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An Example of Transformer Tap-changer Correct Adjustment

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An Example of Transformer Tap-changer Correct Adjustment

EEP - Electrical Engineering Portal

A 13800V/4160 V transformer has five taps on the primary winding giving -5%, -2 1/2 %,

nominal, +2 1/2 % and +5 % turns.

An Example of Transformer Tap-changer Correct Adjustment

If, on-load, the secondary voltage reduces to 4050 V then, which tap, should be used to maintain 4160 V on-load (assuming the supply voltage remains constant)?

To keep the secondary voltage at (or as close as possible to) 4160 V, either primary supply voltage or the HV winding tap position must be altered.

Examining the relationship:

V 1 /V 2 = N 1 /N 2 or V 1 ·N 2 = V 2 ·N 1 indicates that, to keep the equation in balance with primary voltage and secondary winding turns fixed, either V 2 or N 1 must be adjusted. Since the objective

is to raise V 2 back to nominal, then N 1 must be reduced.

An Example of Transformer Tap-changer Correct Adjustment

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To raise V 2 from 4050 to 4160V requires an increase in secondary volts of: 4160/4050 = 1.027 or 102.7 %. N 1 must be reduced to 1/1.027 = 0.974

Figure 1 – Basic tap-changer

Therefore N 1 must be reduced by (1 – 0.974) = 0.026 or 2.6 %. Reducing N 1 by 2.6 % will accomplish the increase in secondary voltage output.

The nearest tap to select is -2 1/2% (see Figure 1).

How tap-changer works (VIDEO)

Reference: Science and Reactor Fundamentals – Electrical / CNSC Technical Training Group