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Reservoir Assignment

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Q.1. Define wettability and explain its role in oil recovery.

Ans.-Wettability is the tendency of one fluid to spread on, or adhere to, a solid
surface in the presence of other immiscible fluids. Wettability refers to the
interaction between fluid and solid phases. In a reservoir rock the liquid phase can
be water or oil or gas, and the solid phase is the rock mineral assemblage.

Wettability is defined by the contact angle of the fluid with the solid phase.

Wetting phase fluid preferentially wets the solid rock surface. Attractive forces
between rock and fluid draw the wetting phase into small pores. Wetting phase
fluid often has low mobility. Reservoir rock is water wet if water preferentially
wets the rock surfaces. Reservoir rock is oil-wet if oil preferentially wets the rock

Wettability is classified by its variations;

Strongly oil or water wetting.
Neutral wettability – no preferential wettability to either water or oil in the
Fractional wettability – reservoir that has local areas that are strongly oil-wet,
whereas most of the reservoir is strongly water-wet - occurs where reservoir rock
has variable mineral composition and surface chemistry.
Mixed wettability – smaller pores are water wet and filled with water, whereas
larger pores are oil wet and filled with oil. Residual oil saturation is low - occurs
where oil with polar organic compounds invades a water-wet rock saturated with

Wettability varies with surface roughness, so the wettability of a rock will vary
with grain shape, size, and rounding.

In reviewing wettability effects, oil recovery will be described by displacement

efficiency , ED, defined as ED=[(Soi-SOT)/ Soi]100%,

where Soi is the initial oil saturation and SOT is the ROS of the core sample. When
the ROS continues to decrease with Vp throughput, SOT and ED are functions of
Vp: .. ED(~)={[Soi-SOT(Vp)]/ Soi} 100%.
Several early examples of laboratory waterfloods show oil recovery decreasing
with decreasing water-wetness. This is consistent with the intuitive notion that
strong wetting preference of the rock for water and associated strong capillary
imbibition forces give the most efficient oil displacement: However, an increasing
number of examples of improved recovery with shift from strongly water-wet
conditions are being reported for weakly water-wet or intermediate wetting

Q.2. Define capillary pressure and write the equation for capillary
Capillary pressure is the pressure difference existing across the interface separating
two immiscible fluids.If the wettability of the system is known, then the capillary
pressure will always be positive if it is defined as the difference between the
pressures in the non-wetting and wetting phases. Capillary pressure is as a result of
the interfacial tension existing at the interface separating two immiscible fluids.
The interfacial tension itself is caused by the imbalance in the molecular forces of
attraction experienced by the molecules at the surface.

Pc In terms of radius of capillary tube

2𝜎 cos 𝜃
𝑝𝑐 =
r= radius of tube

Pc In terms of height of fluid column.

𝑝𝑐 = ℎ 𝜌𝑤 𝑔

Pc In terms of radii of curvature of interface

1 1
𝑝𝑐 = 𝜎 ( + )
𝑅1 𝑅2
R1 and R2 are the radii of curvature of the interface itself.
Q.3. Describe a method to determine reservoir fluid properties in the
Accurate laboratory studies of PVT and phase-equilibria behavior of reservoir
fluids are necessary for characterizing these fluids and evaluating their volumetric
performance at various pressure levels. There are many laboratory analyses that
can be made on a reservoir fluid sample. The amount of data desired determines
the number of tests performed in the laboratory. In general, there are three types of
laboratory tests used to measure hydrocarbon reservoir samples:
1. Primary tests :These are simple, routine field (on-site) tests involving the
measurements of the specific gravity and the gas-oil ratio of the produced
hydrocarbon fluids.
2. Routine laboratory tests: These are several laboratory tests that are routinely
conducted to characterize the reservoir hydrocarbon fluid. They include:
 Compositional analysis of the system
 Constant-composition expansion
 Differential liberation
 Separator tests
 Constant-volume depletion
3. Special laboratory PVT tests: These types of tests are performed for very
specific applications. If a reservoir is to be depleted under miscible gas injection
or a gas cycling scheme, the following tests may be performed:
 Slim-tube test
 Swelling test