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SEP

Unstable Trajectory

0.018

Stable

s (pu)

0.016 Trajectory

0.014

0.012

0.88

0.9 2.5

0.92 2

0.94 1.5

1

Eq (pu) Ef (pu)

OSCILLATORY VOLTAGE

INSTABILITY:

A FUNDAMENTAL STUDY

Luigi Vanfretti

ECSE 6963 Nonlinear Phenomena in Engineering and Biology

Outline

2

Modeling and Implementation

Modeling of the network and apparatus

Computer Implementation

Analysis: Nonlinear Systems Perspective

Bifurcation Diagram and Eigenvalue Locus

Bifurcation Classification

Oscillatory voltage instability:

SEP

simulation of stable and unstable points

Analysis of Hopf Bifurcation and

Classification

Controller Tuning to Avoid Voltage

Instability

Effect of Controller Limits on Stability

Conclusions

April 24, 2008

Background and Case Studied

3

Background:

Short-term voltage instability arises when dynamic loads attempt to restore consumed

power in a very short time frame (one - few seconds) [1, 2]. Oscillatory voltage instability

[3] is a type of short-term voltage instability that originates due to the interaction of two

or more load restoration processes acting in the same short-term time scale.

Case Studied V2

Vt

jX M

G 1

2

The system consists of a synchronous generator feeding an isolated three phase induction

motor.

The mechanical load of the motor is considered constant.

The generator has a first-order excitation system with a proportional AVR. AVR limits will

be considered to evaluate their impact on stability.

Assumption: frequency transients have no impact on the response of the system –

neglected.

April 24, 2008

Modeling of the System

4

The system is represented by: Generator Modeling: field flux decay eqn.

Generator: Td' 0Eq' E f Eq' (xd xd' )id Td' 0Eq' E f Eq' (xd xd' )id

AVR: TE f K (Vo Vt ) E f Eq' : emf behind transient reactance

Motor: 2Hs Tm Te (V ,s) Ef : filed voltage

The algebraic variables are Td' 0 : open-circuit transient time constant

function of the network and Active power is constant as the frequency is held

state variables. constant by the generator.

P1 Re (vx 1 jvy 1 )(ix 1 jiy 1 ) vx 1ix 1 vy 1iy 1

Network Modeling – Current

Injection: The d-axis current can be obtained from:

ix 1 BS 12vy 1 B12 (vy 1 vy 2 ) 0 i1 ix 1 jiy 1

iy 1 BS 12vx 1 B12 (vx 1 vx 2 ) 0 i

x 1 sin cos id

ix 2 BS 21vy 2 B21(vy 2 vy 1 ) 0 i cos sin i

y 1 q

iy 2 BS 12vx 2 B21(vx 2 vx 1 ) 0 id ix 1 sin iy 1 cos

ix 1 and iy 1: Components of the current

injected by the generator. Where the generator injected currents are

ix 2 and iy 2 : Components of the current sin 2 1 1 cos2 sin2

(v E ' sin )

ix 1

' (vx 1 Eq cos )

'

injected by the load. xd

y1 q

2 xq xd xq

'

iy 1 (v E ' cos ) sin 2 1 1 (v E ' sin )

xq xd' 2 xd' xq y 1

x1 q q

V vx22 vy22 : Motor Voltage

Modeling Continued

5

AVR Model Load Model ix 3 ixM ixC

E f 0 if E f E f max and K (Vo Vt ) E f 0 iy 3 iyM iyC

0 if E f E f min and K (Vo Vt ) E f 0 Two components: induction motor, and shunt

K (Vo Vt ) E f compensation.

K : Regulator Gain

T

T : Regulator Time Constant Induction motor currents are function of the equivalent

Vo : Reference Voltage series resistance and slip. (omitted here)

Vt : Generator Terminal Voltage

Shunt Compensation: iC jBS 2V2 ixC jiyC

Induction 2Hs Tm Te (s ) ixC BS 2vy 2

s :Motor Slip iyC BS 2vx 2

Motor Tm :Mechanical Torque Summary:

Te (V2 , s ) : Electrical Troque Third order model.

Developed by the Motor

Rr Algebraic variables are function of the network and

V22X m2 state variables but not simple tractable functions.

Te (V2 , s ) s

2

Rr 2

Torque expression complicates analytical derivations.

R1 (X1 X r ) Rs (X s X m )

2 2

R1,X1 : Equivalent series resistance and reactance

analytically.

Rs , Xs : Stator resistance and reactance Approach: use a Power System Simulation Software to

Rr , X r : Rotor resistance and reactance determine fixed points, bifurcation diagrams,

Xm : Magnetizing Reactance linearization analysis, and to do nonlinear system

simulations.

Implementation with PSAT

6

The system was implemented using the Power System Analysis Toolbox [4] via

the PSAT-Simulink Library.

Bus1 Bus2

For the construction bifurcation diagram and eigenvalue location plots

“Command Line Usage” of the software had to be learnt. Routines for

automatic variation of Tm where written. Needs careful analysis of the

software data types and structures.

Implementation of perturbations:

For the analysis of Hopf bifurcation, AVR tuning and Controller Limit Analysis

“Perturbation Files” where written to introduce a torque pulse as a small

perturbation required skillful programming. April 24, 2008

Bifurcation Diagram: Torque – Voltage Curve

7 Bifurcation Diagram

The fixed points of the system are HB*

1.2

computed for many Tm’s varied

1

Voltage, V2 (pu)

monotonically to obtain the bifurcation SS HB SN*

diagram. 0.8

0.6

SN

A Saddle-Node Bifurcation point is

located at point SN. 0.4 BS2=0

point, which determines the actual 0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4

stability limit. Mechanical Torque, T m (pu)

The effect of Capacitive Compensation Note: because the bifurcation diagram was obtained

at Bus 2 is shown by the red curve. using a Power System Simulation program, it is only

possible to obtain the section of the bifurcation

Observe that even tough the SN* point diagram which contains fixed points which contains

occurs at a higher Tm than SN, the HB* acceptable voltage solutions.

point moves to the left with respect to Other fixed points will yield low voltage solutions,

this type of solutions are not computed by the power

HB, thereby reducing the stability flow routine.

margin. April 24, 2008

Eigenvalue Locations

8

The variation of the eigenvalues of the state matrix as the fixed point

moves from point SS to point HB on the torque voltage curve for B = 0 and

B = 0.6 was obtained. The results for B = 0 are shown here.

The eigenvalue locations are plotte for for Tm:{0.4,1.11}, they are difficult

to interpret at the first glance. Therefore the eigenvalue locations are

ploted for different ranges of the variation of Tm.

These results are used to construct a more insightful eigenvalue locus.

Eigenvalue Locations for 0.4 Tm 0.71 Eigenvalue Locations for 0.4 Tm 0.71 Eigenvalue Locations for 0.71 Tm 1.11

4 4

2 2

2

Imaginary

Imaginary

Imaginary

0 0 0

-2 -2

-2

-4 -4

-15 -10 -5 0 5 -1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 -20 -10 0 10 20

Real 63 Real Real

x 10

April 24, 2008

Eigenvalue Locus

Eigenvalue Locations for 0.4 Tm 1.11

4

2

9

Imaginary

0

-2

locus is constructed.

At the HB point the pair of complex -4

-15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15

Real

eigenvalues crosses the jw-axis: the

system will experiment a Hopf Eigenvalue Locus

Birfurcation. 4 SS

For point HB and SS the third eigenvalue HB

is real and far to the left (not shown in the

2

plots)

At point SNB one eigenvalue becomes SN SN

Imaginary

is a Saddle-Node Bifurcation point.

At the SNB point the system is unstable -2

both before and after it due to the HB

SS

positive eigenvalue. -4

-15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15

Real

Oscillatory Voltage Instability:

10

Nonlinear Simulation of a Stable Point

Stable Point Simulation Stable Point Simulation

0.8972 -3

x 10

Eq

0.8972

9.4524

0.8972

0 10 20 30 40 50

s (pu)

1.1936 9.4524

Ef

9.4523

0.8972 1.1936

1.1935 1.1936

0 10 20 30 40 50 0.8972 1.1936

0.9905

0.8972 1.1936 Ef (pu)

Eq (pu)

1-s

0.9905

0.9905

0 10 20 30 40 50 Chosen before the HB point.

0.9425

State variables settle at a stable fixed point.

3D plot shows the stable fixed point

V2

0.9425

System is stable.

0.9425

0 10 20 30 40 50

Time (sec)

April 24, 2008

Nonlinear Simulation of an Unstable Point

11

Unstable Point Simulation Unstable Point Simulation Unstable Point Simulation

1

1.2 0.8

Eq

0.8

1 0.7

Unstable Fixed

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 0.6 Motor

0.6 Point

Stalling

1-s

V2

0.4 0.5

4

0.2 0.4

Ef

2

0 0.3

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 0 2 4 6 8 10 12

Time (sec) Time (sec) Time (sec)

Post-disturbance Unstable Point

The post-disturbance condition is chosen in an unstable

operating fixed point after the HB point.

Ef and Eq settle at fixed points while the slip (s) grows

0.2

unboundedly (partially shown in center plot).

s (%)

0.1 Unstable voltage oscillations force the motor to stall when the

2 oscillation amplitude grows beyond an unstable fixed point.

0

1.3

3 3D plot shows the trajectory, the red dot indicates the last

1.2

1.1 point of the simulation, not a stable fixed point.

4

1 Ef (pu) This is an example of “Oscillatory Voltage Instability”

Eq (pu)

April 24, 2008

Hopf Bifurcation Analysis

1

Hopf Bifurcation

Eq

0.9

0.8

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

4

Ef

12

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

1-s

complex pair of eigenvalues from the 0.95

1.5

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

V2

1

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

Time (sec)

Unstable Trajectory Moving Away from the Limit Cycle

A transient torque pulse is imposed on

a stable fixed point before the HB

point. T 0.02

T0

t0 t1 t1 t s (pu)

0.01

By adjusting the duration of the pulse

a critical trajectory can be found. 0

0

The trajectory is trapped in the stable 1 0.9

manifold of the unstable limit cycle. 2 0.95

1

Ef (pu) Eq (pu)

Analysis of Hopf Bifurcation and

Classification

13

From the simulation of the

unstable post-disturbance Unstable Trajectory SEP

point we observe that Stable

there are no attracting limit Trajectory

s (pu)

0.016

a subcritical HB.

Figure shows a limit cycle 0.014

surrounded by unstable

trajectories moving away 0.012

0.88

from the limit cycle, and 0.9 2.5

stable trajectories moving 0.92

1.5

2

towards the SEP. 0.94 1

Eq (pu) Ef (pu)

Therefore, an unstable

limit cycle exists April 24, 2008

Shrinking Unstable Limit Cycle!

14

bifurcation is a

subcritical Hopf we

0.017 further require to show

that the limit cycle

shrinks as the HB point

0.016

is approached

3D plot was obtained

s (pu)

0.015 SEP by imposing different

perturbations.

0.014 Observe that the

bifurcation emerges

2

0.013 1.5 from the shrinking of

0.89 0.9 0.91 0.92 0.93 1 the unstable limit cycle

0.94

Ef (pu) that exists before the

Eq (pu)

April 24, 2008 Hopf Bifurcation.

Controller Tuning to Avoid Voltage

Instability

15

A transient torque pulse is imposed at this fixed point.

The response of the system will be oscillatory with the current AVR settings.

Appropriate AVR tuning helps to avoid oscillatory voltage instability.

AVR Model: K

Vo Ef

Ts 1

Vt

Two cases analyzed:

CASE 1: Oscillatory condition with the transient torque pulse used in the

Hopf bifurcation section (unstable behavior onset).

Case 2: Oscillatory condition from an increased torque pulse.

April 24, 2008

Controller Tuning

16

CASE 1 CASE 2

Torque pulse used in HB illustration Increased torque pulse

Designed Controller: K = 30 (Nominal), T = Designed Controller: K = 175, T = 0.105

0.105 (was 0.5) sec sec

Slow Response – Time constant can Fast Response – at cost of

be made smaller: equipment limits requirement higher rating for the

Increase gain with caution. field current: equipment limits need

to be assessed

CASE 1: Field Voltage CASE 2: Field Voltage

2.5 3.5

3

2 Ef (pu)

Ef (pu)

2.5

1.5

2

1 1.5

0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50

Time (sec) Time (sec)

Controller Tuning Continued

17 CASE 1 CASE 2

1

0.95

Eq

Eq

0.95

0.9 0.9

0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50

2.5

2 3

Ef

Ef

1.5 2

1

1

0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50

0.99 0.99

0.985

1-s

1-s

0.98

0.98

0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50

0.9 0.9

0.85

V2

V2

0.85

0.8

0.75 0.8

0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50

Time (sec) Time (sec)

Effect of Controller Limits on Stability

18

Same cases as in controller tuning are studied.

Controller limits are set to evaluate their effect on stability. Depending on the maximum

limit the AVR may be able (or not) to stabilize the system.

AVR Model: E f max

K

Vo Ef

Ts 1

Vt E f min 0

Four cases discussed:

CASE 1a: conditions from CASE 1 tuning, system is stabilized by the AVR.

CASE 1b: conditions from CASE 1 tuning, AVR is not able to stabilize the system.

CASE 2a: conditions from CASE 2 tuning, system is stabilized by the AVR.

CASE 2b: conditions from CASE 2 tuning, AVR is not able to stabilize the system.

Controller Limits – Cases 1a and 1b

19

CASE 1a CASE 1b

System is stabilized by the AVR. AVR is not able to stabilize the system.

Efmax = 2.622

Efmax = 2.625

Minimal decrease in controller limit yields

Limit only affects first swing. instability

CASE 1a: Field Voltage CASE 1b: Field Voltage

3 3

2.5 2.5

2 2

Ef (pu)

1 1

0.5 0.5

0 0

0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50

Time (sec) Time (sec)

Controller Limits Continued

20

CASE 1a CASE 1b

1.5 1.5

Eq

Eq

1 1

0.5 0.5

0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50

4 4

2 2

Ef

Ef

0 0

0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50

1 20

1-s

1-s

0

0.95 -20

0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50

1

0.9

V2

V2

0.8 0.5

0.7

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50

Time (sec) Time (sec)

Controller Limits – Cases 2a and 2b

21

CASE 2a CASE 2b

System is stabilized by the AVR. AVR is not able to stabilize the system.

Efmax = 3.10 Efmax = 3.09

yields instability

CASE 2a: Field Voltage CASE 2b: Field Voltage

3.5 3.5

3 3

2.5 2.5

Ef (pu)

Ef (pu)

2 2

1.5 1.5

1 1

0.5 0.5

0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50

Time (sec) Time (sec)

Controller Limits Continued

22

CASE 2a CASE 2b

1.5 1.5

Eq

Eq

1 1

0.5 0.5

0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50

4 4

2 2

Ef

Ef

0 0

0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50

1 20

1-s

1-s

0

0.95 -20

0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50

1

0.9

V2

V2

0.8 0.5

0.7

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50

Time (sec) Time (sec)

Controller Limits Effect on Trajectories

23

Non-smooth

Trajectories as a result

System Unstable of controller limits

4

s (pu)

2 0

0 2

1.3

1.2

1.1

1

0.9 4 Ef (pu)

0.8

Eq (pu)

Conclusions

24

Bifurcation analysis showed the existence of a SNB and a HB.

Capacitive compensation reduces stability margin by moving the HB to the left.

Stable operating points are found before the HB. Unstable operating points are found after the HB.

Hopf Bifurcation:

Complex pair of eigenvalues cross the jw-axis.

Simulation of post-disturbance point shows that there are no attracting limit cycles after the HB.

A limit cycle is surrounded by unstable trajectories moving away from the limit cycle, and stable trajectories moving towards the SEP

The limit cycle is unstable.

Showing that the limit cycle shrinks as the HB point is approached proves that the bifurcation is a subcritical Hopf bifurcation.

Bifurcation emerges from the shrinking of the unstable limit cycle that exists before the HB.

AVR Tunning:

Faster controller avoids oscillatory voltage instability.

The burden on the field voltage increases as the perturbation grows important design constraint.

Minimal decrease in controller limits may disable the ability of the AVR to stabilize the system.

For engineering design: worst case scenario must be considered.

Remarks:

The oscillatory behavior of the system emerges from the interaction of two load restoration processes acting in the

same short-term time scale.

The load restoration due to the adjustment of the slip (which is product of the admittance increase) races against

the voltage regulation provided by the AVR (which restores the load indirectly by restoring the voltage).

References

25

1. Thierry Van Cutsem, and Costas Vournas, Voltage Stability of Electric Power

Systems. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1998.

2. Carson Taylor, Power System Voltage Stability. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1994.

3. F. P. de Mello, and J. W. Feltes, “Voltage Oscillatory Instability Caused by

Induction Motor Loads,” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 11, no. 3, pp.

1279 – 1285.

4. F. Milano, An Open Source Power System Analysis Toolbox, IEEE Transactions

on Power Systems, Vol. 20, No. 3, pp. 1199-1206, August 2005.

5. Steven H. Strogatz, Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos. Reading, MA: Perseus

Books, 1994.

6. Pal, M.K., "Voltage stability: analysis needs, modelling requirement, and

modelling adequacy," IEE Proceedings-Generation, Transmission and

Distribution, vol.140, no.4, pp.279-286, Jul 1993

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