure a consistent and cost
effective approach in its selection.

b) To cover the necessary aspects of engineering design, installation, inspection


and testing requirements of piping systems so as t o minimize the need for
technical clarifications and disputes.

c) To provide technical guidance for engineering design o f plastic piping system


and development of project specifications.

Feedback, comments or suggestions, derived from the application of this


Recommended Practice at any stage of design, purchase, manufacture,
installation, operation and maintenance are encouraged, and should be directed t o :

The Team Leader Standards


(Chairman, Standards Technical Committee)
Industrial Services Group, KOC
P. 0. Box 9 7 5 8 , Ahmadi 6 1 0 0 8
State of Kuwait

Task Force Responsible for This Standard

The Standards Technical Committee (STC) has entrusted the preparation of this
Recommended Practice t o the Task Force No. TF-MPIO6, consisting of the
following:

Mr. Mirza Mohsin Standards Team Task Force Leader Te1.61371


Mr. AlAziz Al-Obaidan Utilities Team Member Te1.71948
Mr. Mohammad Shahid Opn. Tech. Svcs (EK) Member Te1.22326
Mr. Uppara Saibaba Safety Team Member Te1.71837
Mr. Khaled Al-Awadhi Design Team Member Te1.61770
1.O SCOPE

1.1 This Recommended Practice (RP) specifies the minimum requirements for
the Engineering Design, Installation, Inspection and Testing of High
Density Polyethylene (HDPE) Pipes and Fittings for buildings, domestic
and industrial services within Kuwait Oil Company.

1.2 This RP covers pressure and non-pressure (gravity f l o w ) piping, size % " t o
6 3 " outside diameter for the:

a) Aboveground Piping System, and

b) Underground (Buried) Piping System

for the distribution andlor transmission o f :

i) Potable Water
ii) Non-potable Water (SeeNoie-l rrndNi~ie-2)
iiil Waste or Drain Water (.SeeNote-I)
iv) Agricultural ICultivation Water
v) Acetic, Basic or Salt Water ( S e e N o i ~ ~ l )
vi) Chemicals (.SeeNote-3)
vii) Natural Gas (SeeNote-4)

Note-I: The water should he free of chenticd~ thui ure nun-contpniihle io HDPE. See
Appenilk-I.

Note-3: Chenticnl Compuiihili~if HDPE Pipe5 (See Appenrlir-1)

Note--1: See cl~1usc77.2. Y uncl 7.3.6 ((I) ofthis RI?

1.3 The pressure piping covered in this RP is intended up t o the maximum


operating temperature 60°C (140°F). For more details refer t o clause
7 . 3 . 6 of this RP.

1.4 This RP does not cover the transmission andlor distribution of liquid
hydrocarbons (Crude Oil etc.), compressed air, and the non-compatible
chemicals/fluids (SeeAppenilir-I).

1.5 In accordance w i t h DIN 8074, DIN 8 0 7 5 , I S 0 and PPI, the service life of
the HDPE Pipe, as covered in this RP, is predicted t o be 1 0 0 years at
23OC ( 7 3 . 4 F ) .
DOC. NO. KOC-MP-022 PT. 2 1 Paae 7 of 65 1 REV. 1

APPLICATION

The engineering design and installation of HDPE Pipes and Fittings


should conform t o the requirements given in this Recommended Practice
and other standards and codes referenced herein.

A n y exception or deviation from this RP shall be brought t o the attention


of KOC Controlling Team w i t h merits and justifications for review1
consideration and for necessary amendments by the Standards Team (if
required).

Compliance w i t h this RP does not of itself confer immunity from legal or


statutory obligations.

TERMINOLOGY

Definitions

For the purpose of this RP the following definitions shall apply:

Design Coefficient (C)

An overall coefficient w i t h a value greater than one ( 1 ) that takes into


account the service conditions as well as the properties o f the
components of a piping system in accordance w i t h I S 0 and DIN.

Design Pressure

The Design Pressure "P" of the plastic pipe for the natural gas
distribution {Same as "Pressure Rating (PR) or Working Pressure Rating
(WPR)" for Water), in accordance w i t h DOT, OPS, Title 4 9 , Part192 and
ASME 831.8 is the gauge pressure in psig calculated as given below:

P = 2 HDB x DSF
(SDR-1)

Where:
HDB = Hydrostatic Design Basis at design temperature.
SDR = Standard Dimension Ratio.
DSF = Design Service Factor = 0 . 3 2 for natural gas, see Table-2.

Design Service Factor (DSF)

DSF (a factor less than one as per API, ASTM, A W W A , PPI, ASME and
DOT) is a derating factor t o compensate for system variables that
includes the possible effects of the transported fluid o n the long-term
performance of the piping system.
DOC. NO. KOC-MP-022 PT. 2 Page 8 of 65 I REV. 1

Design Stress (a,)

It is the permitted stress in a piping system for a particular application or


operating condition, in megapascals as per I S 0 and DIN. It is derived by
dividing minimum required strength (MRS) b y the design coefficient "C"
as shown below:

a, = MRS 1 C

Dimension Ratio (DR)

Same as SDR- Standard Dimension Ratio (For definition refer t o SDR).

Embedment

The soillmaterial placed around the pipe that provide the side support,

Haunch Area

The area of the embedment below the pipe from the bottom o f the pipe
up t o the spring line.

HDPE PE-3408

High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE) resin of density class 3, ESCR class


4, and HDS 8 0 0 psi, is designated as PE 3 4 0 8 in accordance with
ASTM D3350. (For detail specification refer t o KOC-MP-022 Part 1) .

Hydrostatic Design Basis (HDB)

The categorized long-term hydrostatic strength (LTHS) in the


circumferential or hoop direction as established from long-term pressure
tests in accordance with ASTM D 2837.

Hydrostatic Design Stress (HDS)

The maximum allowable working (Hoop) stress (in psi) in the pipe wall
when the pipe is subjected t o sustained long-term hydrostatic pressure,
as per API, ASTM, AWWA, PPI, ASME and DOT. The HDS is established
b y multiplying the HDB by the appropriate Design Service Factor (DSF).

KOC Controlling Team

Any KOC Team authorized t o initiate a request for procurement of


material andlor equipment for KOC, or any KOC Team authorized t o
managelcontrol/execute a LSTK project for KOC.
DOC. NO. KOC-MP-022 PT. 2 1 Pane 9 of 65 I REV. 1

Lower Confidence Limit (a,,,)

The quantity w i t h dimensions of stress in megapascals that can be


considered as a property of the material and that represents the 9 7 . 5 %
lower confidence limit of the mean long-term strength at 20°C for 5 0
years with internal pressure w i t h water, as per I S 0 1 2 16 2 .

Manufacturer iSupplier

Any firm approved by KOC t o manufacture 1 supply the HDPE material


(resin), pipes and fittings.

Maximum Operating Pressure (MOP)

The maximum effective pressure in a piping system expressed in bars,


which is allowed for the continuous use in accordance w i t h I S 0 and DIN.

Minimum Required Strength (MRS)

The value o f a, (lower confidence limit) rounded d o w n t o the next


smaller value of the R10 series or of the R20 series conforming t o I S 0 3
and I S 0 4 9 7 depending o n the value of a,,, as per I S 0 1 2 1 6 2 .

Pressure Piping

Piping designed t o resist continuous pressure exerted by the conveyed


mediumifluid.

Pressure Ratings (PR) or Pressure Class (PC)

It is the design capacity t o resist the working pressure at up t o 27'C


(80°F) maximum service temperature w i t h specified maximum allowances
for recurring positive pressure surges above the working pressure (See
Table-7 of this RP for Allowable Surge Pressures). The PR also denotes
the pipe's maximum working pressure rating (WPR) for water up t o 27OC
(80°F) as per A W W A C906.

Springline

The line along the length of the pipe at its maximum width along the
horizontal plane (See Figure-I and 2, Appendix-4).

Standard Dimension Ratio (SDR) or Dimension Ratio (DR)

Defined as the ratio of the average specified outside diameter (Do) t o the
minimum wall thickness ( t ) and is expressed as SDR (or DR)= Do/ t.
DOC. NO. KOC-MP-022 PT. 2 1 Page 1 0 of 65 REV. 1

Surge Pressure (Water Hammer)

The Surge Pressure is the pressure or shock wave generated in the piping
system as a result of sudden startinglstoppage of the liquid in the piping
system. The surge pressure is sub-divided into the following t w o types:
a) Recurrina Surqe Pressure: Which occurs frequently and is inherent t o
the operation of the piping system such as sudden pump start-up or
shutdown and sudden valve opening or closing.

b) Occasional Surqe Pressure: Which occurs as a result o f power


outage or system's component failure such as pump seize-up, valve-
stem failure or pressure relief valve failure etc.

Working Pressure (WP)

The maximum anticipated sustained operating or working pressure applied


t o the pipe exclusive of transientisurge pressures as per A W W A C906.

Working Pressure Rating (WPR)

The working pressure rating is the design capacity t o resist working


pressure at the anticipated operating temperature w i t h sufficient capacity
against the actual anticipated positive pressure surges above working
pressure. A pipe's WPR may be equal to, or less than, its nominal
pressure class (PC), depending o n the positive transient pressure
characteristics of the system and pipe operating temperature if above
27OC (80°F) as per A W W A C906.

Abbreviations

AASHTO American Association of State Highway and Transportation


Officials
ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers
AWWA American Water Works Association
CEN Committee for European Norm
DIN Deutsch Institute for Norms
DOT Department of Transportation (USA)
DR Dimension Ratio (Same as SDR)
DSF Design Service Factor
EN European Normistandard
EPDM Ethylene Propylene Monomer (Synthetic Rubber)
FPM Fluorine Propylene Monomer (Synthetic Rubber)
HDB Hydrostatic Design Basis
HDPE High Density Polyethylene
HDS Hydrostatic Design Stress
IS0 International Organization for Standardization
KOC Kuwait Oil Company (K.S.C.)
LCL Lower Confidence Limit
DOC. NO. KOC-MP-022 PT. 2 1 Page I 1 of 6 5 REV. 1

MOP Maximum Operating Pressure


MRS Minimum Required Strength
PC Pressure Class
PE Polyethylene
PPI Plastic Pipe Institute (USA)
PR Pressure Rating
RP Recommended Practice
SDR Standard Dimension Ratio (Same as DR)
WP Working Pressure
WPR Working Pressure Rating

REFERENCE STANDARDS, CODES AND SPECIFICATIONS

Conflicts

In the event of conflict between this RP and the standards and codes
referenced herein, or other contractual or purchase requirements, the
most stringent requirement shall apply. In case further clarification are
necessary the subject shall be brought t o the attention of KOC Controlling
Team for resolution, review and I or amendment b y Standards Team (if
required).

List of Standards and Codes

The latest edition of the following standards, codes and specifications


shall apply:

National I International Standards

AASHTO (H-20) Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges; (H-20)

API 15LE Specification for Polyethylene Line Pipe (PE)

API RP1 1 0 2 Steel Pipelines Crossing Railroads and Highways

ASME 8 1 6 . 5 Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings NPS %Through NPS


24

ASME 8 1 6 . 4 7 Large Diameter Steel Flanges NPS 2 6 Through NPS 60

ASME B 3 1 . 8 Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems

ASTM D l 5 9 9 Standard Test Method for Resistance t o Short-Time


Hydraulic Pressure of Plastic Pipe, Tubing and Fittings

ASTM D 2 1 2 2 Standard Test Method for Determining Dimensions of


Thermoplastic Pipe and Fittings
DOC. NO. KOC-MP-022 PT. 2 Page 1 2 of 65 REV. 1

ASTM D 2 2 9 0 Standard Test Method for Apparent Hoop Tensile


Strength of Plastic or Reinforced Plastic Pipe b y Split
Disk Method

ASTM D2321 Standard Practice for Underground lnstallation of


Thermoplastic Pipe for Sewers and Other Gravity-
Flow Applications

ASTM D25 1 3 Standard Specification for Thermoplastic Gas Pressure


Pipe, Tubing and Fittings

Standard Practice for Heat Fusion Joining of Polyolefin


Pipe and Fittings

Standard Specification for Socket-Type Polyethylene


Fittings for Outside Diameter -Controlled Polyethylene
Pipe and Tubing

ASTM D 2 7 7 4 Standard Practice for Underground lnstallation of


Thermoplastic Pressure Piping

ASTM D 2 8 3 7 Standard Test Method for Obtaining Hydrostatic


Design Basis for Thermoplastic Pipe Materials

ASTM D3035 Standard Specification for Polyethylene (PE) Plastic


Pipe (DR-PR) Based on Controlled Outside Diameter

ASTM D3261 Standard Specification for Butt Heat Fusion Polyethylene


(PE) Plastic Fittings for Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Pipe
and Tubing

ASTM D 3 3 5 0 Standard Specification for Polyethylene Plastic Pipe


and Fittings Materials

ASTM F412 Standard Terminology Relating to Plastic Piping


Systems

ASTM F449 Standard Practice for Subsurface lnstallation of


Corrugated Polyethylene Pipe for Agricultural Drainage
or Water Table Control

ASTM F645 Standard Guide for Selection, Design, and lnstallation


of Thermoplastic Water Pressure Piping Systems

ASTM F690 Standard Practice for Underground lnstallation of


Thermoplastic Pressure Piping Irrigation Systems
ASTM F 7 1 4 Standard Specification for Polyethylene (PE) Plastic
Pipe (SDR-PR) Based on Outside Diameter

ASTM F 8 9 2 Standard Specifications for Polyethylene (PE)


Corrugated Pipe w i t h a smooth Interior and Fittings
ASTM F 8 9 4 Standard Specifications for Polyethylene (PE) Large
Diameter Profile Wall Sewer and Drain Pipe

ASTM F1055 Standard Specification for Electrofusion Type Fittings


for Outside Diameter Controlled Polyethylene Pipe and
Tubing

ASTM F 1 1 7 6 Standard Practice for Design and Installation of


Thermoplastic Irrigation Systems w i t h Maximum
Working Pressure of 1 2 5 psi

ASTM F 1 2 9 0 Standard Specification for Electrofusion Joining of


Polyethylene pipe and Fittings

ASTM F 1 5 3 3 Standard Specification for Deformed Polyethylene (PE)


Liner

ASTM F 1 6 6 8 Standard Guide for Construction Procedures for Buried


Plastic Pipe

ASTM F 2 1 6 4 Standard Practice for Field Leak Testing of


Polyethylene (PE) Pressure Piping Systems Using
Hydrostatic Pressure

A W W A C651 Standard for Disinfecting Water Mains

A W W A C901 A W W A Standard for Polyethylene (PE) Pressure Pipe


and Tubing, % in. ( 1 3 mm) through 3 in. ( 7 6 rnm) for
Water Service

AWWA C906 A W W A Standard for Polyethylene (PE) Pressure Pipe


and Fittings 4 in. ( 1 0 0 mm) through 6 3 in. ( 1 5 7 5 mm)
for Water Distribution and Transmission

BS 6 5 7 2 Blue polyethylene pipes up t o nominal size 6 3 for


below ground use for portable water

BS 6 7 3 0 Black polyethylene pipes up t o nominal size 6 3 for


above ground use for cold potable water

DIN 8 0 7 4 Polyethylene (PE) pipes - Dimensions


DOC. NO. KOC-MP-022 PT. 2 1 Page 14 of 65 1 REV. 1

DIN 8 0 7 5 Polyethylene (PE) pipes - General quality requirements


and testing

DIN EN 1555-1 Plastics piping systems for the supply of gaseous


fuels-Polyethylene (PE) - Part 1 : General

DIN EN 1 5 5 5 - 2 Plastics piping systems for the supply of gaseous


fuels-Polyethylene (PE) - Part 2: Pipes

DIN EN 1 5 5 5 - 3 Plastics piping systems for the supply of gaseous


fuels-Polyethylene (PE) - Part 3: Fittings

DIN EN 1 5 5 5 - 4 Plastics piping systems for the supply of gaseous


fuels-Polyethylene (PE) - Part 4 : Valves

DIN EN 1 5 5 5 - 5 Plastics piping systems for the supply of gaseous


fuels-Polyethylene (PE) - Part 5: Fitness for Purpose of
the Svstem

DIN CEN 1 5 5 5 - 6 Plastics piping systems for the supply of gaseous


fuels-Polyethylene (PE) - Part 6: Recommended
Practice for Installation

DIN CEN 1 5 5 5 - 7 Plastics piping systems for the supply of gaseous


fuels-Polyethylene (PE) - Part 7 : Assessment of
Conformity

DOT, OPS Department of Transportation, Office of Pipeline


Title 49, Part1 9 2 Safety Title 49, Part192: A US Code o f Federal
Regulations for the Transportation of Natural Gas b y
Plastic Pipeline

Preferred numbers - Series of preferred numbers

Guide t o the choice of series of preferred numbers


and of series containing more rounded values of
preferred numbers

Polyethylene (PE) pipes for water supply


Specifications

Buried polyethylene (PEI pipes for the supply of


gaseous fuels - Metric series - Specifications

Quality management systems - Requirements


Plastic piping and ducting systems- Determination of
the long-term hydrostatic strength of thermoplastics
materials in pipe form b y extrapolation

Determination of the thermal stability of polyethylene


(PE) for use in gas pipes and fittings

Thermoplastics materials for pipes and fittings for


pressure applications - Classification and designation -
Overall service (design) coefficient

PPI Handbook Above Ground Applications for Polyethylene Pipe


of Polyethylene

PPI Handbook Underground Installation of Polyethylene Pipe


of Polyethylene

PPI TN-11/99 Suggested Temperature Limits for the Operation and


Installation of Thermoplastic Piping in Non-Pressure
Applications

PPI TR-331200 Generic Butt Fusion Joining Procedure for


Polyethylene Gas Pipe

PPI TR-1912000 Thermoplastic Piping for the Transport o f Chemicals

PPI Document Engineering Properties of Polyethylene

4.2.2 KOC Standards

KOC-G-007 KOC Standard for Basic Design Data

KOC-L-002 KOC Recommended Practice for the Protection of KOC


Services: Clearance Requirements for Buried Pipelines &
Piping, Cables, Underground Structures and Buildings

KOC-MP-022 Part1 KOC Standard for HDPE Pipes and Fittings: Materials

4.3 KOC Standard Drawinqs

15-14-13 KOC Drawing for Standard Pipe Sleeves

5.0 ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

The environmental conditions in Kuwait are severe. Refer t o "KOC


Standard for Basic Design Data (KOC-G-007)" which provides general
design information regarding the environmental, site and utility supply
conditions prevailing throughout the KOC facilities.
DOC. NO. KOC-MP-022 PT. 2 Page 16 of 65 REV. 1
-

HDPE PIPE BASIC CHARACTERISTICS

General

The HDPE pipe possesses several basic characteristics. Some of t h e m are


favorable and others are unfavorable having limitations for the design and
installation/operation of the piping systems.

These favorable and unfavorable characteristics as given below should be


considered t o ensure an appropriate, safe and reliable design of HDPE
piping system.

Favorable Characteristics

Light weight.
L o w friction factor.
Excellent toughness.
Non-conductor of electricity.
Not susceptible t o galvanic or electrochemical corrosion.
Resistant t o several acids, alkalis and corrosive fluids (SeeAppcnrlir-I).
Retains flexibility and ductility at l o w temperatures.
Withstands substantial surge pressure (SccT~bIe--:)

Unfavorable Characteristics (Limitations)

a) Maximum temperature limited t o 60°C (140'F) for pressure piping


b) High thermal expansion/contraction (Approx.13.4 times o f Steel).
C) L o w strength as compared t o steel.
d) Kinks due t o excessive bending.
e) Risk of permeationlattack by some fluids (SecAppendix-I).

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

General

The HDPE pipe and fittings material shall be in accordance w i t h the


requirements of KOC-MP-022 Part 1 and the standards referenced
therein.

The tensile strength, shear strength, modulus of elasticity, and other


parameters determined by short-term tests methods shall not be used in
the design of pressure piping systems that are intended for long-term
loading.

The aboveground HDPE piping shall be supported a t appropriate distances


so that the maximum deflection at the mid span shall not exceed
6 . 3 5 m m ( 0 . 2 5 " ) at the design temperature and when the line is full of
DOC. NO. KOC-MP-022 PT. 2 1 Page 17 of 65 I REV. 1

water or the service fluid whichever is of higher density. For suggested


"Support Spacing For HDPE Piping" see Figures-I t o 5, Appendix-2.

Concentrated loads e.g. valves or flanges should be supported directly t o


eliminate or minimize high stress concentration on piping. If this is
impractical, the HDPE pipe should then be supported immediately
adjacent t o the load.

The pipe support for the aboveground piping shall be minimum 1 0 0 m m


(4 in.) long or 1 . 5 times the diameter of pipe being supported whichever
is greater and should embrace the pipe t o a minimum 120'
circumferentially.

The metallic supports shall not be used such that it directly holdisupport
the aboveground HDPE pipe in order t o avoid damage t o HDPE pipe due
t o heating up of metal in summer. Additionally the supports should
preclude line load as well as point load on t o HDPE pipe.

The metallic supports intended for the aboveground HDPE piping should
be appropriately coated or lined w i t h non-metals such as PTFE,
Polyamide, Polyethylene or hard rubber so that the HDPE pipe is not
damaged, scratched or eroded during thermal expansionlcontraction.

The aboveground HDPE Piping should not be used t o provide support t o


other nearby piping or pipe components.

Small diameter aboveground HDPE pipe should be supported continuously


in case the deflection at mid-span is higher than specified.

The aboveground HDPE piping should be designed such that the pipe and
supports experience minimum stresses due t o thermal expansion.

The underground (buried) piping system shall be designed t o withstand


the maximum anticipated static loads such as internal fluid pressure, soil
load, weight of pipe contents, nearby steel structure1 concrete building
and hydrostatic heads.

The underground pipeline shall not have any flange joint. In case it is
inevitable a suitable pit or a chamber shall be provided in conformance
w i t h the requirements of KOC-L-002.

The underground (buried) piping system shall be designed t o withstand


the maximum anticipated dynamic loads such as traffic (vehicle) loads,
and loads due t o nearby rotating heavy equipment or machinery in
accordance w i t h the requirements of KOC-L-002.
DOC. NO. KOC-MP-022 PT. 2 I Page 18 of 6 5 I REV. 1

7.1.14 The space between the pipe and trench wall must be wider than the
compaction equipment used in the pipe zone t o achieve the necessary
compaction of haunching and embedment materials.

7.1.15 The trench width shall not be less than the pipe outside diameter plus
400 m m ( 16") or the pipe outside diameter times 1.25, plus 3 0 0 m m
( 12") whichever is larger as per the requirement of ASTM D2321.

7.1 .I6 Alternatively the trench width should be as shown in Table-I covering a
larger range of pipe sizes, in accordance w i t h the requirements of PPI.

TABLE-1: MINIMUM TRENCH WIDTH IN STABLE GROUND'


-. - -
SR NOMINAL PIPE SIZE MINIMUM TRENCH WIDTH
NO (Inches) (Inches1
- : .

7.1.17 The temperature at any point on the HDPE pipeline (underground or


above ground) shall not exceeds the maximum allowable temperature as
required by clause 7.3.6 of this RP.

7.1 . I 8 The trench depth for HDPE piping should be minimum 1 . 2 2 meter as the
maximum soil temperature in summer at this depth (1.22m) is 35OC
(95OF) in accordance w i t h KOC-G-007.

7.1.19 The vehicularltraffic load o n HDPE pipeline crossing under the


highwaylroad shall be taken as minimum 1 4 5 0 0 Kg ( 3 2 0 0 0 lbs) at the
axle in accordance with the requirements of AASHTO H-20 and PPI.

7.1.20 The underground (Buried) piping shall be designed so as t o eliminate or


minimize the dvnamic effects due to;

a) Vehicular Traffic,
b) Rotating Heavy Equipment or Machinery

either by increasing the burial depth or by suitably rerouting the piping or


by providing a suitable metal casinglsleeve or b y other means.

7.1.21 The underground (Buried) piping crossing under the highwayiroad shall be
protected by a suitable metal casinglsleeve t o avoid the risk of pipe
collapsing. For design andlor size selection o f the casingisleeve pipe refer
t o API RP 1102, "Steel Pipelines Crossing Railroads and Highways" KOC-
L-002 and KOC Drawing No. 15-14-13 for "Standard Pipe Sleeves".
DOC. NO

Desiqn Pressure

The design pressure o f each component in the piping system shall not be
less than the pressure at the most severe condition o f coincident internal
or external pressure at the expected temperature during service.

The most severe coincident pressure and temperature should be


considered in determining the design conditions.

Occasional variations of pressure andlor temperature may occur in the


piping system. Such variation should be given due consideration in
selecting design pressure and design temperature.

The piping shall be designed t o have appropriate pressure relief system t o


protect the piping system from risk of collapse or damage.

Piping system if not protected by the pressure relief system shall be


designed t o cover the highest pressure anticipated t o develop in the
system.

The minimum wall thickness of the HDPE pipe for natural gas service shall
not be less than as specified in ASME 831.8 Table 8 4 2 . 3 2 ( c ) .

The HDPE piping system shall be designed by using appropriate Design


Service Factor (DSFI, as given in Table-2. The DSF shall be applied t o
the hydrostatic design basis (HDB) at 23'C (73.4OF1, t o derive the
hydrostatic design stress (HDS) at 23°C (73.4"F), Table-3. The DSF shall
be applied in order t o compensate for the weakening effects of the
service fluid on the HDPE material.

TABLE-2: HDPE PIPE - RECOMMENDED DESIGN SERVICE


FACTOR (DSF) AS PER API 15 LE, DOT AND PPI

~p I
SERVICE FLUID

Potable I Non-Potablc Watcr iseta \ore-/ r r ~ \ore-2j


l
rzEF 0S
1 2 Wastc or Dram Water (SW \ O W / ) 05
3 Acct~c.Basic or Snltnnter i h \or', 1 otrd \ore-2) 05
4 Natural Gas fiw \or+ 3) 0 32

Note-I: The nnn-l~otuhlew f e r .\hnuld he free ofchemicrrls thie w e non-contpatihle to HIIPE. See
Ap/~cndiv-I,

Note-2: Thi.v covers hrrrrkish, hard ~ r n d / ~ r ~ ~ r l uwrrter


c e d rrs n.eI1.

Note-.?: The I ) S F / I J ~the nuturd gr1.s trrmsmission/rli.sfrihution is in uccorrlrmce with 1107; 0P.S
Title 49, Purt 192, A P I I S 1.E und A S M E IL31.8. Also see rluuses 7.2.9 rrnd 7.3.6 (rr) ofthis
RP.
TABLE-3: HDB, HDS, MRS AND DS OF HDPE PIPE (PE-3408 A N D PE-100)

' 11'1 1'1'1 I % / I ) / \ ,111 /I<\ I \


--
HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE PIPE
-.

HDB {PE-3408: Hydrostatic Design Basis at I I 03 MPa


23°C (7.3.4"F1!. ( 1600 psi)
HDS {PE-3408: Hydrostatic Design (Hoop) Stress 5 52 MPa
at 23°C (73.J°F) using DSF 0 . 5 ) . (800 ps1)
- -

MRS {PE-100: Minimum Required Strength at 10 0 MPa


20°C (68'F)). ( 1450 PSI)
~ ~

DS (PE-100: Dcsign (Hoop) Stress at 20°C 5 . 0 MPa


(68°F) using Safet? Factor 2 ) (725 psi)
~ -- -- ~ ~

]-The vulues shown obuve ure for H D P E Pipe PE-3408 und PE-100. The Monufidurer/ Supplier
should infornr if his mt~teriuli\ not meeting the vnluec shmm.

7.2.8 The maximum working pressure ratings of HDPE pipe for water service
shall be in accordance w i t h the values given in Table-4 in conformance
w i t h API 15LE, A W W A C906, ASTM F645, and PPI

TABLE-4: M A X I M U M WORKING PRESSURE RATING V S . DR OF HDPE


PlPE A T GIVEN TEMPERATURE FOR WATER SERVICE

... ? ' '"..


......... ... , ..
! DR OF HDPE PIPE !\OI+/ . m l 2)
SR. j SERVICE ................. ... , . . . . . . . . . .
NO. I TEMPERATURE
I OC (OF)
1 32.5
1
2h 21 17 15.5 13.5 11 ') 7
!
I
! . -.
s PRESSL'KE HA'I'INCS - pail:
... . .
t l ; u ~ - I 2 ~ 0 1 .;,i
... .. --
DOC. NO. KOC-MP-022 PT. 2 1 Page 2 1 of 6 5 REV. 1

Note-I: The pressure ratings shown arefor all categories / @ p e of "~vater"us rlfscrihed in Cluuse
1.2 (i) to (v) ofthis Rl?

Note-2: A l l HDPE Pipes of same DR, regardless oftheir diumder, have the same pressure ruting
for (I specifidfluid service uf n .specified iemperdurc

Note-3: The Prcssure Ratings shmvn ahove ore for HDPE PE-3408 Pipe. For pressure ratings of
PE-100 pipe refer to D I N 8074. The Supplier /Manufacturer should inform if
his mnterinl
is not meding these pressure rutings.

The design pressure of HDPE piping system for the distribution of natural
gas shall not exceed a gauge pressure of 0 . 6 8 9 MPa ( 1 0 0 psig) in
accordance w i t h the requirements o f DOT, OPS, Title 49, Part 192,
ASME 8 3 1 . 8 and API 15LE, as given in Table-5.

TABLE-5: DESIGN PRESSURE VS. PIPE DR FOR NATURAL GAS


SERVICE AT 23°C (73.4"F)

Note-: A l l HDPE Pipe.s of snn7e DR, regnrdles o/ their rliamder, huve the some pressure
rutingfor u .s1xxified,fluid service ut it .speci/ic temperufure

Note3: The Pressure Ratings shown uhove urefor HDPE PE-34118 Pipefor n d u r u l gus .service
using I)SF 0..?2 (See Tuhle-2 of this Stunrlrrrcl). For pressure rutings rf PE-l00,for the
nefural gu.s .service refer to D I N 8074, D I N EN I S S F I , and D I N EN 1.7.5.5-5. The
M~mufircturer/Su/~~~Iicr .should inform if his muterid is nut mwting there pressure
rutingv.

Desiqn Temperature

The design temperature of each component in the piping system shall be


considered as the temperature at which under the coincident pressure,
the maximum thickness or the highest component rating is required.

The design temperature should be based upon the maximum anticipated


service fluid temperature or system's operating temperature whichever is
higher.

The design should take care of increase in the pressure due t o the
thermal expansion of the stagnant fluid within the piping system.
DOC. NO. KOC-MP-022 PT. 2 1/ Page 2 2 of 6 5 I REV. 1

7.3.4 The HDPE piping system shall be designed based upon the maximum
anticipated operating temperature. The appropriate Temperature Service
Factor (TSF), as given in Table-6, shall be used t o calculate the pressure
capability of the piping system.

7.3.5 The recommended Temperature Service Factor (TSF), as given in Table-6,


shall be applied t o the HDS or the pressure rating o f pipe at 23°C
(73.4"F) t o derive the pressure rating of the piping system at the
intended temperature. The TSF shall be applied in order t o compensate
for the weakening effects of the temperature on the HDPE pipe material.

TABLE-6: TEMPERATURE SERVICE FACTOR (TSF) AND MODULUS


OF ELASTICITY OF HDPE PlPE A S RECOMMENDED BY
PLASTIC PlPE INSTITUTE (PPI)

I - The T,SF ond Morlulus ofEluticiiy shown ore for HIIPE PE-3-108 Pipe. Fur PE-I00 refer to DIN
807.i. The Munuf(~cturer /Su/1111iershould inform ijhis muterid is nut meeiing there vt~luec

7.3.6 The aboveground or underground HDPE piping systems for


transmissionldistribution of natural gas or water shall be designed based
upon the following temperature limitations in accordance w i t h the
requirements of PPI, DOT, OPS Title 49, Part 192, ASME 831.8 and API
15LE, and AWWA.

a) For pressure piping system (for Water andlor Natural Gas) the
allowable operating temperature of HDPE piping shall not be above
60°C (140°F) and below -2g°C (-20°F).
b) For non-pressure or gravity f l o w piping system (for water) w i t h
maximum static pressure up t o and including 15 psig, the allowable
maximum operating temperature of HDPE piping shall not be above
82OC (180°F) and below -40°C (-40°F).

Surqe Pressure (Water Hammer)

The HDPE piping system shall be designed t o withstand maximum


anticipated surge pressure as a result o f rapid opening or closure of the
valve or stopping or starting of a pump in an operating system.

The magnitude of surge pressure and corresponding sudden change in the


fluid velocity shall not exceed as given in the Table-7 in accordance w i t h
AWWA C 9 0 6 for HDPE Pipe PE-3408 or equivalent.

CAUTIONARY NOTE: In nn opcruting system the v~nlve(s)should not he opened


or closed or the pump stopped or stnrted instnntly/rupidly in order to nvoid the risk
of genercrtion ofpre.s.surc surge or vvcrter hmtnrer.

TABLE-7: M A X I M U M ALLOWABLE SURGE PRESSURE ABOVE THE


WORKING PRESSURE I N HDPE PIPE FOR WATER SERVICE
UPTO 28 OC (80OF)

Note-]: The oll~tvohlesurge pressure given in Tuhle-.5 isfur the H D P E PE-3JOX pipe und not
for the .vptem's conrponents. For r1efnil.v refer to A WWA CYOd

Note-2: The Munuficturer /.Supplier should inform if hi.v muteriul is not nteding the vulues
shown uhuvc
DOC. NO. KOC-MP-022 PT. 2 1 Page 2 4 of 6 5 REV. 1

Static Effects

Piping shall be designed t o withstand all dead loads that include weight
of piping and its components and the load of the soil cover, except when
steel pipe as casingisleeve is used.

Piping shall be designed t o cater for all the live loads such as weight of
the fluid transported and weight of fluid used for testing.

Piping shall be designed t o withstand all effects such as stress, strains


and movements that arise when thermal expansion and contraction of
piping are restrained.

Dynamic Effects

The system shall be designed t o take into account all impact forces due
t o internal or external conditions such as sudden change in f l o w rate,
hydraulic shock, and solid slugging.

The effects of wind loading shall be taken into account for the HDPE
piping system installed at a height of 9 m ( 3 0 ft.) or above from the
ground level. (For Wind Data see clause 5.5 of KOC-G-007).

Piping shall be designed, arranged and supported so as t o eliminate the


excessive and harmful effects of vibration induced due t o fluid flow, wind
effect, and rotary equipment such as the pump etc.

Piping shall be designed, arranged and supported t o take care of the


reaction forces due t o the discharge pressure of the fluid.

Piping shall be designed t o cater for the dynamic loads such as traffic or
vehicular loads (Truck, Trailer or Crane), should the pipeline crosses
under a roadihighway or when located close t o a rotating equipment or
machinery b y using suitable metal pipe as sleeve.

Vacuum Effects

The HDPE piping system shall not be subjected t o vacuum or external


pressure unless it has been designed t o withstand it. The piping system
shall be designed t o incorporate air-intake valve t o break the anticipated
vacuum liable t o arise due t o sudden changeidrop in the piping elevation
in the full flowing gravity line.
Page 25 of 6 5 1 REV. 1 I
Chemical C o m ~ a t i b i l i t y

The HDPE piping shall be used t o transport chemicalslfluids t o which


HDPE is generally resistant (compatible) (SeeAppenJir-I).

The service temperature and level of concentration of the chemical shall


be carefully evaluated for compatibility before introducing into the HDPE
piping system (SeeAppendir-I).

HDPE piping system shall not be used t o transport strong oxidizing


agents such as nitric acid, sulfuric acid, liquid chlorine and l o w molecular
weight hydrocarbons as well as aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene,
toluene and xylene for risk of attack and/or permeation (SceAppendk-I).

PIPE SIZING

General

Appropriate pipe sizing calculations should be carried out, based upon the
project operating requirements, t o achieve a safe and reliable system w i t h
optimum performance. The following systematic procedure is
recommended t o achieve optimum pipe size:

Determine the pipe wall thickness (DR) t o meet the project's


pressure requirements.

If required, derate the pipe (DR) based on system's operating


conditions such as pressure surges.

Evaluate the system's flow requirements to determine the


appropriate pipe size.

Verify the pipe's ability t o perform or operate function under


intended installation conditions.

Adjust the pipe wall thickness as required for external loads.

Assess the final pipe size and wall thickness (DR) t o meet flow,
pressure, and external load requirements.
DOC. NO. KOC-MP-022 PT. 2 1 Pane 26 o f 65 I REV. 1

Pipe DR and Pressure Rating

The HDPE pipe DR, wall thickness, outside diameter, the Pressure Rating
(PR) or Working Pressure Rating (WPR) may be calculated as per the
formulae (adopted by ISO, DIN, API, DOT, ASME B 31.8 and PPI) given
below. (For sumple culculations see Appendk.3).

PR = 2 x HDBx DSF
DR- 1

Since HDB x DSF = HDS, Therefore;

PR = 2 x HDS
DR- 1

Where: PR = Pipe Pressure Rating, (psig).


HDS = Hydrostatic Design Stress, (psi) (7'0hle-3).
HDB = Hydrostatic Design Basis, (psi) (I'~rhlc-.3).
DSF = Design Service Factor (Trrhlc-2).
DR = Dimension Ratio = D, It
D, = Outside Diameter of Pipe, (in.) (.Yc.e.ll>I1.7i.i;)
t = Min. Wall Thickness, (in.) fieAPI/.iI.i;i.

Surqe Pressure (Water Hammer)

The HDPE pipe PR calculated as per clause 8.2 of this RP should be


checked for being adequate t o accommodate the anticipated surge
pressure. Refer t o Table-7 for maximum allowable surge pressures. For
surge pressure sample calculations refer t o Appendix-3 of this RP.

The maximum surge pressure will occur if the f l o w velocity is reversed or


changed in the time period as given b e l o w : ( F ~ ~ r s o m p l u c o l c u l ~ d i ~ n s s e ~ A p p e n d i r - 3 )

t 5 A (Source: Ilriscopipe)
s
Where:
L = Length of the pipeline, ( f t )
S = Speed of the pressure wave, ( f t l s )
t = Time, second

S = I 7 x (Kx F!lJ2
[(wig) x {E +
(K x DR)
Where:
S = Speed of the pressure wave, (ftls)
K = Bulk modulus of water = (300,000 psi)
E = Short-term modulus of elasticity of pipe material @ 3 8 O C,
= 100,000 psi. [See Table-6 of this RP)
DR = Dimension ratio of pipe
w = Unit weight of fluid, (Iblft3)
g = Acceleration due t o gravity, ( 3 2 . 2 ftls2)

Surge Pressure (water hammer) P, is:

Where:
P, = Surge Pressure, psig
V, = Change in velocity, ftls occurred within critical time 2LIS

8.4 Flow Estimate

Based upon the inside diameter of the piping system, f l o w in can be


calculated as follows: 69nurce:I)risropipe)

Q = 2,449 V (ID)'
ID = 0 . 6 3 9 (ON)'
V = { Q l (ID)'} x 0 . 4 0 8

Where:
Q = Gallons per minute
V = Velocity, ftlsec
ID = Inside Diameter, in

8.5 Pressure Drop in Pipe

Pressure drop in the HDPE pipe should be calculated using Hazen and
William formula as given below: (Source:~riscopipe)

Where;

A PI, = Pressure drop due t o friction in 1 0 0 feet of pipe, psig


Q = Rate of flow, gpm (US)
C = Pipe coefficient = 1 5 0
D = Pipe inside diameter, in.
DOC. NO. KOC-MP-022 PT. 2 Page 2 8 of 65 REV. 1
-

Pressure Drop in Fittinqs and Valves

For the pressure drop in fittings and valves, refer Table-8 below:

TABLE-8: PRESSURE DROP I N FITTINGS A N D VALVES

~...... . .~

SR. NO. DESCRIPTION


-.-
'---ErN .

WPE LENGTH'
..-

I- Term "1)" under colun~n"Equivnlent Pipe Length" denotes inside diunrder (in feet) if the
fitting or vulve

INSTALLATION

Aboveqround Piping

HDPE piping should not be installed aboveground unless appropriate


precautions are taken t o provide protection from excessive heat,
mechanical damage, fire damage, from direct exposure t o sun and
solvents and other organic and inorganic chemicals that are not
cO m pat i b l e t o HDP E. (See Alyienrlir-I C'henricul Cbn~pntibiliQ i$HHnPE Pipe.).

The aboveground HDPE piping system should be anchored at suitable


locations t o control or restrain the pipe movements due t o thermal
expansion or contraction.

HDPE piping shall not be installed aboveground where the pipe wall
temperature exceeds the maximum allowable temperature limit as given
in clause 7.3.6 of this RP.
DOC. NO. KOC-MP-022 PT. 2 Page 2 9 of 6 5 REV. 1

Short length of HDPE pipe, if laid aboveground t o connect a pump or


equipment, shall be adequately protected b y shelter or sleeve t o avoid
exposure t o sun and excessive heat. In all such cases it must be ensured
that the wall temperature of the HDPE piping shall not exceed the
maximum allowable limit as given in clause 7 . 3 . 6 of this RP.

Flexible or expansion joint of appropriate pressure rating shall be utilized


when HDPE pipe is t o be connected t o a rotary equipment such as a
pump t o avoid adverse effects on HDPE piping.

HDPE piping system terminating aboveground or outdoor shall be encased


in a suitable sleeve (Solid wall or corrugated plasticlsteel pipe) such that
the HDPE pipe wall temperature does not exceed the maximum allowable
limit. For selection o f sleeve size refer t o clause 7.1.21 of this RP.

The HDPE piping passing through a concrete floor or masonry wall shall
be protected b y laying through a metallic pipe sleeve. In such situation
the HDPE pipe should be thoroughly wrapped and protected by a flexible
long lasting and HDPE compatible material t o avoid the risk of abrasion
resulting from the pipe movement due t o thermal expansion/contraction
or other reasons.

Underqround (Buried) Piping

Trench Excavation

For trench details refer t o Figure-I t o Figure-3 of Appendix-4 of this


RP.

Proper attention shall be given when excavating the trench so that


the sidewalls remain stable under all working conditions. To avoid
collapsing of trench in the unstable soil, the trench walls should be
given a suitable slope t o achieve stability.

The trench should not be left open for long time unnecessarily t o
avoid the risk of pedestrian safety and traffic disruption.

The trench walls should be sufficiently supported b y sheeting,


bracing, shoring or shielding when the trench walls, even though
sloped, pose a risk of caving, sloughing or sliding.

When supports such as trench sheeting, shoring or bracings are


used, it should be ensured that the pipe support and the compacted
soil around the pipe are maintained throughout the installation.

It should be ensured that the sheeting is sufficiently tight t o prevent


washing the soil out of the trench wall from behind the sheeting.
DOC. NO. KOC-MP-022 PT. 2 Page 30 of 65 REV. 1

g) All sheeting used t o preclude caving or sliding-in o f the trench soil


should be left in the place unless otherwise instructed by K O C or its
authorized representative.

h) All sheeting left in-place shall be cut-off at a height 0 . 5 meter or


more above the top o f the pipe.

i) The material of sheeting intended t o remain in the trench should be


such that it shall not corrode or degenerate.

j) All vertical and horizontal braces shall be left in place.

The w i d t h of the trench shall be sufficient t o provide adequate room for:

a) Joining the pipe in the trench;

b) Snaking of small-diameter pipe, fixed-joint-type pipe from side-to-


side along the bottom of the trench, when the effects of contraction
are not otherwise accommodated:

c) Filling and compacting the side-fills

The minimum required trench width a t the pipe grade shall be as given in
clauses 7.1.I5and 7.1.I 6 of this RP.

If the ground water accumulates in the trench because of high water


table or other reasons, the water level shall be kept below the pipe invert
level for safe and proper installation, b y using deep well pumps or by
other suitable means.

The HDPE pipelineltrench at any point on its route shall not make a
rapidiabrupt bendlturn that render the pipeline t o exceed the minimum
recommended bend radius as given in Table-9 o f this RP, as it may
result in pipe kinking.

When the HDPE pipeline is warmer than the trench soil, a slightly longer
pipe length should be used t o compensate for the contraction of the
pipe when it cools t o ground temperature.

For additional details on trench excavation refer t o ASTM D2321, ASTM


D 2774, ASTM F690, ASTM F1176, and ASTM F1668.
DOC. NO. KOC-MP-022 PT. 2 1 Page 31 of 65 I REV. 1

TABLE-9: MINIMUM BEND RADIUS FOR HDPE PIPING

( I - Outside Pipe IXumeter in inches)

9.2.8 Bedding

For bedding details refer t o Figure-I t o Figure-3 of Appendix-4 of


this RP.

For HDPE piping, trench bottom shall be stable and uniform t o


support the pipe over its entire length.

Blocks or slabs shall not be used t o supports the pipe or change its
invert level or grade along the excavated trench bottom.

The trench bottom shall support the HDPE pipe smoothly and it shall
be free of ridges, hollows, and lumps.

For non-pressure or gravity f l o w piping, bedding may be prepared


from the excavated soil provided it is free of rocks and boulders or
anv contaminants.

For non-pressure or gravity f l o w piping, the trench b o t t o m shall be


evenly graded t o help in maintaining the f l o w . The trench bottom
shall be relatively smooth and free of rocks. The trench grade I slope
shall be determined based upon the hydraulic gradient
considerations.

For non-pressure or gravity f l o w piping, the trench bottom shall be


padded w i t h 1 0 0 t o 1 5 0 m m (4 t o 6 inches) of tamped bedding
material if the trench bottom is packed w i t h rocks, boulders or
stones.
DOC. NO. KOC-MP-022 PT. 2 Page 3 2 of 65 REV. 1
-
The trench bedding should consist of free flowing material such as
sand, gravel, or clayey sand free of stones and hard particles larger
than %inch.

Haunching shall be placed in uniform layers on both sides of pipe


such that no voids are left.

For additional details on bedding refer t o ASTM D2321, ASTM D


2774, ASTM F690, ASTM F1176, and ASTM F1668.

~ b e d m e n Materials
t

The pipe embedment material shall be adequately stable and


sufficiently granular so that it is easily worked under the sides and
bottom of the pipeline.

Embedment materials shall be free of refuse, degradable and


organic materials. The particle size of the embedment materials in
contact with the pipe shall not exceed % inch and the particle
shall not have sharp surfaces or edges.

For additional details o n embedment refer t o ASTM D2321, ASTM


D2774, ASTM F690, ASTM F1176, and ASTM F1668.

Pipe Laying

a For pipe laying details refer t o Figure-l t o Figure-3 of Appendix-4


of this RP.

b) The HDPE pipe shall be laid w i t h moderate slack, or snaking t o


accommodate any anticipated contraction resulting from pipe
cooling prior t o backfill.

c) The HDPE pipe shall be allowed to cool down to temperature that is


bearable to hand before backfilling to help eliminate or reduce effects
of thermal contraction.

d The HDPE pipe shall be allowed t o cool d o w n t o bearable


temperature before trimming t o connect t o rigid connections like
equipment or pump.

e) HDPE pipe shall not be bend very close t o a fitting or valve. The
minimum distance of bend from the fittings or valve shall be 1 0
times the nominal pipe diameter.

f Install HDPE piping in such a way that shear or tensile stresses


resulting from constructionlinstallation, backfill, thermal
contraction or external loadings are eliminated or minimized.
DOC. NO. KOC-MP-022 PT. 2 1 Pane 33 of 65 I REV. 1

g) Additional protection o f HDPE pipe shall be made where there is


risk o f pipe damage in agricultural or similar areas due t o deep
plowing.

h) Sufficient clearance shall be maintained between HDPE pipe and


steam, hot water or other sources o f heat t o prevent the
operatinglpipe skin temperature from exceeding the specified limit
(Refer t o clause 7.3.6 of this RP).

Superfluous or Extraneous Loads

The HDPE may be subjected t o differential soil settlement when


connected t o a pump or vessel. The following precautions should be
taken t o minimize the excessive shear, bending and pullout forces;

a) Appropriate care shall be taken during bedding and backfilling t o


provide firm and uniform support t o the pipe.

b) Place a protective sleeve or shield over the tapping connection

Trench Backfill

The initial backfill material should satisfy the requirements for


embedment material as described in previous clauses. The initial
backfill shall however cover the pipe by at least 4 inches.

If the piping system is t o be pressure tested, the joints and fittings


shall be left exposed until the pressure testing and inspection is
over. (See Hydrotesting C'luu.se 1.?.0).

The final backfill should consist of the native soil if suitable,


otherwise it shall be backfilled w i t h material approved b y KOC or
its authorized representative. However, in any case the final
backfill shall not include any hard stones, rocks or debris greater
than 3 inches.

Final backfill shall be placed and spread in uniform layers and


compacted at least t o 95% Proctor density or as required b y KOC
or its representative.
I/ DOC. NO. KOC-MP-022 PT. 2 1 Page 34 of 65 I REV. 1

STATIC CHARGE ON HDPE PlPE

Proper and adequate consideration shall be specifically given t o the


HDPE piping as static charge is generated b y friction due t o f l o w of air
or gas containing particulate matter.

The HDPE piping can develop static charge when particles strike the
exterior or outer surface of the pipe. This would occur when HDPE
piping transporting gas is leaking due t o damage.

The HDPE piping shall not be used t o convey dry materials because of
the risk of generation of static charge.

The HDPE pipe intended t o be installed in the explosion-proof or


hazardous area should not accumulate static charge.

HDPE Pipe containing 7 % t o 9% carbon black helps t o prevent buildup


o f static charge. Such HDPE pipe should be considered when installation
is intended in t h e explosion-proof or hazardous area as recommended b y
PPI. The pipe or resin manufacturerlsupplier should also be consulted
when using HDPE pipe in hazardous area.

HDPE pipe is a non-conductor of electricity and therefore the static


electric charge developed on it remains in place until some grounding
device comes close enough t o allow it t o discharge. For cautionary note
on static charge refer t o Appendix-5 of this RP.

HDPE PlPE JOINING METHODS

Heat Fusion Qualification

The Supplier I Manufacturer of HDPE pipe and fittings shall provide t o


KOC t h e established and certified heat fusion procedures for t h e joining
of the HDPE pipes and fittings.

The heat fusion procedure shall be in accordance w i t h DOT, OPS Title


49, Part 192. Alternative heat joining procedure is acceptable provided it
is fully endorsed and I or certified by an equivalent and internationally
recognized body or institution.

SupplieriManufacturer shall also furnish appropriate supporting data t o


KOC along w i t h the qualified fusion procedures.

No fusion joining of HDPE piping shall be carried out without a qualified


fusion procedure and its specification.
P

DOC. N O . KOC-MP-022 PT. 2 Page 35 of 6 5 REV. 1

1 1 .I.5 Only qualified fusion weldersljointers and qualified machine operator:


shall be permitted t o carryout production work.

1 1 .I. 6 Proper fusion joining records shall be maintained for all joints,

11.2 Butt Fusion: Generic Procedure

11.2.1 General

a) A generic requirement for joining o f the HDPE pipe by Butt Fusion


is described below. Detail procedure and its requirements shall be
provided by the HDPE pipe manufacturerlsupplier.

b) This procedure is intended for b u t t fusion joining of the gaslwater


piping and shall be applicable t o all sizes of HDPE piping.

11.2.2 Procedure Parameters

a) The fusion interface pressure range shall be: 4 . 1 4 bar - 6 . 2 1 bar


( 6 0 psi - 9 0 psi),

b) The heater surface temperature range shall be: 204°C - 232°C


(400°F - 450°F).

11.2.3 Butt Fusion Procedure

The ends of t w o pipes or pipe 1 fitting shall be heated t o a


designated temperature.

The t w o ends shall be pressed and held together, after they attain
the designated temperature, b y application of sufficient force until
melted material flows and mix together resulting in fusion.

Necessary care shall be taken t o keep the pipes perfectly aligned


after fusion.

After completion, the b u t t fusion joint, shall be tested for tensile


and pressure properties.

A perfectly attained butt fusion joint shall be stronger than the pip1
itself in tensile and pressure sustaining properties.

The following steps shall be taken t o produce a proper b u t t f u s i o ~


joint:

i) The components t o be joined shall be securely fastened.


ii) The pipe ends shall be facing each other.
iii) The pipe profile shall be aligned perfectly.
Page 36 of 65 REV. 1 n
iv) Pipe interfaces shall be heated t o the desired temperature.
v) Both the pipes shall be pressed together w i t h ample force.
vi) The t w o pipes shall be held together under pressure until
fusion is achieved.

11.2.4 Pipe Securing

a) The HDPE pipe ends shall be cleaned thoroughly from inside and
outside t o remove any foreign matter.

b) The pipes t o be joined shall be clamped in the machine jaws such


that their ends are perfectly aligned w i t h each other.

11.2.5 Pipe Facing

a) The HDPE pipe ends shall be faced, using machine planner block,
t o establish and attain clean and parallel mating surfaces.

b) Facing shall be done o n the pipe ends until the pipe end is perfectly
squared and become perpendicular t o the pipe axis.

11.2.6 Pipe Alignment

a) The pipe ends shall be cleaned of any chips or loose material left
after the facing operation.

b) The pipe profiles shall be rounded and aligned t o minimize any


mismatch (high-low) of the pipe wall.

11.2.7 Pipe Melting

a) The heater surfaces that come in contact w i t h the pipe ends shall
be thoroughly cleaned and free from oil or dirt and shall have non-
stick coating.

b) The heater shall be equipped w i t h a substantially sensitive


thermostat for controlled heating.

c) The pressure on the pipe ends shall be moderate 4 . 1 4 bar -


6 . 2 1 bar (60 psi - 90 psi) during bonding or joining process.

11.3 Electrofusion

11.3.1 General

a) The following requirements shall apply t o establish the strength


and performance of the HDPE joint produced by Electrofusion
method or process.
b) The electrofusion procedure, upon satisfying the requirements,
shall be eligible for joining HDPE piping and components in
gaslwater piping systems and shall be applicable t o all sizes of
HDPE piping.

11.3.2 Joints Performance Requirements

a) In accordance w i t h the requirements of ASTM F 1 0 5 5 , the HDPE


pipe joints produced by electrofusion as per the manufacturers
recommended procedure, shall be required t o qualify the test
requirements described below.

b) These requirements shall be met b y each electrofusion joint design


on each size and type of pipe material for which the manufacturer
recommends use of his fittings.

C) Any revision t o the electrofusion joint design or processing b y the


manufacturer after the initial testing shall require retesting t o
ensure that the reauirements can still be met.

11.3.3 Pressure Requirements

a) Minimum Hydraulic Burst Pressure

i The minimum hydraulic burst pressure of the test specimen


shall not be less than that required t o produce 1 7 . 4 MPa
( 2 5 2 0 psi) fiber stress in the pipe being used in the test when
tested in accordance w i t h the test requirements of ASTM
F1055.

ii) The test equipment, procedure, and failure definitions shall be


as specified in the "Test Method" of ASTM D 1 5 9 9 .

b) Sustained Pressure

The fittings and the fused joints shall not fail when tested in accordance
w i t h the requirements of ASTM F1055.

11.3.4 Tensile Strength Requirements (Coupling Type Joints Only)

The fitting t o fitting or pipe t o fitting joint(s) made shall not fail when
tested in accordance w i t h the test requirements as specified in ASTM
F1055. Specimen shall be subjected t o a tensile test that causes the
pipe t o yield t o an elongation not less than 25 % or causes the pipe t o
break outside the joint area. Tensile test shall be made on specimen as
joined and not o n straps c u t from the specimen.
DOC. NO. KOC-MP-022 PT. 2 1 Page 38 of 65 REV. 1

Impact Resistance (Saddle Type Joints Only)

The joint made on the specimen shall not fail when impacted w i t h a
force sufficient t o break the body or portion o f the specimen. Tests of
5 0 0 ft-lbf or higher impact w i t h no failure noted shall be considered as a
"pass" impact test. The device for testing and the methods shall be as
defined in ASTM F 9 0 5 .

Joint Integrity Test (Coupling and Saddle Type Joints)

The joint made o n the specimen shall meet the test requirements as
specified in ASTM F1055.

Electrofusion Procedure

Extreme weather conditions affect the fusion quality; therefore


ambient conditions shall be considered when making field joints.

The pipe shall be cut properly and squarely removing burrs or the
shavings and the pipe shall be cleaned thoroughly.

The outer surface of the pipe shall be removed using recommended


tools and procedure. Avoid gouging and removing excessive
material from the pipe surface.

The gap between the pipe ends shall not exceed the
manufacturer's recommended value after the fitting is centered on
the pipe.

The pipe and fitting shall be secured from movement during the
fusion and the cooling cycles using recommended alignment tools.

Mechanical Joints

Joining HDPE Pipe t o Metal Pipe

For making flanged connections between HDPE pipe and metal pipe,
flange adapterlstub w i t h slip-on type back-up rings (Ring-type flange)
shall be used.

Pressure Piping

a) Flange adapteristub shall be butt-fusion type,

b) The flat-face adapterlstub on one pipe end shall mate t o serrated


face or o-ring groove type adapterlstub on the other pipe.
1 DOC. NO. KOC-MP-022 PT. 2 /I Page 39 of 65 1 REV. 1

O-ring or the flat type rubber gaskets shall be of EPDM or FPM for
flange connections.

The slip-on type back-up ring (Ring-type flange) shall be of steel or


ductile iron and shall be polypropylene or epoxy coated.

The slip-on type back-up ring (Ring-type flange) shall be of rating


and dimensions t o mate perfectly w i t h steel flanges o f 1 5 0 lb
ratings of ASME 81 6 . 5 and ASME 8 1 6.47.

The pressure ratings of adapter or stub-end ( w i t h a safety factor 2 )


shall be equal or higher than the pressure rating of HDPE pipe.

To achieve a tight mechanical joint the bolt torque and tightening


procedure shall be followed as given below or as recommended by
the pipe and component supplier/manufacturer.

11.4.3 Alignment

a) The sealing faces of the t w o stub ends in a joint shall contact each
other or in the case of rubber gasket be parallel t o each other all
around the circumference.

b) The flange face shall be in full contact all around the


circumference, and the upper face of the stub end shall not be
subjected t o develop fulcrum effect.

C) The fulcrum effect in the flange joint as described above shall


render the joint t o start leaking or break o f f while torquing the
bolts.

11.4.4 Bolt Tightening

a) As step one, all the bolts or nuts shall be finger tighten ensuring
alignment of the flange faces as mentioned above.

b) Step t w o is t o tighten the bolts in crisscross sequence using torque


wrench set t o 2 0 % of the final torque value (For final torque,
strictly follow the values provided by the pipe and component
supplier/manufacturer) taking care for maintaining alignment as
described above.

C) Repeat the step t w o four times and each time increasing the torque
value by 2 0 % of the final value.

d) After attaining the final torque, all bolts shall be checked finally by
rotational tightening ensuring that all have attained the final torque
value. Repeat this step twice.
DOC. NO. KOC-MP-022 PT. 2 Page 40 of 65 REV. 1

Cmtionan. Note for Bolt Ti~hteninp

The bolt tightening procedure described above shull not be used to align the pipe or pull the joint
togelher.

INSPECTION AND EXAMINATION

Examination Responsibilitv

The contractor shall be responsible t o carryout the examination o f the


ongoing w o r k in a professional manner and shall also be fully responsible
for:

a) Providing appropriate quality materials, components and


workmanship in accordance w i t h the requirements of this RP, and
other standardsicodes referenced herein such that it is completely
acceptable t o KOC.

b) Performing all required inspections and examinations

C) Preparing suitable records of examinations and tests for KOC


review, approvallacceptance and record.

Examination Requirements

General

Prior t o initial operation or commissioning, each piping installation


including all components and their workmanship shall be inspected and
examined in accordance w i t h the requirements of acceptance criteria of
this RP. The type and extent of any additional examination required by
KOC or its representative shall also be carried out.

A c c e ~ t a n c eCriteria

a) The contacting surface of piping joints produced by thermal fusion


(Butt or Electrofusion) shall be completely fused together without
any sign of defects and detachment.

b) All the requirements of joining and installation of the piping system


specified in this RP are satisfactorily fulfilled.

C) All joints produced by heat fusion shall have a protrusion of fused


material into pipe not less than 25% of the wall thickness.
12.2.3 Defective Components and workmanship

Any examined jointlitem w i t h one or more defects (imperfections of a


type exceeding the acceptance criteria) shall be repaired or replaced; and
the n e w w o r k shall be reexamined by the same methods t o the same
extent and b y the same acceptance criteria as required for original work.

12.2.4 Progressive Sampling for Examination

When spot or random inspection reveals a defect, the samples should be


taken for further examination as below:

T w o additional samples of the same kind (if joints made b y same


bonder or jointer) shall be given the same type of examination.

If jointslitems examined as required b y a) above are acceptable, the


defective item shall be repaired or replaced and reexamined as
specified in Clause 1 2 . 2 . 3 of this RP.

If any of the jointslitems examined as required by a) above reveals a


defect, t w o further samples of the same kind shall be examined for
each defective item found.

If all jointslitems examined as required b y c ) above are acceptable,


the defective jointslitems shall be repaired or replaced and re-
examined as specified in Clause 12.2.3 of this RP and all
jointslitems represented by the additional sampling shall be
accepted.

If any of the jointslitems examined as required by c ) above reveals a


defect, all jointslitems represented by the progressive sampling shall
be:

i) repaired or replaced and re-examined as required, or

ii) fully examined and repaired or replaced as necessary, and


re-examined as necessary t o meet the requirements.

12.3 Extent of Examination

12.3.1 Examination Normally Required

Piping in normal fluid service shall be examined t o the extent specified


herein or t o any greater extent specified in design clauses. Acceptance
criteria shall be as stated in Clause 12.2.2 of this RP unless otherwise
specified by KOC or its authorized representative.
Visual Examination

Visual examination should include the requirements of integrity and


workmanship t o verify materials, components, dimensions, joint
preparation, alignment, bonding, bolting, assembly and erection. However
the following shall be at least examined:

a) Material and components.

b) 1 0 0 % of fabrication for joints comprising all type o f joints made by


each jointer.

C) 1 0 0 % piping fabrication for joints other than circumferential, except


those in components.

d) Assembly and erection of piping in accordance with the


requirements of this RP.

Other Examinations

1 0 0 % heat fusion joints shall be examined. The joint shall be examined t o


ensure that the work of each joint is according t o the acceptance
requirements.

Certifications and Records

This shall ensure that the materials and components are of the specified
type and grade and without defect.

The hydrostatic pressure testing should be conducted t o discover and


subsequently fix the leak(s) or fault(s) in a newly constructed or modified
HDPE pressure piping systern(s) before commissioning the system(s) for
service. The hydrostatic leak test of the HDPE piping system shall be
conducted in accordance w i t h the requirements of ASTM F2164.

Preparation for Test

Exoose all Joints

All joints, including heat fusion and connections, shall be left exposed for
inspection and examination during leak testing except those joints that
have been previously tested.
13.1.2 Temporary Supports

Piping designed for gas or vapor shall be provided w i t h additional


temporary supports, if necessary, t o support the weight of the test liquid.

13.1.3 Test Limits

Equipment as well as those piping sections that are not t o be tested shall
be either disconnected from the test piping or isolated b y blinds or other
means during the test. A valve may also be used for such purpose.

13.1.4 Cleaning the System

a) The piping system should be thoroughly cleaned and flushed t o get-


rid-of the dirt and debris t o avoid damaging valves, regulators and
other such things before the testing.

b) The piping system t o be tested shall be fitted w i t h vents and drains


at (or nearest t o ) the highest and lowest points respectively t o help
purge out air and drain the water.

13.1.5 Test Temperature

HDPE pipe(s) are rated at 23OC (73.4OF). However t o test the HDPE
piping system at a higher temperature than the rated temperature,
the pressure ratings as well as the test pressure shall have t o be
reduced accordingly. In such situations the ManufactureriSupplier of
the HDPE pipe should be consulted for appropriate information.

The temperature of the test-water intended for the hydrotesting


shall not be above 30°C (86OF) and below 5OC (41°F) as required by
ASTM D 2 7 7 4 and ASTM F 645.

The hydrotesting shall n o t be conducted when the HDPE pipe skin


(body) temperature is at or above 40°C (104OF). The
ManufactureriSupplier should be consulted when the temperature is
greater than specified.

Accurately calibrated temperature and pressure recorders and


indicators (at least one of each t o be installed in the initial, the
middle and the end portion of the pipeline t o be tested) shall be
installed o n the pipeline t o be tested for continuous monitoring,
controlling and recording of the test-temperature and pressure.

Chartstgraphs (as recorded) shall be provided t o KOC for review,


examination, approval & record purposes confirming that the test
was conducted within the specified temperature and pressure limits.
13.1.6 Maximum Test Pressure

The maximum test pressure of the piping system shall be in accordance


w i t h the following:

The test pressure of the system should be 1 5 0 % of the "maximum


operatingldesign pressure" b u t not t o exceed 150% of the pressure
ratino i.e. the pressure capacity-ofthe..HDPE pipinq system..-
test temperature.

When testing the piping system at the pressure as specified above,


the piping components or devices of lower pressure ratings should
be isolated or disconnected or removed from the piping system.

When lower pressure-rated components or devices cannot be


removed or disconnected or isolated from the test section, the
maximum test pressure shall not exceed the pressure rating of the
lowest pressure-rated component such as fittings of other plastics
material or pressure relief devices etc. in the test section.

Do not resort t o apply higher test pressure even if some components


in the test section carry comparatively higher pressure-ratings.

13.1.7 Test Duration

a) When the maximum test pressure is above the system design


pressure but below or up t o 1 5 0 % of the system design pressure
the total testing duration including the time required t o pressurizing,
stabilizing, holding the test- pressure, and the depressurizing shall
n o t exceed 8 hours.

b) If retesting is necessary, the test section shall be depressurized and


rested for at least 8 hours prior t o retesting.

1 3 . 1 .8 Visible Leakage

When the test liquid is seen escaping i.e. dripping, spraying, streaming,
flowing and so forth from the pipe, components, joints, connections,
appurtenances and similar item o f the test section, it shall be considered
as "Visible Leakage".

13.1.9 Leakage Allowance

No leakage allowance shall be permitted for the heat-fusion-joined HDPE


piping since properly made heat-fusion joints of HDPE piping never leak.
DOC. NO. KOC-MP-022 P REV. 1

1 3 . 1 . 1 0 Expansion Allowance

a) The HDPE pipe expands slightly when test pressure is applied due t o
the elasticity and Poisson effects. T o compensate for such
expansion, make-up water should be added durinq the initial
expansion-phase.

b) The amount of make-up water (expansion allowance) varies because


of non-linear expansion. This procedure compensates for the
expansion in the initial expansion-phase followed by the test-phase.

C) I n the test-phase the expansion should be suspended b y sliqhtly


reducinq the test-pressure (Refer t o clause 1 3 . 2 . 9 of this RP).

1 3 . 1 . 1 1 Equipment required for Hydrostatic Testing

The following equipment such as caps, valves, blind flanges, manual


or automatic air-release devices, pumps, pressure regulating devices,
temperature and pressure recorders and indicators, as a minimum,
should be available at site before the start of hydrostatic test.

The end-closure(s) and other equipment(s) intended for the test-


section shall have equal or higher pressure-ratings than the test-
pressure.

All air-release devices should be located at (or nearest t o ) the


highest points along the test section.

Deteriorated or worn-out equipment(s) shall not be used for the


hydrostatic testing.

Temperature and pressure recorders and indicators should be


installed on the initial, the middle and the last portion of the test-
section for continuous recording, controlling and monitoring.

All recorders and indicators should be calibrated t o a minimum


accuracy of * 2 % of the full-scale. The recommended full-scale value
of the indicators should not be more than t w i c e of the test pressure.

Pressure recorders and indicators should be located at (or nearest t o )


the lowest point o n the test-section. However, test pressure should
also be monitored at other points of the test-section.
Procedure for Hvdrostatic Testing

The hydrostatic leak testing of HDPE piping system shall be carried out in
accordance w i t h the requirements of ASTM F 2 1 6 4 .

The test liquid shall be water unless there is a possibility of adverse


effects of water o n piping or process or service. In that case another
suitable non-toxic liquid may be used.

The pipe-section intended for testing shall be filled-in w i t h water.


Make sure that all air from the pipe section is purged out, as the water is
filled in, through the vents.

The water filling velocity should not exceed the capacity o f the air-release
devices t o help discharge the entrapped air completely from the piping
system.

The water filling velocity should not exceed the design velocity of the
piping system in order t o prevent 1 minimize the generation of pressure
surge(s1.

The test-section, when completely filled w i t h the test-water, should be


allowed t o stabilize and reach t o a common and homoqeneous
temperature.

The test-section temperature (when stabilized and is homogeneous and


uniform) should be within f2 OC ( f 3 . 6 OF) of the test-water temperature
as specified in clause 13.1.5 (b) of this RP or as recommended by KOC
or its authorized re~resentative.

Pressurizing and Initial Expansion Phase

a) When the test-section is completely filled w i t h water and the air has
been fully purged out, the pressure in the test-section shall be
increased araduallv up t o the reauired test pressure.

b) Add any make-up water as and when necessary in order t o maintain


the maximum test-pressure for four (4) hours.

Note: Iftest-presswe connot he rrtfoined or $ 1 1 tokm on zrnreosonohly Iony time to rcnch


the te.s~-press~rre. there mirj, he .some,firu/t(s)such os excessive leokoye, enrroppcd nir, open
vrrlve, or inodeqimcy r f pre.s.s~rring equrpment. If slich ,f2lir/t(s) exist. discontinue the
prc.c.cirr~zingrrnd rec11f.v thefir~rlthefore continuing the lest.
DOC. NO. KOC-MP-022 PT. 2 1 Page 47 of 6 5 I REV. 1

13.2.9 Test-Phase

a) After the test-pressure has been maintained constantlv for four (4)
hours in the test-section as per clause 1 3 . 2 . 8 o f this RP, reduce the
test oressure b v 6 8 . 9 5 kPa ( 1 0 mi) and monitor the pressure
carefully for one (1) hour.

b) Do n o t increase the test-pressure or add anv make-up water during


this test-phase.

1 3 . 2 . 1 0 Pass 1 Fail Criteria

a) If no visible leakage is observed in the test-section, and the pressure


during the test-phase remains steady (i.e. within 5% of the test-
phase oressure) for the one ( 1 ) hour test-phase period, the test
indicates as "PASSED".

b) If the test-section FAILS the pressure-test, refer t o clauses 1 3 . 1 . 7 ( b )


and 1 3 . 2 . 1 1 of this RP before retesting the pipe section.

1 3 . 2 . 1 1 Retesting

If retesting is necessary, the test-section should be depressurized as


per the clause 1 3 . 2 . 1 1 ( b ) . Leak(s) 1 fault(s) if any, should be
investigated andlor fixed only in the de~ressurizedtest-section.

When the maximum test pressure is between the "system design


pressure and 1 5 0 % the system design pressure", or at 1 5 0 % of the
system design pressure {also refer t o clause 1 3 . 1 . 6 ( b ) of this RP),
the test-section should be "allowed t o relax" for at least eight ( 8 )
hours before re-pressurizing.

After the relaxation period of the test-section is over, repeat the


process of "filling, pressurizing and initial expansion, and test-phase"
as per the clauses 13.2.1 t o 1 3 . 2 . 1 0 of this RP.

The total retesting time including the time required t o filling,


pressurization and initial expansion, stabilization, test-phase, and
depressurization shall not exceed eight ( 8 ) hours.

1 3 . 2 . 1 2 All temporary closures, gauges and supports etc shall be removed from
the piping system when the test is over.
DOC. NO. KOC-MP-022 PT. 2 1 Page 48 of 65 REV. 1

Test Records

The concerned contractor shall appropriately compile and submit t o KOC


for review, approval and record, the "Test Records" providing all
necessary information of the hydrotesting from beginning t o the end. The
information may include but shall not be limited t o the following.
Test liauid.
Backflow prevention devices, if used.
The weather conditions and ambient temperature at site during test.
The test pressure.
The type of test-gauges & recorders used in the test-section.
The placement of test-gauges & recorders in the test-section such
as their location and elevation from the beginning of the test-
section.
Test-gauge & recorder calibration records.
Test-pressure and temperature recorded during the test.
Any adjustment made t o the test-pressure for elevated temperature.
The duration of the test.
A description of test section length, elevations, and site location.
A description of test-section components.
Description of any leaks or failure and the corrective actions taken.
Name or identification of the contractor or party conducting the test.
The date and time the test was conducted.

DISINFECTION OF POTABLE WATER LINES AND MAINS

The HDPE piping system and mains intended for potable water service
shall have t o be disinfected for bacteria and other organisms before
commissioning.

The disinfection of piping and mains shall be done in accordance w i t h the


requirements of A W W A C 651.

The disinfecting solution, containing Chlorine, shall be limited t o


maximum concentration of 100 parts per million of residual Chlorine in
water.

The Chlorinated disinfection solution shall not be left for extended period
in the HDPE piping system. The time period allowed for such solutions t o
reside in the HDPE piping is maximum 3 hours.

The solution shall be premixed w i t h water before injection into the piping
system.

A t the end of the disinfection period, all lines shall be thoroughly flushed.
DOC. NO. KOC-MP-022 PT. 2 1 Page 49 of 65 REV. 1

DOCUMENTATION

General

All correspondence, instructions, data sheets, drawings, or any other


written information shall be in English language. In case of dual
languages, one language shall be English.

All dimensions, units of measurement, physical constants etc. shall be in


SI units unless otherwise specified. (Nominal bore pipe sizes t o be
generally mentioned in inches).

All documents (text, data sheets, specifications etc.) shall be provided


w i t h electronic files in the approved and widely used software (MS Word,
Excel, Auto Cad etc.) All calculations shall be submitted in approved and
widely used software(s1 agreed upon by KOC.

Deliverables

Work Execution Plan


Contour Maps
Pipe Route Survey Report
Pipe Route Map and Area Drawings
Alignment Drawings
HDPE resinipipe material specification
Pressure Class or Working Pressure Ratings of HDPE pipe
Bill of Materials
Certificates from the internationally renowned and accredited
laboratories for the following basic properties of the HDPE resinipipe
at 23°C(73.40F), 32OC (90°F), 38OC (lOO°F), 44OC ( 1 10°F), 4g°C
( 120°F), 55OC ( 130°F) and 60°C (140°F):
i) Density
ii) MeltiMass-Flow Index
iii) Flexural Modulus
iv) Tensile Strength
V) Environmental Stress Crack Resistance
vi) Long-Term Hydrostatic Strength
vii) Lowest Predictive Limit
viii) Hydrostatic Design Basis
ix) Minimum Required Strength
x) Hydrostatic Design Strength
xi) Design Service Factor
xii) Design Coefficient
xiii) Long-Term Modulus of Elasticity
xiv) Short Term Modulus of Elasticity
Detail Engineering Drawings and Calculations for Pipe Crossing
Under HighwayiRoad and Other Structures.
DOC. NO. KOC-MP-022 PT. 2 Page 5 0 of 6 5 REV. 1
-
Grading Plans
Block Diagram
Trenching Methods and Details
Trench Dimensions: Drawings and Details
Excavation Procedure
Trench Bedding: Preparation Procedure and Dimensions
HDPE Pipe Joining Procedure
HDPE Pipe Joining Procedure Qualification
HDPE Pipe Joining Records
Details of Experience of HDPE Pipe Jointers
Design Calculations for HDPE Pipe Pressure Ratings and Sizi
Pipe system hydraulic calculations
Aboveground Pipe Support Drawings
Isometrics of Tie-ins Locations
Valve Pit Drawings
Procedure t o Eliminate Accumulation of Static Charge on Pipe
Hydrotesting Procedure and Methods
Pre-Commissioning and Commissioning Procedure
Any Other as Required b y KOC.

15.3 A s Built Records 1 Mechanical Dossier

Individual dossier should be compiled for each complete piping system.


The minimum contents of the dossier shall be as follows:

Master and Volume Index.


Certificates of Conformity t o the applicable installation /construction
standard or practice together w i t h the "as-built" data sheets.
Concessions
Cross reference t o vendor or sub-vendor certification dossiers
containing certification o f specification and properties of material
(resin), pipe and fittings or any other item used in the system.
Name and address of the manufacturerslsuppliers of material (resin),
pipe and fittings and other such items installedlutilized on the job.
Material quality certificates.
Material repair records.
Qualifiedlcertified Heat Fusion Joining Procedure.
System Joining Key Plan.
Joining Procedure Records.
Summary of qualification of piping jointers and operators.
Dimensional Records
Hydrostatic and leak test reports.
Pipe route survey and as-built pipe route map.
Pre-erection pipe trench and bedding survey record.
Settlement records
Pipe Surface or end preparation for joining records.
All design calculations.
DOC. NO. KOC-M P-022 PT.
- 2 1 Page 51 of 65 I REV. 1

Legend:
I I I
S- Generilll> Resistant Pipe s~vellingless thun 3'% und weight loss l e s thun 0.5%)
(('r~ntpuiihle)
0- Limited Resistance Pipe .nwlling 3-876, weight loss 0.5-576,and elongution at break decreased by SO%
I
U- Not Resistant Pipe stvelling over 876,w i g h t loss over 576,elongution at break decrursed hy over
sn%

Asphalt Machine oil


-
Lubricatinrr oils 0 0 0

Bcnzcnc Magnesium chloride


Calcium carbonate Mineral oils
Calcium hydrosidc Motor oil
Carbon dioxide Nitric acid 0-30%
-Wet Nitric acid 30-50%
-Dr! Nitric acid 70%
Carbon monosidc Nitric acid 9 5 4 8 %
Carbonic acid Nitric acid fuming
Crude oil Potassium chloride
Chlorine. gaseous d n Sodium phosphate
Chlorinc. gascous wet Sulfuric acid 0-50%
Chlorine. l~quid Sulfuric acid 70%
Dicsd file1 Sulfuric acid 80%
Fcrrous sulfatc Sulfuric acid 96%
Freon Sulfi~ricacid 90% conc
FucI oil Sulfuric acid fuming
Gas. natural. rncthanc Toluene
Hydrochloric acid. 30% Urine
I-lydrochloric acid. 35% Water
Hydrogen chloride gas -Fresh. mine. salt. tap
Kcroscnc Xylcnc

Note: For oontpntihili@of the chemicul not l&ed ohnve, re/er to PPI il~~cuntent
"Engineering Propertie.$of
Po11~dhylr.ne"und P P I l'R-IY/2000.
DOC. NO. KOC-MP-022 PT. 2 Page 5 2 o f 65 REV. 1

SUPPORT SPACING FOR HDPE PIPING

lsource: Driscopipel

FIGURE 1: PIPE SUPPORT SPACING FOR DR 32.5

Support Spacing, Inches


APPENDIX-2 (continue4

SUPPORT SPACING FOR HDPE PIPING

(Source: Driscopipel

FIGURE 2: PIPE SUPPORT SPACING FOR DR 26


-. - --

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150

Support Spacing, Inches


DOC. NO. KOC-MP-022 PT. 2 Page 54 o f 65 REV. 1

APPENDIX-2 (Continued)

SUPPORT SPACING FOR HDPE PIPING

(Source: Driscopipel

FIGURE 3: PIPE SUPPORTSPACING FOR DR 17

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100110120130140150160

Support Spacing, Inches


APPENDIX-2 (continue4

SUPPORT SPACING FOR HDPE PIPING

(Source: Driscopipel

FIGURE 4: PIPE SUPPORT SPACING FOR DR I 1

Support Spacing, Inches


I DOC. NO. KOC-MP-022 PT. 2 1 Page 56 o f 65 REV. 1

APPENDIX-2 (continue4

SUPPORT SPACING FOR HDPE PIPING

/Source: Driscopipel

FIGURE 5: PIPE SUPPORT SPACING FOR DR 9

Support Spacing, Inches


P

DOC. NO. KOC-MP-022 PT. 2 Page 57 of 6 5 REV. 1

APPENDIX-3

SAMPLE CALCULATIONS

A: PR (Pressure Rotinw) and MOP (Maximum O~eratinpPressure) of H n P E PIPING

Example-I: Determine the Pressure Rating "PR" of the HDPE (PE-3408)


piping system of DR 1 1 t o transport water at 49OC ( 120°F).

Solution: (Asper PPI, A WWA C906.-&API 15LE; B ~ n g


US Customary Units1

HDB of HDPE Pipe (PE-3408) at 23OC (73.4OF) = 1 6 0 0 psi (Table-3)


DSF for water = 0.5 (Table-2)

PR = 2 x HDB x DSF
DR 1 -

PR = 1 6 0 psig (at 73.4"F)

Since TSF at 4g°C ( 120°F) is 0 . 7 0 (Table-6); Therefore

PR= 1 6 0 x 0 . 7 0 = 1 1 2 psig ( 7 . 7 2 bars)

Example-2:Determine the Maximum Operating Pressure "MOP" of the


HDPE (PE-100) piping system of DR 1 7 t o transport water at 20°C (68°F).

Solution: (As per DIN EN 1555- 1 and IS0 4437; Using Metric Units)

MRS of HDPE Pipe (PE-100) at 20°C (68OF) = 1 0 . 0 MPa (Table-3)


Design Coefficient "C" for water = 2 . 0 (DIN8074, I S 0 4 4 3 7 )

MOP = 2 0 x MRS
C x (DR-1)

MOP = 20 x 10.0
2x (17-1)

MOP = 6.25 bars (at 20°C); Therefore

MOP = 6 . 2 5 bars (90.6 psig)


SAMPLE CALCULATIONS

B: H D S (Hpdrostatic Desipn Stress) und IIS (Desim Stress) of H D P E P I P I N G

Example-1: Determine the Hydrostatic Design Stress "HDS" of HDPE (PE-


3 4 0 8 ) piping system t o handle natural gas at 38°C (100°F).

Solution: &per_&Pl, API 15LE. DOT andASME 8 3 1.8; Usmg US CustomaryUnltsJ

HDB at 23°C 173.4"FJ = 1 6 0 0 psi (Table-3)


DSF fornaturalgasl =0.32 (Table-2)
HDS at 23°C (73.4"FJ = 1 6 0 0 X 0 . 3 2 = 51 2 psi
TSF at 38°C l1OG"FI = 0.8 (Table-6); Therefore

HDS at 38°C /lOO°F/ = 512 X 0.8 = 410 psi (2.83MPa)

E.~-om~1le-2:Determine the Design Stress "Us" of HDPE (PE-100) piping


system t o handle natural gas at 30°C (86°F).

Solution: [As per DIN EN1555- land /SO 4427_& IS0 4437. Using M e t r ~ cU n ~ t s l

MRS at2PCI68"Fl = 1 0 . 0 MPa (Table-3)


C for natural gas = 3.2 (IS0 4 4 2 7 & I S 0 4 4 3 7 )
as at 20°C (6B"FJ = 1 0 . 0 t 3 . 2 = 3 . 1 2 5 MPa
PRF' at 30°C (86°F) = 0.81 (Table-7, I S 0 4427); Therefore
Us at30°C (860FI = 3.125 X 0.81 = 2.53 MPa (367psi)

(': SURGE PRESSURE (WATER H A M M E R )

Exomr~le: Water at temperature 38°C llO@FI is flowing in the HDPE (PE


3 4 0 8 ) piping of DR 3 2 . 5 at a velocity of 1 0 ftlsec. Determine the
maximum surge pressure when a valve is closed in a time period equal t o
or less than 2 LIS.

Solution: lln us customary units/

The maximum speed of the pressure wave is given by the formula:

S = 1 2 x (Kx E)"' (Source: I)ri.w~pipe)


[ ( w i g ) x {E + (K x DR) }I"*
I/ DOC. NO. KOC-MP-022 PT. 2 1 Page 59 of 65 I REV. 1

Where:
s = Speed o f the pressure wave, ft/s
K = Bulk modulus of liquid, psi = 300,000 psi for water
E = Short-term modulus of elasticity of pipe material,
= 100,000 psi (See Table-6 o f this RP)
DR = Dimension ratio of pipe, 32.5
W = Unit weight of fluid, 6 2 . 4 lbs/ft3
9 = Acceleration due t o gravity, 3 2 . 2 ft/s2
K = 300,000 psi,
vc = Change in velocity, 1Oft/sec
S -
- 1 2 x {(300,000 x 100,000)}"2
((62.4132.2) x [100,000+(300,000)x(32.5)]}1i2

S = 4 7 6 ftls

Therefore Surge Pressure P, is calculated as;

P, = WXSXV,
1449
P, = 6 2 ~. 4 ~~ 4 ~7 6~~ 1~0
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ . . ~ . ~
144 x 32.2

P, = 64.1 psig

I): MINIMUM IIENIj RAIj1II.S OF HDPE PIPELINE

Exumple: A 1 4 in. diameter HDPE (PE-3408) pipeline o f DR 2 1 requires


bending t o go as per revised route. Find out the minimum allowable bend
radius for this pipeline.

Solutiort: (Using US Customary Units)

The minimum allowable bend radius R, is: ( R e f ~ ~T(~hle-Yof,fthi.~


r RP)

R, > 2 8 x D (inches),

R, > 2 8 x 14, Therefore;

R, > 3 9 2 inches ( 3 2 . 6 f t )
1 DOC. NO. KOC-MP-022 PT. 2 (1 Page 60 of 6 5 1 REV. 1 1

APPENDIX-4

TRENCH, PIPE LAYOUT A N D TERMINOLOGY

EXCAVATED TRENCH WIDTH

FINAL BACKFILL

INITIAL BACKFILL

HAUNCH ZONE

FIG. 1 T R E N C H C R O S S SECTION SHOWING TERMINOLOGY


DOC. NO. KOC-MP-022 PT. 2 Page 6 1 of 65 REV. 1

APPENDIX-4 K i1111ii711ed)

TRENCH, PlPE LAYOUT AND TERMINOLOGY

\
L T R E N C H BOTTOM (NATIVE SOIL)
OR FOUNDATION (AS REQUIRED)

FIG. 2 U N D E R G R O U N D INSTALLATION O F H D P E PIPE AND TERMINOLOGY


APPENDIX-4 (~onnnuer~)

TRENCH, PlPE LAYOUT AND TERMINOLOGY

TOP OF PIPE
7
CROW
BorizontaI
Centerline SPRINCLNE
of Pipe

r n R T

BOITOM OF PIPE d
FIGURE 3: PlPE TERMINOLOGY
D o c . N o . K o c - M P - 0 2 2 PT. 2 Page 63 of 6 5 REV. 1 n

STATIC CHARGE ON HDPE PIPE

CA U37ONAR Y NOTE:

The static electricity charge is a Safety Hazard, particularly in hazardous


areas where there is leaking gas or explosive atmosphere. HDPE pipe is a
non-conductor of electricity and therefore the static electric charge developed
on it will remain in place until some grounding device comes close enough to
allow it to discharge. The ground wire installed on the pipe will only
discharge static charge of the small area. The most effective method to
minimize the hazard of static electricity is to apply a film of water with 5 %
soap solution on the pipe surface to drain away the static charge. Also see
clause 10.4 of this RP. The pipe Manufacturer/Supplier should also be
consulted for such purpose.
DOC. NO. KOC-MP-022 PT. 2 1 Page 64 of 6 5 REV. 1

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This Recommended Practice has been approved by the Standards Technical


Committee (STC) consisting of the following:

Mr. AlRedha Al-Haddad Standards Team Chairman


Mr. Mohammad Emam ( I m p . & Corr. Team-S&E) Deputy Chairman
Mr. S. Kumar (Standards Team) Secretary1 Member
Mr. Khalid S. AI-Ali (Gen. Proj. Team) Member
Mr. Henry S. Hill (Opns. Tech. Svcs. Team S&E) Member
Mrs. Amina Rajab (Design Team) Member
Mr. Khalaf Hamada (Design Team) Member
Mr. N. Ramanathan (Exports Fac. Proj.Team) Member
Mr. Anwar Al-Sayer (Utilities Team) Member
Mr. Ali Al-Failakawi (Safety Team) Member
Dr. Modistaba Araghi (Insp. & Corr Team-N&W) Member
Mr. Abdul Aziz Akbar (Proj. Mgmt. Team - NK) Member
Mr. Moataz Khalaf (Information System Team) Member

The draft of this Recommended Practice had been circulated t o the KOC User
Teams for review and the responses were received from the following: -

ENGINEERING GROUP MAJOR PROJECTS GROUP


Team Leader Gen. Projects Team Leader Maj. Project Support
Team Leader Construction Team Leader Exp. Fac. Project

AHMADI SERVICES GROUP HSE GROUP


Ag. Team Leader Project Design Team Leader Safety
Team Leader Building Maintenance
Team Leader Utilities

OPERATIONS GROUP (WK)


Team Leader Opns. Tech. Svcs. Team Leader Prod. Opns.
Team Leader Maintenance

OPERATIONS GROUP (SK) OPERATIONS GROUP (EKJ


Team Leader Gas Operations Team Leader Opns. Tech. Svcs
Team Leader Prod. O ~ e r a t i o n s

INDUSTRIAL SERVICES GROUP DIVIDED ZONE GROUP


Team Leader Insp. & Corr (S &E) Team Leader Proj. Engg.& Facilities
Ag. Team Leader Fire

EXPORT & MARINE OPNS. GROUP


Team Leader Export Svcs.
DOC. NO. KOC-MP-022 PT. 2 Page 6 5 of 6 5
1 REV. 1

This KOC Recommended Practice for "HDPE Pipes and Fittings: Engineering Design
and installation" (KOC-MP-022 Part 2 ) has been prepared by the Task Force (TF-
MPIO6) comprising o f the following:

Tel.
No.
61371
71948
22326
71x37
61770