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Training design

Michael Roberts, The Arizona Republic

Learning objectives

 Conditions for effective adult learning

 3 training module designs
 Characteristics of active training
 Active training techniques
 Build training modules to take home
Your best / worst module
Conditions for learning

• Adults need to know why they need to learn


• Adults need to learn experientially.

• Adults approach learning as problem solving.

• Adults learn best when the topic is of

immediate value.
Bad design
Training design modules
Training design #1





Confirming Feedback Corrective

Training design #1

Rationale: Why, value, how it will help

Objectives: Learning objectives
Activities: Demonstrate, apply
Evaluation: Check for understanding
Feedback: Confirm or correct
Module: Video story forms

Rationale: Show bad video, ask for assessment.

Ask for problems / needs in video assignments.
Objectives: How to use five video story forms to
plan, shoot and edit video.
Activities: Explain forms, show examples, pose
assignments to develop.
Evaluation: Facilitate discussion of results.
Feedback: Confirm and correct responses.
Exercise: Your design
Training design #2

Opening exercises

Building blocks

Middle activities

Advanced knowledge / skills

Application activities
Training design #2

Opening exercises: Activities that build

interest in the program and introduce some
major ideas.
Building blocks: Basic knowledge / skills,
via lecture, discussion, activities.
Middle activities: Activities that help review
building blocks and introduce advanced
Training design #2

Advanced knowledge / skills: Activities

that teach more advanced ideas and / or
real-world problem solving. Tap experience
of participants.
Application activities: Activities that help
test new knowledge and skills and help
make the transition back to on-the-job
Module: Digital photography

Opening exercises: Show selection of good

/ bad photos (portraits, environmentals).
Participants critique.
Building blocks: Explain how to operate
point-and-shoot camera, shoot a portrait,
display and discuss. Explain qualities of good
portrait in composition and lighting.
Module: Digital photography

Middle activities: Shoot more portraits in

workplace that require composition and
lighting, and visual information as to the
person’s job. Share and discuss.
Advanced knowledge / skills: Discuss
composition and lighting of environmental
portraits. Show selection of good examples.
Module: Digital photography

Application activities: Provide story

assignments, or use stories already
assigned, to plan portraits to run with story
and / appear in slide show online.
Exercise: Your design
Robert Gagne’s design

1. Gain attention
2. Identify objective
3. Recall prior learning
4. Present stimulus
5. Guide learning
6. Elicit performance
7. Provide feedback
8. Assess performance
9. Enhance retention/transfer
Module: Anecdotal leads

1. Gain attention: Share examples of a

good and a bad anecdotal lead.

2. Identify objective: How to write good

anecdotal leads.

3. Recall prior learning: Ask participants to

list other types of leads, their strengths and
uses, and reasons to use an anecdotal lead.
Robert Gagne’s design

4. Present stimulus: The how-to lecturette: List

the four elements of a good anecdotal lead.

5. Guide learning: Evaluate examples of weak

anecdotal leads using the how-to material.

6. Elicit performance: Ask participants to

evaluate and rewrite weak anecdotal leads with
the how-to material. (Alternative: Present raw
material for another story and ask participants
to construct an anecdotal lead.)
Robert Gagne’s design

7. Provide feedback: Share and discuss their

anecdotal leads.

8. Assess performance: Identify successful


9. Enhance retention / transfer: Ask

participants to share potential anecdotal leads
from stories they are now working on.
Active training
Have people DO
what you want
them to LEARN.
Active training characteristics

• A moderate amount of content

• Balance between affective,
behavioral, cognitive learning
• Variety of learning approaches
• Opportunities for group participation
Active training characteristics

• Utilization of participants’ expertise

• Recycling earlier learned concepts, skills
• Real life problem solving
• Allowance for future planning
Active training techniques

Tasks Problem solving

Demonstration Guided teaching
Case studies Action learning
Group inquiry Information search
Games Jigsaw learning
Exercise: Your design