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SINGHANIA UNIVERSITY

COURSE STRUCTURE FOR


MSc. RADIO DIAGNOSIS

Program Title: MSc. Radio Diagnosis


Duration: Two years of Academic program
Mode of Study: Full Time Program
Validating Body: Singhania University

CONTENTS
1. Contents ………………………………………………………………………
2. Introduction…………………………………………………….......................
3. Ordinance…………………………………..................................................
4. Teaching and Learning strategy................................................................
5. Scheduled hours for the Programme…………………………………………
6. Structure, Content and Organization
First Year
Radiographic Procedure, (P-I).........................................................................
Instrument of Conventional X- ray Equipments (P-II) ....................................
Principles of Radiographic Exposure (P-III)........................................ ………
Instrumentation of Specialized Radiology Equipments (P-IV) .......................
Advanced Technique & Instrumentation of Computed Tomography (P-V) ...
Bio Statistics (P-VI) ........................................................................................
Second Year
Advanced Technique & Instrumentation of MRI (P-VII) ................................
Care of Patient in Diagnostic Radiology (P-VIII) ..............................................
Management of Health Care Organization (P-IX) ..........................................
Radiation Evaluation & Protection in Diagnostic Radiology (P-X)................
Nuclear Medicine Imaging Techniques (P-XI) .............................................
Dissertation on specialization subject ( MRI ,CT ,Interventional Radiology
or Nuclear medicine )

7. Scheme of Examinations………………………..………………………….. ..
8. Carryover Rule ………………………………………………………………....

INTRODUCTION
Dept of Allied Health sciences. has started Masters Program in Radio Diagnosis
in the academic year 2009-2010.
Medical Imaging Technology is one of the leading professions in allied health. It
is a speciality focusing on the Radiological Imaging and assisting in invasive
radiology.
Masters program in Radio Diagnosis is designed to produce graduates of
high standards in research who are equipped with appropriate skills to meet the
challenges of upcoming Medical Imaging techniques. The curriculum has been
designed considering the current development and need of India and abroad.
OBJECTIVES OF THE PROGRAM
_ Enhance knowledge from clinical experience, interactions & discussions and
research to improve the quality of training and education in Medical Imaging.
_ Explore the subject in depth and develop high degree of expertise to contribute
to advancement of knowledge in Medical Imaging.
_ Develop teaching and presentation skills necessary to become efficient
teachers
_ Build Up leadership qualities in education, practice and administration
_ Contribute to emerging and vitally important industry through research.
SCOPE OF THE PROGRAME
_ On completion of the programme, Technologists can advance to supervisory or
management positions in Diagnostic Centers and hospitals.
_ They can also earn key posts in academic institutions including teaching and
research.
_ In industry, Imaging technologists are needed for Application and Software
development for Medical Imaging equipment.
_ Military and public health service.
_ Medical Imaging Technology is one of the fastest growing professions & it
offers
tremendous opportunity abroad.

ORDINANCES
ELIGIBILITY FOR ADMISSION
The candidate must have passed 3 Years full time Bachelor of Medical
Imaging Technology or equivalent full time course from any recognized
university in India or abroad with minimum of 50% marks..
.
DURATION OF THE PROGRAMME
The programme shall be for 2 academic years (Full time).
NUMBER OF SEATS
A total of 10 (Ten) candidates will be enrolled in each academic year based on
their performance in the entrance test and interview.

ATTENDANCE:
_ The students should have a minimum of 80 % attendance in each subject
(theory, and clinics separately) in each academic year, failing which, the student
will not be permitted to appear for the university examination of the subject.
_ As per the directive of University, there will be no consideration for leave on
medical grounds. The student will have to adjust the same in the minimum
prescribed attendance.
_ Parents/ guardians of students will be informed about their ward’s attendance
and academic performance periodically during each academic year.
LEAVE / VACATION
_ Student will have a vacation of 15 days following their university examinations.
_ The students shall be granted 15 days study leave for their University
examinationin each academic year. How ever, a student reappearing for a
subject will not be entitled to any study leave.
SINGHANIA UNIVERSITY
TEACHING AND EXAMINATION SCHEME FOR M.Sc Radio Diagnosis Course
COURSE NAME : M.SC RADIO DIAGNOSIS
COURSE CODE :
DURATION OF COURSE : TWO YEARS
YEAR / SEMISTER : FIRST YEAR
FULL TIME / PART TIME : FULL TIME
SUBJECT TITLE Teaching Scheme EXAMINATION SCHEME &
MAXIMUM MARKS
SR
NO. TH Practical/ Paper TH PR O TW Pass
Clinics & HRS R Marks
Tutorial
Radiographic procedure
1.1 70 400 3 100 80 20 200 50TH
50PR

Instrumentation of
1.2 60 60 3 100 80 20 200 50TH
Conventional
(Tutorial) 50PR
Radiological Equipment

Principle of Radiographic
1.3 60 60 3 100 80 20 200 50TH
Exposure
(Tutorial) 50PR

Instrumentation of 60 60 3 100 80 20 200 50TH


1.4
specialized Radiological
Equipment (Tutorial) 50PR

1.5 Advanced tech & 90 500 3 100 -- -- 200 50TH


Instrumentation of CT 50PR
Tech

Biostatistics 60 -- 3 100 -- -- 100 50


1.6

TOTAL 400 1080 -- 600 320 80 1100 550

ABBREVIATIONS: TH – THEORY, PR – PRACTICAL, OR – ORAL, TW – TOTAL WATTAGE,


SINGHANIA UNIVERSITY
TEACHING AND EXAMINATION SCHEME FOR M.Sc Radio Diagnosis Course
COURSE NAME : M.SC RADIO DIAGNOSIS
COURSE CODE :
DURATION OF COURSE : TWO YEARS
YEAR / SEMISTER : SECOND YEAR
FULL TIME / PART TIME : FULL TIME
SUBJECT TITLE Teaching Scheme EXAMINATION SCHEME &
SR MAXIMUM MARKS

NO. TH Practical/ Paper TH PR O TW Pass


Clinics & HRS R Marks
Tutorial
Advanced Tech &
1.1 100 500 3 100 80 20 200 50TH
Instrumentation of MRI
50PR

Interventional Radiology 60 100 3 100 80 20 200 50TH


1.2
Techniques
50PR

Care of Patient in
1.3 60 60 3 100 100 50TH
Diagnostic Radiology
(Tutorial)

Management of 60 200 3 100 100 50TH


1.4
Healthcare Organization
50PR

1.5 Radiation Evaluation & 60 -- 3 100 -- -- 100 50TH


Protection in Diagnostic
Radiology

Nuclear Medicine
1.6 60 100 3 100 80 20 -- 50
Imaging
Dissertation on
specialization subject
1.7
(MRI ,CT Scan
,Interventional radiology
& Nuclear Medicine )

TOTAL 400 960 -- 600 24 16 -- 450


0 0
ABBREVIATIONS: TH – THEORY, PR – PRACTICAL, OR – ORAL, TW – TOTAL WATTAGE

_ A student requiring leave during the academic year should apply for the same
through a formal application to the Head of Department through their respective
Class In-charge / Coordinator of the academic year. The leave will be considered
as absent.

CODE OF CONDUCT
_ The students are expected to conduct themselves in a manner befitting the
profession.
_ They should dress formally while attending lectures and in the posting areas
(Men in trousers and shirt, women in salwar suit).
_ It is mandatory to wear the white apron with nametag when in the classroom
and in the clinics.
The teaching and learning methods include:
_ Lectures
_ Demonstrations
_ Clinical patient management
_ Assignments/projects
_ Seminars
_ Case presentation
_ Discussions
_ Industrial visits
_ Industrial visits and external clinical placements
_ Classroom teaching with the undergraduate students
_ Independent collaborative self study
CLINICAL POSTINGS
Aim:
To enable students to learn Imaging assessment process, clinical reasoning
skills and further diagnostic techniques so that they become competent
professionals.
Clinical objectives:
1. Taking clinical history of patient
2. Plan of implementation of Imaging techniques.
3. Administration of standardized evaluation tools.
4. Documentation of diagnostic / therapeutic reports.
5. Clinical discussion with the Under Graduates
6. Case presentation and discussion

STRUCTURE, CONTENT AND ORGANIZATION


M.Sc. Radio Diagnosis

1st Year

Radiographic Procedure (P-I) 70hours

UNIT 1
Basic review of all Radiographic Technique
UNIT 2
Contrast Media- Application, types, safety aspects, mode & volume of
administration, administration techniques
UNIT 3
Digestive System
Anatomy and physiology
Associated pathology and radiographic appearance
Plain radiography
Barium swallow
Barium meal
Barium meal follow through
Enteroclysis
Barium enema
UNIT 4
Genito urinary system
Anatomy and physiology
Associated pathology and radiographic appearance
Plain radiography
Intravenous urogram (IVU)
Micturating Cystourethrogram (MCU)
Ascending Urethrogram (ASU)
Hysterosalpingography (HSG)
Fallopian Tube Recanalisation (FTR)
UNIT 5
Cardio - Respiratory system
Anatomy and physiology
Associated pathology and radiographic appearance
Chest radiography

UNIT 6
Mammography
Anatomy and physiology
Indications, contraindications and techniques
ICRP guidelines, BIRADS
UNIT 7
Skull
Related anatomy of facial and cranial bones
Associated pathology and radiographic appearance
Radiographic projections
UNIT 8
Vertebral Column
Related anatomy
Associated pathology and radiographic appearance
Radiographic projections
UNIT 9
Upper limb
Related anatomy
Associated pathology and radiographic appearance
Radiographic projections
UNIT 10
Lower limb
Related anatomy
Associated pathology and radiographic appearance
Radiographic projections
UNIT 11
Pelvis
Related anatomy of pelvic bones and hip joint
Associated pathology and radiographic appearance
Radiographic projections
Pelvimetry

UNIT 12
Hepatobiliary system
Related anatomy
Associated pathology and radiographic appearance
ERCP/ PTBD, T – tube cholangiography
UNIT 13
Dental Radiography
Related anatomy
Associated pathology and radiographic appearance
Intraoral, Extraoral and Occlusal views
General precautions
OPG
Checking of mains supply and function of equipments
Selection of exposure parameters and radiation protection
UNIT 14
Other procedures
Sialography , Dacrocystography, Sinography, Fistulography
Related anatomy
Associated pathology and radiographic appearance
Indications, contraindications and technique
Referral books
1.Radiographic positioning – Clarke’s, Kenneth Bontrager, Merriil’s
2.Diagnostic Radiography – Glenda Bryan

Instrumentation of Conventional X-ray Equipments (P-II) Hours: 60

UNIT 1
Generation of electrical energy
AC/DC
Polyphase supply
Distribution of electrical energy
Use of electrical energy
Current loads & power loss
Uses of electricity in Hospitals
Safety rules for Radiographers
UNIT 2
X ray Circuit components
High tension transformers
Main Voltage Compensation
High tension switches
Stabilizers and UPS
UNIT 3
Fuses
Switches
Earthing
High tension cables construction & design.
Rectification
Types of Rectifiers
X-ray circuits
Filament circuits
High voltage circuits
UNIT 4
Tube rating
Types of Generators
Capacitor discharge generator
Battery Powered generator
Medium frequency & High frequency generator.

UNIT 5
Switches
Circuit breakers
Primary & Secondary switches
Exposure switching and its application.
Interlocking Circuits
Regulating and safety devices
Magnetic relay
Thermal relay switches
Interlock in Tube Circuit and overload interlocks.
UNIT 6
Exposure timers
Timing systems
Electronic timer
Ionization timer
Photo timer
Synchronous timer and impulse timer.
UNIT 7
Devices improving radiographic quality
Cone
Cylinder
Collimator
Grid
Filter
References
1. X-ray Equipments for Radiographers – Noreen Chesney & Muriel
Chesney
2. Christensen’s Physics of diagnostic radiology
3. First year Physics for Radiographers – George Hay
4. Equipments in Diagnostic Radiology – E.Forster.

Principles of Radiographic Exposure (P-III) 60hrs


UNIT I
X-ray production
Interaction of radiation with matter- Compton effect, photoelectric effect, pair
production, coherent scattering.
Useful range
Clinical application
UINT 2
The Photographic process
Introduction
Basic review of photographic emulsions
Photographic latent image
Film materials
Spectral sensitivity of film material
Speed and contrast of photographic materials
Intensifying screens and cassettes
Film processing
UNIT 3
Sensitometry
Photographic density
Opacity
Transmission
Production of Characteristic curve
Features of Characteristic curve
Variation in the characteristic curve with development
Comparison of emulsions by their characteristic curve
Application of Characteristic curve
Information from the Characteristic curve
UNIT 4
Radiographic Image
Radiographic Density
Acceptable range
Factors influences density.
Radiographic Contrast
Components
Factors influences contrast
Management of Radiographic Image quality

UNIT 5
Resolution
Line spread function & Modulation transfer function
Unsharpness in the Radiographic image and various factors contributing towards
Unsharpness
Types of Unsharpness
Radiographic mottle
UNIT 6
Geometry of the radiographic image
Magnification / Distortion -Types and factors
Micro / Macro radiography
UNIT 7
Instrumentation of Processing Equipment
Automatic film processor (AFP)
Maintenance and Quality control tests in AFP
Layout and planning of Darkroom
Viewing accessories: viewing boxes
Magnifiers and viewing conditions
References
1. Christensen’s Physics of Diagnostic radiology – Thomas Curry
2. Radiographic Image – Chesney & Chesney

Instrumentation of specialized Radiology Equipments (P-IV) Hours: 60

UNIT 1
Portable & Mobile equipments
Mains requirements
Cable connections to wall plugs
Portable X-Ray Equipments
Mobile X-Ray Equipments
Capacitor Discharge Mobile Equipment
Cordless Mobile Equipments
X-Ray Equipments for the Operating Theatre
Mobile Image Intensifier units
UNIT 2
Fluoroscopy Equipments
Construction & Working principles of Image Intensifier
Viewing the Intensified image
Recording the intensified Image
Digital fluoroscopy
Panel type image intensifier
UNIT 3
Fluoroscopic / Radiographic Tables
General features of fluoroscopic / radiographic table
The serial changer
Remote control table
The spot film devices.
UNIT 4
Tomographic Equipment
Principles of tomography
Various types of tomographic movement
Equipment for linear tomography
UNIT 5
Equipment for Cranial and Dental radiography
The skull table
General Dental X-ray equipment
Pantomography equipment
Equipment for Cranial & skeletal radiography
Equipment for mammography

UNIT 6
Care, Maintenance and tests
General care
Functional tests
Quality assurance program
Acceptable limits of variation
Corrective action
References
1. X-ray Equipments for Radiographers – Noreen Chesney & Muriel Chesney
2. Christensen’s Physics of Diagnostic Radiology
3. Equipments in Diagnostic Radiology – E.Forster.

Advanced technique & Instrumentation of Computed Tomography (PVI)


Hours: 90

UNIT 1
Imaging principles in computed tomography
Instrumentation of CT scan
Advances in Detector technology
Slip ring technology
Helical CT
Single slice and Multi slice CT Scan system (recent advancement in ct scanner)
UNIT 2
Isotropic imaging
Image display
Pre and Post Processing techniques
Image quality in single slice and multi slice helical CT scan
Patient radiation dose considerations in Helical CT
UNIT 3
Protocols for adult Whole Body CT
Protocols for pediatric Whole Body CT
Documentation
Common and specific artifacts in Helical CT images
UNIT 4
HRCT of Lungs
Technical aspects
Volumetric HRCT
Expiratory HRCT
HRCT protocols
Artifacts
UNIT 5
CT angiography
CT fluoroscopy
Multidimensional reformations
MPR, Curved MPR, MIP
3D imaging & 4D CT
UNIT 6
CT Perfusion scanning
Dentascan
CT colonoscopy
CT bronchoscopy

UNIT 7
CT coronary angiography
CT calcium scoring
Myocardial Imaging
UNIT 8
Care, Maintenance and tests
General care
Functional tests
Quality assurance program
Acceptable limits of variation
Corrective action
Referral books
1. Computed Tomography – Physical Principles , Clinical Applications &
Quality Control by Euclid Seeram
2. Computed Tomography by Stewart C. Bushong

BIO-STATISTICS (P-VII) 60 hours


UNIT 1
Introduction
Introduction to Biostatistics & research methodology, types of variables & scales
of measurements, measures of central tendency and dispersion, rate, rate, ratio,
proportion, incidence & prevalence
UNIT 2
Sampling
Random & non-random sampling, various methods of sampling-simple random,
stratified, systematic, cluster and multistage. Sampling and non-sampling errors
& methods of minimizing these errors.
UNIT 3
Basic probability distributions and sampling distributions
Concept of probability distribution. Normal, Poisson and Binomial distributions,
parameters and applications. Concept of sampling distributions. Standard error
and confidence intervals. Skewness an Kurtosis
UNIT 4
Tests of significance
Basics of testing of hypothesis-Null and alternate hypothesis, type I and type II
errors, level of significance (parametric) and power of the test, p value. Tests of
significance –t-test (paired & unpaired), Chi square test and test of proportion,
one-way analysis of variance. Repeated measures analysis of variance.
Repeated measures analysis of variance. Tests of significance (nonparametric) –
Mann-Whitney u test, Wilcoxon test, Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance.
Friedmann's analysis of variance.
UNIT 5
Correlation and Regression
Simple correlation-Pearson's and Spearman's; testing the significance of
correlation coefficient linear and multiple regression.
UNIT 6
Sample size determination
General concept. Sample size for estimating means and proportion, testing of
difference in means and proportions of two groups.

UNIT 7
Study designs
Descriptive epidemiological methods- case series analysis and prevalence
studies. Analytical epidemiological methods- case control and cohort studies.
Clinical trials/intervention studies, odds ratio and relative risk, stratified analysis
UNIT 8
Multivariate analysis
Concept of multivariate analysis, introduction to logistic regression and survival
analysis
UNIT 9
Reliability and validity evaluation of diagnostic tests
UNIT 10
Format of scientific documents
Structure of research protocol, structure of thesis/ research report, formats of
reporting in scientific journals. Systematic review and meta analysis

2nd Year

Advanced Technique & Instrumentation of MRI (P-VIII) 100 Hours

UNIT 1
Basic Principles
Spin
Precession
Relaxation time
Pulse cycle
T1 weighted image
T2 weighted image
Proton density image
UNIT 2
MR Instrumentation
Types of magnets
RF transmitter &receiver coils
Gradient coils
Shim coils
RF shielding
Computers
UNIT 3
Pulse sequences
Spin echo pulse sequence – turbo spin echo pulse sequence
Gradient echo sequence – Turbo gradient echo pulse sequence
Inversion recovery sequence – STIR sequence, SPIR sequence, FLAIR
sequence
Echo planar imaging and Fast imaging sequences
Advanced pulse sequences.
UNIT 4
Image formation
2D Fourier transformation method
K-space representation
3D Fourier imaging
MIP

UNIT 5
MR contrast media
MR angiography – TOF & PCA
MR Spectroscopy
UNIT 6
Protocols in MRI for whole body
MRI artifacts
Safety aspects in MRI
UNIT 7
Cardiac MRI
UNIT 8
Musculoskeletal imaging
Abdominal imaging
Brain imaging
UNIT 9
Functional MRI
BOLD Imaging
UNIT 10
Care, Maintenance and tests
General care
Functional tests
Quality assurance program
Acceptable limits of variation
Corrective action
References
1. MRI physics for Radiologist - Alfred Horowitz
2. Fundamentals of MRI – Stark & Bradley
3. MRI in Practice – Catherine brook
Interventional Radiology Techniques (P-IX) 60hours

UNIT 1
Introduction
Need for interventional procedures
Informed consent
DSA
Basic Principle
Types
Equipments
Basics of Angiographic equipments
Single and biplane angiographic equipment
Angiographic Table
Image intensifier
Flat panel detector
Recording systems
Pulseoximetry
Cardiac resuscitation measures - ECG
Pressure injector
Catheters, needles and other tools
3-D rotational angiography
Image processing
Patient monitor
ACT equipment
CO2 angiography
UNIT 2
Patient care
Preparation for procedure
Post procedure care
Role of radiographer in interventional procedure
Crash trolley- Emergency drugs

UNIT 3
Procedures
Diagnostic & Therapeutic interventional procedures
PTC, PTBD, Stenting
Nephrostomy, ureteric stenting
Guided biopsies of different organs
Drainage of collections/abscesses
Angiograms, angioplasty, embolization
Venus access
Radiofrequency ablation
Image guided nerve blocks
UNIT 4
Neuro interventional procedures
Embolization of extra or intracranial tumors, vascular malformations
Vertebroplasty – direct puncture
Laser guided procedure
UNIT 5
Basics of cardiac catheterization
UNIT 6
Safety considerations in angiography room
Room design
Protective devices
Radiation monitoring
UNIT 7
Care, Maintenance and tests
General care
Functional tests
Quality assurance program
Acceptable limits of variation
Corrective action
References
1. Current Techniques in Interventional Radiology – Cope , Constantin
2. Interventional Radiology - A Practical Guide by Anthony Watkinson and
Andreas Adam

Care of Patient in Diagnostic Radiology (P-X) Hours: 60


UNIT 1
Introduction to Patient Care
Responsibilities of the Healthcare facility
Responsibilities of the Imaging Technologist
UNIT 2
General Patient Care
Patient transfer technique
Restraint techniques
Aspects of patient comfort
Specific patient conditions
Security of patient property
Obtaining vital signs
Laying up a sterile trolley
IV injection administration
UNIT 3
Nursing procedure in Radiology
General abdominal preparation
Clothing of the patient
Giving an enema
Handling the emergencies in Radiology
First aid in the X-Ray department
UNIT 4
Patient care during Investigation
G.I. Tract, Biliary tract, Respiratory tract, Gynecology, Cardiovascular, Lymphatic
system, C.N.S. etc
UNIT 5
Infection Control
Isolation technique
Infection sources –
Transmission modes
Procedures
Psychological considerations
Sterilization & sterile techniques.

UNIT 6
Patient Education
Communication
Patient communication problems
Explanation of examinations
Radiation Safety / Protection
Interacting with terminally ill patient
Informed Consent
References
1. Care of Patients in Diagnostic Radiology – Chesney & Chesney
2. Care of Patients in Diagnostic Radiology - Gunn

Management of Healthcare Organizations (P-XI) 60 hours


UNIT 1
Management functions
Planning
MBO
Decision making
Organizing
Staffing
Controlling
UNIT 2
Management and Economics
Demand & Supply
Nature of Costs
Marginal cost and Breakeven analysis
Market structure: Business & Government
Role of Government
UNIT 3
Organizational Behavior
Significance
Structure & theories
Individual & group behavior
Leadership
Motivation
Organizational development
Managing creativity and stress
UNIT 4
Accounting for Hospital Management
_ Budgeting & Budgetary control
_ Difference between forecast & budgeting
_ Preparation of budget
_ Classification of budget
_ Capital Budgeting

UNIT 5
Concept of Hospital
Departmentation in Hospital
Clinical services management
Organizing of support services
Management of utility services
Evaluation of Hospital services
UNIT 6
Issues related to Healthcare technology
Present trend in healthcare technology
Problems & constraints
Planning & adopting appropriate technology in healthcare
Evaluation method of health technology
UNIT 7
Evolution of Quality management
Quality assurance methods
Patient satisfaction
Standard operating procedure
Quality certification & Accreditation
UNIT 8
Current issues
PACS, Tele radiology
The Pre Natal Diagnostic Techniques Act 1994
Hospital Management Information System
Logistics Management
UNIT 9
Radiology information system
Hospital information system
Design of radiology department
References
1. Principles of Management by Koonz ‘o’Donnel
2. Hospital planning Administration by B.M.Shakar

Radiation Evaluation & Protection in Diagnostic radiology (P-XII)


60 Hours
UNIT 1
Introduction to Radiation protection
Need for protection
Aim of radiation protection
Basic radiation units and quantities
_ Exposure
_ Absorbed dose
_ Absorbed dose equivalent
_ Quality factor
_ Tissue weighting factor.
UNIT 2
Limits for Radiation exposure
Concept of ALARA (or ALARP)
ICRP regulation
Maximum permissible dose
Exposure in pregnancy, children
UNIT 3
Protection in Diagnostic Radiology
Protection for primary radiation
Work load
Use factor
Occupancy factor
Protection for scatter radiation and leakage radiation
X-Ray room design
Structural shielding
Protective devices
Radiation signages

UNIT 4
Technical protective consideration during Radiography
Evaluation of hazards
Effective communication
Immobilization
Beam limiting devices
Filtration
Exposure factors
Protection in
_ Fluoroscopy
_ mammography,
_ mobile radiography
_ CT Scan
_ Angiography room
UNIT 5
Radiation measuring instruments
Area monitoring
Personnel dosimeters
_ Film badge
_ Thermo luminescent dosimeter
_ Pocket dosimeter.
UNIT 6
Biological aspects of Radiological protection
Biological effects of radiation
Direct & Indirect actions of radiation
Concept of detriment – Deterministic & stochastic effect of radiation – somatic
and genetic effects
Dose relationship
Effects of antenatal exposure
References
1. Physics of Diagnostic radiology – Christensen
2. ICRP manual

Nuclear Medicine Imaging Techniques (P-XIII) 60 hours


UNIT 1
Basic atomic & nuclear physics
Quantities and Units
Atom composition and structure
Nucleus composition
Radioactivity
Exponential decay
Specific activity
Parent / Daughter decay
Modes of Radioactive decay.
UNIT 2
Radiation detectors
Gas filled detectors - Basic principles
Ionization chambers
Proportional counters
Geiger Muller counters
Semiconductor detectors
Scintillation detectors – basic principles
UNIT 3
Production of Radio nuclides
Reactor produced radionuclide
Reactor principles
Accelerator produced radionuclide
Radionuclide generators
UNIT 4
Instrumentation
The Anger Camera
Basic principle
System components
Detector system and electronics
Collimators
Image display and recording systems
Scanning camera

UNIT 5
Radio pharmacy
Radiopharmaceuticals
General principle of tracer technique
Preparation of different labeled compounds with technetium-99m isotope
Cold kits
UNIT 6
In vivo technique
Static and dynamic studies
Thyroid imaging
Imaging of bone
Respiratory system
Urinary system
G.I. system
Cardiovascular system
Iodine131 uptake studies
Iodine 131 therapy for thyrotoxicosis and thyroid ablation
UNIT 7
Image quality in Nuclear medicine
Spatial resolution
Contrast
Noise
Types of noise
Quality assurance of imaging equipments
Variation in Image perception – with physician, within technologist & technical
parameter
UNIT 8
SPECT imaging
UNIT 9
PET imaging

UNIT 10
Radiation safety in Nuclear medicine
Radiation units and quantities
MPD
Safe handling of Radioactive materials
Storage of radioactive materials
Procedures for handling spills
Disposal of Radioactive waste
Radiation monitoring
Survey meters
Personnel dosimeters
Wipe testing
Contamination monitor
Isotope calibrator
Area monitor
Inventory of isotopes
References
1. Physics in Nuclear medicine – Sorenson
2. Physics of Nuclear medicine - Powsner

Award of Degree
Candidates who complete the course of study and secure pass in all the papers
of the two years examinations shall be declared to have qualified for the degree.
Grading system
The grading system is as follows:
Distinction : 75% and above
First class : 65% and above
Second class : 50% and above
Pass : 50%
Fail : Below 50%

Carry over rules


1. . Students who fail in final examination can appear for the supplementary
examination which will be conducted as per the university rules
2. Students with unsuccessful attempts or back papers are permitted to attend
classes until the end of the program
3. However, they will not be allowed to appear for the second year examination
till all the first year papers are cleared.
4. A maximum of 4 attempts will be permitted for 1st year examination,
irrespective of number of subjects. i.e. students needs to complete all 1st year
subjects in a maximum of 4 attempts irrespective of number of subjects he/she
will appear in each attempt. If unable to clear the 1st year subjects in a maximum
of 4 attempts, he/she will be withdrawn from the program and can seek fresh
admission. This maximum number of 4 attempts is applicable only for the 1st
year. The first University examination of 1st year is considered as 1st attempt and
filling application for University examination and remitting fee for examination is
considered as an attempt.
6. Maximum program duration permitted to complete the program is double that
of the program duration. i.e. 2 years program needs to be completed within 4
years. Failure to do so will result in withdrawal from the program.
SYLLABUS
MASTER IN
HOSPITAL
ADMINISTRATION
(MHA)
FIRST YEAR

COURSE TITLE PAPER CODE MARKS

Theory Practical Total

BASIC CONCEPT OF HEALTH MHA 110 100 100 200

HEALTH CARE SERVICES MHA 120 100 100 200

HOSPITAL BASED HEALTHCARE MHA 130 100 100 200


& ITS CHANGING SCENARIO

EPIDEMIOLOGY MHA 140 100 100 200

HEALTH EDUCATION MHA 150 100 100 200

COMMUNICATION & BASIC


INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY MHA 160 100 100 200

SECOND YEAR
PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT&
ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR
MHA 210 100 100 200

QUANTITATIVE MANAGEMENT MHA 220 100 100 200

HOSPITAL SUPPORT SERVICES


MHA 230 100 100 200

MATERIAL MANAGEMENT&
PERSONAL MANAGEMENT MHA 240 100 100 200

INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS &


MARKETING MANAGEMENT MHA 250 100 100 200
FIRST YEAR
PAPER – I : BASIC CONCEPT OF HEALTH
Concept of Health and Disease

offer various levels of care


of diseases

Suggested Reading:
- Dr. K.
Park
Preliminary Human anatomy and Physiology
omy

Suggested Reading:
- Prof. Samar Mitra
- Prof. A. K. Dutta
- Dr. C. C.
Chatterjee
Common Pathological Conditions
n diseases

reports
PAPER - II : HEALTH CARE SERVICES
Demography & Vital Statistics
– its concept

vital statistics

Health scenario of India


- past, present and future
National Health Policy & Population policy
-sectoral Co-ordination
olicy

National Health Programme

achievements and constraints in various National


Heath Programme.
Healthcare of the Community
mary, Secondary and
Tertiary Care

Suggested reading:
- Dr. K. Park
k of community medicine: V. K. Mahajan
– Asha Bhendre
PAPER III : HOSPITAL BASED HEALTHCARE & ITS CHANGING
SCENARIO
Overview of Hospital

Sector
Level of care / offered facilities)
3

patients

-invasive diagnostic facilities in modern


hospital

Suggested Reading:
- NIHFW, New Delhi
– G. D. Kunders
– Tabish
PAPER IV : EPIDEMIOLOGY

-
communicable diseases, disease transmission

immunization, disease monitoring and surveillance.

control.

Suggested Reading:
Medicine- Dr. K.
Park
PAPER V : HEALTH EDUCATION

of Health education to attain positive health

Suggested Reading:
– V. K. Mahajan
– Asha Kaul
– Tabish
PAPER VI : COMMUNICATION & BASIC INFORMATION
TECHNOLOGY
 IEC activities in health sector

rcome

-ordination of IEC activities


Suggested Reading:

– V. K. Mahajan
tion methods – Asha Kaul
- Tabish

ased Concept ( ER diagram )


SECOND YEAR
PAPER-1 PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT& ORGANIZATIONAL
BEHAVIOUR
History and growth of management science

management

g, Organizing,
Staffing, Motivating, Leading,
Co-ordination and Controlling.

sector
Suggested Reading:
- L. M. Prasad - S. Chand
- Koontz - Tata McGraw Hill
- Peter Drucker


Personality development, Motivation, Group, Leadership,
Cooperation
and Conflict
elation in
team building for achieving organizational goals
analysis
Suggested Reading:
– S. P. Robbins – Prentice Hall
– Fred Luthans – McGraw Hill
– M. L. Prasad – S. Chand
PAPER-2 QUANTITATIVE MANAGEMENT
– Introduction, Definitions

and the methods applicable to calculate the same.

Suggested Reading:
– R. I. Levin and D. Rubin –
Prentice Hall

– Goon, Gupta and Dasgupta – World Press


– S. P. Gupta - S. Chand
PAPER – 3: HOSPITAL SUPPORT SERVICES
To consider various aspects of planning, operating and evaluation of
different utility services in hospitals

committee

tc.)

Suggested Reading
Administration - S. A. Tabish
- S. L. Goel
- Francis
– McGibony
PAPER – 4 : MATERIAL MANAGEMENT& PERSONAL
MANAGEMENT
To help, learn the scientific methods, materials and equipment
planning, procuring, storing and dispensing scope, definition
including maintenance

formalities relating to Medical Equipments

Suggested Reading
- Gopalakrishnan
- Sundaram
- A. C. Dutta
To emphasize the importance of human resource in a hospital
and to know in detail about the functions of personnel
management
in Hospital

Suggested Reading
- L. M. Prasad
- P. C. Tripathy
Management-Mamoria
PAPER – 5 : INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS & MARKETING
MANAGEMENT
To get an understanding about the industrial relations and its
influence on the staff behavior.
To understand the policy covering wage and salary
administration, to dispose of the grievance fairly and equitably.

ries
Suggested Reading
- P.
C. Tripathy
- Sahani
- Mamoria
– Consumer
Behaviour
information

– Patient care and communication


Suggested Reading
- Kotler
- Kotler & Keller
PAPER – VI : FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT – I
To understand the issues and scope of financial management

Suggested Reading
- T. K. Maheshwari
- Dey & Dutta
- Sandip Sharma
- Prakashan

– Managerial cost and Break-even


analysis

– Revenue and Capital Budgeting, Cash


Budgeting
ty

Suggested Reading
- Khan
- Lipsey
SINGHANIA UNIVERSITY

RAJASTHAN

DETAILED SYLLABUS

MPHW
(MULTI PURPOSE HEALTH WORKER)

One Year Programme


MPHW
s.no Paper Code Subject Name Theory Practical Total

1 Mphw-110 Basic Health Science 100 50 150


2 Mphw-120 Principles of Public Health 100 50 150
3 Mphw-130 Primary Health Care & National Health 100 50 150
Programme
4 Mphw-140 Mother & Child Health & Family Welfare 100 50 150
5 Mphw-150 Health Information Education & 100 50 150
Communication
6 Mphw-160 Basic Medical Care 100 50 150
7 Mphw-170 Computer Skill 100 100 150
Total 1100
MSc MICRO.
Detailed Syllabus
First Year
s.no Paper code Subject Name Theory Practical Total
1 MSCM-110 Human Anatomy 100 100 200
2 MSCM-120 Human Physilogy 100 100 200
3 MSCM-130 General Bacteriology 100 100 200

4 MSCM-140 Immunology 100 100 200

5 MSCM-150 Haematology 100 100 200

Total 1000

Second Year
s.no Paper Code Subject Name Theory Practical Total
1 MSCM-210 Blood Banking 100 100 200
2 MSCM-220 Aplied Microbiology 100 100 200
3 MSCM-230 Molecular Biology & GENETICS 100 100 200

4 MSCM-240 Virology 100 100 200

5 MSCM-250 Parasitology 100 100 200

Total 1000
First Year
PAPER-1
HUMAN ANATOMY-
Cells & Tissues

a) Anatomical Nomenclature

b) Structure Of Cell, Reproduction Of Cells.

c) Tissues: Epithelial, Connective, Muscle & Nervous

Embryology & Development

a) Early Human Development

b) Development of Individual Systems: Respiratory, gastro-intestinal, Urinary and Vascular


System.

c) Prenatal Growth in Form And Size

d) Neonatal Anatomy and Growth

Skin

a) Types of Skin, Epidermis, Dermis, Nerves, Blood Vessels, age related Changes, Repair

b) Appendages of Skin: Pilo sebaceous Unit, Nail Unit.

Skeletal System

a) Morphology of Human Skeleton: The Skeleton in Life, Shape and Proportions of Bone,
Functions of Bone and Skeleton, mechanical Properties of Bone, Growth of Individual Bones

b) Skeletal Connective Tissues: Structure of Cartilage, Bone as a Tissue, Microscopic Structure


and Organization of Bone, Blood Vessels and Nerves of Bone

c) Types of Joints:

d) Axial Skeleton: Vertebral Column, Ribs, Sternum, Skull.


e) Appendicular Skeleton: upper limb, Lower Limb.

Muscle

a) Types of Muscle, Attachments of Skeletal Muscle

b) Form and Function in Skeletal Muscle: Form and Fibre Architecture, Functional Implications
of Form.

c) Muscle and Movement.

d) Muscles and Fasciae of Head, Neck, Trunk, Upper Limb, Lower Limb

Nervous System

a) Regional Organization of Central Nervous System: Spinal Cord, Rhombencephalon,


Mesencephalon, Diencephalon,

Telencephalon, Basal Nucleii, Fluid Compartments and Fluid Balance in the CNS.

b) Peripheral Nervous System: Cranial Nerves, Spinal Nerves, and Autonomic Nervous System
Peripheral Apparatus of Special Senses: Gustatory, Olfactory, Peripheral Visual, Accessory
Visual, Auditory, Vestibular.

Hemolymphoid and Cardiovascular System

a) Haemal Cells and tissue, Haemopoiesis, Lymphoid Cells And Tissues.

b) Blood Vessels, Thoracic Cavity and Heart.

c) Arterial System, Venous System, Lymphatic.

Respiratory System

Nose and Paranasal Sinuses, Larynx, trachea. Bronchi, Lungs, Pleura, Mediastinum

Alimentary System

Oral Cavity, Abdomen, Oesophagus to Anus

Urinary and Reproductive System

a) Kidneys, Ureter, Bladder, Urethra.


b) Reproductive organs of Male and Female.

Endocrine System

Pituitary Gland, Pineal Gland, Thyroid Gland, Parathyroid Gland, Chromaffin System, Diffuse
Neuroendocrine System, Adrenal Gland, Paraganglion, Para-aortic Bodies, Tympanic Bodies,
Coccygeal Body.

PAPER-2
HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY
Functional Systems of Cell

a) Cell and its Function

b) Extra-Cellular Fluid, Intra-Cellular Fluid.

c) Functional Systems of Cell, DNA, RNA.

d) Control of Genetic Function and Biochemical Activity in Cells.

e) Cell Differentiation, Cancer.

Membrane Physiologies, Nerve and Muscle

a) Transport of Substances Through the Cell Membrane: diffusion, Active Transport.

b) Membrane Potentials and Action Potentials: Resting Membrane Potential of Nerves, Nerve
Action Potential, Propagation of AP, Signal Transmission in Nerve Trunks.

c) Contraction of Skeletal Muscle: Molecular Mechanics of Muscle Contraction, Energetics of


Muscle Contraction,

Characteristics of Whole Muscle Contraction, N-M Junction, Muscle AP, Excitation-Contraction


Coupling.

d) Contraction and Excitation of Smooth Muscles.


e) Hormonal Control of Smooth Muscle Contraction.

Heart and Circulation

a) Cardiac Muscle, Cardiac Cycle, Regulation of Heart Pumping, Cardiac Failure.

b) Rhythmical Excitation of the Heart: Specialized Excitatory and Conductive System of the
Heart, Control of Excitation and Conduction in the Heart.

c) Normal ECG, Methods of Recording, ECG Leads.

d) Heart Sounds

e) Basic Theory of Circulatory Function, Interrelationships among Pressure, Flow and


Resistance, Vascular Dispensability, Arterial Pressure Pulsation, Veins and their Function,
Lymphatic system, Microcirculation, Capillary System, Exchange of Nutrients and Other
Substances, Interstitial Fluid, Local Control of Blood Flow, Humoral and Nervous Regulation of
Circulation, Cardiac Output, Venous Return Arterial Pressure and their Regulation.

f) Muscle Blood Flow and cardiac Output During Exercise, Coronary Circulation.

g) Circulatory Shock.

h) RBC, Anemia, Polycythemia, WBC, Resistance of Body to Infection, Blood Groups.

i) Hemostasis and Blood Coagulation

Kidney and Body Fluids

a) Body Fluid Compartments: ECF, ICF, Intersitial Fluids and Edema.

b) Urine Formation By the Kidneys: Nephron, Glomerular Filtration, Renal Blood Flow, Tubular
Reabsorption.

c) Regulation of ECF Osmolarity and Sodium Concentration

d) Integration of Renal Mechanisms for Control of Blood Volume and ECF Volume.

e) Renal Regulation of Potassium, Calcium, Phosphate and Magnesium, Regulation of Acid-


Base Balance.

f) Diuretics
Respiration

a) Mechanics of Pulmonary Ventilation, Pulmonary Volumes and Capacities, Alveolar


Ventilation, Functions of the

Respiratory Passageways

b) Pulmonary Circulation, Pulmonary Edema, pleural Fluid

c) Physical Principles of Gas Exchange, Transport of Oxygen and carbon dioxide in the Blood
and Body Fluids

d) Regulation of Respiration.

e) Respiratory Dysfunction.

Nervous System

a) Sensory Receptors, Neuronal Circuits for Processing Information.

b) Somatic sensations: Touch, Position, Pain, Thermal, Headache.

c) Special Senses

d) Motor Functions of the Spinal Cord: Cord Reflexes, Spinal cord Transection, Spinal Shock.

e) Cortical and Brain Stem Control of Motor Function: The Motor Cortex, Corticospinal Tract,
Vestibular Sensations and

.Gastrointestinal System

a) Motility, Nervous Control, Blood Circulation

b) Propulsion and Mixing of Food

c) Secretory Functions

d) Digestion and Absorption.

Endocrinology and Reproduction

a) Hormone Secretion, Transport and Clearance from Blood


b) Hormones: Pituitary, Thyroid, Adrenocortical, Insulin, Parathyroid, Reproductive.

c) Puberty, Menarche, Menopause

d) Pregnancy and Lactation

e) Fetal and Neonatal Physiology: Special Functional Problems of Neonate, Prematurity.

PAPER-3
General Bacteriology

Morphology, Stainings, detailed structure in comparison to Ecomytic Cell,


Bacterial anatomy.
Microscopy
Various optical methods available for viewing microorganisms and their
application,
.Overview of microbial world
Classification
Purpose
Basic Principles and classification systems.
Growth, survival of microorganisms
-growth curve
-growth parameters
-Survival of micro organisms in natural environment.
-Role of antimicrobial agents
Cultivation of Micro organisms
-growth requirements
-sources of metabolic energy
-Bacterial nutrition
-methods of cultivation
.Microbial Metabolism
-Metabolism of bio synthesis and growth.
-bio synthesis pathway
-energy yielding metabolism
-regulation of metabolic pathways.
Bacterial Genetics
-mutation
-conjugation
-genetic mechanism of drug resistance
-genetic engineering
Destruction of micro organism.
-sterilization and disinfection
-antimicrobial agents
General principles in Diagnostic Microbiology
-collection and handling of various samples
-laboratory safety
-antimicrobial susceptibility and assays
-lab animal an introduction

PAPER-4
Immunology
Unit – I
Immune response: Immunity, Type (Innate & adaptive immune response)
Organs of Immune System: Primary and Secondary lymphoid organ
Ontogeny and phylogeny of Lymphocytes: T and B Lymphocyts, Null
Unit – II
Cell of Immune System: Mononuclear cell and granulocytes, Antigen
presenting cell.
Antigen, Heptanes: Factors effecting immunogenicity,m epitopes
(Properties of it)
Antibodies: Structure , Types and function
Unit – III
Complement System : Role of complement system in immune response,
complements and
Components and activation
pathways.
Monoclonal antibodies: Production characterization and applications in
diagnosis, therapy and
basic research.
Antigen-Antibody interaction, avidity & affinity measurement.
Unit – IV
Hypersensitivity: Definition, factor causing hypersensitivity
Common hypersensitivity reaction, types, classification based on the time
taken for reaction
Auto Immune disease
Unit – V
Immunodiagnostics: Precipitation techniques, Agglutination, Fluoresence
techniques
ELISA, RIA
Double diffusion and Immuno-electrophoresis.
Immunidiagnostics: VDRL test, Widal test, RA factor, Blood grouping, Rh
typing, Comb’s test
PAPER-5
Haematology

1. Introduction of haematology, composition of blood, cellular and


humoral components.
2. Reception labeling and recording of laboratory investigations.
3. Quality control in Individual Laboratory.
4. Cleaning of glass wares, pipettes, ESR tubes and couting chamber. Care
of syringes and
Needles.
5. Error in procedure / Sources of Error .
6. Preparation of capillary pipettes, Distilled water, reagents Buffer and
Normal solutions.
7. Collection of specimen, difference between capillary and artery and
venous blood specimen
use of each.
8.Preparation and examination of thin, thick and wet blood films for
blood parasite. Stained
blood films -Leishman's, wright's, Simon's stain and supravital.
9.Preparation of solutions.
10.Normal and abnormal blood cells morphology -erythrocytes,
leucocytes, platelets,
reticulocytes count.
11.Recognition of principle blood pictures, knowledge about the Anaemia
and Leukamias.
Abnormalities of RBCS -shape, size, colour, premature RBCS (RBCS series
and WBCS
series).
12.Methods of measuring haemoglobin including spectro photometric,
method PCV, MCH,
MCHC & MCV and ESR.
13.a) Total WBC and RBC count -Micropipette and bulk dilution methods.
b) Packed cell volume (Haematocrit) -macro and or micro methods.
c) Calculation and interpretation of cell Indices (absolute values)
d) Differential count of WBC, including Arneth,and Schilling counts.
e) Absolute Eosinophil counts.
f) Platelets count direct and indirect.
g) Bleeding and clotting time -Duke and Ivy methods.
h) Erythrocyt~s sedimentation rate.
i) Normal and Abnormal values.
14.a) Recognition of blood parasities.
b) Malaria and its life cycles and Differential diagnosies of malaria
parasite.
c) Kala -azar (L.D. bodies)
d) Spirochaetes.
e) Trypanasomes
f) Microfilaria
MSC MEDICAL
MICROBIOLOGY
SECOND YEAR
PAPER-1
Blood Banking
1. Principal of Immuno haematology.
2. Blood Bank management and planning, The reception and recording of
specimens,
Cataloging and indexing, Maintenance
of Blood Bank records.
3. Knowledge of Maintenance and working of blood strong cabinets.
4. Preparation and sterilization of transfusion sets.
5. Preparation and use of ACD (acid citrate dextrose), EDTA, Heparin, CPD
Citrate Phosphate
Dextrose) .
6. Theory including inheritance and nomenclature of ABO and Rh, blood
group system other
blood groups.
7. Subgroups of ABO blood group system.
8. Techniques for determination of various blood groups.
9. Sources of errors in grouping and their elemination.
10. Selection and preparation of grouping sera.
11. Group sera titration.
12. Criteria for selecting and rejecting Donors.
13. Method & Precaution of Blood Collection.
14. preservation of Blood.
15. Ante -natal investigation.
16. Coombs test compatibility and techniques -Direct and Indirect
methods.
17. Cross matching techniques.
18. Investigation of Malaria and Microfilaria. HIV test ABS Ag.
19. Investigation of VDRL I Kahn test.
20. Blood collection and preservation.
21. Quality control in Blood Bank.
22. Disposal of used and other materials of Blood Bank.

PAPER-2
Applied Microbiology
- Normal flora of the human body
- Collection of clinical specimens for diagnosis and method of
processing
- antibiotic susceptibility testing and its interpretation and
reporting.
- Nosocomial infection -surveillance and control.
- Diseases transmitted through air, water, milk and food.
- Quality control in diagnostic microbiology.
- National programmes for control of infectious diseases.
- Etiology, laboratory diagnosis of infectious diseases of each
system.
PAPER-3
Molecular Biology & GENETICS

Basic knowledge as applicable to molecular diagnostics and molecular


epidemiology.
Basic knowledge only of the following
1. Recombinant DNA technology.
2. Southern, northern and western blotting.
3. DNA amplification techniques.
4. Diagnostic PCR, different methods of PCR product detection (liquid
hybdridization,
Elisa.)
5. Genotyping of microbes and viruses.

Continuity of life - heredity, variation; mendel's laws of inheritance,


chromosomal basis of
inheritance; other patterns of inheritance - incomplete dominance,
multiple allelism,
quantitative inheritance.
Chromosomes - bacterial cell and eukaryotic cell; parallelism between
genes and
chromosomes; genome, linkage and crossing over; gene mapping;
recombination; sex
chromosomes; sex determination; sex linked inheritance; mutation and
chromosomal
aberrations; Human genetics - methods of study, genetic disorders.
DNA as a genetic material - its structure and repliaction; structure of RNA
and its role in
protein synthesis; Gene expression - transcription and translation in
prokaryotes and
eukaryotes; regulation of gene expression, induction and repression -
housekeeping genes;
nuclear basis of differentiation and development; oncoenes.
Basics of Recombinant DNA technolgy; cloning; gene bank; DNA
fingerprinting; genomics -
principles and applications, transgenic plants, animals and microbes.

PAPER-4
Virology

Unit – I
General morphology and ultra structure of Viruses: Capsids- Helical Symmetry,
icosahedral
symmetry and complex
symmetry.
Envelope: Glycoprotein and matrix protein
Viral genome: their types and structure
Unit – II
Cultivation of Viruses in embryonated eggs, experimental animals and cell culture:
primary and
secondary cell culture,
suspension cell culture and monolayer cell cultures.
Assays of viruses: physical and chemical methods of assays (protein nuclei acid,
radioactivity
traces, electrons microscopy,
plaque method, pock counting method, end point method and infectivity of plant
viruses).
Serological methods: haemagglutination haemagglutinationinhibitation, complement
fixation,
immunofluroscence assays
(IFA) ELISA, RIA.
Unit – III
Plant viruses: Recent advances in classification of plant viruses
Life sciences and other details of TMV and mosaic virus, potato virus X
General idea about cyanophages, actinophages and mycoviruses.
Unit – IV
Bacterophages: Classification, Morphology and ultrastructure
One step growth curve ( Latent period, eclipse period and burst size)
Life cycle: Lytic and Lysogenic cycles of bacteriophages
Unit – V
Animal viruses; classification and nomenclature
Life cycles and other details of DNA viruses: herpes, adeno and SV40
Life cycle and other details of RNA viruses: Retroviruses, oncogenic viruses and
lentiviruses
(HIV), picorna, ortho myxo and
paramyxo.

PAPER-5
Parasitology

PARASITOLOGY
a. General Principles of host parasite interactions and definitions of terms
in this
connection.
b. Morphology, life cycle and pathogenesis of the parasites listed below.
The students
should know the medical importance, laboratory diagnostic methods,
drugs used for
therapy and Epidemiology.
PROTOZOA
1. Intestinal amoebae.
2. Free living pathogenic amoebae
3. Intestinal and genital flagellates
4. Haemoflagellates
5. Ciliates of medical importance
6. Malarial parasite
HELMINTHS
1. Nematodes
(a) Intestinal
(b) Tissue
2. Trematodes infection in man.
3. Cestodes infecting man
4. Larval infections in man.
MSc MLT
Detailed
Syllabus
(YEARLY PROGRAMME)
Msc.MLT
First Year

s.no Paper Code Subject Name Theory Practical Total


1. MSCMLT-110 HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY 100 100 200
2 MSCMLT-120 BIOCHEMISTRY 100 100 200
3 MSCMLT-130 CLINICAL PATHOLOGY 100 100 200
4 MSCMLT-140 INSTRUMENTATION 100 100 200
5 MSCMLT-150 CLINICAL HAEMATOLOGY 100 100 200
6 MSCMLT-160 BLOOD BANKING 100 100 200
7 MSCMLT-170 LAB MANAGEMENT 100 100 200

Total 1400
Msc.MLT
Second year

s.no Paper Code Subject Name Theory Practical Total


1 MSCMLT-210 BACTERIOLOGY 100 100 200
2 MSCMLT-220 VIROLOGY & MYCOLOGY 100 100 200
3 MSCMLT-230 PARASIT0LOGY & MICROBIOLOGY 100 100 200
4 MSCMLT-240 IMMUNOLOGY 100 100 200
5 MSCMLT-250 CYTOLOGY & HISTOPATHOLOGY 100 100 200
6 MSCMLT-260 REASERCH METHODOLOGY & 100 100 200
TECHNIQUES

Total 1200
PAPER I: Human Anatomy & Physiology
Unit I
Cell structure, division & function
Cell organelles
Tissue: Types of tissues and their functions
Skeletal system
Unit II
Digestive system: Physiology and anatomy of mouth, stomach, intestine
Absorption of food and its excretion
Role of Bile in digestion and excretion
Liver function and a brief description of liver and biliary tree
Unit III
Respiratory system: Brief description of larynx, bronchi, lungs
Cardiovascular system: Anatomy and Physiology of heart, arteries and veins
Circulation: Systematic and pulmonary (in brief)
Brief review of chambers
Unit IV
Urinary system: Structure and Function of the Kidney, uterus, bladder,
urethra and nephron
Give special emphasis on formation of Urine
Physiology and Anatomy of male and female reproductive organs
Endocrine: Pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, thymus, adrenals and pancreas
Unit V
Central nervous system: Brain, spinal cord and meninges explain with its
functions
Skins: Structure and Functions
Study and give small project on bones and cartilages
PAPER II: BIOCHEMISTRY

Part A Basic Biochemistry

Bioenergetics, Entropy, Enthalpy & their basic introduction


Concept of free energy, Thermodynamics 1st & 2nd Law.
Carbohydrate: Structure, properties,, chemical reactions & functions
Amino Acids: Essential & non Essential amino acids with structure & function
Proteins: Primary, Secondary, tertiary & quaternary (Overview)
Lipids: Structure, Classification & properties
Enzymes: Classification, enzyme action & their mechanism. Enzyme
inhibition, Mode of action
Of chymotrypsin & related enzymes
Nucleic Acids: Structure of Purine & pyrimidine bases
Nucleotide & Nucleosides
DNA & RNA: Structure & Properties
Vitamins

Part B Clinical Biochemistry

Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates intermediate metabolism, glycogenesis,


glycogenolysis,
gluconeogenesis & glycolysis.
TCA, HMP, and its regulations
Disorcerds of carbohydrates metabolism related to each cycle (inborn error
of metabolism)

Proteins: Different metabolic pathway of amino acid


The flow sheet of amino acids oxidation. Transamination,
oxidativedeamination and pathways
leading to acetyl co-A.
Decarboxylation of Amino acids, formation of nitrogenous excretion
products. Urea cycle and
ammonia excretion.

Lipid: Biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids (odd & even number )
Ketone bodies formation and their oxidation
Regulation and inborn error of lipid metabolism

Biochemical aspects of Hormone: Hormone receptors and intracellular


messengers, Adenylate
cyclase, protein kinase and
phosphodiesterase.
Role of Insulin, glucagons, epinephrine and their mechanism
Various endocrine and regulatory systems mediated by cyclic AMP.

Vitamin: Fat and Water soluble and their deficiency


Mineral metabolism : Minor and Major (cu, Fe, Ca, Mg & P)
Inborn error of Nucleic acids metabolism
Practical:
Estimation of Protein by Folin’s method in a given sample.
Estimation of Glucose / GOD – POD method
Estimation of bilirubin by kit method in a given sample
Estimation of Urea by kit method in a blood / Urine
Total protein test – A:G ratio
Urine Analysis Chemical, Physical, Microscopical
Draw a standard graph of GTT curve.
Demonstration of electrophoresis
Estimation of Sodium & Potassium by flame photometer.
PAPER III: Clinical Pathology

Introduction to Histology, the cell, cell Organelles, nucleus, cell division,


tissues, fresh &
fixed tissues.
Different types of Embedding Viz. Wax, Resin, Cryostat etc. Basic Cytology
Fixation of tissue, different kind of fixatives, sample fixative, compound
fixative,
formaldehyde,
mercusic chloride, osmium, Picric acid, alcohols, other acids, formaline,
buffered fomaline,
osmic
acid, zenleer soln, he;ly’s soln, cytological fixatives, nuclear fixatives, fixation
of smear etc.,
decalcification, method of decalcification, assessment of decalcification, soln
for
decalcification.
Processing of tissue, dehydration, impregnation in the wax, manual and
automatic tissue
processor, gelatin embedding, celloidin embedding, double embedding,
cytological fixatives,
preparation of different smears, vaginal, sputum, membrane.
Microtome, instrument, principle, use in section cutting, parts and working
of commonly used
microtome, different kinds of microtome, rotary, base sledge, sliding, low
temperature
microtome, cryostat, microtome knives, homing and stropping knives.
Section cutting of paraffin sections, section preparation from frozen
sections, fixing of tissue
to slide, preparation of cello din section and fixation. Staining techniques,
natural dyes,
synthetic dyes, basic and acidic dyes, haematoxylin staining, Pap, flucker &
Conn,
methanamine silver nitrate, ziehl
neelsen’s stain, propylene glycol sudan technique, papanicolaou, harn’s
alum, Haematoxylin,
acridine orange technique.

PAPER IV: Instrumentation


Unit – I
Mircoscope: Light, phase contrast, interference, fluorescence, polarization
and electron
microscopy (principle, parts and its
application)
Photometry: Basic principal UV-Vis spectrometry and colorimetry
instrumentation and its
application
Unit – II
Fluorimetry: Principal, Instrumentation and application
Electrophoresis: Principal, types and application ( agrose gel
electrophoreses, starch gel and
polyacrylamide
electrophoresis)
Unit – III
Centrifuge: Basic principle, type analytical and preparative centrifuges,
different density
gradient centrifuge and analytical
with its application
Blood analyzer: Principal, instrument and its application
Unit – IV
Microtome: Principal, instruments and its uses.
Incubator, hot air oven and autoclave: Principal, instrument and its
application.
Unit – V
Radioactivity: Radioisotopes, half life units, Geeger Mueller counter, gamma
counter and
scintillation
PH meter (principle types, types of electrodes and application)
Practical:
Verification of Beer’s Law
Electrophoresis of protein – native and under denaturing condition.
Separation of sub cellular organelles by different centrifugation
Separation of blood cells by density gradient centrifugation
Handling and management of instruments
Estimation of blood urea creatinine uric acid, calcium and phosphorous

PAPER V: Clinical Haematology


1 Red Blood Cells :
a. Normal morphology count
b. Isolation from whole blood & count
c. Effect on count & morophology of physiochemical parameters & the
diseased state
d. Red cell anomalies & their relevance w.r.t normal & diseased state
2 Blood Transfusion :
a. Pre-requisitement & the complication of mis-matched transfusion
b. Methods of blood matching
3 White blood cells & platelets;-
a. Morphology count & methods of isolation
b. Effect on count & morophology of cell by the physiochemical parameters ,
diseased . State & the relevance of condition of the diseases
4 Anaemia’s, :
a. Definaation ( in general ) & courses
b. Types of anaemia & their classification
c. Physiochemical , characteristic features & eterology of a plastic anaemia,
haemoloytic,megaloblastic
d. linical features & diagonosis
5 Leukaemia
a. Definition (in general ) & their etrology
b. Classification of leukaemia
c. FAB classification
d. Etiologies ,physiochemical features of different Type of leukaeia,s with
reference to
clinical states
e. Diagonosis of different types of leukaemias
6 Coagulation studies ;
General pathways ( intrinsic & extrinsic ) b. Properties ( physiochemical )
mode of action of
coagulation factors
c. Platelet studies ,platelet function tests ( for different Coagulation factors )
> Effect
of promoters & inhibitors at diff steps in coaguation,their solution & mode
of
action
d. Diseases associated with coagulation disorders ,their etrology &
characteristics
features.
7 Red Cell mass studies ;
a. Chemical method & radioactive methods
b. Red Cell function studies
PAPER-VI: Blood Banking

Reception, labeling and recording of laboratory investigations


Cleaning of glassware, pipettes, E.S.R tubes and counting chambers
Preparation of capillary pipette, distilled water, reagents, buffers
Collection of blood, preparation of blood smear, staining of blood and bone marrow smears.
Measurement of hemoglobin, counting of leucocytes, erythrocytes, platelets and reticulocytes.
Recognition of blood cells in peripheral blood smear
Determination of haematocrite and E.S.R, preperation of haemolysate and determination of
alkali resistant hemoglobin,
paper electrophoresis of hemoglobin.
Test for sickle celling, bleeding time, coagulation time, prothrombin time, and kaolin cephalin
clotting time.
Abo blood grouping and Rh typing
Performance of direct and indirect coombs test, red cell agglutination test (screening Paul
bunnel test).
Preparation for the demonstration of L.E. Cell phenomenon.
Blood donor selection & screening
Blood collection and preservation, principal of clearing and preparing transfusion bottle and
tubing sets – preparation and
composition of anticoagulant – preservative solutions.
Transfusion reaction and their investigations

PAPER VII: Lab Management

Ethics of the pathological clinics


Organization of a pathology laboratory under board of quality control
Personality development and patient relationship
Pathology reports writing
Computer application in pathological clinics
Accountancy in clinical pathology
Hospital Management
Operation ethics
Social ethics of pathology
Proper handling of instruments

Practical
Instrumentation
Clinical Haematology
Blood Banking
Lab Management
Internal Assessment
Second Year
PAPER I : Bacteriology
Unit – I
Introduction, history and scope of microbiology
Contribution of Anatomy Von Leeuwenhook, Louis Pasteur. Alexender
Fleming in the
development of Microbiology
Morphology and ultrastructure of bacterial cell wall of eubacteria and
archaebacteria cell
membranes – structure,
composition and properties
Unit – II
Bacterial Nutrition: Nutritional groups, common nutritional requirements,
growth factors.
Growth of bacteria under extreme conditions: Psychrophiles, thermophiles,
halophiles and
acidophiles
Bacterial reproduction: Binary fission and endospore formation
Unit – III
Mycoplasmas: General characteristics, structure and reproduction
Cyanobacteria: General characteristics, structure, reproduction and
economic importance
Bacterial growth curve, generation time, growth Kinetics – Synchronous,
Batch and continuous
cultures Measurement of
growth and factors affecting growth.
Unit – IV
Chemical control of microorganims: Heat, Filtration and radiation
Sterilization of soaps , detergents and dyes.
Chemical control of microorganisms: halogens, phenol and phenolic
compounds, heavy metals,
alcohols, ethylene oxide,
aldehydes and hydrogen peroxide.
Unit – V
Basis of microbial classification. Classification and salient features of bacteria
according to
Bergey’s manual of determinative
bacteriology.
Kingdom fungi: Structure, reproduction and classification of fungi
General characteristics and life cycle of : Zygomycetes, Ascmycetes
Basidiomycetes and Deuteromycetes.

PAPER II: Virology & Mycology


Unit – I
General morphology and ultra structure of Viruses: Capsids- Helical
Symmetry, icosahedral
symmetry and complex
symmetry.
Envelope: Glycoprotein and matrix protein
Viral genome: their types and structure
Unit – II
Cultivation of Viruses in embryonated eggs, experimental animals and cell
culture: primary and
secondary cell culture,
suspension cell culture and monolayer cell cultures.
Assays of viruses: physical and chemical methods of assays (protein nuclei
acid, radioactivity
traces, electrons microscopy,
plaque method, pock counting method, end point method and infectivity of
plant viruses).
Serological methods: haemagglutination haemagglutinationinhibitation,
complement fixation,
immunofluroscence assays
(IFA) ELISA, RIA.
Unit – III
Plant viruses: Recent advances in classification of plant viruses
Life sciences and other details of TMV and mosaic virus, potato virus X
General idea about cyanophages, actinophages and mycoviruses.
Unit – IV
Bacterophages: Classification, Morphology and ultrastructure
One step growth curve ( Latent period, eclipse period and burst size)
Life cycle: Lytic and Lysogenic cycles of bacteriophages
Unit – V
Animal viruses; classification and nomenclature
Life cycles and other details of DNA viruses: herpes, adeno and SV40
Life cycle and other details of RNA viruses: Retroviruses, oncogenic viruses
and lentiviruses
(HIV), picorna, ortho myxo and
paramyxo.
MyCOLOGY
1. Classification of Fungi
2. Growth and isolation
3. Mycoses (all types)
4. Laboratory diagnosis of mycotic diseases.
5. Immunity in fungal diseases and value of immuno diagnosis.
6. Role of mycotoxin
7. Antifungal agents
8. Epidemiology of fungal diseases.
PAPER III: Parasitology & Microbiology

Unit I
(i) General principle of host parasite interaction and definitions of terms in this connection.
(ii) Classification of the parasitic protozoans.
(iii) Introduction to parasite host and Vectors. Morphology, life cycle and lab diagnosis of
Ecoli,
Trichomonas
and Leishmania.
Unit II
(i) Classification of parasitic helminthes.
(ii) Morphology, life cycle and lab diagnosis of malarial parasite.
(iii) Morphology, life cycle and lab diagnosis of Ascaries and Taenia.

Microbiology

1 Classification of bacteria
On bacilli of differential staining Gram,s Stain .( its modification ) ZN .Stain ( its modification
)
B ) On basis of their structure
2 Pre –remit of sample collections-general & disease specific their processing & storage
3 Identification of bacteria on basis of cultural characteristics ,morphological , & serological
features.
A) Staphylococcus & streptococcus including pneumonococci
B) Family Enterobacterical
C) Haemophilus bordetlla
D) Corynebacterium
E) Nessieria .Treponema
F) Leptospira ,mycoplasma,chlamydia & Trieagents
4 Identification of pathogenic & nonpathogenic fungi( Morphologically,biochemically
a) Yeast
b) Dermatophytes
c) Cryptocococci
d) Histoplasma
e) Nocardia
f) Common lab fungal contaminants
5 Characteristic diagnostic serological tests in diseases : Cholera,Typhoid,Tuberclosis ,VDRL,
,TPHA, Satellitism.ELISA, PCR.
6 Uerology
a)General morphology & ultra structure of virus and growth cycles.
b)Viral genome : Their types & symmetry.
c) Cultivation of virus in embryonated eggs, primary culture & secondary culture
d) Assay methods: Physical & chemical
e) Classification
1 On basic of structure
2 On basic of nuclear material
f) Clinical diagnosis serological techniques for identification of bacteria : TMV
Bacteriophages.HIV . SV 40 ,myxo & paramyxovirus
: Practical
Bacteriology : 20 Marks
Virology & Mycology : 15 Marks
Parasitology : 20 Marks
Diagnostic Microbiology : 20 Marks
Internal Assessment : 25 Marks

PAPER IV: Immunology

Unit – I
Immune response: Immunity, Type (Innate & adaptive immune response)
Organs of Immune System: Primary and Secondary lymphoid organ
Ontogeny and phylogeny of Lymphocytes: T and B Lymphocyts, Null
Unit – II
Cell of Immune System: Mononuclear cell and granulocytes, Antigen presenting cell.
Antigen, Heptanes: Factors effecting immunogenicity,m epitopes (Properties of it)
Antibodies: Structure , Types and function
Unit – III
Complement System : Role of complement system in immune response, complements and
Components and activation
pathways.
Monoclonal antibodies: Production characterization and applications in diagnosis, therapy and
basic research.
Antigen-Antibody interaction, avidity & affinity measurement.
Unit – IV
Hypersensitivity: Definition, factor causing hypersensitivity
Common hypersensitivity reaction, types, classification based on the time taken for reaction
Auto Immune disease
Unit – V
Immunodiagnostics: Precipitation techniques, Agglutination, Fluoresence techniques
ELISA, RIA
Double diffusion and Immuno-electrophoresis.
Immunidiagnostics: VDRL test, Widal test, RA factor, Blood grouping, Rh typing, Comb’s test

\
PAPER V: Cytology & Histopathology

Cytological Staining
Cytological preparation with special emphasis on MGG, Pap stains
Cytological Fixatives
Cytological Screening
Quality Control in Cytology Lab
Collection of Various cytological specimens
Vagina (All types of smear)
Fluids (CSF, Ascitic, Pleural)
Urine (Millipore method)
Cervical Cytology
Basis of detection of malignant & premalignant testing
Hormonal assessment with cytological techniques, sex chromatins & Pregnancy test
Aspiration cytology principles, indications & utility of the techniques with special emphasis on
role of
cyto-technician in FNAC System

Histopathology

Unit – I
Theory of Histopathology, Reception of specimens, Histopathology of Tumor cell
Histopathology of Liver, Kidney, Adrenal, Ovary, Testies
Method of preparing stains & Fixatives.
Unit – II
Theory of Tissue processing and embedding
Theory of H & E staining
Use of Microtome, Tissue section cutting
Unit – III
Embedding and preparation of blocks
Fixation of Tissue with DPX mount
Theory of frozen section preparation
Unit – IV
Preparation of smear for Fine needle aspiration cytology
Pap’s smear theory and identification of cells in a normal vaginal smear
Stool examination: normal, abnormal constituent.
Unit – V
Normal and abnormal constituent of Urine
Normal and abnormal constituent of aminotic fluid
Normal and abnormal constituent of Semem analysis

PAPER VI: Research Methodology & Techniques

Introduction to Research: Definition, Scope, Limitations, and Types.


Objectives of Research
Research Process
Research Designs
Data Collection: Secondary Data, Primary Data, and Methods of Collection.
Scaling Techniques: Concept, Types, Rating scales & Ranking Scales
Scale Construction Techniques, Multi Dimensional Scaling.
Sampling Designs: Concepts, Types and Techniques
Sample Size Decision
Theory of Estimation and Testing of Hypothesis
Small & Large Sample Tests, Tests of Significance based on t, F , Z test and Chi-Square
Test.
Designing Questionnaire.
Interviewing.
Tabulation, Coding, Editing.
Interpretation and Report Writing.
SINGHANIA
UNIVERSITY
SYLLABUS

PG DIPLOMA
IN
ULTRASONOGRAPHY
PAPER-1
ULTRASOUND
Maximum Time : 3 hrs.
University Assessment – 70%
Total Marks : 200 Internal Assessment –30%
Minimum Pass Marks – 40%

1. Ultra Sound
 Principle of Ultra Sound
 Types of Ultra Sound
 Equipments description
 Indication and Clinical Application
 The physics of ultrasound imaging
 Types of transducers
 Ultrasound tissue characterization
 The potential for three dimensional
ultrasound
 Artifacts in ultrasound
 Comparison of ultrasound equipment
 Computerization of data
 Image recording
 Safety of ultrasound
 Medical sonography : reproductive effects
and risks
 Transvanginal ultrasonography
 The obstetric ultrasound examination
 Method of gynecologic ultrasound
examination
 Assessment of normal fetal growth
 Fetal behavior states
 Fetal breathing movements
 Fetal activity
 Twins and twinning
 Fetal tumors
 Placenta and umbilical cord
 Role of ultrasound in the delivery suite
 Vaginal ultrasonography of the pregnant
cervix
 Screening for ovarian cancer

 Practical: Transvanginal ultrasonography,


Screening for ovarian cancer, ultrasonography
of the pregnant cervix.
PAPER-2
DOPPLER & ECHO CARDIO GRAPHY
Maximum Time : 3 hrs. University Assessment – 70%
Total Marks : 200 Internal Assessment –30%
Minimum Pass Marks – 40%

1. Equipments and description


2. Color Doppler Flow Imaging
3. Indication
4. Preparation and Technique
5. Clinical Application
6. Artifacts of Doppler
PRACTICAL:
Application of various procedures in well equipped
Hospital and Diagnostic Centers
PAPER-3
Basic Patient care and safety
Maximum Time : 3 hrs. University Assessment – 70%
Total Marks : 200 Internal Assessment –30%
Minimum Pass Marks – 40%

1. Basic Patient care and safety in ultrasound and


Doppler imaging
i. Care of Pts Belongings
ii. Body mechanics
iii. Skin Care
iv. Departmental Safety
2. Infection control and institutional Safety
3. Professional issues in Radiologic technology
i. Legal issue
ii. Medical Records and Documentation
iii. Professional ethics

4. Patient care during special Procedures of Ultrasound.


PRACTICAL: Urological Procedure
Ultrasound, Application of various procedures in well
equipped Hospital and Diagnostic Centers
SINGHANIA UNIVERITY

UP-Vaidya Syllabus
Time 3 hours

Up – Vaidya
Sr. Paper Code Subject(s)/paper(s) Theory.Marks Practical
No
1 Up-Vaidya-110 Sharir Rachana 100 100
2 Up-Vaidya-120 Sharir Kriya 100 100
3 Up-Vaidya-130 Dravyaguna Vigyan 100 100
4 Up-Vaidya-140 Rasa Shstra & Bhaishjya Kaipana 100 100
5 Up-Vaidya-150 Rog Nidan Evam Chikitsa 100 100
6 Up-Vaidya-160 Prathamik Uparchar Evam Rugna 100 100
Paricharya

Total Marks: 1200


Sharir Rachna

Up-vaidya-110

Time-3 hours M.M-100


1. Definition of Shaariram, its derivation, meaning, synonym and Interpretation.
2. Shadang Sharira: Six regions of Body, organs of abdomen, their names and description.
3. Asthi sharira: Number and types of bones according to Sushrut and Modern Science.
4. Sandhi sharira: Number and types of joints with examples according to Sushrut.
5. Koshtha & Ashaya sharira: Define Koshtha and enumerate the koshthangs and ashayas in the body.
6. Peshi sharira: Definition of Peshi and their importance in the body.
7. Shira, Dhamani & Srotas sharira: srotas, sira, dhamani are similar structures what is the difference
between
them.
8. Definition of srotas, its derivation and number, names and importance.
9. Structure of eye, ear, brain, heart, pancreas, gall-bladder, spleen.
10. Garbha sharira – foetal anatomy-shukra & artava’s qualities qualifying them as pure & competent for
conception.
11. Beeja, Beejabhaga, Beeja bhagavayava.
12. Morphological and physiological changes in the embryo during nine months in the womb.
13. Indriya vigyan sharira: Sensory organs and their locations and nerves concerned with each.
14. Twak sharira: layers of skin, their names according to Sushrut and modern science.
15. Organs participating in the digestion process in the Alimentary canal.
16. The anatomical description of organs of urinary system.
17. Kala sharira: Definition and names of kala according to Sushruta.
18. Spinal cord, cranial nerves.
19. Describe in detail the vertebrae of vertebral column.
20. 12 pranas, 10 pranayatana, 3 pradhaanmarmani, 15 koshthagni.
21. Description of Hridayam according to Sushruta and its importance and functions in health.

22. Description of Yakrita, its importance and functions according to modern science.
SHARIR KRIYA

Up-vaidya-120

Time:3 hours M.M - 100


1. Dosh, dhatu, mala mulam shariram.
2. Five types of vata, their names, locations and functions in health.
3. Five types of pitta, their names, locations and functions in health.
4. Five types of kapha their names, locations and functions in health.
5. Dehprakriti, types of dosha prakritis and characterisitics of vata, pitta and kapha dominant person.
6. Rashi purusha and its components according to ayurveda.
7. Names of seven Dhatus, upadahtus and their nutrition from digested essence of the food.
8. Description of Agni and complete process of the digestion of Food. (Ahara paka kriya and avastha paka
Kriya).
9. The nutrition of sevedhatus as explained by kshirdadhinyaya, kedarikulya nyayand khalekapota nyaya
(Theories).
10. Definition, production types qualities and importance of Ojas and bala.
11. Description of Vyadhi Kshmatva.
12. Characteristics of presence of Atma in the body.
13. Concept of mind, it number, functions and role in health.
14. The description of blood according to Ayurved and modern science.
15. The process of recognition–Gnanotpatti–according to charak.
16. Endocrine glands, their name, location and fuctions in health.
17 . Composition of blood functions of blood elements. Blood group and coagulation of blood. Brief information
regarding disorders of blood.
DRAVYAGUNA VIGYAN
Up-vaidya-130
Time-3 hours M.M-100

1. Definition of Dravyaguna Vigyan and its importance.


2. Definition of Dravya and its importance.
3. Definition of Rasa, types and Panchbhautic composition of Rasa.
4. Definition, types and importance of Gunas, Vipaka, Veerya, Prabhav.
5. Introduction to Karmas (actions)
Deepan, Paachan, Graahi, stambhan, Bhedan, Rechan, Anuloman, Sramsana, Samshodhana, Rasayana,
Vajikarana, Vyavai, Madakari, Vikasi.
Introduction to Mishrak Varga
Triphala, Madhurtriphala, Sugandhatriphala, Swalptriphala, Trijatake, Chaturjata, Trikatu, Trimada,
Panchkola, Shadushan, Panchawalkala, Chathurshana, Trikantaka, Panchapallav, Laghu
Panchamool, Brihad Panchmoola, Vallipanchmoola, Trinpanchmoola, Ashtavarga.
6. Classification of Drugs according to Ayurvedic principles.
7. Study of following drugs including Classification, Latin name. Family, Vernacular name, Synonyms,
Botanical description, Varities. Habitat, Chemical composition, Properties, Doshakarm, Actions. Uses, Parts
used : Dosage, Formulations, Substitute and Adulteration.
1. Aragvadha 2. Ardraka
3. Apaamarga 4. Arjuna
5. Ashwagandha 6. Arka
7. Aamalaki 8. Ashok
9. Balaa 10. Bilva
11. Bhringraj 12. Dhatura
13. Ela 14. Gokshur
15. Guduchi 16. Guggulu
17. Chandan 18. Chitrak
19. Haritakee 20. Haridra
21. Jyotishmati 22. Jamboo
23. Jataamansi 24. Kutaja
25. Khadira 26. Bhumyamalki
27. Nirgundi 28. Nimba
29. Marich 30. Madanphala
31. Pareesha 32. Punarnava
33. Pippali 34. Rohitak
35 .Rasona 36. Shirisha
37. Shatavari 38. Karanja
39. Kumari 40 . Shalmali
41 Sudershan 42 . Tulsi
43. Tvak 44 .Udumber
45. Vansh 46 . Vacha
47. Vibhitaki 48 . Lodhra
49. Vidang 50. Yashtimadhu
51. Katuka 52. Vasa
53. Sarpgandha 54. Sunthi

Practical 100 marks


1. Preparation of Herbarium Sheets of 25 drugs.
2. Method of Identification of Drugs.
3. Description and identification of at least 30 important drugs mentioned in the theory.
Rasa Shastra & Bhaishjya Kalpana

Up-vaidya -140

Time-3 hours M.M-100

Section – I Rasa Shastra 50 Marks


1. Principles of Shodhana, Marana and Jarana of Metals & Minerals.
2. Introduction, identification, types, impurities, shodhana, marana, therapeutic dose, adverse effects and
antidotes of Uparasas, Sadharan Rasa, Dhatu and Ratna.
3. Introduction, shodhana, therapeutic dose, antidotes, toxicity of visha-upavisha varga.
4. Preparation of several Ayurvedic formulations like Bhasma, Sindooras, Netrabindu, Varti & Rasa
preparations.

5. Aushadha Yoga
1. Anandbhairav rasa 2 .Arogyavardhini rasa
3. Garbhapal rasa 4. Gandhak rasayana
5. Tribhuvankirtirasa 6. Laxmivilas rasa
7. Navajivan rasa 8. Shwaskuthar rasa
9. Ichchhabhedi rasa 10. Chandraprabhavati
Section – II Bhaishajya Kalpana 50 Marks
1. Preparatory methods of Sneha Kalpana and Sandhan Kalpana.
2. Definition and application of Bhojana, Bhavana, Samskara, Mardana.
3. Preparatory methods of satva, Ghan Kalpana, Kshar Nirmana, Malhar Kalpana.
4. Preparation of several Ayurvedic formulations : Asavas, Arishtha, Taila, Ghrita, etc.
5. Aushadha Yogas:
1. Panchatikta Ghrita 2. Jatyadi Ghrita
3. Triphala Ghrita 4. Pind tail
5.. Satapaki Balitail 6. Panchagun tail
7. Drakshasava 8. Kutajarishta
9. Bhringraj tail 10. Shadabindu tail
11. Vishgarbha tail 12. Shakha vati
13. Khadiradi vati 14. Lavangadi vati

Their compositions, properties and uses.


Practical:
Preparation of at least 30 yoga (Formulations) of different kalpanas.
ROGA NIDAN EVEM CHIKITSA

Up-vaidya -150

Time-3 hours M.M-100

• Definition of Ayurveda as science of life.


• Brief introduction of Ashtang Ayurveda, Ayurveda Utpatti and Vikas.
• Important literary works, especially texts – Brihattrayi & Laghutrayi.
• Panchakarma, Kriyakalpa, Agnikarma, Kshara Karma etc. Special therapeutic procedures – brief
description.
• Aushadha, Ahara, Aushadha sevana kala, Anupana, Anupana & Sahapana, Pathya- Apathya.
• Clinical importance of Chikitsa Chatuspada, Tridosha, Dhatu, Mala, Siddhanta.
• Definition and importance of Roga Vignan and Vikruti Vignan.
• Signs and symptoms of the increase and decrease of Doshas, Dhatu and Malas.
• Kriyakala.
• The importance of srotasa in the production of diseases.
• The determination of the disorders of srotasa.
• The causes and signs and symptoms of the vitiation of srotasa.
• The causes of the diseases of the different srotasa.
• Definition, General discussion and types of Vyadhi (disease).
• Astha mahagada (major disease) and astha nindita (condemned).
• General description and importance of Nidana - panchaka.
• Trividha Rogi pariksha vidhi (Darshana etc. three types of Methodology of investigating a patient).
• Signs, Symptoms and diseases of ojovyapata, ojokshaya and ojochyuti.
• Vyadhikshamatva (Immunity).
• General description of Janapadodhvamasaka vyadhi (Epidemics) and Aupsargika Roga and Sansargaja
Roga (Infectious and communicable diseases).
Prathamik Upchar Evam Rugna Paricharya

Up-vaidya-160

Time-3 hours M.M-100

Vegan dharniyadharniyam Vivek, Kitpatangadinam, Jiwanaitiham, Masak.


Makshika, Pipalikadi, Sansargatah, Roghvishesha, Tesham manavdeho raktagatam chatra gatam
vaishamyam.
Sankramak Nirodhak Bhavaha
Sankramak roga prasarasheha, prasangat Gatra sansparsati, Nihswarat, Sah Bhojanat, Ekasayyashat.
Gandhamalyadi, sam parkaccho psarga Rogah
Teshaam vishistam vigyanam tanni Rodhak & Niwarnabhu tascha Bhavah Swasthasyalakshnam, Swasthya
swarupam, swasthsya rakshanartham. Upachar Dincharya, Ratricharya, Ritucharya, Rituwanusaren, Ahara
swarupam, Nivas sthan vichar, Ahara vidhi vishesayatanani, paraspara viruddha dravya gunam Peyadravya
vishesh, Anupan vichar, Niwas sthan, udyoga sthan, krida sthan, siksha sthan, Paniyajalasthan. Aramgnna,
Jalapan griha, Manovinod sthaladinam niyojana, Aaudogika sadvrita samanye sadurita.
Satmya satmya vichar, Shuchitvam, Vaidya guna, Chikitsalaya Bhesajya nirman Garadisu cha.
Shuchitvavivek, asuchan, Bhutanma, Kitadinamacy pravesha.
Tatjanya vikriti vigyanam, tannivarkopaya prati Rodhakapaya.
Sankramak Roga Gyanam, Tanpodwanshakarnam, Teshma viwarnopaya.
Vayu, Tala, Kala, Deshashacha, Tesham Durtih Tanniwarnopaya.
SINGHANIA
UNIVERSITY

DETAILED SYLLABUS
(BHA)

BACHELOR IN
HOSPITAL
ADMINISTRATION
BHA FIRST YEAR

SYLLABUS
UNIT-1

PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT & ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR

Meaning, Definition, it's nature purpose, importance & Functions, Management as


Art, Science & Profession- Management as social System Concepts of
management.

Contribution of F.W.Taylor, Henri Fayol ,Elton Mayo , Chester Barhard & Peter
Drucker to the management thought. Various approaches to management.

Planning - Meaning - Need & Importance, types levels – advantages & limitations.

Forecasting, Decision making, Organizing, Staffing

Controlling & Coordination

Concept of Organizational Behaviour, Major Components of organizational


behaviour – Personality development, Motivation, Group, Leadership, Cooperation
and Conflict

Characteristics of workgroups

Dynamics of organizational behavior

Motivation and Leadership

Conflict management

Transactional analysis
UNIT 2

QUANTITATIVE MANAGEMENT

Definition of Statistics, Scope of Statistics in Economics, Management

Data Condensation and graphical Methods : Raw data , attributes and variables ,
classification , frequency distribution , cumulative frequency distributions.

Graphs - Histogram , Frequency polygon.


Diagrams - Multiple bar , Pie ,Subdivided bar.

Criteria for good measures of central tendency , Arithmetic mean , Median and
Mode
for grouped and ungrouped data , combined mean .

Concept of dispersion , Absolute and relative measure of dispersion, Range,


Variance,
Standard deviation, Coefficient of variation,

Concept of correlation, positive & negative correlation, Karl Pearson’s Coefficient


of
correlation, meaning of regression,

UNIT-3

PRINCIPLES OF HOSPITAL MANAGEMENT

Concept of Health Care Industry & its ever-changing character

Understanding functioning of Corporate multi-specialty hospital

Managerial activities for effective hospital functioning


Duties and responsibilities of Hospital Managers
Qualities of effective Managers

Effective inter and intra departmental co-ordination

UNIT-4

HEALTHCARE SERVICES

Demography – its concept, Vital events of life & its impact on demography

Significance and recording of vital statistics

Health scenario of India- past, present and future

National Health Policy, National Population Policy, National Five year plans

Background objectives, action plan, targets, operations, achievements and


constraints in various National
Heath Programme.

UNIT-5

HEALTH EDUCATION

Aims & Principles of Health education

Methods of Health Education

Effects of health education

Levels & practice of health education

Need of Health education to attain positive health


UNIT-6

COMMUNICATION & BASIC INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

Basic concepts & principles of good communication


Special characteristics of health communication
Types & process of communication
Barriers of communication & how to overcome
Communication with the media / press

Basic concepts about computer Hardware & Software


Working knowledge of commonly used hospital software
Application of Computer in hospitals
Computer programme and operating system
Importance of effective Health Information system
Digital maintenance of Medical Records
BHA SECOND YEAR

SYLLABUS

UNIT-1
HOSPITAL SUPPORT SERVICES

Methods of Sterilization CSSD


Nosocomial infection and hospital acquired infection control committee
Laundry services
Security Services (General & Others like fire, gas etc.)
Transportation Services (External & Internal)
Ambulatory Care
Hospital Stores
Mortuary (Preservation, transportation & religious formalities)
Kitchen services
House Keeping
Maintenance

UNIT-2
PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT

Concepts & Evolution of personnel Management in Hospital


Public Relation
Methodology & tools of Personnel Management
Office rules & regulation & discipline
Performance appraisal.
UNIT-3
BIOMEDICAL WASTE MANAGEMENT

Definition of Biomedical Waste


BMW – Segregation, collection, transportation, disposal
Liquid BMW, Radioactive waste, Metals / Chemicals / Drug waste
BMW Management & methods of disinfection
Modern technology for handling BMW
Monitoring & controlling of cross infection (Protective devices)

UNIT-4
HEALTH MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM
Why to have HMIS in Hospital set up
Health Information System
Hospital Information System
Management Information System
MIS as a tool to managerial control

UNIT-5
HOSPITAL BASED HEALTHCARE

Concept of Modern Hospital & Privatization in Health Sector


Public Sector Hospitals and Level of care / offered facilities
Concept of Corporate Hospital in developing countries
Infrastructure and lay out of an ideal corporate hospital
Functioning of modern hospitals & changing need of patients
Hospitality in Hospital Care
Invasive and non-invasive diagnostic facilities in modern hospital
UNIT-6
NUTRITION & DIETETICS

Food & Nutrition. Role of Antioxidants


Overview of Metabolism & Balance Diet for patients
Diet for Patient – Selection of food, Cooking methods, Tasty Food, Food to be
avoid / Added in diet, Need of complementary food.
Steps to prevent food adulteration and Food Adulteration Act.
Overview of Clinical Dietetics. Quality control of Food
Hygiene and special precautions in Hospital Kitchen
Management of Hospital diet / Catering service
Role of dietitian in hospital diet service
BHA THIRD YEAR
SYLLABUS

UNIT-1
Hospital Planning, Organization and operation

History and development of hospitals, Definition, types, control, role and


functions, Hospitals in India today- their number,
types, size, distribution, ownership, utilization, issues & trends
Roles & functions of Hospital Administration
Hospital as a system
Public relations & Hospital
General safety
• Fire safety
• Hospital Hygiene
• Hospital acquired infect

Disaster Management
Hospital Planning
Hospital buildings
. • External architectural aspects
• Internal arrangements
• Hospital hygiene
• Lighting & Ventilation
• Role of administrator in building a hospital

UNIT-2
QUALITY MANAGEMENT

Quality Management Programme, ISO clauses, quality manual, quality of clinical


services, Critical Pathways,
Medical Audits, NABL, NABH, JCI, BIS
Performance review – Assessment / Methods
Quality Management of diagnostic facilities
Quality of assurance procedures, Deming’s Principles, Juran Trilogy, Kaizen,
Philip Crosby’s Principles
Management of Social Services. Assessment of Client satisfaction
Quality Circle of India

UNIT-3
MEDICAL EQUIPMENTS & BIO – MEDICAL ENGINEERING
List of common Medical Equipments used in Hospital
Justification of purchase proposal, Hospital Need Assessment
Equipment selection guideline, Estimation of cost and Q.C. Planning
Purchase / Installati8on / Commissioning of Medical Equipments
Replacement of old equipments and Buyback Policy
Estimation of Breakeven point and Profit – Projection in hospital budget
Medical Equipment Maintenance (In-house and AMC)
Local, National and International availability of Medical Equipments

UNIT-4
LEGAL ASPECTS OF HEALTH

Medico- Legal Problems in relation to health administration


Law of Contracts, Specific Performance
Law applicable to Hospital employees
Medical jurisprudence and functioning of hospitals
Consumer Protection Act and Hospitals
West Bengal Clinical Establishment Act and Rules
ESI Act, Trade Union Act
Organ transplantation Act
PNDT - Act
International health organization / NGOs

UNIT-5 &6
PROJECT WORK
SINGHANIA UNIVERSITY, PACHERI BARI
PROPOSED ORDINANCE & SYLLABUS RELATING TO
BACHELOR OF PHYSIOTHERAPY (B.P.T)

These ordinances shall be called "The Ordinances, Syllabus and Scheme of Examination, Training to the Bachelor of
Physiotherapy Course (B.P.T.)

Nomenclature of the course: BACHELOR OF PHYSIOTHERAPY (B.P. T.)

1. AIM OF THE COURSE: The course aims at imparting in depth both the theoretical knowledge as well as the
skills in Physiotherapeutic System of Medicine.

2. OBJECTIVES OF COURSE: During the comprehensive academic programme the basic and clinical Science·
are integrated to;
2.1 Develop knowledge, skills and attitude necessary for competent health education, diagnosis, prevention,
treatment, recovery & rehabilitation of patients from trauma and disease.
2.2 Focus on development of clinical and research aptitude.
2.3 Train them to practice the profession of Physiotherapy in a competent and ethical manner towards those who
need such service with autonomy, quality care, assurance & humanitarian approach with compassion.

3. ELIGIBILITY FOR ADMISSION


3.1 Candidates must have passed 10+2, or Pre-University or Equivalent with Physics, Chemistry, Biology and
English as the main subjects.
3.2 Minimum marks for eligibility in 10+2 subjects in aggregate should be 50%.
3.3 The Candidate must have completed 17 years of age on 31st December year of admission.

4. DURATION OF THE COURSE: The duration of the Bachelor of' Physiotherapy Course shall be four & half year
including compulsory internship of six months.

5. Candidate will be admitted to B.P.T course strictly on merit, as decided by the competent authority.

6. MEDIUM OF INSTRUCTION: English shall be the medium of instruction for all the subjects of study and the
examination of B.P.T. course.

7. ATTENDANCE: A candidate is required to attend at least 75 percent of the total classes conducted in a year in
all subjects prescribed for the year, separately, in theory and practical to become eligible to appear for the
university examination in the first attempt. The Principal / HOD should notify at their college the attendance
details at the end of each term without fall, under Intimation to the University.

8. INTERNAL ASSESSMENT: It shall be based on evaluation of periodic tests of assignment, clinical


presentations etc. Regular periodic examination should be conducted through out the course. Although the
question of number of examination is left to the colleges, there should be a minimum of at least three (3)
sessional examinations during I, II, III and final year. The average of best two examination marks should be sent
to the University before the University examination as per notification. Proper record, which forms the basis of
the Internal Assessment, should be maintained for all students and should be available for scrutiny. Principal /
HOD should display the marks of periodical tests on the student notice board.

9. SCHEDULE OF EXAMINATION: There will be two examination in the year, i) annual examination and ii) a
Supplementary Examination to be conducted as per notification issued by the University from time to time. First,
Second, Third and Final Examinations of Bachelor of Physiotherapy course shall be held at the end of 1st , 2nd
, 3rd and 4th years respectively. The examination for all the subjects shall be conducted by the University.

10. CRITERIA FOR PASSING: A candidate is declared passed in an examination in a subject, if he/she secures
50% of marks in theory and 50% in practical separately. For passing in theory, a candidate has to secure a
minimum of 50% marks in the University conducted written examination, and 50% aggregate i.e. marks scored
in the university conducted written examination and internal assessment (theory) added together and for a
passing in practical, a candidate has to secure a minimum of 50% of marks in University conducted practical
examination and 50% in aggregate, i.e. marks scored in University conducted practical examination and internal
assessment (practical) added together.

11. DECLARATION OF CLASS:


11.1 A successful candidate obtaining 75% and more marks in the Grand Total Aggregate in the First attempt shall
be declared to have passed these subjects with distinction. A successful candidate obtaining 60% and more but
less than 75% of the marks in the Grand Total Aggregate in the first attempt shall be declared to have passed
these subjects with First Class. A candidate securing 50% and more but less than 60% of the marks in the
grand total in aggregate in the first attempt shall be declared Second Class and candidate who passes in more
than one attempt will be placed in Pass Class irrespective of the percentage of marks secured.
11.2 Ranks shall be declared on the basis of the aggregate marks obtained by a candidate in the university subjects
of the course. Only those candidates who have passed all subjects in all examination including the University
examination in the first attempt shall be eligible for the award of rank.
11.3 Ranks shall be declared on the basis of the aggregate marks obtained by a candidate in the University subjects
of the course. Only those candidates who have passed all the subjects in all examinations including the
University examination in the first attempt shall be eligible for the award of rank.

12. CARRY OVER


First year: A candidate who has failed in 1st year is permitted to carry any three of the seven subjects and shall
have to pass these subjects before appearing for the second year examination.

Second year: A candidate who has failed in 2nd year is permitted to carry any five of the ten subjects
and shall have to pass these subjects before appearing for the third year examination.
12.3 Third year: A candidate who has failed in 3rd year is permitted to carry· any five of the nine subjects and
shall have to pass these subjects before appearing for the fourth year examination.

12.4 Internship: There shall be six months of compulsory rotatory Internship after the final examination, for
candidates declared passed the final examination in all subjects. No candidate shall be awarded degree
certificate without successfully completing six months of Internship.

13. A deficiency in the required number of lecturers, clinical and practical may be condoned by the Principal up to
the extent of 5 percent under special circumstances.

14. Notwithstanding the integrated nature of this course which is spread over more than one Academic Year, the
ordinance in force at the time a student joins the course shall held good only for the examination held during or
at the end of the academic year and nothing in this ordinance shall be deemed to debar the University from
amending the Ordinance and the amended ordinance, if any, shall apply to all the students, whether old or
new.

15. In case of any dispute in the interpretation of rules & regulations, interpretation of the same by the Vice-
Chancellor shall be final.
BPT COURSE STRUCTURE

HOURS DISTRIBUTION
FIRST YEAR
PAPER NO. SUBJECT THEORY PRACTICALS
PAPER-1 ANATOMY 100 100
PAPER-2 PHYSOLOGY 100 100
PAPER-3 BIOCHEMISTRY 100 NA
PSYCHOLOGY, PREVENTIVE SOCIAL NA
PAPER-4 100
MEDICINE & SOCIOLOGY
PAPER-5 INTRODUCTION TO PHYSIOTHERAPY-1 100 100
PAPER-6 INTRODUCTION TO PHYSIOTHERAPY-2 100 100
Total= 1000
SECOND YEAR
PAPER-8 KINESIOLOGY & BIOMECHANICS 100 NA
PAPER-9 ELECTROTHERAPY 100 100
PAPER-10 EXERCISE THERAPY 100 100
REHABILITATION, PROSTHETICS & 100 50
PAPER-11
ORTHOTICS
PAPER-12 PATHOLOGY & MICROBIOLOGY 100 50
PAPER-13 PHARMACOLOGY 100 NA
PAPER-14 GENERAL MEDICINE 100 50
PAPER-15 ORTHOPEDICS & SPORTS MEDICINE 100 50
GENERAL SURGERY & PLASTIC 100 50
PAPER-16
SURGERY
PAPER-17 RADIOLOGY NA 50
Total= 1400
THIRD YEAR
CLINICAL ASSESSMENT & PHYSICAL 100 100
PAPER-18
DIAGNOSIS
PAPER-19 MANUAL THERAPY 100 100
BIOSTATISTICS & RESEARCH 100 NA
PAPER-20
METHODOLOGY
PAPER-21 NEUROLOGY & NEURO SURGERY 100 50
CARDIORESPIRATORY DISEASE & 100 50
PAPER-22
THORACIC SURGERY
PAPER-23 PAEDIATRICS NA 50
PAPER-24 GYNAECOLOGY & OBSTETRICS 50 50
PAPER-25 PSYCHIATRY 50 NA
PAPER-26 DERMATOLOGY NA 50
CLINICAL TRAINING
Total= 1O50
FINAL YEAR
CARDIOPULMONARY 100 100
PAPER-27
PHYSIOTHERAPY
PAPER-28 NEUROLOGICAL PHYSIOTHERAPY 100 100
PAPER-29 ORTHOPAEDIC PHYSIOTHERAPY 100 100
PAPER-30 SPORTS PHYSIOTHERAPY 100 100
PAPER-31 GENERAL PHYSIOTHERAPY 100 50
ETHICS, ADMINISTRATION AND 100 NA
PAPER-32
COMPUTER APPLICATION
PAPER-33 PHYSIOTHERAPY PROJECT 50
CLINICAL TRAINING
Total = 1100
BPT COURSE MARKS DISTRIBUTION
First BPT Examination
Paper Subject Theory Practical Viva Total

Paper-1 Anatomy 70+30 70+30 NA 200


Paper-2 Physiology 70+30 70+30 NA 200
Paper-3 Biochemistry 70+30 NA NA 100
Paper-4 Psychology/PSM& Sociology 50+50 NA NA 100
Paper-5 Introduction to Physiotherapy-1 70+30 70+30 NA 200
Paper-6 Introduction to Physiotherapy-2 70+30 70+30 NA 200

Second BPT Examination


Paper Subject Theory Practical- Viva Total
Viva
Paper-8 Kinesiology & Biomechanics 70+30 70+30 NA 200
Paper-9 Electrotherapy 70+30 70+30 NA 200
Paper-10 Exercise Therapy 70+30 70+30 NA 200
Paper-11 Rehabilitation, Prosthetics & 70+30 70+30 NA 200
Orthotics
Paper-12 Pathology & Microbiology 40+10* NA 40+10* 200
+ +
40+10* 40+10*
Paper-13 Pharmacology 40+10* NA 40+10* 100
Paper-14 General Medicine 80+20* NA 40+10* 150
Paper-15 Orthopedics 80+20* NA 40+10* 150
Paper-16 General Surgery & Plastic Surgery 80+20* NA 40+10* 150
Paper-17 Radiology NA NA 40+10* 50

Third BPT Examination


Paper Subject Theory Practical- Viva Total
Viva
Paper-18 Clinical Assessment & Physical 80+20* 80+20* NA 200
Diagnosis
Paper-19 Manual Therapy 80+20* 80+20* NA 200
Paper-20 Biostatistics & Research 80+20* NA NA 100
Methodology
Paper-21 Neurology & Neuro Surgery 80+20* NA 40+10* 150

Paper-22 Cardiorespiratory Disease & Thoracic 80+20* NA 40+10* 150


Surgery
Paper-23 Paediatrics 40+10* NA 40+10* 100
Paper-24 Gynecology & Obstetrics 40+10* NA 40+10* 100
Paper-25 Psychiatry 40+10* NA 40+10* 100
Paper-26 Ophthalmology NA NA 40+10* 50
Paper-27 ENT NA NA 40+10* 50
Paper-28 Dermatology NA NA 40+10* 50

Fourth BPT Examination


Paper Subject Theory Practical- Viva Internal Total
Viva Evaluation
Paper-29 Cardiopulmonary 80+20* 80+20* NA NA 200
Physiotherapy
Paper-30 Neurological Physiotherapy 80+20* 80+20* NA NA 200

Paper-31 Orthopedic Physiotherapy 80+20* 80+20* NA NA 200

Paper-32 Sports Physiotherapy 80+20* 80+20* NA NA 200

Paper-33 General Physiotherapy 80+20* 40+10* NA NA 150

Paper-34 Community Physiotherapy 80+20* 40+10* NA NA 150

Paper-35 Ethics, Administration and Computer 80+20* NA NA NA 100


Application
Paper-36 Physiotherapy Project # NA NA 50 50* 100

# Compulsory Physiotherapy Project: To develop analytical, research aptitude, learn about diseases existing in society
treatable with comprehensive physiotherapy & rehabilitation.
BPT FIRST YEAR

PAPER-1 ANATOMY
 Course Description: This course involves a detailed study of the microscopic, macroscopic and surface
anatomy of the various systems of the body with a particular emphasis on the musculoskeletal, neurological and
cardiopulmonary systems.
 Course Objectives: The student should be able to describe the structure and function of the various system of
the body with an emphasis on musculoskeletal, neurological and cardiopulmonary systems as they relate to
Physiotherapy.

1. Cells & Tissues


a) Anatomical Nomenclature
b) Structure Of Cell, Reproduction Of Cells.
c) Tissues: Epithelial, Connective, Muscle & Nervous

2. Embryology & Development


a) Early Human Development
b) Development of Individual Systems: Respiratory, gastro-intestinal, Urinary and Vascular System.
c) Prenatal Growth in Form And Size
d) Neonatal Anatomy and Growth

3. Skin
a) Types of Skin, Epidermis, Dermis, Nerves, Blood Vessels, age related Changes, Repair
b) Appendages of Skin: Pilo sebaceous Unit, Nail Unit.

4. Skeletal System
a) Morphology of Human Skeleton: The Skeleton in Life, Shape and Proportions of Bone, Functions of Bone and
Skeleton, mechanical Properties of Bone, Growth of Individual Bones
b) Skeletal Connective Tissues: Structure of Cartilage, Bone as a Tissue, Microscopic Structure and Organization of
Bone, Blood Vessels and Nerves of Bone
c) Types of Joints:
d) Axial Skeleton: Vertebral Column, Ribs, Sternum, Skull.
e) Appendicular Skeleton: upper limb, Lower Limb.

5. Muscle
a) Types of Muscle, Attachments of Skeletal Muscle
b) Form and Function in Skeletal Muscle: Form and Fibre Architecture, Functional Implications of Form.
c) Muscle and Movement.
d) Muscles and Fasciae of Head, Neck, Trunk, Upper Limb, Lower Limb

6. Nervous System
a) Regional Organization of Central Nervous System: Spinal Cord, Rhombencephalon, Mesencephalon, Diencephalon,
Telencephalon, Basal Nucleii, Fluid Compartments and Fluid Balance in the CNS.
b) Peripheral Nervous System: Cranial Nerves, Spinal Nerves, and Autonomic Nervous System Peripheral Apparatus of
Special Senses: Gustatory, Olfactory, Peripheral Visual, Accessory Visual, Auditory, Vestibular.

7. Hemolymphoid and Cardiovascular System


a) Haemal Cells and tissue, Haemopoiesis, Lymphoid Cells And Tissues.
b) Blood Vessels, Thoracic Cavity and Heart.
c) Arterial System, Venous System, Lymphatic.

8. Respiratory System
Nose and Paranasal Sinuses, Larynx, trachea. Bronchi, Lungs, Pleura, Mediastinum

9. Alimentary System
Oral Cavity, Abdomen, Oesophagus to Anus

10. Urinary and Reproductive System


a) Kidneys, Ureter, Bladder, Urethra.
b) Reproductive organs of Male and Female.

11. Endocrine System


Pituitary Gland, Pineal Gland, Thyroid Gland, Parathyroid Gland, Chromaffin System, Diffuse Neuroendocrine System,
Adrenal Gland, Paraganglion, Para-aortic Bodies, Tympanic Bodies, Coccygeal Body.

ANATOMY PRACTICAL
Course Description: This course involves a detailed study of the microscopic, macroscopic and surface anatomy of the
various systems of the body with a particular emphasis on the musculoskeletal, neurological and cardiopulmonary
systems. Students will be instructed using dissected cadavers and organ specimens
Course Objectives: The student should be able to recognize various specimens and describe the structure and function
of the various systems of the body with an emphasis on the musculoskeletal, neurological and cardiopulmonary systems
as they relate to Physiotherapy.
1. Surface Anatomy: Identification and Description of surface land marks on Human Specimen
2. Muscles, Bones Ligaments, Joints of head, face, trunk, lower and upper extremities on a dissected human specimen.
3. Gross And Microscopic Anatomy of the Central and Peripheral Nervous System.
4. Gross anatomy of Respiratory, Digestive Endocrine, Urinary and Reproductive Systems on a dissected human body.
Recommended Books
1. Human Anatomy-By Snell
2. Anatomy By Chaurasia-All 3 Volumes
3. Kinesiology By Katherine Wells
4. Neuro-Anatomy By Inderbir Singh
5. Gray`s Anatomy

PAPER-2 PHYSIOLOGY

 Course Description: This course involves a detailed study of the physiology of the various systems of the body
at a microscopic and macroscopic level, with a particular emphasis on the musculoskeletal, neurological and
cardiopulmonary systems
 Course Objectives: The student should be able to describe the structure and function of the various system of
the body with an emphasis on musculoskeletal, neurological and cardiopulmonary systems as they relate to
Physiotherapy.

1. Functional Systems of Cell


a) Cell and its Function
b) Extra-Cellular Fluid, Intra-Cellular Fluid.
c) Functional Systems of Cell, DNA, RNA.
d) Control of Genetic Function and Biochemical Activity in Cells.
e) Cell Differentiation, Cancer.

2. Membrane Physiologies, Nerve and Muscle


a) Transport of Substances Through the Cell Membrane: diffusion, Active Transport.
b) Membrane Potentials and Action Potentials: Resting Membrane Potential of Nerves, Nerve Action Potential,
Propagation of AP, Signal Transmission in Nerve Trunks.
c) Contraction of Skeletal Muscle: Molecular Mechanics of Muscle Contraction, Energetics of Muscle Contraction,
Characteristics of Whole Muscle Contraction, N-M Junction, Muscle AP, Excitation-Contraction Coupling.
d) Contraction and Excitation of Smooth Muscles.
e) Hormonal Control of Smooth Muscle Contraction.

3. Heart and Circulation


a) Cardiac Muscle, Cardiac Cycle, Regulation of Heart Pumping, Cardiac Failure.
b) Rhythmical Excitation of the Heart: Specialized Excitatory and Conductive System of the Heart, Control of Excitation
and Conduction in the Heart.
c) Normal ECG, Methods of Recording, ECG Leads.
d) Heart Sounds
e) Basic Theory of Circulatory Function, Interrelationships among Pressure, Flow and Resistance, Vascular
Dispensability, Arterial Pressure Pulsation, Veins and their Function, Lymphatic system, Microcirculation, Capillary
System, Exchange of Nutrients and Other Substances, Interstitial Fluid, Local Control of Blood Flow, Humoral and
Nervous Regulation of Circulation, Cardiac Output, Venous Return Arterial Pressure and their Regulation.
f) Muscle Blood Flow and cardiac Output During Exercise, Coronary Circulation.
g) Circulatory Shock.
h) RBC, Anemia, Polycythemia, WBC, Resistance of Body to Infection, Blood Groups.
i) Hemostasis and Blood Coagulation

4. Kidney and Body Fluids


a) Body Fluid Compartments: ECF, ICF, Intersitial Fluids and Edema.
b) Urine Formation By the Kidneys: Nephron, Glomerular Filtration, Renal Blood Flow, Tubular Reabsorption.
c) Regulation of ECF Osmolarity and Sodium Concentration
d) Integration of Renal Mechanisms for Control of Blood Volume and ECF Volume.
e) Renal Regulation of Potassium, Calcium, Phosphate and Magnesium, Regulation of Acid- Base Balance.
f) Diuretics

5. Respiration
a) Mechanics of Pulmonary Ventilation, Pulmonary Volumes and Capacities, Alveolar Ventilation, Functions of the
Respiratory Passageways
b) Pulmonary Circulation, Pulmonary Edema, pleural Fluid
c) Physical Principles of Gas Exchange, Transport of Oxygen and carbon dioxide in the Blood and Body Fluids
d) Regulation of Respiration.
e) Respiratory Dysfunction.

6. Aviation, Space and Deep Sea Diving Physiology


Effects of Low Oxygen Pressure on the Body, Mountain Sickness, Effects of Acceleratory Forces, Artificial Climate,
Weightlessness in Space, effects of High Partial Pressure of Gases on the Body, Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy.

7. Nervous System
a) Sensory Receptors, Neuronal Circuits for Processing Information.
b) Somatic sensations: Touch, Position, Pain, Thermal, Headache.
c) Special Senses
d) Motor Functions of the Spinal Cord: Cord Reflexes, Spinal cord Transection, Spinal Shock.
e) Cortical and Brain Stem Control of Motor Function: The Motor Cortex, Corticospinal Tract, Vestibular Sensations and
Maintenance of Equilibrium.
f) Cerebellum, Basal Ganglia, Motor Control: Integration of the Many parts of the total Motor Control System.
g) Intellectual Functions of the Brain, Learning and Memory.
h) Behavioral and Motivational Mechanisms of the Brain: The Limbic System, Hypothalamus.
i) States of Brain Activity: Sleep, Brain waves, Epilepsy, Psychoses
j) Autonomic Nervous System
k) Cerebral Blood Flow, CSF and Brain Metabolism.
8. Gastrointestinal System
a) Motility, Nervous Control, Blood Circulation
b) Propulsion and Mixing of Food
c) Secretory Functions
d) Digestion and Absorption.

9. Endocrinology and Reproduction


a) Hormone Secretion, Transport and Clearance from Blood
b) Hormones: Pituitary, Thyroid, Adrenocortical, Insulin, Parathyroid, Reproductive.
c) Puberty, Menarche, Menopause
d) Pregnancy and Lactation
e) Fetal and Neonatal Physiology: Special Functional Problems of Neonate, Prematurity.

10. Physiology of Exercise and Work


a) Neuromuscular activity human movement, physiological mechanism in movement, behavior, strength, endurance, &
analysis of movement.
b) Circulatory and respiratory response to exercise including effects on the heart, blood circulation, body fluid changes
pulmonary ventilation, gas exchange and transport, etc.
c) Effects of exercise and work on other body functions.
d) Metabolic and environmental aspects of exercise and work-metabolism, energy requirement, efficiency of muscular
work,
nutritional aspects, heat and body temperature regulation and environmental factors.
e) Effects of Exercise training - endurance, fatigue and recovery.
f) Fitness and health - age, sex, body type, race, stress and medical aspects of exercise.

PHYSIOLOGY PRACTICAL

 Course Description: This course involves a detailed study of the physiology of the various systems of the body
by demonstration and performance of practicals with a particular emphasis on the musculoskeletal, neurological
and cardiopulmonary systems
 Course Objectives: The student should be able to describe the structure and function of the various system of
the body with an emphasis on musculoskeletal, neurological and cardiopulmonary systems as they relate to
Physiotherapy.
1. Identification of blood cells and differential counts
2. W.B.C. count
3. R.B.C. count
4. Hemoglobin percentage and color index
5. E.S.R. and Blood group
6. Bleeding time and clotting time
7. Respiratory efficiency tests
8. Artificial respiration and C.P.R.
9. Pulse rate, Heart rate and measurement of Blood Pressure
10. Respiratory rate and Auscultation
11. Normal E.C.G.
12. Reflexes- Superficial and Deep
13. Sensations
14. Tests for functions of Cerebrum
15. Tests for functions of Cerebellum

Recommended Books
1. Course In Medical Physiology—Vol-I & II-By Dr Chatterjeee
2. Medical Physiology By Dr. Bijlani
3. Text Book Of Medical Physiology-Guyton
4. Manual of Practical Physiology- A.K.Jain

PAPER-3 BIOCHEMISTRY

 Course Description: This course involves a study of the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, fats, minerals,
vitamins and essential enzymes. The role of these in the functioning of the human body will be discussed.
 Course Objectives: At the end of the course, the student should be able to describe normal functions of
different components of food, enzymes, describe in details biochemical aspects of muscle contraction, and
describe in brief the biochemical basis of some common lab tests.

1. Cell Biology
a) Membrane, Structure & Function;
b) Junction Of Intracellular Organelle In Brief

2. Carbohydrates
a) Chemistry-Definition, Classification With Examples
b) Functions Of Carbohydrates With Mucopolysaccharides
c) Reducing Properties Of Sugars Of Clinical & Diagnostic Importance (Eg.Benedict’s Test , Banfood`s Test Etc)
d) Metabolism-Digestion & Absorption Of Carbohydrates, glycolysis, Aerobic, Anaerobic, Energetics & Regulation ;
e) Kreb`s Cycle-Its Energetics & Regulation- Role Of T.C.A. Cycle;
f) Glycogenesis, Glycogenolysis & Their Regulation-Role Of Liver In Muscle Glycogen
g) Glyconeogenesis-Significance Of H.M.P. Shunt
h) Hormonal Regulation of Blood Sugar Levels-Important Metabolic Disorders of Glycogen, Lactose Intolerance,
Diabetes Mellitus.
3. Proteins
a) Chemistry-Definition-Function-Classification Of Amino Acids-Protein Structure-Effect Of Temperature On Proteins-
Denaturation-Coagulation ;Isoelectric Ph & Its Importance
b) Metabolism-Digestion & Absorption- Decarboxylation- De-Amination- Transmethylation-Transamination & Their
Importance-Detoxification Of Ammonia Including Urea Cycle ;
c) Special Products Of Amino Acid-E.G. Phenylalnine Glycine ,Methionine[No Biosynthesis] ;
d) Neuro-Transmitters No Bio-Synthesis]

4. Lipids
a) Chemistry-Definition-Classification-[Including Fatty Acids With Examples]-Function -
b) Metabolism-Digestion & Absorption Of Lipids-B-Oxidation-Of Saturated Fatty Acids & Its Energetics & Regulation Of
Fat Metabolism In Adipose Tissue-Ketone Bodies Formation & Utilization—Cholesterol & Its Importance[No
Biosynthesis Needed]-Classification, Sources & Function Of Lipoproteins-Lipoproteinemia Atherosclerosis
c) Fate Of Acetyl-Coenzyme A
d) Cholesterol Biosynthesis
e) Ketogenesis
f) Fatty Acids Biosynthesis
g) Neuro -Transmitters
h) T.C.A.
i) Fate Of Glycerol In Gluconeogenesis, Energy (Glycolysis), Tri-Glycerides,
j) Phospholipid Synthesis,

5. Nuclic Acids
D.N.A., R.N.A.-Definition-Structure & Function-Types-Genetic Code-Catabolism Of Purine –Gout

6. Enzymes
a) Definition-Co-Enzymes-Classification-Factors Affecting-;
b) General Metabolism Of Enzymes [In Brief] ;
c) Inhibition & Types Of Inhibitors ;
d) Iso-Enzymes ;
e) Clinical & Therapeutic Use Of Enzymes

7. Vitamins
a) Water & Fat Soluble-Definition-Classification ;
b) Individual Vitamins-Sources-Co-Enzyme Forms- Function-Reaction Related To Metabolism Covered ;
c) RDA, Absorption-& Transport-Deficiency & Toxicity
d) Biological Oxidation
e) Oxidative Phosphorylation & ETC In Brief

8. Minerals
a) Phosphate, Calcium, & Iron [In Details];
b) Magnesium, Flouride, Zink, Copper, Selenium Molybdenum, Iodine-Sources, RDA, Absorption,-Transport-Excretion
Function & Disorder

9. Acid- Base Balance,Water & Electrolyte


a) Body Water, Ph-Osmolarity Extra & Intra Cellular Fluid-;
b) Buffers-Ph, Buffer System In Blood-
c) Role Of Kidneys & Lungs In Acid-Base Balance
d) Water- Electrolyte Balance Imbalance-Dehydration

10. Hormones
a) Definition-Classification-Mechanism & Action
b) Second Messenger (Ca, Camp, Inositol Phosphate,
c) Metabolic Effects Of Insulin, Glucagon, Catecholamines, Thyroxine
d) Mineralo-Corticoids,Gluco Corticoids

11. Muscle Contraction


a) Contractile Elements;
b) Biochemical Events During Contraction;
c) Energy Metabolism In Skeletal & Cardiac Muscle

12. Connective Tissue


Biochemistry Of Connective Tissue-Collagen –Glyco-Protein –Proteoglycans

13. Nutrition
a) Importance Of Nutrition-Calorimetry-Energy Value-Calorimeter-Respiratory Quotient & Its Significance
b) Basal Metabolic Rate-Definition-Normal Values-Factors Affecting BMR;
c) Energy Requirement-With-Age/Sex/ Thermogenesis/-Specific Dynamic Action Of Food,-Energy Expenditure For
Various Activities
d) Composition Of Food, Balanced Diet Dietary Recommendations Nutritional Supplementation- Nutritional Value Of
Carbohydrates/Proteins/Fats & Fibers,
e) Nitrogen Balance & Its Significance-Protein Energy Malnutrition-Kwashiorkor & Marasmus

14. Clinical Biochemistry


a) Liver Function Test & Renal Function Test ;
b) Relevance Of Blood Levels Of Glucose, Urea, Ca-Phosphate-& Uric Acid;
c) Enzymes-Amylase, CPK, LDH,Isoenzymes
d) Lipid Profile-Tri -Glyceride, Cholesterol/HDL/LDL/ALDL Etc;
e) Protein & Aggression, Glycosuria
f) Introduction to genetics
g) Medical bio-chemistry

BIOCHEMISTRY PRACTICAL

PRACTICALS

A. QUALITATIVE

Qualitative analysis of carbohydrates


Reaction of protein
Abnormal constituents of urine
Milk analysis

B. QUANTITATIVE

Verification of Beer’s and Lambert’s law


Estimation of Blood glucose
Estimation of Blood urea
Estimation of Blood protein
Estimation of Blood creatinine
Estimation of Blood uric acid
Estimation of Blood calcium
Estimation of Blood bilirubin

DEMONSTRATION

Electrophoresis
Chromatography
Recommended Books
1. Fundamentals of Biochemistry-by Dr. Deb Jyoti Das,
2. Biochemistry-by-Dr Satyanarayan
3. Textbook of Medical Biochemistry –Chatterje and Shinde

PAPER-4 PSYCHOLOGY

 Course Description: This course involves a description of some common psychological parameters especially
as they relate to physiotherapeutic practice
 Course Objectives: The student will be able to apply some general psychological principles when dealing with
patients.

1. Definition, application and methods in psychology.


2. Biology of Behavior.
3. Sensory processes and perception.
4. Principles of learning: Classical and Instrumental Conditioning, Cognitive learning.
5. Memory: Theories, long and short – term memories, forgetting, amnesia.
6. Thinking and Language: Concepts, thinking process, problem- solving and decision making, creative
thinking and language communication.
7. Motivation: Theories, Biological and Social motives, frustration and conflict of motives, motives to know
and be effective.
8. Emotion and Stress: Expression and perception of emotions, physiology and application of emotion.
9. Social perceptions, influences, and relationships.
10. Attitudes; Nature and measurement of attitudes, Attitude theories, Factors in attitude change, Behavior and
attitudes
11. Development – A Lifespan Perspective (infancy, childhood, adolescence, adult, old age)
12. Communication
13. Counseling
14. Brief description of Psychological assessment and testing.
15. Personality: Defining and thinking about personality, Theories and issues and controversies and research
16. Abnormal Psychology.
17. Therapy for Psychological distress.
18. Anxiety disorders
19. Personality disorders

Recommended Books
1. Introduction to Psychology- Morgan and King

PAPER-5 PREVENTIVE SOCIAL MEDICINE & SOCIOLOGY

PREVENTIVE SOCIAL MEDICINE

1. Communicable diseases
2. Non-communicable diseases
3. Family planning
4. Health programmes in India
5. Mental health
6. Genetics and health
7. Occupational health
8. Preventive medicine in obstetrics, paediatrics and geriatrics
9. Nutrition and health
10. Environment and health
11. Hospital waste management
12. Communication for health
13. Health planning and management

SOCIOLOGY
 Course Description: This course will introduce students to the basic sociological to concepts, principles and
social process. Social institutions and the various social factors affecting the family in rural and urban
communities will be studied.
 Course Objectives: The student will be able to demonstrate and understanding of the role of socio cultural
factors on health and disease as relates to Physiotherapy.

1. Introduction: Definitions of sociology, sociology as a science of society, uses of the study of sociology, application of
knowledge of sociology in Physiotherapy.
2. Sociology and Health: Social factors affecting health status, social consciousness and perception of illness, social
consciousness and meaning of illness, decision making in taking treatment. Institutions of health, their role in the
improvement of the health of the people.
3. Socialization: Meaning of socialization, influence of social factor on personality, socialization in hospitals, socialization
in the rehabilitation of patients.
4. Social Groups: Concept of social groups, influence of formal and informal groups on health and sickness, the role of
primary groups and secondary groups in the hospitals and rehabilitation settings.
5. Family: Influence of family on human personality, discussion of chares in the functions of a family on the individual's
health, family and nutrition, the effects of sickness on family, and psychosomatic disease.
6. Community: Concept of community, role of rural and urban communities in public health, role of community in
determining beliefs, practices and home remedies in treatment.
7. Culture: Components of culture, impact of culture on human behaviour, cultural meaning of sickness, response of
sickness and choice of treatment (role of culture as social consciousness in moulding the perception of reality), culture
induced symptoms and disease, subculture of medical workers.
8. Caste System: Features of the modern caste system and its trends.
9. Social Change: Meaning of social change, factors of social change, human adaptation and social change, social
change and stress, social change and deviance, social change and health programs, the role of social planning in the
improvement of health and in rehabilitation.
10. Social Control: Meaning of social control, role of norms, folkways, customs, morals, religion law and other means of
social control in the regulation of human behaviour, social deviance and disease.
11. Roles: Role taking and making , concepts of role , multiple roles , role set, role conflicts , role loss and transition , roles
and health.
12. Organization: Goals and functions, organization as systems, organizational impact -individual, family, community,
social structure, power and control in organizations, feminist perspectives on organizations.
13. Sex, gender and feminism: Social construction of sex and gender, sex / gender roles, feminist critiques of sociology.
14. Work: Work, culture and work, theories of work, unemployment, women and work.
15. Leisure: Conceptual and methodological
16. Social Problems of the Disabled
18. Social Security: Social security and social legislation in relation to the disabled.
19. Social Worker

Recommended Books
3. Introduction to Sociology- Vidya Bhushan
1. The Structure of Sociological Theory- Turner
2. Perspectives in Sociology- Cuff, Shaerock

PAPER-6 INTRODUCTION TO PHYSIOTHERAPY

BIO-PHYSICS
 Course Description: This course involves a study of the basic physical principles as they relate to the
application of electrotherapeutic modalities.
 Course Objectives: The student should be able to explain the physical rationale for the use of physical agent
modalities.

1. Physical principles
a) Structure and properties of matter -solids, liquids and gases, adhesion, surface tension, viscosity, density and elasticity.
b) Structure of atom, molecules, elements and compound
c) Electricity: Definition and types. Therapeutic uses. Basic physics of construction. Working Importance of currents in
treatment.
d) Static Electricity: Production of electric charge. Characteristic of a charged body. Characteristics of lines of forces.
Potential energy and factors on which it depends. Potential difference and EMF.
e) Current Electricity: Units of Electricity: farad, Volt, Ampere, Coulomb, Watt
f) Condensers: Definition, principle, Types: construction and working, capacity and uses.
g) Alternating current.
h) Magnetism: Definition. Properties of magnets. Electromagnetic induction. Transmission by contact. Magnetic field and
magnetic forces. Magnetic effects of an electric field.
i) Conductors, Insulators, Potential difference, Resistance and intensity
j) Ohm's law and its application to DC and AC currents. Fuse: construction, working and application.
k) Transmission of electrical energy through solids, liquids, gases and vacuum.
l) Rectifying Devices-Thermionic valves, Semiconductors, Transistors, Amplifiers, transducer and Oscillator circuits.
m) Display devices and indicators-analogue and digital.
n) Transformer: Definition, Types, Principle, Construction, Eddy current, Working uses
o) Chokes: Principle, Construction and working, Uses

2. Effects of Current Electricity


a) Chemical effects-lons and electrolytes, lonisation, Production of an EMF by chemical actions.
b) Electromagnetic Induction.
c) Electromagnetic spectrum.

3. Electrical Supply
a) Brief outline of main supply of electric current
b) Dangers-short circuit, electric shocks.
c) Precaution-safety devices, earthing, fuses etc.
d) First aid and initial management of electric shock

4. Various agents
a) Thermal agents: Physical Principles of cold, Superficial and deep heat.
b) Ultrasound: Physical Principles of Sound
c) Electro magnetic Radiation: Physical Principles and their Relevance to Physiotherapy Practice
d) Electric Currents: Physical Principles and their Relevance to Physiotherapy Practice.

5. Circuit diagrams
a) SWD
b) US
c) MWD
d) LASER.

FUNDAMENTALS OF EXERCISE THERAPY

 Course Description: This course involves a study of the basic physical principles as they relate to the
application of Exercise Therapy.
 Course Objectives: The student should be able to explain the physical rationale for the use of physical agent
modalities. The student should be able to explain the physical rationale for the selection of appropriate
exercises. This course will enable the student to understand the basic mechanics and their application in
Physiotherapy in restoration of the physical bodily function.

1. Mechanical Basis of Movement


2. Force and force Systems, Motion and its Laws, Levers, Angle of Pull, Pulleys and its types, Pendulum, Friction, Work,
Energy and Power, Friction, Stress and Strain.
3. Skeletal Basis of Movement
4. Planes and Axes, Joints and their Classification, Classification of Movement, Degrees of Freedom, Bones and their
Classification.
5. Musculoskeletal Basis of Movement
6. Structure of Muscle and its Classification, Muscle Tension, Muscle Fibre, Group Action of Muscles, Torque &angle of
pull
7. Gravity: Effects, Centre of gravity, Line of Gravity and their Alterations, Role in Human Body and Movement.
8. Equilibrium: Effects, Supporting Base, Role in Human Movement.
9. Simple Machines: Levers and their Functions and classification, Pulleys and their Functions and classification, Inclined
Planes and their Functions and classification.
10. Elasticity: Definition, Stress, Strain, Hooke's Law. Springs. Properties of springs, springs in series and
parallel.
11. Principles of Hydrotherapy: Hydrostatics and Hydrodynamics, Archimedes’s principles, Properties of water, properties
of liquids, pressure, Buoyancy, laws of floatation, Apparent loss in weight, factors determining up thrust, Effects of
buoyancy on movements performed in water, Movement of force, further effects of apparent loss of weight, Equilibrium of
a floating body, movement of water, Inertia, Movement of objects in water.
12. Fundamental and Derived Positions
13. Traction:Principles

FUNDAMENTALS OF PHYSIOTHERAPY PRACTICAL

 Course Description: This course involves a demonstration of some basic physical principles as they relate to
the application of electrotherapeutic modalities and the basic physical principles as they relate to the application
exercise therapy.
 Course Objectives: The student should be able to explain the physical rationale for the use of physical agent
modalities and the physical rationale for the use of exercise therapy

1. Clinical observation
2. Mechanical Principles applied in Physiotherapy like force, Torque, Centre of Gravity, etc.
3. Demonstration of different types of levers in the human body.
4. Demonstration of different types of pulleys and strings used in Physiotherapy.
5. Demonstration of Archimedes’ Principle of floatation and Bernoulli’s Theorem in Hydrotherapy.
6. Demonstration of axial and pendular suspension.
Recommended Books
1. Practical Exercise Therapy- Hollis and Cook
2. Principles of Exercise Therapy- Dina Gardiner
3. Clayton’s Electrotherapy
4. Physical Principles Explained-Low and Reed

PAPER-7 BASIC NURSING

1. Basic Nursing
2. What is Nursing?
3. Nursing Principles
4. Inter Personal relationship
5. Bandaging: Basic turns, Bandaging extremities: Triangular bandages and their application
6. Environment safety
7. Bed making
8. Prone, lateral dorsal, dorsal recumbent, Fowler’s position
9. Comfort measures, Aid to rest and sleeps.
10. Lifting patients up in the bed: Transferring from bed to wheel chair.
11. Transferring from bed to stretcher.
12. Providing for patients Elimination.
13. Giving and taking Bedpan, Urinal: Observation of stools, Unine Observation of sputum
14. Understand use and case of catheters
15. Enema giving
16. Methods of giving nourishment
17. Feeding Tube freeding Drips Transfusions.
18. Care of rubber goods
19. Observation, Reporting and Recording Temperature, Respiration and pulse simple Aseptic Techniques
Sterilization and Disinfection.
20. Surgical Dressing
21. Parental Administer of Medicine
22. Emergencies
23. Proceedings during shock
24. Snake & Animal Bites
25. Transtic Injuries
26. Electric shocks
27. Cardio-Pulmonary Resisucation

First Aid
Syllabus as for certificate of Red Cross Society of St. John’s Ambulance Brigade.

BOOK RECOMMENDED:

1. Principles of Nursing by Sister A. Nancy


2. First aid (Book by Jhon's Ambulance Brigade)
3. Medica1 Emergencies
BPT SECOND YEAR

Paper-8 BIOMECHANICS & KINESIOLOGY

 Course Description: This course involves a description of biomechanical principles


 Course Objectives: The student will be able to tailor an effective treatment programme using biomechanical
principles
1. Mechanics
a) Introduction to mechanics including motion, forces, parallel forces system vectors.
b) Newton's Law of motion, concurrent force system-composition forces, muscle action line etc.
c) Centre of Gravity, line of gravity, stability and equilibrium, law of inertia.
d) Levers, torque, mechanical advantage.
e) Moment arm and anatomic pulleys.

2. Joint Structure and Function.


a) Basic principles of joint design and a human joint.
b) Tissues present in human joint including dense fibrous tissue, bone, cartilage and connective tissue.
c) Classification of joints.
d) Joint function, Kinematics chains and range of motion.
e) General effects of injury and disease
f) Recall anatomy and study the biomechanics of the spine, shoulder girdle, joints of the upper extremity, pelvic girdle and
the joints of the lower extremity.

3. Muscle Structure and Function


a) Mobility and stability functions of muscle
b) Elements of muscles structure and its properties.
c) Factors affecting muscle tension.
d) Types of muscle contraction and muscles work.
e) Classification of muscles and their functions.
f) Group action of muscles, co-ordinated movement.

4. Postures and Gait


a) Posture: Definition, factors responsible for posture, relationship of gravity on posture Postural in balance: factors
responsible for in balance in static and dynamic positions including ergonomics.
b) Description of normal gait, determinants of gait, spatio temporal features, and analysis
c) Gait division: Types, causative factors and analysis.

5. Regional Structure and Function


a) The vertebral column
b) Shoulder complex
c) Elbow complex
d) Wrist and Hand complex
e) Hip complex
f) Knee complex
g) Ankle and Foot complex.

Recommended Books:
1. Joint Structure and Function- Norkin
2. Biomechanics of Human Motion- Leveau

PAPER-9 ELECTROTHERAPY

 Course description: This course involves a detailed study of production, physiological effects, application
techniques, effects, indications, contra-indications, precautions, operational skills of equipment, patient
preparation of physical agent modalities used in Physiotherapy.
 Course Objectives: Student should be able to operate all physical agent modalities safely and effectively.

1. Low Frequency Currents


a) Introduction to AC, DC and Modified Currents
b) Production of DC, physiological and therapeutic effects of constant currents
c) Iontophoresis
d) Modified Direct Current-various pulses, duration and frequency and their effect on Nerve and. Muscle tissue.
Production of interrupted and surged current & their effects.
e) Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation (TENS)
i) Types of low frequency, pulse widths, frequencies & intensities used as TENS applications.
ii) Theories of pain relief by TENS
iii) Principle of clinical application effects & uses indications, contraindications, precautions, and operational skills of
equipment & patient preparation.

2. Medium Frequency Currents: Interferential therapy (IFT)

3. Electrical Reactions and Electro-diagnostic tests


a) Electrical Stimuli and Electrical Properties of Nerve and muscle tissue.
b) Types of lesion and development of reaction of degeneration
c) Faradic - Intermittent direct current test.
d) S.D. Curve and its interpretation.
e) Chronaxie, Rheobase & pulse ratio
f) EMG, NCV tests
4. Actinotherapy
a) Infra Red Rays (IRR)-wavelength, frequency, types & sources of IRR generation, technique of irradiation, physiological
and therapeutic effects.
b) Ultra-Violet Rays (UVR): Physics: Electric arc, process of ionisation, and transmission of current through gases; types
of lamps. Construction of lamps: High pressure Hg vapor lamps, Kromayer lamp, Tridymite formation, Cooling, Spectrum -
Hg vapor lamps (in brief), Fluorescent tube for UV production, PUV A apparatus, Care of lamp. Physiological and
Therapeutic effects - in detail. Photosensitization in brief. Indication, Contra - indications and dangers. Technique of
application: Test dose, local treatment, general irradiation, treatment.Conditions (common) in which above treatment
given. Sensitisers (in brief) Filters.Comparison between l. R. and U.V. Erythema- Development, appearance, and
duration. Wavelength. Penetration. Pigmentation. Tolerance.

5. Thermal Agents
a) Superficial heat - paraffin wax bath, moist heat, electrical heating pads, mode of heat Transfer
b) Cryotherapy
c) Deep heating modalities:
I. Short Wave Diathermy
II. Long wave Diathermy
III. Microwave Diathermy
IV. Ultrasound
Properties, principle of production, construction of apparatus with diagram, methods of application, physiological and
therapeutic effects, technique of application, testing of machine, preparation of patient, types of electrodes, position and
size of Electrodes, therapeutic dosage, dangers, precautions, Indications and contra indications for these modalities.

6 .Therapeutic Light in Physiotherapy


LASER: Define laser and briefly outline its therapeutic indications, contra - indications, efficacy, and precautions
advisable.
7. Biofeedback: Introduction, principles, therapeutic effects, indications, contra-indications and techniques of treatment
8. Advanced electrotherapy: Computerization in electrotherapy, programming parameters, appropriate selection of
parameters and combination therapy.

ELECTROTHERAPY PRACTICAL

 Course description: This course involves a detailed study of production, physiological effects, application
techniques, effects, indications, contra-indications, precautions, operational skills of equipment, patient
preparation of physical agent modalities used in Physiotherapy.
 Course Objectives: Student should be able to operate all physical agent modalities safely and effectively.

1. Basic operation of electric supply to the equipment and safety device.


2. Sensory and motor stimulation of nerves and muscles by various types of low frequency currents on self.
3. Locate and stimulate different motor points region wise, including the upper and lower limb, trunk & face.
4. Therapeutic application different low frequency currents faradic foot bath, faradism under pressure, iontophorsis.
5. Reaction of degeneration of nerves. Plot strength duration curves. Chronaxie and Rheobase.
6. Hydrocollator unit, its operation and therapeutic application of Hot packs-regionwise.
7. Various types of infrared lamps and their application to body regionwise.
8. Paraffin wax bath unit, its operation and different method of application- regionwise.
9. Different types of Ultra violet units, their operation, assessment of test dose and application of UVR - regionwise.
10. TENS Stimulator, its operation and application - regionwise.
11. Short wave diathermy unit, its operation and different methods of application - regionwise.
12. Microwave diathermy unit, its operation and different methods of application - regionwise.
13. Ultrasound unit, its operation and methods of application - regionwise.
14. LASER unit, its operation and methods of application - regionwise.
15. Various forms of therapeutic cold application region wise including ice, cold packs, vapocoolant sprays, etc.
16. Intermittent pneumatic therapy unit its operation and different methods of application - regionwise.

Recommended Books
1. Clayton’s Electrotherapy
2. Clinical Electrotherapy- Nelson and Currier
3. Electrotherapy Explained- Low and Reed

PAPER-10 EXERCISE AND MANUAL THERAPY

 Course description: This course involves a detailed study of physiological effects, application techniques,
effects, indications, and contraindications, precautions for exercises used in Physiotherapy.
 Course Objectives: Student should be able to explain the rationale for the prescription of safe and effective
exercises.

1. Mechanics: Define the following terms and describe the principles involved with suitable examples.
a) Force: Composition of force, Parallelogram of forces. Equilibrium: Stable, unstable, neutral. Forces applied to the body
b) Gravity: Centre of gravity, Line of gravity. Levers: 1st order, 2nd order, 3rd order, Their examples in the human body
and their practical applications in physiotherapy.
c) Levers. Pulleys: Fixed, Movable.
d) Springs: Series and Parallel. Tension. Elasticity: Hooke's law.
e) Axis: Sagittal, Frontal, Transverse, Vertical. Planes: Sagittal, Frontal, Horizontal.
f) Definition of: Speed, velocity.
g) Work, Energy, power, Acceleration, Momentum, Friction and Inertia.

2. Muscle Action
Muscle work: Isotonic (concentric, eccentric), Isometric (static). Group action: Agonists (prime movers). Antagonists,
synergists, Fixators. Angle of muscle pull, Mechanical efficiency of the muscles.
3. Pelvic Tilt
Normal pelvic tilts, alterations from normal, anterior tilt (forward) posterior tilt (backward), Lateral tilt. Muscles responsible
for alterations and pelvic rotation. Identification of normal pelvic tilt, pelvic rotation and altered tilts and their corrective
measures.

4. Starting Positions
Positions, their muscle work, effects and uses. Specify the importance and derived positions for each one: standing,
kneeling, sitting, lying, and hanging.

5. Movements
a) Anatomic movements: Flexion, Extension, Abduction, Inversion, Eversion, Supination, Pronation, Internal rotations,
External rotations, Gross flexion, Gross extension, Trunk side flexion.
b) Surface Anatomy of the individual joints.
c) Rhythm of movement. Timing of movement. Duration of movement.
d) Classification of Movement: Active, passive, Effects of exercise: Physiological effects, Therapeutic effects. Indications
and contra - indications of the following and demonstrate the technique for each: Active movements: Voluntary (free,
active assisted, assisted resisted, resisted), Involuntary (associated reflex, peristaltic, visceral, cardiac). Passive
movements: Relaxed passive, mobilizing passive (forced P.M. manipulations, serial manipulations). Passive stretching.

6. Passive Movements
Passive stretching of following muscles/ muscle groups and describe the indications, contra -indications, physiological
effects, advantages and disadvantages of each. Upper limb: pectoralis major, biceps brachi, triceps brachi, and long
flexors of the fingers.
Lower limb: rectus femoris, iliotibial band (tensor fascia lata), gastro - soleus, hamstrings, hip abductors, iliopsoas. Neck:
Sternocleidomastoid.

7. Active Movements
Types, techniques, indication and contraindications, physiological effects, advantages and disadvantages and
demonstrate three progressive resisted exercises in progression for the following muscle groups: Shoulder abductors,
shoulder forward flexors, Triceps Brachi, Hip abductors, Hip flexors, Quadriceps femoris, Abdominal Muscles, Back
extensors. Home programme for strengthening neck muscles and back extensors

8. Progressive Resisted Exercises


Advantages and disadvantages and demonstrate the techniques of the following types of PRE's: Fractional system, Mac
queens set system, Mac Queen's power system. Delorme's boot, Dumbbells, Sand bags in pulleys, powder board and
suspension therapy.

9. Muscle Grading:
a) Principles and applications techniques of manual muscle testing
b) Testing position, procedure and grading of muscles of the upper limb, lower limb and trunk etc.

10. Re- Education Of Muscles


a) Re-Education Of Muscles: Techniques, Spatial Summation, Temporal Summation.
b) Re-Education Techniques And Facilitating Methods On Various Groups Of Muscles. Progressive Exercises In
Strengthening Using Various Application: (According To Their Muscle Power) Grade 1- Grade IV.

11. Joint Mobility


Joint ranges (outer range, middle range, innerrange). Individual joint structures, joint movements (anatomic, accessory).
Causes of joint range limitations, prevention of joint stiffness. Positioninq (physioloqical resting position) of joints and
teaching home programme.

12. Goniometry
a) Normal range of various joints, Description of goniometer, range of measuring systems (180 foot trunk and head),
Techniques of goniometry. Demonstrate measuring of individual joint range using goniometer.
b) Demonstrate measurement of limb girth (using measuring tape): arm, forearm, thigh

13. Crutch Walking


Components of a crutch, classifications of crutches, characters of a good crutch, preparing a patient for crutch walking,
crutch walking muscles, Measurement of crutches (axillary piece, hand piece). Crutch stance, crutch palsy. Types of
crutch walking (4 point, 3 point, 3 point) (non - weight bearing and partial weight bearing), modified 3 point (paraplegic and
shuffling gait, swing to and swing through. Crutch measurement (sitting standing and lying positions) and various types of
crutch walking (even ground stairs and ramps).

14. Relaxation
Relaxation, Muscle fatigue, Muscle spasm, General causes, signs, symptoms of tension (mental and physical). Factors
contributing to fatigue. Types of relaxation (local and general), indications for relaxation, and techniques of relaxation
(local and general).

15. Posture
a) Posture (static and dynamic). Definition of good posture, Muscles responsible for good posture.
b) Postural mechanisms
c) Definition of abnormal posture (Kyphosis, Scoliosis, Lordosis, Kypho - scoliosis, kypholordosis).
d) Assessment of posture (inspection, measurement - length of legs, width of pelvis, plumb line. ROM of trunk in flexion,
extension, side flexion and rotation). Postural correction by: strengthening of muscles, mobilisation of trunk, Relaxation,
Active correction of the deformities. Passive correction (traction) postural awareness, abdominal and back extensor.
e) Outline principles in bracing of the trunk and surgical correction. Identification of abnormal posture, and postural
corrective measures.
16. Gait
a) Gait and centre of gravity of the human body.
b) Muscles responsible for normal gait, six determinants of gait (pelvic rotation, pelvic tilt, hip flexion, lateral displacement
of pelvis knee flexion in stance phase, normal foot pattern during walking).
c) Walking cycle: Stance (heel strike, foot flat, midstance, and push off), Swing (acceleration, mid swing and deceleration).
d) Following pathological gaits: Gluteus medius Gait, Gluteus maximus gait, Hip flexor weakness gait, Quadriceps
weakness gait; Foot drop gait, hemiplegics gait, Ataxic waddling gait, equinus gait, calcaneus's gait, Equinovarus gait.
e) Skills in identifying pathological gait and proper gait training.

17. Co - Ordination
Balance (static and dynamic). Mechanism of neuromuscular co-ordination. ln coordination : Lower motor neuron lesions,
uppermotor neuron lesions (spasticity), Cerebellar lesions, Loss of kinesthetic sense (tabes dorsalis, syringomyelia,
leprosy), imbalance due to muscular disease. Re- education of balance. Re-education co-ordination: Frenkels Exercises,
proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) techniques. Re-education techniques of balance and coordination.

18. SUSPENSION THERAPY


Basic physics of simple pendulum and pendular movement. Type of suspension: Pendular, Axial, Eccentric fixation
(anterior, posterior, medial and lateral). Indications and technique for each type of suspension. Axial and eccentric fixat
ion for mobilizing, strengthening and re - education of various muscles and joints.

19. HYDROTHERAPY
Hydrostatic pressure, upward thrust of water, buoyancy. To list the indications and contra-indications for hydrotherapy.
Dress codes for patients and therapists, and necessary hydrotherapy equipment. Construction of hydrotherapy tank:
Design, Construction, safety features, cleaning the pool, water heating systems, Hygiene of patient and pool.

20. BED REST COMPLICATIONS:


Complications of patients on prolonged bed rest. Maintenance exercises for patients on prolonged bed rest.

21. Massage
a) History of massage. Mechanical points to be considered. Points to be considered while giving massage. Manipulations.
The time of day for treatment. The comfort and support of the patient (draping and positioning). Position of operator
(therapists stance)
b) Using body weight, Contact and continuity, Techniques, indications, and contra indications. Physiological effects of
massage on various system of body: Excretory system, Circulatory system, Muscular system, Nervous system and
Metabolic system
c) Various manipulation techniques used in massage.
d) Stroking manipulation: Effleurage, stroking. Pressure manipulations: Kneading: Squeezing, stationary, circular ironing
(reinforced kneading), Finger kneading, petrissage (picking up, wringing, rolling), Frictions. Percussion manipulation:
Tapotement, hacking, clapping, Beating and pounding. Shaking manipulations: Vibration, shaking, Technique, effects,
uses and contra indications of the following manipulations: Stroking manipulations. Pressure manipulations. Percussion
manipulations Shaking manipulations. Massage for upper limb, Scapular region, Shoulder joint, Upper arm, Elbow joint,
Forearm, Wrist, Hand. Massage for lower Iimb: Thigh, Knee joint, Leg, Foot (including ankle joints and toes). Massage for
back: Neck and upper Middle and lower back. Gluteal region, arm and leg Massage for the face

23. Therapeutic Gymnasium


i) Set-up of gymnasium & its importance
ii) Various equipment in the gymnasium
iii) Operational skills, effects, & uses of each equipment

24. Functional re-education-general therapeutic techniques to re-educate ADL function.

25. Special Techniques


a) Introduction to special mobilization & manipulation techniques, effects indications, effects, indications &
contraindications.
b) Conceptual framework, principle of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) techniques, including indications,
therapeutic effects and precautions.
c) Review normal breathing mechanism, types, techniques, indications, contraindications, therapeutic effects &
precautions of breathing exercises.
d) Postural Drainage
e) Mat exercises

26. Basic principles of General fitness-warming up exercises, aerobics – cool down exercises

EXERCISE THERAPY PRACTICAL


 Course description: This course involves a detailed study of physiological effects, application techniques,
effects, indications, and contraindications, precautions for exercises used in Physiotherapy.
 Course Objectives: Student should be able to explain the rationale for the prescription of safe and effective
exercises.
1. Soft tissue manipulative techniques regionwise-upper limb, lower limb, neck, back and face.
2. Measurement of ROM of joints-upper limb, lower limb and trunk.
3. To practice the grading of muscle strength regionwise upper limb and lower limb and trunk.
4. Position of joints, muscle work, and stability of various fundamental and derived positions.
5. Different types of muscle contraction, muscle work, group action of muscles and coordinated movement
6. Various types of suspension therapy and its applications on various part of body-regionwise.
7. Local and general relaxation techniques.
8. Structure and functions along with application of various equipment in a gymnasium.
9. Assessment & evaluative procedures, including motor, sensory, neuromotor coordination, vital capacity, limb length &
higher
functions.
10. Various techniques of mobilization of joints regionwise.
11. Various techniques of progressive strengthening exercises of muscles regionwise.
12. Use of various ambulation aids in gait training.
13. Evaluate ADLs and practice various training techniques.
14. Mat exercises.
15. Normal and abnormal posture & practice various corrective techniques.
16. Equilibrium/balance & practice various to improve balance.
17. Structure and functions of hydrotherapy equipment and their applications.
18. Various traction techniques, including manual, mechanical & electrical procedures.
19. Various group exercise therapies.
20. Breathing Exercises
21. Postural Drainage
28. Basic Yogic postures: Padahastasana /Padangusthanasana, Trikonasana, Utkatasana, Padmasana,
Siddhasana,/Sukhasana,
Bhujangasana, Ardha- Salabhasana, Paschimottanasana, Savasana,Dhanurasana, Ardha Halasana, Yogamudrasana,
Uttanasana,
Virasana, Vajrasana, Setu Bandhasana, Gomukhasana, Pavan-Muktasana, Halasana, Sarvangasana, Naukasana,
29. Warm up exercises, aerobics – cool down exercises
22. Introduction to manual therapy techniques such as Maitland’s, Cyriax, Mulligan’s, Tensigrity, etc
Recommended Books
1. Principles Of Exercise Therapy–Dena Gardiner
2. Massage, Manipulation & Traction---Sydney Litch
3. Massage- Holly
4. Suspension Therapy In Rehabilitation—Margaret Hollis
5. Hydrotherapy - Duffield
6. Measurement Of Physical Function - Cynthia Norkins
7. Therapeutic Exercise—Carolyn Kisner

Paper-11 Rehabilitation Prosthetics and Orthotics


Unit-I: Introduction to rehabilitation
1. Concept of Rehabilitation, principals & role of physiotherapist.
2. Present Rehabilitation services including reservation & legislation for rehabilitation of disabled.
3. Team concept & role of different professionals in Rehabilitation.
4. Vocational & social Rehabilitation.

Unit-II: Disability & Rehabilitation.

1. Definition of Impairment, disability & handicap, their causes & role of physiotherapy.
2. Disability evaluation.
3. Activities of daily living.
4. Physical rehabilitation of Disabled or Handicapped.
5. Principals of communication impairment including speech production, communication disorders, aphasia 7 its
management principals of speech therapy.

Unit-III: Community Based Rehabilitation.

1. Definition, aims, objectives, approach of CBR , organization & administration of CBP projects.

Unit-IV: Orthotics

Definition Principles, Usage, checkups, indicates contradiction

Paper-12 PATHOLOGY & MICROBIOLOGY


(Pathology: 70%; Microbiology: 30%)
Course Description: This course involve a detailed study of the various systems of the body at a microscopic and
macroscopic level, with
a particular emphasis on the musculoskeletal, neurological and cardiopulmonary systems
Course Objectives: The student should be able to describe the structure and function of the various system of the body
with an emphasis
on musculoskeletal, neurological and cardiopulmonary systems as it relates to its applications in Physiotherapy
PATHOLOGY
1. Introduction to Pathology
a) Definitions
b) Branches
c) Pathology as a Science
d) Correlation Between Pathology and Physiotherapy
2. Cell Injury, Death and Adaptation
a) Definitions and Causes
b) Mechanisms
c) Morphology of Cell Injury
d) Apoptosis
e) Cellular Adaptations to Growth and Injury
3. Acute and Chronic Inflammation
a) General Features of Inflammation
b) Vascular Changes and Cellular Events-Acute Inflammation.
c) Chemical Mediators of Inflammation.
d) Definitions, Causes and Histological Features-Chronic Inflammation.
4. Tissue and Cell Repair
a) Normal Cell Growth
b) Repair by Connective tissue
c) Wound Healing
d) Fracture Healing
e) Pathological Aspects of repair
5. Hemodynamic Disorders
Edema, Hyperemia and Congestion, Hemorrhage, Hemostasis and Thrombosis, Embolism, Infarction, Shock.
6. Disorders of Immune System
a) Cells of the Immune System
b) Immune Mechanisms of Tissue Injury
c) Autoimmune Disease: Mechanism, RA, SLE, Myasthenia Gravis.
d) Immunodeficiency Diseases: Differences Between Primary and Secondary, AIDS.
7. Neoplasms
a) Definitions and Nomenclature.
b) Characteristics.
c) Carcinogenesis, Carcinogenic agents,.
d) Biology of Tumor Growth, Tumor Immunity.
8. Environmental Disorders
a) Injury by Chemical Agents
b) Injury by Physical Agents
9. Infectious Diseases
a) Categories of Infectious Agents
b) Host barriers to Infection
c) Immune Evasion by Microbes
10. Nutritional Disorders
a) Nutritional Deficiencies
b) Obesity
c) Diet and Systemic Disease
11. Vascular System
a) Vascular Wall Cells and their Response to Injury
b) Arterial Diseases: Arteriosclerosis, Hypertension and Hypertensive Vascular disease, Buerger’s disease, Aneurysm.
c) Venous Disease: Varicose Veins, Phlebothrombosis, And Thrombophlebitis.
d) Lymphatic Diseases: Lymphangitis, Lymphoedema.
12. Cardiac System
a) Principles of Cardiac Dysfunction
b) Types of Heart Disease: Ischemic Heart Disease, Hypertensive Heart Disease, Valvular Heart Disease, Myocardial
Heart
Disease, pericardial Heart Disease, Congenital Heart Disease.
13. Hematopoietic and Lymphoid System
Anemia, Polycythemia, Leukopenia, Leukemia, Deficiencies of factor VIII and IX, Splenomegaly.
14. Respiratory System
Atelectasis, obstructive Lung disease, Restrictive Lung Disease, Vascular Lung Diseases, Pulmonary Infections:
Pneumonia,
Tuberculosis, Lung Abscess, Pleural Disorders: Pneumothorax, Hemothorax.
15. Gastrointestinal System
Gastritis, Gastric Ulcerations, Ischemic Bowel Disease, Appendicitis, GI Tract Infections, Crohn’s Disease, Jaundice,
hepatic
Failure, Cirrhosis, Hepatitis, Cholelithiasis, Cholecystitis, Diabetes Mellitus, Pancreatits.
16. Urinary and Reproductive System
a) Nephritis, Kidney Stones.
b) Male Genital Tract: Specific Inflammation.
c) Female Genital Tract: Pelvic Inflammatory Disease, Menopause and Post Menopausal Changes, Endometritis,
Carcinoma
of the Mammary Glands.
17. Endocrine System
Hyperpituitarism, Hypopituitarism, Hyperthyroidism, Hypothyroidism.
18. Musculoskeletal System
Osteoporosis, Osteomyelitis, Osteoarthritis, Gout, Osteoma, Osteosarcoma, Chondroma, Chondrosarcoma,
Osteochondrosarcoma, Muscular Dystrophy.
19. Integumentary System
Psoriasis, SLE, Acne Vulgaris.
20. Nervous System
Hydrocephalus, Meningitis, Hematoma, Multiple Sclerosis, Alzheimer’s Disease, Parkinsonism, G.B. Syndrome.

PRACTICALS
Demonstration of slides
Anaemia
Leukaemia
Acute inflammation
Chornic inflammation
Tuberculosis of lymphnode
Leprosy
Squamouscell" carcinoma
Osteoclastoma
Specimen Dcmonstration

BOOK REFERENCES:
1. Pathology : Robbins
2. Aids of Pathology : Dixson
3. Boyd's Text Book of Pathology : Boyd
4. Text Book of Pathology : N. C. Dey
MlCRO BIOLOGY

1. General Bacteriology
1.Introduction, Historical background, Classification of microorganisms.
2.Morphology of Bacteria
3.Staining of bacteria.
4.Sterilization
5.Cultivation and culture media
2. Systemic Bacteriology
1. Gram-positive Cocci-Streptococci Staphylococci and Pneumococci
2. Gram-negative cocci-Gono. & Meningo cocci.
3. Gram negative bacilli - Typhoid, Cholera Dysentery
4. Gram positive bacilli
a) Aerobic - Diphtheria, Tuberculosis, Leprocy
b) Anaerobic - Tetanus, Gas Gangrene, Botulism.
3. Immunology
Immunity, Anatigens,
Antibodies, Antigen and Antibody Reactions
Agglutination. Precipitation Hypersensitivity reactions:
4. General Virology
a) Poliomyelities
b) Rabies
c) Demonstration of tests in
Diagnosis of AIDS
Diagnosis of Hepatitis
Diagnosis of Syphilis
5. Parasitology
Malaria
Amoebiasis
Roundworm & Hookworm
6. Mycology
Candidiasis, Ringworm, Scabies

PRACTICALS

1. Demonstration of collection of clinical specimens and cultivation of samples.


2. Demonstration of cultures
3. Demonstration of H.D. & Simple Grams and Ziehl Neelsens staining
4. Demonstration of Sterilization techniques
5. Demonstration of Serogical tests.
6. Demonstration of Diagnostic tests of AIDS, Hepatitis. Syphilis.
7. Demonstration of Fungi.
8. Demonstration of Hypersensitivity tests

BOOK REFERENCES:

1. Microbiology : Rajesh Bhalani


1. Text Book of Microbiology : Rajesh Bhatia
2. Text Book of Parasitology : Bhatia

Paper-13 PHARMACOLOGY
Course Description: This course involves the principles involved in using common drugs,
Course Objectives: The student should be able to explain the indication, Contra indication and side effects of commonly
used drugs
1. General pharmacology
a. Definitions and Routes of Drug Administration
b. Pharmacokinetics:
c. Transportation across membranes, Absorption, Distribution, Biotransformation, Excretion, Kinetics of elimination
d. Pharmacodynamics:
e. Principles and Mechanisms of Drug Action, Combined effects of drugs , Drug dosage , Factors modifying Drug Action .
f. Adverse Drug Effects
2. Systemic Pharmacology
a. Drugs acting on Central Nervous System: Anaesthetics, alcohols, alkaloids, narcotics, neuroleptics
b. Hypnotics, anticonvulsants,
c. Sedatives, stimulants, antianxiety, etc
d. Drugs acting on peripheral nervous system: Skeletal muscle relaxants
e. Local anaesthetics
f. Drugs acting on the Autonomic Nervous System: Cholinergic &
g. Anticholinergic drugs ,
h. Adrenergic & Antiadrenergic drugs.
i. Drugs acting on cardiac vascular system.
j. Drugs acting on the respiratory system
k. Drugs acting on the Kidney.
l. Drugs affecting Blood and Blood formation
m. Gastrointestinal Drugs
n. Antimicrobial Drugs
o. Drugs acting on Skin and Mucous membrane
p. Antiseptics, Disinfectants, and Ectoparasiticides
q. Chelating agents
r. Chemotherapeutic agents.
s. Hormones and drugs affecting endocrine functions
t. Vitamins
u. Metabolic and other inorganic compounds.
v. Immunologic agents.
w. Diagnostic agents.
x.Respiratory System
y. Geriatrics
Recommended Books
1. Essential of Medical Pharmacology- K. D. Tripathi
2. Pharmacology in Rehabilitations- Ciccone

Paper-14 GENERAL MEDICINES


Course Description: This course involves the management of general medical, cardiopulmonary, skin, psychiatric
conditions and common
emergencies requiring medical care. Identification and description of the relevant instruments used for investigation and
practice for
management of general medical, cardiopulmonary, skin and psychiatric conditions will also be discussed.
Course Objectives: The student should be able to describe the management of general medical, cardiopulmonary, skin
and psychiatric
conditions with a special emphasis on conditions involving physiotherapy management. The student should be able to
understand the
importance of first aid and explain the rules of first aid, identify and give first aid in common emergencies, describe the
types of wounds,
haemorrhages, shock and respiratory emergencies, acquire knowledge about ambulances service and their functions in
relation t o
emergencies. The student should be able to describe the assessment of general medical, cardiopulmonary, skin and
psychiatric conditions
with a special emphasis on conditions involving physiotherapy management.
I. GENERAL MEDICINE
1. Genetic, Immunological, Environmental, Climatic Factors in Disease.
2. Diseases due to Infection
3. Major Manifestations of Infection, Principles of Management, Diseases due to : Viruses, Chlamydiae, Rickettsiae,
Bacteria,
Spirochaetes, Fungi, Protozoa, helminthes, Arthropods, STD.
4. Diseases of the alimentary tract and pancreas
5. Diseases of the teeth, stomach and duodenum, large and small intestine and pancreas
6. Gastro-intestinal haemorrhage
7. Inflammatory Bowel Disease.
8. Diseases of the Liver and Biliary System
9. Jaundice, portal hypertension, ascites, renal failure , hepatic encephalopathy fulminant hepatic failure , acute and
chronic
parenchymal disease , tumors of the liver, liver transplantation , gall stones , cholecystitis
10. Nutritional factors in disease
11. Disturbances in water, electrolyte and acid – base balance.
12. Physiology of water and electrolytes, major manifestations of electrolyte and acid – base disorders , hypernatremia ,
hyponatremia , hyperkalaemia , hypokalaemia , sodium and water excess , calcium , phosphate and magnesium
disorders ,
metabolic acidosis and alkalosis , respiratory acidosis and alkalosis mixed acid – base disorders.
13. Diseases of Kidney and Genito- urinary system
14. Acute glomerulonephritis syndrome, nephrotic syndrome, recurrent haematuria, renal failure, glomerular diseases ,
infections if
the kidney and urinary tract , obstruction of the urinary tract , urinary tract calculi and nephrocalcinosis , congenital
abnormalities
of the kidney , drug – induced kidney disorders and tumors.
15. Diseases of the endocrinal system and metabolic
16. Hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal diseases
17. Sexual disorders
18. Diabetes Mellitus
19. Diseases of the Blood.
20. Disorders of the erythrocytes & leucocytes,
21. Blood transfusion, haemostasis
22. Disorders of the venous thrombosis
23. Oncology
24. Clinical presentation and principles of management
25. Principles of Geriatric Medicine.
26. Demography of aging, normal old age
27. Atypical presentation of disease
28. Acute confusion, urinary incontinence, immobility, falls.
29. Acute poisoning
30. Assessment of severity, general principles, general features and management and prevention.
II. CARDIAC DISEASE
1. Disorders of heart rate, rhythm, and conduction.
2. Ischaemic (Coronary) heart disease.
3. Myocardial Infarction.
4. Vascular disease
5. Diseases of the heart valves.
6. Congenital Heart Disease.
7. Diseases of the myocardium.
8. Diseases of the pericardium.
III. PULMONARY DISEASE
1. Obstructive pulmonary disease.
2. Infections
3. Tumors of the Bronchus and lungs.
4. Interstitial pulmonary diseases.
5. Diseases of the nasopharynx, larynx, trachea.
6. Diseases of the pleura, diaphragm, chest wall.
IV. SKIN
1. Signs & symptoms of skin disease.
2. Skin damage from environmental hazards.
3. Infections, infestations, insect bites, & stings.
4. Immunologically mediated skin disorders.
5. Skin disorders in AIDS, immunodeficiency & venereal disease.
6. Brief description of eczematous dermatoses, psoriasis, lichen planus, acne , rosacea , and similar disease , malignant
disease of
skin , disorders of keratinization , skin problems in infancy , old age , pregnancy & the skin , metabolic disorders & reticulo
histiocytic proliferative disorders , disorders of hair & nails , systemic disease , disorders of pigmentation , principles of
management of skin diseases.
V. PSYCHIATRY
1. Brief description of epidemiology and etiological factors.
2. Classification of psychiatric disorders.
3. Clinical interview (MSE)
4. Brief description of psychological and physical treatments used.
5. Brief description of clinical syndromes (organic psychiatric disorders, substance abuse, schizophrenia, affective
disorders,
neurotic, stress related and somatoform disorders, eating disorders, sleeping disorders, sexual dysfunction, puerperal
mantal
disorders personality disorders, factitious disorders)
6. Psychiatric problems in a general hospital, community psychiatry, legal aspects of psychiatry.
Recommended Books
Principles and Practice of Medicine by Davidson

Paper-15 ORTHOPAEDICS & SPORTS MEDICINE


Course Description: This course introduces and enables the student to understand orthopaedic conditions which
commonly cause
disability and their medical and surgical management.
Course objectives: The student will demonstrate an understanding of orthopaedic conditions which commonly cause
disability and their
medical and surgical management.
1. Traumatology: Definition, Classification, Clinical Features, Differential Diagnosis, Investigations, Medical and Surgical
Management of the Following
A. General Principles, outline the following
I. Types of Fractures including patterns. Open and closed fractures and fracture dislocations.
II. Differences between dislocation subluxation.
III. General & Local signs & symptoms
IV. Principles of management-Conservative and Surgical.
V. Prevention and treatment of complications including fracture disease, Volkmann's ischaemic contracture, Sudeck's
Atrophy, Carpal Tunnel syndrome. Myositis ossificans, and shoulder-hand syndrome.
VI. f .Functional Bracing
VII. Soft Tissue Injuries
B. Upper Limb Trauma
I. Enumerate major long bone fractures and joint injuries.
II. Enumerate the major soft tissue Injuries.
III. Describe their clinical features. Principles of management and complications.
C. Lower Limb Trauma
I. Enumerate major long bone fractures and joint injuries.
II. Enumerate major spinal fractures and joint injuries.
III. Enumerate the major soft tissue Injuries.
IV. Describe their clinical features. Principles of management and complications
V. Enumerate the major soft tissue Injuries.
VI. Describe their clinical features. Principles of management and complications
D. Spinal Trauma
E. Polytrauma
I. Nerve Injuries
II. Vascular Injuries
3. Amputations
I. Classify amputations. List indication for surgery.
II. Outline pre-operative, operative and prosthetic management.
III. Outline prevention and treatment of complications.
4. General Orthopedics
A. Congenital Deformities: Outline the clinical features and management of CTEV, CDH, Flat foot, vertical talus, limb
deficiency
(radial club hand and femoral, tibial and fibular deficiencies meningomyelocoele, Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita and
Osteogenesis imperfecta, Congenital Torticollis, Spina Bifida, Sprengel’s Shoulder, etc.
B. Developmental Disorders of Bone: Outline the Clinical Features and Management of Cartilage Dysplasia And Bony
Dysplasia.
C. nfections of Bones and Joints: Outline the Clinical Features, Pathogenesis, Investigations, Differential Diagnosis and
Management of Osteomyelitis, Pyogenic Arthritis, Septic Arthritis, etc.
D. Tuberculosis of Bones and Joints: Outline the Clinical Features, Pathogenesis, Investigations, Differential Diagnosis
and
Management of spine, Hip, Knee, SI Joint, Poncet’s Tuberculous Rheumatism, Tubercular Osteomyelitis, etc.
5. Regional Orthopedics: Outline the Definition, Classification, Clinical Features, Pathogenesis, Investigations,
Differential Diagnosis,
Complications and Management of the following conditions:
A. Shoulder; Tendinitis, Peri Arthritis, Rotator Cuff Injury, Deltoid Fibrosis, Adhesive Capsulitis, Frozen Shoulder, etc.
B. Elbow: Tennis Elbow, Golfer’s Elbow, Recurrent Slipping of Ulnar Nerve, Pulled Elbow, etc.
C. Wrist and Hand: Ganglion, DeQuervain’s Disease, Trigger Thumb and Finger, Carpal Tunnel Syndrome, Dupuytren’s
Contracture,
etc.
D. Spine: Cervical: Brachial Neuralgia, Brachial Plexus Injury, Thoracic Inlet Syndromes, Torticollis, Cervical Spondylitis,
PID, etc.
Thoracic and Lumbar Spine: Deformities of the spine, Spondylolisthesis, Lumbosacral Strain, Lumbar Canal stenosis,
Spondyliti s,
PID, etc
E. Hip: Coxa Vara, Slipped Upper Femoral Epiphysis, AVN, etc.
F. Knee: Deformities, Quadriceps Fibrosis, Recurrent Dislocation of the Patella, Osgood Schlatter’s Disease, Loose
Bodies, Anterior
Knee Pain, Chondromalacia Patellae, etc.
G. Foot and Ankle: ainful Heel, Plantar Fascitis, Posterior Heel Pain, Deformities, Forefoot pain, metatarsalgia, Tarsal
Tunnel
Syndrome, etc
H. Peripheral Nerve Injuries: Outline the clinical features and management, including reconstructive surgery of, Radial,
median
and ulnar nerve lesions, Sciatic and lateral popliteal lesions, Brachial Plexus injuries including Erb's, Klumpke's and crutch
palsy.
6. Special Surgical Techniques
A. General Principles and Applications of the Following:
B. Arthrodesis and Arthroplasty
C. Tendon Transfer
D. Muscle Lengthening
E. Tenotomy
F. Tendon repair
G. Osteotomy
H. Nerve Suturing
I. Discectomy
J. Spinal Fusion
K. Laminectomy
L. Soft Tissue Release
7. Common Sports Injuries
Recommended Books
1. Outline of Fractures- Adams
2. Outline of Orthopedics- Adams
3. Turek
4. Campbell

Paper-16 GENERAL SURGERY & PLASTIC SURGERY


Course Description: This course involves the management of general surgical, eye, ENT, cardiopulmonary,
gynaecological and obstetrical conditions. Identification and description of the instruments used for investigation and
practice for management of general surgical, eye,
ENT, cardiopulmonary, gynaecological and obstetrical conditions will be discussed.
Course Objectives: The student should be able to describe the management of general surgical, eye, ENT,
cardiopulmonary, gynaecological and obstetrical conditions with a special emphasis on conditions involving physiotherapy
management. The student should
be able to describe the assessment of general surgical, eye, ENT, cardiopulmonary, gynaecological and obstetrical
conditions with a special
emphasis on conditions involving physiotherapy management.

Introduction:
Description of events frequently accompanying General Anesthesia.
Blood transfusion and
Physiological response of the body.
Wounds, Scars, Ulcers, Boils, Carbuncles etc.
Principles of Pre and Post Operative Physical examination
Investigations
Surgical Post operative complications and their examination

Surgery:

lncisions, Complications and management of following


Nephroctomy, Appendicectomy, Herniorrhaphy
Mastectomy, Thyroidectomy, Colostomy, Adrenalectomy
Cystectomy, Hysterectomy, Prostatectomy, Cholecystectomy
Nesostomy, Incisional Hernia and its prevention
Lectures on the familiarity of various instruments used in surgical procedures and their demonstration.

BOOK REFERENCES:
1. Baily & Love Short Practice of Surgery - by Rains & Ritelife
2. Surgery by Nan
General Surgical Operations by R.M. Kirk and R.C.N. Willamson.
PLASTIC SURGERY

1. Burns; Causes. Classification, medical Management and precautions in the acute stage.
Complications of burns and their management.
2. Plastic Surgery:
a) Principles of plastic surgery Post-operative management, and
Complications.
b) Cineplasty
c) Principles of cosmetic surgery
d) Skin Grafting
e) Surgery of hand with emphasis on the management of traumatic and leprosy hand.
f) Burns and plastics surgery management.

Paper-17 RADIOLOGY
(Both in Normal and Pathological conditions)

1. Radiology of bones spine and joints.


2. Radiology of chest including heart.
3. Study of Computerised Axial Tomograpy of spine, bones and joints.
4. Study of Magnetic Resonance Image Diagnosis
5. Study of Ultrasound in soft tissue, Muscle, and Ligaments Diagnosis (Lecture Demonstration only).
SYLLABUS FOR THIRD YEAR

Paper-18 Clinical Assessment & Physical Diagnosis

Objective
To understand the basic skill and logical reasoning of assessment and planning the treatment of the patient.
Unit-I:Assessment
Demographic Data, History taking, observation, Examination, Investigation, Differential Diagnosis, Problem Test,
Formulation of log term & short term goals, treatment planning, home advice, follow-up.
Unit-II:Orthopedic & Sport Assessment
Detailed regional orthopedic assessment & evaluation with emphasis on special tests head & face, cervical spine, TMJ,
shoulder, Elbow, Forearm, wrist, Head, Thoracies spine, lumber spine, pelvis, hip, knee, foot, and complex.
Unit-III: Neurological Assessment

Neurological assessment and evaluation with emphasis on surface testing, sensory & motor examination, higher mental
functions, cranial nerve testing, balance & coordination, functional evaluation etc.
Unit-IV: Cardiopulmonary Assessment
Detailed cardiopulmonary assessment & evaluation with emphasis on chest symmetry & expansion, exercise testing
methodology, percussion, investigations, (That is x-rays, PFT, ABG) dyspnea etc.
Unit-V: Electro Diagnosis
Electromyography, NCV, Instrumentation, and technique.
H- reflex, F response, Blink reflex, FG Test, SD curve.

Paper-19 PHYSIOTHERAPY III - (Manual Therapy)

Objective
To understand & apply the basic biomechanical and exercise therapy principle in manual treatment of the patients.

Definition
Local effects of Massage
Types of Massage
Physiological effects.
Therapeutic application Techniques

Tissue Mobilization

Definition and description,


Therapeutic Techniques
Physiological Effects
Kneading
Picking
Skin Rolling
Clapping
Friction
Tapping
Effleurage
Stroking
Petrissage
Hacking
Concepts, Technique, procedure and skills of Mannual Mrdicine
Mackenzie,
Mulligan.
Maitland and
Kaltenbora
Assessment of the Tissue Pathology
Therapeutic Application for
Pain management
Join Mobilization.

Paper -20: Biostatistics and Research Methodology

Objective
To understand the step of research process and research method.
To develop the skills of critical thinking and selection of research strategy.
Unit- I: Introduction:
Introduction to Biostatistics, types of variables and scales of measurement, measures of central tendency and dispersion,
rate, ratio, proportion, incidence and prevalence.
Unit-II: Sampling
Methods of sampling, Randomization, Sampling and non-sampling errors and methods of minimizing these errors.
Unit-III: Basic probability distribution and sampling distributions:
Concept of probability and probability distribution. Normal, Binomial distribution, Standard error and confidence intervals,
Skewness and kurtosis.
Unit-IV: Tests of Significance:
Basic of Testing of hypothesis-Null and alternate hypothesis, type I and type II errors, level of significance and power of te
test, p value.
Parametric test, non-parametric test, correlation and regression.
Research Methodology
Unit-I: Research in Physiotherapy
Introduction, Definition, Types of research, aims and objective of research, methodology, analysis and report writing.
Unit-II: Concepts of Measurement
Reliability, validity, direct and indirect measurement variables.
Unit-III: Research Design
Types of design- clinical trails, surveys, observations, exploratory, case study, case reports etc.
Unit-IV: Clinical Research
Hypothesis, formulation writing research work, collection, interpretation, presentation of data.

Paper-21 NEUROLOGY AND NEUROSURGERY


Objective
To know the clinical manifestation of neurological disorders and their medical management.

1. Basic New physiology


a) Motor (Pyramidal Extra pyramidal & Cerebellar)
b) SENSORY
c) Reflexes, Bladder and Bowel control.
2. Principle of clinical examination, Diagnosis, Differential diagnosis and prognosis of neurological disorders.
3. Salient Clinical feature & Management of common Neurological disorders.
a) Cerebral Palsy
b) Stroke
c) Neuro-infections
(i) Meningitis
(ii) Encephalitis
(iii) Poliomyelitis
(iv) Neurosyphilis.
d) Movement disorders (Parkins onism, Dystonia, chorea Tremors.and Writer's Cramps) Cerebellar ataxia,
Fredreick alaxia etc.
e) Motor Neurone Disease
f) Dementia .
g) Diseases of Spinal cord
i) Compressive (Spondylotic Tumors)
ii) Non-Compressive
h) Peripheral Neuropathies
i) G.B. Syndrome
ii) Non-compressive
iii) Diabetic Neuropathy
i) Muscle Disorders
i) Dystrophies
ii) Polymyositis
iii) Myaesthenia Gravis

NEUROSURGERY

THEORY
Neurophysiology: .
Review in brief the neurophysiological basis of Tone and Disorder of Tone and Posture Bladder control, Muscle
contraction.
Movement and pain.
Brief clinical features and surgical management of the following neurological disorders.
1. Congenital and Childhood disorders
a) Hydrocephalus
b) Spina bifida
2. Trauma-Broad localisation. First Aid and management of sequelae of Head injury and spinal cord injury.
3. Diseases of the Spinal cord.
a) Syringomyelia
b) Craniovertebral junction anomalies
c) Cervical and lumber disc disease
d) Tumors
e) Spinal arachnoiditis
4. Peripheral Nerve Disorders
a) Peripheral nerve injuries : Localisation and Management
b) Entrapment neuropathies
5. Intracranial tumours : Broad classification, Signs and Symptoms.
6. Pre-Operative assessment and indications and contraindications for Neurosurgery.
7. Management of pain. Electrical Stimulation of brain and spinal cord.

PRACTICAL
Clinical assessment of neurological function by
1. Basic history taking to determine whether the brain, spinal cord peripheral nerve
is involved.
2. Assessment of higher mental function such as Orientation, Memory, Attention,
Speech and Language. .
3. Assessment of Cranial nerves
4. Assessment of Motor System
5. Assessment of Tone Spasticity Rigidity and Hypotonia
6. Assessment of Sensory function, Touch, Pain and Position
7. Assessment of cerebral function
8. Assessment .of Higher cotical function - Apraxia etc.
9. Assessment of Gait abnormalities.

BOOK REFERENCES:
1. Davidson's Principles and Practice of medicine
2. Brains Clinical Neurology
3. Medicine and Neurology By Golewala
4. Surgery By Nan
5. Bailey and Love - Short Practice of Surgery

Paper-22 Cardiopulmonary Disease & Thoracic Surgery

Objective
To know the clinical manifestations cardiac and thoracic diseases and their management.

A) Brief idea of Anatomy and physiology of Cardio-respiratory system


B) Outline Aetiopathogenesis of Cardio-respiratory disorders, Investigations.
Diagnosis, Differential diagnosis and principles of management.
C) Cardio Vascular System
i) Cardiac failure - Definition, Causes, Symptoms and Signs and Brief management of cardiac failure.
ii) Rheumatic Fever-Definition, Causes. Symptoms and Signs and' Brief description of aetiology, Clinical features,
Complications and Treatment.
iii) Congenital Heart Diseases: Classification and brief outline of diseases like ASD, VSD, PDA. Fallot's Tetralogy
with complication.
iv) Infective Endocarditis - Brief aetiopathogenesis, Clinical features, Diagnosis and treatment.
v) Brief description of Deep Vein Thrombosis and Pulmonary embolisms.
vi) Vascular Disease Atherosclerosis Burgers disease, Phlebitis etc.

Respiratory System:

1. Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema, Definition, Clinical features, . Investigation Complication and Treatment.
2. Bronchial Asthma Definition, Aetiopathogenesis, Clinical features, Diagnosis and Treatment.
3. Pneumonia- Definition, classification Clinical features complications & Treatment.
4. Tuberculosis Aetiopathogenesis Clinical tests of pulmonary Tuberculosis, Diagnosis. Complication and
Treatment.
5. Lung Abscess and Bronchiactesis Defionion Clinical features.
6. Chest wall deformities Describe various Deformities of chest wall and effect and pulmonary diseases associated
with it.
7. Occupational Lung disease, Clinical features, diagnosis & Treatment.
8. Respiratory failure Classification, Causes and Treatment.

Cardio thoracic Surgery

1. Introduction:
Types of incision, Pre and Postoperative Assessment. Management and complications of Cardio thoracic
Surgery and their management.
2. Cardiac Surgery
3. Outline indications: Contra-indications, site of incision, Pre and Post . Operative Valvotomy and Valve
Replacement Open Hear Surgery Cardiac By Pass Surgery.
Surgery on Percardium
Operations in Congenital disorders
Heart Transplantation
Pacemaker
Coronary Angioplasty
Baloon Angioplasty and Vascular Surgery (Outline surgery) of artery and veins)
4. Thoracic Surgery:
i) Outline clinical features and management of the following Fracture of ribs. Flail chest stove in
chest, Pneuinothorex, Haermothorax, Lung Contusion and Laceration and Injury to vessels and Brunches.
ii) Outline Indications, Contraindication : Site of incision, Pre and post operative management and
complications of following Loberctomy, Pneumonectomy, Segmentectomy
iii) Outline clinical features and management of Carcinoma: of lung
iv) Describe in dentail the following procedures
Management of endotracheal tubes, Tracheal suction, Weaning the patient from Ventilator Exrubation
and Post extrubation care.
v) Describe! the principles of cardio pulmonary resusecitation cardiac massage, Artificial respiration
Defbrillators and their use.

BOOK REFERENCES

1. Davidson's Principles and Practice of medicine


2. Harrison's internal medicine
3. General Surgient Operations by Kirk/ Williamson
4. Surgery by Nan
5. Bailys and Love-Short Practice of surgery.

Paper-23: Paediatrics

Objective
To understand the Paediatric patients and their special needs in relation to physical therapy.

1. Growth and development of child.


2. Nutrition
3. Immunization programs
4. Common Paediatric disease
5. Club foot
6. Scoliosis
7. Congenital Deformaties.
8. Osteogenesis lmperfecta (01)
9. Genetic Disorders
10. Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD)
11. Spina Bifida Occulta. Meaning aceles, Meaningomy eiocele
12. Chromosomal Disorders Downs syndrome
13. Environmentally Related Disorders
14. Cerebral Paisy (CP) Zost Polio Paralysis
15. Observe children for their individual strengths and abilities.
16. Knowledge of normal development, movement patterns and transitions, abnormal movements
17. Development of the Disability
18. Planning of prevention, early identification, and evaluation. Diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation.
19. Impairment disability and handicap acknowledge their inter relationship and impact one another.

BOOK REFERENCES:

1. Nelson Text Book of Paediatric - Behraman & Verghan

Papwer-24 GYNAECOLOGY AND OBSTETRICS


1. History taking
2. Terminologies used..
3. Classification of Diseases.
4. Birth control.
5. Reproduction.
6. Placenta and placental membranes.
7. Foetus.
8. Physiological changes during pregnancy.
9. Endocrinology in relation to reproduction.
10. Foetus – in - utero.
11. Foetal skull and maternal pelvis.
12. Antenatal care.
13. Antenatal assessment of foetal well - being.
14. Normal labour, normal puerperium.
15. Complications of pregnancy and labour.
16. Special considerations (previous history of C- section, Rh. –, elderly primigravida, grand multipara, bad obstetric
history, obesity. )
17. Term, newborn infant, low birth weight baby.
18. Diseases of the fetus and newborn.
19. Pharmacotherapeutics, induction of labour, operative obstetrics.
20. Special topics (foetal distress, intrapartum foetal monitoring, shock in obstetrics, acute renal failure, blood coagulation
disorders,
high – risk pregnancy, immunology in obstetrics)
21. Aids to diagnosis in obstetrics.
22. Pelvic inflammatory disease
23. Abortions and ectopic pregnancy.
24. Dysfunctional uterine bleeding defunction, causes, differential diagnosis, management.
25. Genital malignancies, cervix, uterus, vagina.

BOOK REFERENCES:

1. Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Health care of a woman by Seymoul L, Romney Mary Jane Gray. J.A Merrill.
2. Shaw's Text Book Gynaecology.
3. Jeffcoat's Principles of Gynaecology.

Paper-25: PSYCHIATRY
Objective
To understand the implications of psychological disorders on disability.
1. Brief History of Psychiatry
2. Rationale of Psychotherapeutics
3. Causes of mental disturbances
4. Symptoms of Mental illness
5. Levels of consciousness
6. General appearances and behavior
7. Emotions and thoughts
8. Perception and intellectual functions.
9. Anxiety Disorders, Depression, Obsessive Compulsive Neurosis, Hysteria, Phobia.
10. Stress related disorders
11. Schezophrenia
12. Psychosis Manie depressive Paranoid, Involuntary
13. Organic Brain Syndromes, Toxic, Metabolic, Cerebro-Vascular.
Head Injury. Drug induced
14. Drug dependence and alcoholism
15. Psychosomatic illness
16. Mental retardation
17. Childhood disorders, Hyper and hypokinetic children
18. Assessment and methods of Treatment
19. Drug therapy ECT, Psychotherapy Behavior therapy. Biofeedback, and counseling.
20. Geriatric Psychiatry

BOOK REFERENCES:

1. Noves Modem clinical Psychiany


2. Text Book of Psychiatry by Henderson and Gellispie
3. Short book of Psychiatry by Ridge
4. An Introduction to Psychiatry by Peter
5. Rehabilitation in Pavechiatry by Home
6. Asychiatric Clinical skills by George U. Bells Leon Warnon and Ellen M. Denial.

Paper-26 OPHTHALMOLOGY
Objective
To understand the diseases of Ophthalmology.

1. Ophthalmology
2. Aetiology
3. Symptomatology and treatment of visual defects
4. Emphasis etc.
5. Errors of refraction
6. Squint
7. Conjunctivities
8. Trachoma
9. Corneal ulcers
10. Iritis
11. Cataract
12. Retimitis
13. Detachment of cornea and Glaucoma
14. Lecture and demonstration regarding the familiarly of the instruments used in Ophthalmology
EYE
1. Brief description of anatomy and physiology of the eye.
2. Ophthalmic optics and brief description of examination.
3. Diseases of the eye and adnexa of the eye.
4. Disorders of motility of the eye.
5. Ocular manifestations of diseases of the nervous system.
6. Brief description of immunopathology of the eye.
7. Preventive ophthalmology.

BOOK REFERENCES.
1. Modern Trends in Opthalmology - Arnold Sorsby

Paper-27 ENT

Objective
To know the diseases and management of ENT.
1. Brief description of anatomy and physiology, peripheral receptors & central neural pathways of auditory and Vestibular
system.
2. Audiology and acoustics.
3. Brief description of assessment of hearing.
4. Hearing loss.
5. Assessment of Vestibular functions.
6. Disorders of Vestibular system.
7. Diseases of the external and middle ear.
8. Otosclerosis.
9. Facial nerve and its disorders.
10. Brief description of Meniere’s disease, acoustic neuroma, ot
11. algia , tinnitus.
12. Tumors of external ear, middle ear, and mastoid.
NOSE AND PARANASAL SINUSES
1. Brief description of anatomy and physiology.
2. Classification of diseases and disorders
3. Rhinitis (acute, chronic, allergic, other forms of non – allergic rhinitis)
4. Trauma to the face.
5. Sinusitis.
THROAT
1. Brief description of diseases of the oral cavity, salivary glands, pharynx, larynx, trachea,
2. Esophagus.
3. Brief description of the techniques used.
4. Brief description of clinical examination.
5. Indications and types of operative surgery.
6. Instrumentation

BOOK REFERENCES.
1. E.N.T. for General Practitioners.
Paper-28 Dermatology

Objective
To understand the skin diseases and their manifestations.

1. Structure and functions of normal skin primary and secondary lesions.


2. Scable and pediculosis.
3. Fungal infection of skin Dermatophylosis, Pityriasis Versicolor, Candidiasis.
4. Bacterial infection of skin-Impedigo, Boil.
5. Viral infection of skin-Herpes.
6. Eczema, Dermatitis, Allergies.
7. Acne, Alopacea, Vitiligo, Lecoderma.
8. Common skin infection.
9. Psoriasis.
10. Leprosy – Aetiopathogenesis clinical feature and treatment.
11. Sexually transmitted diseases, -Syphilis, Gonohrea, HIV etc.
12. Brief description & prevention (Lecture Demonstration only)

BPT 302 NEUROLOGY, NEUROSURGERY


Course Description: This course introduces and enables the student to understand neurological conditions which
commonly cause
disability and their medical and surgical management.
Course objectives: The student will demonstrate an understanding of neurological conditions which commonly cause
disability and their
medical and surgical management.
1. NEUROANATOMY: Review the basic anatomy of the brain and spinal cord including: Blood supply of the brain and
spinal cord,
anatomy of the visual pathway, connections of the cerebellum, and extra pyramidal system, relationship of the spinal
nerves to
the spinal cord segments, Long tracts of the spinal cord, the brachial and lumbar plexuses, and cranial nerves.
2. NEUROPHYSIOLOGY: Review in brief the Neurophysiologic basis of tone and disorders of tone and posture, bladder
control,
muscle contraction and movement and pain.
3. Approach to symptoms and signs: 1. The neurologic history and examination 2. Dizziness 3. Approach to symptoms
and sign 4.
Paresthesias 5. Pain 6. Headaches 7. Weakness (UMN vs LMN, NM junction, myopathy) 8. Movement disorders 9. Gait
and
balance disorders 10. Fatigue 11. Memory and praxis complaints 12. Speech disorders 13. Language disorders 14.
Syncope vs
seizure 15. Encephalophathy, coma, herniation, and brain death 16. Neurological eponyms
4. Diagnostic Testing: 1. Lumbar puncture and cerebrospinal fluid evaluation 2. EMG and NCV 3. Electroencephalography
4.
Evoked Potentials 5. Nerve and muscle biopsy 6. Autonomic testing 7. MRI 8. CT 9. MRA and cerebral angiography 10.
Molecular genetic testing 11. Neuropsychological testing
5. Neurovascular disorders: 1. Localization in neurovascular disease 2. Transient ischemic attacks 3. Stroke 4. Primary
intracerebral hemorrhage 5. Subarachnoid hemorrhage and saccular aneurysms 6. Arterovenous malformations 7. Spinal
cord
stroke 8. Stroke in younger adults 9. Cerebral venous thrombosis
6. Movement disorders: 1. Parkinson?s disease 2. Parkinson?s plus syndromes 2. Dystonia 3.Wilson’s disease 8. Ataxias
7. Multiple sclerosis and other demyelinating diseases: 1. Multiple sclerosis 2. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis
8. Epilepsy: 1. Etiology and manifestations 2. Childhood disorders (include febrile) 3. Adult seizure disorders 4. Medical
treatment
5.Status epilepticus 6. Surgical treatment
9. Neuro-oncology: 1. Epidemiology and pathophysiology 2. Clinical presentations of Gliomas and Meningiomas 3.Spinal
cord
tumors 9. Metastatic tumors
10. Cranial neuropathies: 1.Tinnitus 2.Vertigo (peripheral vs central) 3.Benign positional vertigo 4.Bell’s palsy 5. Disorders
of cranial
nerve IX and X 10. Disorders of cranial nerves XI and XII
11. Trauma : 1. Mild head injury and the postconcussion syndrome 2. Moderate and severe head injury 3. Subdural and
epidural
hemotomas 4. Cranial neuropathies 5. Neurorehabilitation of brain injuries 6. Post-traumatic movement disorders 7.
Spinal
cord injury 8. Whiplash injuries 9. Reflex sympathetic dystrophy and causalgia 10. Mountain sickness 11. Decompression
sickness 12. Lightning and electrical injuries
12. Neuromuscular disorders: 1. Myasthenia gravis and myasthenic syndromes 2. ALS 3. Spinal muscular atrophies
13. Peripheral neuropathies: 1. Manifestations of peripheral neuropathies 2. Guillain-Barre syndrome 4. Diabetic
neuropathies 5.
CIDP 6. Brachial and lumbosacral plexopathies 7. Thoracic outlet syndrome 8. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome and other
median
neuropathies 9. Ulnar and radial neuropathies 10. Peroneal, sciatic, and tibial neuropathies.
14. Myopathies : 1. Manifestations of myopathies (include muscle masses) 2. Muscular dystrophies (Duchenne, limb
girdle, GSH,
scapuloperonela, myotonic, etc) 3. Dermatomyositis and polymyositis.
15. Infectious disorders: 1. Bacterial meningitis 2. Chronic meningitis 3. Encephalitis 4. HIV + HTLV-1 5. Brain and spinal
abscess 6.
Spirochetes (neurosyphilis and Lyme) 7. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease 8. Cerebral malaria 9. Neurocysticercosis
16. Neck, back and spinal cord disorders: 1. Approach to neck and low back disorders 2. Diagnostic testing for neck and
back
disorders 3. Radiculopathy and cauda equina syndrome 4. Spondylosis including spondylolytic cervical myelopathy and
facet
joint pain 5. Myofascial pain and SI joint 6. Facet joint pain 7. Treatment of chronic neck and back pain
Suggested Readings
1. Saunder’s Mannual for Neurologic Practice. Randolf Evans, Elsavier
2. Neurology And Neurosurgery Illustrated. Lindsay And Bone
3. Diseases of the Nervous System. R Bannister
4. Brain’s Clinical Neurology. R Bannister
5. Pediatric Orthopaedics And Fractures. Sharrard
6. Disorders of Muscle. Dubowitz
7. Normal Development. Illingworth
BPT 303 COMMUNITY & REHABILITATION MEDICINE
Course Description: This course involves an over view of community resources available for rehabilitation.
Course Objective: To teach the concept of team approach in rehabilitation, Observation and identification of diagnostic
features,
Medical and surgical aspects of disabling conditions, Identification of residual potentials in patients with partial and
total disability and the formulation of appropriate goals in treatment and rehabilitation.
1. Conceptual framework of rehabilitation, definitions and various models of rehabilitation.
2. Epidemiology of disability with emphases on locomotor disability, its implications on the individual, family, society,
economy and the
state. Describe the following communicable diseases with reference to reservoir, mode of transmission, route of entry and
level of
prevention. (Poliomyelitis, Meningitis & Encephalitis, Tuberculosis, Filariasis Leprosy, Tetanus, Measles.) Epidemiology of
Rheumatic
heart disease, cancer, chronic degenerative disease and cerebrovascular accidents.
3. Outline the influence of nutritional factors such as Protein Energy Malnutrition, Anemia, Vitamin and mineral deficiency
on disability.
Preventive aspects of disability and organizational skills to manage it. Define occupational health and list methods of
prevention of
occupational diseases and hazards.
4. Physical restorative services
5. Education of the persons with disabilities.
6. Vocational Rehabilitation.
7. Community Based Rehabilitation and Out -Reach programs to rehabilitate persons with disabilities living in rural areas:
Define
community based and institution based rehabilitation. Describe the advantage and disadvantage of institution and
community-based
rehabilitation.
8. Statutory provisions, schemes of assistance to persons with disability.
9. Role of the Voluntary Sector in rehabilitation of the Persons with Disabilities.
10. Legislative support for Rehabilitation: Outline the Employees State insurance scheme and its various benefits,
Describe the social
security measures for protection from occupational, Hazards, accidents, diseases, and the workman's compensation act
11. Strategies for awareness, public education, and information: List the principles of health education, methods of
communication and
role of health education in rehabilitation services.
12. Basic principles of administration and finance including personnel management and budget preparation and
procurement etc.
13. Role of technology and manpower for rehabilitation.
i. Outline selected National Health Programs
ii. Architectural Barriers And Possible Modifications: With Reference To Rheumatoid Arthritis, Cerebrovascular Accident,
Spinal
Cord Injury, And Other Disabling Conditions.
iii. Disability Evaluation: Principles Of Disability Evaluation And Discuss Its Use.
iv. Legal Aspects: Legal Aspects Of Disability In Terms Of Compensation For Disability And Benefits Available To The
Disabled.
v. Social Implications: Social Implications Of Disability For The Individual And For The Community.
vi. Community Based Rehabilitation Module: Cbr Module And Compare This With An Institutional Based Rehabilitation
System
vii. Description of roles of members of the Rehabilitation Team
a) Physician
b) Occupational Therapist and Physiotherapist
c) Clinical Psychologists
d) Social worker
e) Prosthetic and Orthotic Engineers
f) Audiologists and Speech Therapists
g) Hearing aid and ear mould technicians
h) Orientation and Mobility instructors
i) Teachers for various categories of children with disabilities.
j) Vocational instructors, Counselors and Placement Officers
k) Multi – purpose rehabilitation workers
l) The FAMILY
Recommended Books
1. Community Based Rehabilitation by Sunder
2. Preventive and Social Medicine by Park and Park
BPT 304 PHYSIOTHERAPY IN GENERAL MEDICINE AND GENERAL SURGERY
Course Description: This course involves a description of the assessment and treatment of patients with general medical
and general
surgical conditions.
Course Objectives: The student will be able to conduct a safe and effective treatment of patients with General medical
and General
surgical conditions
1. Review of the pathological changes and principles of management by Physiotherapy in the following conditions:
a) Diabetes Mellitus
b) Oncology
c) Geriatric Medicine.
d) Inflammation (acute, chronic and suppurative).
e) Edema – Traumatic, obstructive, paralytic, edema due to poor muscle and laxity
f) Common condition of Skin – Acne, Psoriasis, Alopaecia, Leucoderma, Leprosy.
g) Deficiency Diseases – Rickets, Diabetes, Obesity, Osteoporosis & other efficiency disorders related to Physiotherapy.
h) Psychiatric Disorders – Psychosis, Psychoneurosis, Senile dementia.
2. Special Considerations
a) Problems of Elderly:
i) Medical, sensori motor, cognitive falls.
ii) Frail and Institutionalised elder
iii) Functional assessment of the elderly
3. General Gynaecology and Obstetrics and ENT: Review of the pathological changes and principles of pre and
postoperative
management by Physiotherapy of the following conditions:
a) Common abdominal surgeries, including GIT, liver, spleen, kidney, bladder, etc.
b) Common operation of reproductive system, including surgical intervention for child delivery. Ante natal and post natal
Physiotherapy management.
c) Common operations, of the ear, nose, throat and jaw as related to Physiotherapy.
d) Common organ transplant surgeries - heart, liver, bone marrow, etc.
4. Wounds, Burns and Plastic Surgery: Review of the pathological changes and principles of pre and postoperative
management by
Physiotherapy of the following conditions.
a) Wounds, ulcers pressure sores.
b) Burns and their complications.
c) Common reconstructive surgical procedures for the management of wounds, ulcers, burns and consequent
contractures
and deformities.
5. PHYSIOTHERAPY IN GENERAL SURGERY
Assess the patients, medical history, past treatment, breathing pattern, ability to cough and pain. Identify problems: Pain,
increased
secretions, defective posture and decreased exercise tolerance. Treatment techniques: Breathing exercise, huffing and
coughing,
mobilizing exercise, posture correction and graduated exercise programme.
BPT 304 PHYSIOTHERAPY IN GENERAL MEDICINE AND GENERAL SURGERY PRACTICAL
Course Description: This course involves a description of the assessment and treatment of general medical and general
surgical
conditions.
Course Objectives: The student will be able to conduct a safe and effective treatment of patient with General medical
and general
surgical conditions
The students will be shown patients of relevant diseases and disorders for:
1. History taking of the conditions of patients.
2. Assessment of medical and cardiopulmonary functions
3. Clinical diagnosis of the presentations.
4. Investigations and tests of different clinical presentations
5. Physiotherapy management of the various diseases & surgeries
Recommended Books
1. Physiotherapy In Gynaecological & Obstetrical Conditions-Poldon
2. Astrand P. A. Rodahe K. -Text Book Of Work Physiology
3. Therapeutic Exercise –Kisner
BPT 305 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND BIOSTATISTICS
Course Description: This course involves a description of principles for conducting research.
Course Objectives: The student will be able to frame a research project using the principles of research methodology
and biostatistics.
1. Introduction
a) Introduction Importance of research in clinical practice, scientific approach, characteristics, purposes, and limitations.
b) Ethical issues in research, elements of informed consent.
c) Structure of a research proposal.
2. Research Methodology
a) Research question including literature review.
b) Measurement: Principles of measurement, reliability and validity.
c) Experimental sampling and design.
d) Descriptive and Inferential research research
3. Biostatistics:
a) Descriptive statistics.
b) Comparison of means, T-tests.
c) Analysis of Variance
d) Multiple comparisons
e) Non-parametric statistics
f) Correlation
Recommended Books
1. Handbook of Research in Physical Therapy. C. E. Bork
2. Physical Therapy Research: Principles and Application. E. Domholdt
3. Research Methodology for Physical Therapists. C. Hicks
BPT FOURTH YEAR

Paper-29 CARDIOPULMONARY PHYSIOTHERAPY


Course Description: This course involves a description of the assessment and treatment of patients with
cardiopulmonary conditions.
Course Objectives: The student will be able to conduct a safe and effective treatment of patient with cardiopulmonary
conditions
A. ANATOMY: Review the regional anatomy of thorax, upper respiratory tract - trachea and bronchial tree. Lung and
bronchopulmonary
segments. Muscles of respiration. Heart and great vessels. Movements of the chest wall and surface anatomy of lung and
heart.
B. PHYSIOLOGY; Review the mechanics of respiration, inspiration and expiration, lung volumes, respiratory muscles,
compliance of lung
and chest wall, work of breathing, dead space, gas exchange in lung and pulmonary circulation.
C. GENERAL OVERVIEW:
I. ASSESSMENT: Describe physical assessment in cardiorespiratory dysfunction: Inspection: Posture (recumbent, erect,
orthopneic): breathing pattern (rate, rhythm, use of accessory muscles), chest movement (summery, Intercostals and
diaphragmatic components), Chest deformity (Barrel chest, pigeon chest), Spinal deformity(scoliosis, kyphosis,
kyphoscoliosis),
sputum (color, type, volume, consistency), cough (types, productive/non-productive, presence of a normal cough reflex).
Palpation: Tactile and vocal fremitus, mobility of thoracic spine and rib cage. Percussion: Dullness and hyper resonance.
Auscultation: Normal and abnormal breath sounds. Measurement: Chest expansion at different levels (auxiliary), nipple,
xiphoid); exercise tolerance (six minute walking test); post - operative range of motion and muscle assessment.
II. PHYSICAL TREATMENT: Indication, goals and procedure of breathing exercises. Describe diaphragmatic breathing,
localised
basal expansion, apical expansion, specific segmental exercise raising the resting respiratory level. Chest mobillsation
exercises. Relaxation positions for the breathless patient - high side lying, forwarded lean sitting, relaxed sitting, forward
lean
standing, relaxed standing. Controlled breathing during walking and during functional activity. Exercise for the breathless
patient. Exercise tolerance testing and exercise programme. Technique of huffing and coughing, forced expiratory
technique,
vibratory chest shaking and percussion. Techniques of postural drainage, including indications, general precautions and
contraindications,
preparation, drainage of individual bronchopulmonary segments, modified postural drainage and continuing
postural drainage as a home programme.
III. Mechanical Respiration: Classification and principles of operation of commonly used ventilators and outline the use of
Bear,
Bennett, Emerson & Bird type ventilators. Principles of Aerosol Therapy. Describe the physical properties of aerosols and
their
deposition in the alveoli. Describe the principles of operation of nebulisers. Principles of humidification therapy and
methods of
correcting humidity deficits. Describe the principles of operation of pass - over humidifiers and bubble -diffusion
humidifiers.
Techniques of sterile nasopharyngeal and endotracheal suctioning.
D. PHYSIOTHERAPY IN OBSTRUCTIVE LUNG DISEASES: Assess: Effort of breathing. Extent of wheeze, pattern of
breathing, sputum
production, chest deformity, exercise tolerance (Patients efforts tolerance.) Identify problems: Decreased outflow due to
bronchospasm, anxiety due to difficulty in ventilation, exhaustion due to increased work of disturbed breathing, increased
secretions
which are difficult to remove, decreased exercise tolerance. Demonstrate treatment techniques: Relaxation postures and
techniques,
reassurance and education about disease. Controlled breathing, breathing exercise, postural drainage, vibratory shaking,
huff ing and
coughing, graduated exercise programme and posture correction.
E. PHYSIOTHERAPY IN CHEST INFECTIONS: Assess: Sputum, cough, fever and dyspnea. Identify problems:
Productive cough with risk
hemoptysis, exhaustion due to increased work of breathing, chest deformity, decreased exercise tolerance. Treatment
techniques:
postural drainage with use of adjuncts, percussion, vibration, huffing, and coughing to expectorate mobilising exercises to
thorax and
graduated exercise.
F. G. PHYSIOTHERAPY IN RESTRICTIVE LUNG DISORDERS: Assess:. Chest expansion at different levels, mobility of
thorax and spine,
posture (kyphosis or scoliosis) and tests for exercises tolerance (six minutes walking test}. ldentify problems: Decreased
expansion of
lung due to restriction of chest wall movement causing decreased ventilation, defective posture and decreased exercise
tolerance.
Demonstrate treatment techniques: Vigorous mobilising exercises to thorax and spine, breathing exercise to increase
ventilation and
drain secretions, exercises for posture correction, graduated exercises to increase tolerance.
G. PRINCIPLES OF INTENSIVE CARE PHYSIOTHERAPY: Principles of intensive care therapy. Knowledge of the
following equipment:
Endotracheal tubes, tracheostomy tubes, Humidifiers, ventilators, High frequency ventilators, differential ventilators, CPAP
masks,
suction pump, Electrocardiogram. Pressure monitors - arterial, central venous, pulmonary artery and pulmonary wedge,
Intracranial.
Temperature monitors. Assess: special instructions pertaining to any operation performed, respiration, level of
consciousness . Colour,
blood pressure, pulse, temperature, sputum expectorated (colour and quantity), drugs (time last does of analgesic given),
drains,
presence of pacemaker or intra aortic balloon pump. ECG and blood gas results. Describe chest radiograph with respect
to expansion
of lungs, size of heart, presence of secretions and placement of chest tubes.
H. PHYSIOTHERAPY AFTER PULMONARY SURGERY: Preoperative: Demonstrate treatment techniques: Explanation
to patient, care of
incision, mechanical ventilation, breathing exercise, huffing and coughing, mobilising exercise, posture correction,
graduated exercise
programme. Post - operative: Assess: Special instructions pertaining to operative procedure performed, breath sounds,
cyanosis,
respiratory rate, temperature and pulse, blood pressure, drainage from pleural drain (bubbling or swinging) sputum
expectorated,
analgesia, movements of chest wall (symmetry) position of patient and effort of breathing, chest radiograph and blood
gases.
Identifying problems: Pain, intercostal drains in situ, decreased air entry, retained secretions, decreased movement of the
shoulder of
affected side, decreased mobility and poor posture. Treatment techniques: Deep breathing and segmental breathing
exercises,
vibrations, percussions, huffing and coughing, full range active-assisted arm exercises, ankle foot exercises, trunk
exercises, posture
correction, positioning of patient, IPPB and inhalations.
I. PHYSIOTHERAPY AFTER CARDIAC SURGERY: Pre operative: Assess patients of medical history, normal breathing
pattern of patient,
pulse, respiratory rate, BP, thoracic mobility, posture and patients exercise tolerance. Identifying problems: Excess
secretions,
decreased mobility of thorax, defective posture, decreased exercised tolerance. Treatment techniques: Explain to the
patients about
their operation and about the incision, ICU, Endotracheal tube. Central lines, nasogastric tube, catheter, ECG leads,
drains, peripheral
lines, temperature probe etc. Teach breathing exercises, splinting of incision, huffing and coughing, correct posture, range
of motion
exercises to trunk and shoulders, active exercise to ankle and foot. Post operative: Assess special instructions pertaining
to operative
procedure performed, type of incision, blood pressure, pulse rate, respiration, colour, time of last analgesic dose, drains,
temperature,
ECG, chest X-ray and blood gases. Identify problems: Pain, decreased air entry, retained secretions, reduced leg
movements,
decreased mobility. Treatment techniques: Deep breathing exercises, suctioning, active/assisted exercises to arm and
leg, graduated
exercise programme.
J. PHYSIOTHERAPY IN REHABILITIATION AFTER MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION: Role of the physiotherapist in a
coronary care unit during the
first 48 hours. Principles of formulation of an exercise programme: Bed exercises, walking, stair climbing. Home exercise
programme
and advice on leisure activities. Describe physiotherapy for complications after myocardial infarction: Chest infections,
cerebral
embolism and shoulder hand syndrome.
CARDIOPULMONARY PHYSIOTHERAPY PRACTICAL
Course Description: This course involves a description of the assessment and treatment of patients with
cardiopulmonary conditions.
Course Objectives: The student will be able to conduct a safe and effective treatment of patient with cardiopulmonary
conditions
The students will be shown patients of relevant diseases and disorders for:
1. History taking of the conditions of patients.
2. Assessment
3. Clinical diagnosis of the presentations.
4. Investigations and tests of different clinical presentations
5. Physiotherapy management of the various disorders & surgeries
Recommended Books
1. Cash`S Text Book For Physiotherapists In Chest, Heart & Vascular Diseases
2. Chest Physical Therapy & Pulmonary Rehabilitation-Donna Frownfilter
3. Brompton`S Hospital Guide
4. Physio Therapy In Cardio- Vascular Rehabilitation-Webber
5. Exercise & The Heart, Wenger

Paper-30 NEUROPHYSIOTHERAPY
Course Description: This course involves a description of the assessment and treatment of patients with neurological
conditions.
Course Objectives: The student will be able to conduct a safe and effective treatment of patient with neurological
conditions
A. REVIEW OF NEURONATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
Review the structure and function of a. neuron. b. synapse. c. supporting tissue. Review the organisation and function of
a)
cerebral hemispheres b) cerebellum c) spinal cord d) peripheral nerves e) pyramidal system f) extra pyramidal system.
Review
the factors influencing alpha motor neuron activity. Review the neurological basis of muscle tone and movement and
demonstrate the following: a) hypotonia b) hypertonia- spasticity and rigidity c) ataxia d) athetosis e) chorea.
B. PRINCIPLES OF ASSESSMENT
Review a) skills in history taking. b) assessment of higher function, cortical sensations, cranial nerves, dorsal column
sensation
and pain and temperature sensations. c) Assessment of motor function: grading of muscle power, assessment of range of
movement, balance and coordination. d) Assessment of superficial and deep reflexes. e) Assessment of reflex maturation
in
terms of stimulus, position, negative/positive reactions and their significance. f) Assessment of gait - both normal and
abnormal
(spastic, ataxic and paralytic patterns). Emphasis should be placed on teaching accurate assessment techniques and
various
recording methods eg. Color-coding on body charts, graphs, etc.
C. PRINCIPLES OF TREATMENT
I. Review the treatment principles as follow
1. Sensory re -education: hypersensitivity, hyposensitivity and anesthesia.
2. Treatment of altered tone: hyper tonicity and hypotonicity
3. Motor re- education: Strengthening exercise coordination exercises, joint mobilization exercises, use of equilibrium and
labyrinthine system, use of PNF patterns, controlled sensory use of stretch to elicit movement (facilitation), light joint
compression (in habitation) use of reflex activity to improve motor function, physiogenic sequence of motor behaviors:
Treatment to improve functions: Free exercises, gait training with and without aids, activities of daily living, mat exercises
and exercises and recreation.
4. Review the use of ambulatory aids in neurological conditions: in spastic upper motor neuron lesions, in lower motor
neuron lesions, in dorsal column dysfunction and cerebellar dysfunction.
5. Revise the use of splints and braces in spastic upper motor neuron and in flaccid lower motor neuron lesions in both
upper and lower limbs.
6. Revise the management of chronic pain in neurological conditions with respect to the types of pain, treatment
modalities
available, selection criteria for each modality and possible complications.
II. THEORETICAL BASIS OF TREATMENT:
Rood’s approach
Bobbath Neurodevelomental Therapy
Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation
Motor Relearning Program
I. CEREBRAL PALSY
Define cerebral palsy and describe the topographical classification - monoplegia, diplegia, paraplegia hemiplegia and
tetraplegia. Describe types of cerebral palsy: Visual, hearing, speech and intelligence. Assess reflex activity at different
levels:
cortical, mid brain, brain stem, spinal, Assess developmental milestones from birth to five years. Assess functional ability:
prone
to supine (rolling) coming to sitting, quadripod, crawling, kneeling, stand with support and walking. Examine for
contractures as
follows: hip flexion, adduction, internal rotation, knee flexion, ankle plantar flexion, inversion eversion, flexion contractures
of
elbow, wrist and fingers and spinal deformities.
Treatment- Describe and demonstrate the treatment of motor disabilities: Passive movement, stretching of soft tissue
tightness, use of ice to reduce spasticity, positioning the child to prevent soft tissue contractures, to inhibit abnormal
reflexes
and to facilitate volitional movement. Techniques of carrying of different types of children, encouraging bimanual activities
in
different starting positions like prone, sitting and standing and activities across the midline, appropriate home programmes
for
position in the child, handling them and assisting improvement of function. Introduction to treatment techniques: Bobath,
Rood.
II. PERIPHERAL NERVE LESIONS:
Identify types of' peripheral nerve lesions. Assess the motor system: Specific muscles, range of motion, active and
passive
ranges, muscle girth. Assess sensory system: touch, pain, temperature, paraesthesia, and nerve regeneration. Assess
autonomic function: sweating, skin condition, soft tissue atrophy. Treatment: describe muscle re-education techniques,
electrical stimulation (selection of current), Passive and auto assisted stretching and massage. Sensory re-education and
pain
relief by various modalities. Common splints used in peripheral nerve lesions: static, dynamic and functional. Muscle
transfers:
preparation for transfer. Assessment of muscle power. Stretching of soft tissue tightness, isolation of muscle contraction,
specific muscle strengthening.
Post - operative management: Pressure bandaging and muscle re-education after transfer. Describe a home programme.
III. MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY:
Stages of the disease ambulatory, wheel chair and bed stages. Significance of exercise: resisted, active and free. Identify
and
assess common contractures and deformities. Assess range of motion and muscle power. Assess functional ability.
Demonstration of treatment programme for strengthening weak muscle: active movements and hydrotherapy. Increase
range
of motion by suspension therapy, powder board, passive stretching, positioning, etc. Demonstration of gait training with
appropriate orthoses. Describe management of chest complications: breathing exercises, chest percussion, drainage of
secretions and assisted coughing.
IV. PARKINSONISM:
Review the natural history, course and prognosis of the disease. Identify and assess problems in posture, sitting, kneeling
and
standing balance, voluntary and automatic movements, rigidity, tremor and gait. Assess also hearing, speech and finger
dexterity. Describe disability grading according to Yahr. Demonstration of treatment: Postural awareness and relaxation
training, gait training techniques, associated reactions, heel toe gait, overcoming obstacles, start and stop on command,
turning and walking backwards, forwards and side wards. Describe an appropriate home exercise programme.
V. SPINAL CORD LESIONS:
Describe types of spinal cord lesions. Describe signs of tract and root interruptions. Positioning of the patient in acute
spinal
cord injury. Describe assessment of the motor system tone, power of specific muscles, range of motion and limb girth.
Describe
assessment of sensory system and reflexes. Assessment of functional ability and balance reactions in appropriate cases.
Assessment of respiratory function: Muscles of respiratory, coughing ability and vital capacity. Level of lesion is
ascertained.
Treatment: Stages of immobilization and stage when loading of the spine is allowed. Describe spinal orthosis,
Demonstration
motor re-education programmes and a programme for respiratory care in high level paraplegics and quadriplegics.
Demonstrate progressive ambulation, mat exercises, various strengthening programmes, methods of decreasing
spasticity and
improving sitting balance. Demonstration of various types of paraplegic gaits and re-education in functional activities:
transfers
and protective falling. Common ambulatory aids used in paraplegics and common splints used in tetraplegics. Use of
hydrotherapy in paraplegics. Describe the concept of team approach in rehabilitations of these patients.
VI. HEMIPLEGIA
Hemiplegia and identify the following sensory disturbance, alteration in tone, loss of selective movement, loss of balance
reactions and communications problems.
Treatment: Unilateral and bilateral approaches to treatment. Describe positioning in the supine position, on the affected
and
on the unaffected sides. Demonstration activities in the recumbent, position: arm mobilization, trunk elongation, scapular
movement, arm elevation activities for a recovering arm. Activities for the lower limb. Hip and knee flexion over the side of
the
bed. Knee extension with dorsiflexion, hip control, isolated knee extension.
Mat activities: Demonstrate rolling on to affected, unaffected sides, sitting and kneeling. Technique of making a patient sit
passively and active assisted sitting. Demonstrate transfer techniques. Activities in sitting: equal weight transfer through
arms
balance reactions of trunk. Head demonstrate activities in the standing position: Standing from plinth, from chair (assisted
and
independent). Weight bearing on affected leg. Knee control in standing, weight transfers forward, backward and sideward,
gait
training and stair climbing describe tilt board activities in the lying and sitting positions. Additional methods of stimulat ion
using
verbal cues, ice pressure and tapping. Management of shoulder pain and shoulder hand syndrome. Identify and describe
a
hemiplegic gait, identify synergy components and abnormal reflex activities.
Re-education of gait: motor relearning techniques, functional approach and use of orthoses.
VII. CEREBELLAR LESIONS: Identify and assess abnormal tone, decomposition of movement, rapid alternate
movements,
pleurothotonus, proprioception, dysmetria, posture and gait.
Treatment: Exercise for incoordination. Frenkels and weighted exercises. Demonstrate techniques for re-education of
balances
and equilibrium reactions by visual compensation. Use of appropriate aids for ambulation depending on the severity of
affection: Walker, elbow crutches, quadripod walking sticks, etc.
VIII. POLIOMYELlTIS: Stages in the disease: acute, recovery, and residual paralysis. Describe treatment in the acute
stage: heat,
chest care, positioning. Assessment of a patient in the recovery stage: active and passive range of motion, soft tissue
tightness,
muscle power and spinal deformities. Treatment in the recovery stage: muscle strengthening - progressive resistive
exercises,
active - assisted, active and active - resisted exercises. Role of suspension and hydrotherapy. Treatment of soft tissue
tightness
by passive stretching. Auto stretching and positioning. Treatment in the stage of residual paralysis pre-operative
assessment of
contractures: hip flexion, TFL contracture, and knee flexion and foot deformities. Assessment of limb length discrepancy
and
spinal deformities. Orthotic aids commonly used in the management of polio. Tendon transfer operation commonly
performed.
Functional retraining for self-care, gait training and posture correction.
NEUROPHYSIOTHERAPY PRACTICAL
Course Description: This course involves a description of the assessment and treatment of patients with neurological
conditions.
Course Objectives: The student will be able to conduct a safe and effective treatment of patient with neurological
conditions
The students will be shown patients of relevant diseases and disorders for:
1. Basic history taking to determining whether the brain spinal cord or peripheral nerve is involved.
2. Assessment of higher mental function such as orientation, memory, attention, speech and language.
3. Assessment of cranial nerves.
4. Assessment of motor power.
5. Assessment of sensory function touch, pain and position.
6. Assessment of tone- spasticity, rigidity and hypotonia.
7. Assessment of cerebellar function.
8. Assessment of higher cortical function- apraxia etc.
9. Assessment of gait abnormalities
10. Clinical diagnosis of the presentations.
11. Investigations and tests of different clinical presentations
12. Physiotherapy management of the various diseases & surgeries
Recommended Books
1. Cash`s Text Book For Physiotherapists In Neurological Disorders --Jaypee Bros. Publication
2. Proprioceptive Neuro Muscular Facilitation- By Herman Kabat
3. Practical Physical Therapy-Margaret Hollis
4. Therapeutic Exercise –O` Sullivan
5. “Right In The Middle”-Patracia Devis
6. Stroke Rehabilitation--Margaret Johnson
7. Therapeutic Exercise –Basmajiian.
8. Physical Rehabilitation -Krusen

Paper-31 ORTHOPEDIC PHYSIOTHERAPY


Course Description: This course involves a description of the assessment and treatment of patients with orthopedic and
sports conditions.
Course Objectives: The student will be able to conduct a safe and effective treatment of patients with orthopedic and
sports conditions
1. Introduction
a) Assessment of the Patient
b) Setting of Treatment Goals and Plans
2. Traumatology
a) General Physiotherapy approach
b) Effects of different therapeutic modalities in various Traumatic conditions.
c) Principles of fracture management including Physiotherapy at different stage.
d) Prevention and management of complication of fractures.
e) Dislocations Fractures and Soft Tissue Injuries: Signs, symptoms, common sites, assessment and physiotherapeutic
management.
i) Upper limb Trauma
ii) Lower limb Trauma
iii) Spinal trauma.
f) Assessment, Management and Treatment Goals of Amputation: Levels of Amputation, Stump Care, Bandaging, Pre
and Post
Prosthetic Management, Prosthetic Checkout, Complications and their Management, etc
3. General Orthopedics: Review of the Condition, Assessment, Management and Treatment Goals and plans for the
following Conditions
a) Congenital deformities: Torticollis Thoracic inlet Syndrome, CTEV, Foot deformities, Developmental dysplasia of the
hip, etc.
b) Acquired Deformities: Deformities of spine, knee, shoulder, hip, hand etc. , VIC
c) Bone & joint tuberculosis
d) Diseases of the joints: Osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthiritis, Ankylosing spondylitis, Reiter’s disease, Gout
4. Regional Orthopedics: Review of the Condition, Assessment, Management and Treatment Goals and plans for the
following Conditions
a) Shoulder: Tendinitis, Peri Arthritis, Rotator Cuff Injury, Deltoid Fibrosis, Adhesive Capsulitis, Frozen Shoulder, etc.
b). Elbow; Tennis Elbow, Golfer’s Elbow, Recurrent Slipping of Ulnar Nerve, Pulled Elbow, etc.
c) Wrist and Hand:Ganglion, DeQuervain’s Disease, Trigger Thumb and Finger, Carpal Tunnel Syndrome, Dupuytren’s
Contracture, etc
d) Spine: Cervical: Brachial Neuralgia, Brachial Plexus Injury, Thoracic Inlet Syndromes, Torticollis, Cervical Spondylitis,
PID,
etc. Thoracic and Lumbar Spine: Deformities of the spine, Spondylolisthesis, Lumbosacral Strain, Lumbar Canal
stenosis, Spondylitis, PID, etc
e) Hip: Coxa Vara, Slipped Upper Femoral Epiphysis, AVN, etc.
f) Knee: Deformities, Quadriceps Fibrosis, Recurrent Dislocation of the Patella, Osgood Schlatter’s Disease, Loose
Bodies,
Anterior Knee Pain, Chondromalacia Patellae, etc.
g) Foot & Ankle: Painful Heel, Plantar Fascitis, Posterior Heel Pain, Deformities, Forefoot pain, metatarsalgia, Tarsal
Tunnel
Syndrome, etc
h) Peripheral Nerve Injuries: Outline the clinical features and management, including reconstructive surgery, Radial,
median and
ulnar nerve lesions.Sciatic and lateral popliteal lesions, Brachial Plexus injuries including Erb's, Klumpke's and crutch
palsy.
5. Orthopedic surgery; Pre and postoperative assessment and management of surgeries like:
a) Osteotomy, Arthrodesis, Arthroplasty, joint replacements
b) Tendon transplant, soft tissue release, Grafting.
c) Spinal stabilization, Reattachment of limbs, illizarov's technique.
c) Spinal surgeries. In Cerebral Palsy & Polio
6.Amputation
7. Introduction to manual therapy

ORTHOPEDICS PHYSIOTHERAPY PRACTICAL


Course Description: This course involves a description of the assessment and treatment of patients with orthopedic and
sports conditions.
Course Objectives: The student will be able to conduct a safe and effective treatment of patients with orthopedic and
sports conditions
The students will be shown patients of relevant disease and disorders for:
1. History taking of the conditions of patients.
2. Assessment
3. Clinical diagnosis of the presentations.
4. Investigations and tests of different clinical presentations
5. Physiotherapy management of the various disorders & surgeries
Recommended Books
1. Cash`S Text Book Of Orthopaedics & Rheumatology For Physio Therapists-Jaypee Bros.
2. Manual Mobilisation Of Extremity Joints-By Fredy Kaltenborn,Maitland
3. Therapeutic Exercise -----By-Kolby & Kisner
4. Therapeutic Exercises----By O`Sullivan
5. Taping Techniques - Rose Mac Donald
6. Orthopaedic Physical Therapy-By Donatelli
7. Manual Therapy –By Maitland,

Paper-32 SPORTS PHYSIOTHERAPY


Course Description: This course involves a description of the assessment and treatment of patients with orthopedic and
sports conditions.
Course Objectives: The student will be able to conduct a safe and effective treatment of patients with orthopedic and
sports conditions
1. The role of the physical therapies in sport, exercise and physical activity.
2. Foundations of Sports Injury Management
i. Sports Injury Management and the Athletic Trainer
ii. Preparticipation Examinations
iii. Protective Equipment.
3. Injury Assessment and Rehabilitation Sport Injury
i. Assessment Tissue Healing and Wound Care
ii. Therapeutic Modalities
iii. Therapeutic Exercise.
4. Axial Region
i. Head and Facial Conditions
ii. Spinal Conditions
iii. Thorax.
iv. Thorax and Visceral Conditions.
5. Upper Extremity
i. Shoulder Conditions
ii. Upper Arm.
iii. Elbow and Forearm
iv. Conditions Wrist and Hand Conditions.
6. Lower Extremity Pelvis.
i. Hip and Thigh Conditions
ii. Knee Conditions Lower Leg, Ankle, and Foot Conditions.
7. Special Considerations
i. Environmental Conditions
ii. Respiratory Tract Conditions
iii. Gastrointestinal Conditions
iv. The Diabetic Athlete
v. Common Infectious Diseases
vi. Blood Pressure Disorders
vii. Seizure Disorders
viii. Sudden Death Conditions of the Female Athlete.
ix. Disabled Athlete, & Senior
8. Medical considerations for rehabilitation practitioners in sport and exercise settings Pharmacological agents in sport
and exercise
i. Medical imaging of injury.
ii. Medical issues in sport and exercisev
9.Diet and Nutrition
10 Pharmacology in Sports
12. Rehabilitation in Sports
13. Young and Older age Athletes
14. Physiological effect of exercise in various body system
SPORTS PHYSIOTHERAPY PRACTICAL
Course Description: This course involves a description of the assessment and treatment of patients with sports
conditions.
Course Objectives: The student will be able to conduct a safe and effective treatment of patients with sports conditions
The students will be shown patients of relevant disease and disorders for:
1. History taking of the conditions of patients.
2. Assessment
3. Clinical diagnosis of the presentations.
4. Investigations and tests of different clinical presentations
5. Physiotherapy management of the various Sports Injuries
Suggested Readings
1. Prentice, W. “Therapeutic Modalities for Allied Health Professionals.
2. Prentice, William E., Rehabilitation Techniques in Sports Medicine,/
3. Gregory Kolt Physiotherapy in Sports and Exervise

Paper-33 GENERAL PHYSIOTHERAPY


Objective
To understand the disease process and management of various general conditions.

1. Principles of Physiotherapy management in General Surgical Conditions. Complication of Surgery and


management.
2. Pre and Post-operative assessment and physiotherapy management in the following.
Cholecystectomy
Gastractomy
Appendicectomy
Nephroctomy
Herniorraphy
Prostatectomy
Breast Surgery (Mastectomy)
3. Dermatology:
Physiotherapy management in the following Boils, Carbuncle, Ulcer, Scleroderma, AIopacia, Psoriasis, Acne-
Vulgaris, Leprosy, Psoriatic Arthritis, Vetiligo etc.
4. Physiotherapy in Burns and Plastic Surgery.
5. Obstetrics and Gynaecology Physiotherapy in following, Pregnancy, Labour, Prenatal and Post natal period,
Incontinence, Prolapse Uterus, Pelvic inflammatory diseases, Pelvic floor muscle disorders and pelvic
surgeries.
6. Pediatrics’ Physiotherapy
Neonatal screening of the following C.P. Erb's Palsy, Birth Asphyxia, CTEV, Congenital hip dislocation and
Respiratory disorders, Physiotherapy assessment and management in the above conditions, Physiotherapy in
ITU and ICCU. Physiotherapy in Paediatric Surgery.
7. Physiotherapy in E.N.T
Physiotherapy in following conditions sinusitis Rhinitis. Acute and Chronic otitis Media, Adenoids, Tonsillitis
Orosclerosis, Mastoidectomy.
8. Geriatrc Physiotherapy
9. Physiotherapy in Cancer.
10. Physiotherapy in Occupational disorders.
11. Physiotherapy in Psychiatry.
12. Physiotherapy in AIDS and Alcoholics.
13. Miscellaneous conditions Inflammations, Wound, Oedema, Fibrosities, Urological surgery etc.

PRACTICAL

Various physiotherapy procedure and treatment techniques for the above mentioned conditions to be demonstrated and
practiced by the students

Paper-34 COMMUNITY PHYSIOTHERAPY

Objective
To understand the disability in communities and to apply therapeutic agents for their management.

1. Introduction of community Physiotherapy.


2. Demography, population dynamics and social factors related to health and disease, urban and rural societies,
process of urbanization and its impact on health and diseases, community behaviors and ecology.
3. Public health administration including the requirement of international health, social security, public health law
and role of international and other organization.
4. Environmental hygiene including man and his environment, occupational and industrial hygiene, village and
town sanitation, bacteriology of water milk food hygiene.
5. Communicable disease and their prevention and control, common disease and their preventive aspects and
tuberculosis, leprosy, polio, disability prevention. Preventive aspects of psychological medicine and psychiatry.
6. Introduction and General Principles of Biostatistics, Statistical Procedures.
7. Introduction Psychological development from birth to adolescence.
Management of child in Physiotherapy c1inic/dept. parent counselling in
respect of Physical Health and Hygiene.
8. Concept and Philosophy of Public health. Public health in India.
General Epidemiology.
Health Education, environmental health, disposal of wastes.
9. Water norma for potability purification.
10. Preventive Physiotherapy:
Prevention, levels of prevention, various measures in the Prevention of disability and dysfunction public Health
Physiotherapy.
11. Public Health Physiotherapy
Introduction, definition, objectives and functions of public health Physiotherapists surveying and evaluation:
Utilization of physiotherapy manpower, payment for physiotherapy services, School Physiotherapy health
Programmers, Physiotherapy services in the State and Centre. Private practice administration.

FIELD PROGRAMME (PRACTICAL)

In rural areas to conduct survey of population requiring Physiotherapy services and Treatments,

Paper-34 COMMUNITY PHYSIOTHERAPY 75 hrs

Objective
To understand the disability in communities and to apply therapeutic agents for their management.

8. Introduction of community Physiotherapy.


9. Demography, population dynamics and social factors related to health and disease, urban and rural societies,
process of urbanization and its impact on health and diseases, community behaviors and ecology.
10. Public health administration including the requirement of international health, social security, public health law
and role of international and other organization.
11. Environmental hygiene including man and his environment, occupational and industrial hygiene, village and
town sanitation, bacteriology of water milk food hygiene.
12. Communicable disease and their prevention and control, common disease and their preventive aspects and
tuberculosis, leprosy, polio, disability prevention. Preventive aspects of psychological medicine and psychiatry.
13. Introduction and General Principles of Biostatistics, Statistical Procedures.
14. Introduction Psychological development from birth to adolescence.
Management of child in Physiotherapy c1inic/dept. parent counselling in
respect of Physical Health and Hygiene.
8. Concept and Philosophy of Public health. Public health in India.
General Epidemiology.
Health Education, environmental health, disposal of wastes.
9. Water norma for potability purification.
10. Preventive Physiotherapy:
Prevention, levels of prevention, various measures in the Prevention of disability and dysfunction public Health
Physiotherapy.
11. Public Health Physiotherapy
Introduction, definition, objectives and functions of public health Physiotherapists surveying and evaluation:
Utilization of physiotherapy manpower, payment for physiotherapy services, School Physiotherapy health
Programmers, Physiotherapy services in the State and Centre. Private practice administration.

FIELD PROGRAMME (PRACTICAL)

In rural areas to conduct survey of population requiring Physiotherapy services and Treatments,

Paper-35 Ethics Administration and Computer Application

Objective
To understand the basics principle of administrative skills and computers.

Unit-I Ethics

Definition, principles, moral issues in health care, bioethics.

Unit-II: Professional conduct

Rule of professional conduct, relation ship with patients, medical collegues, other professional.
Confidentiality, and responsibility personal and professional standard.

Unit-III: Legal Concepts

Consumer protection act, liability, documentation, negligence, protection from mal practice, claims, compensation.

Unit-IV: International Organization and regulation

WCPT, advertising, documentation, sale of services and goods, inform choice and consent continuing education and
personal development.

Unit-V: Organization and administration

Organizational Characteristics physical facilities and planning, organizational structure and job design for physical therapy
practice.

Unit-VI: Management

Management principles, work design for physiotherapy, recruitment and hiring of professional. Personnel development,
and performance appraisal, physiotherapy marketing and strategies of marketing current trends and marketing fianance
planning and management.

Unit-VII: Computer application

Basics of computer application, hard ware and soft ware, windows, MS word, Excel, MS office, SPSS, and MS power
point.
BPT 405 ORGANIZATION, ADMINISTRATION & ETHICS IN PHYSIOTHERAPY
Course Description: This course involves a description of ethical code of professional practice, as well as its moral &
legal aspects; role of
W.H.O.& W.C.P.T. At the end of the course the student will acquire the knowledge of the basics in Managerial &
Management skills
Course Objectives: This course is aimed to enable the candidate to acquire the knowledge of ethical code of
professional practice, as well
as its moral & legal aspects; role of W.H.O.& W.C.P.T. At the end of the course the student will acquire the knowledge of
the basics in
Managerial & Management skills.
1. General Administration
A. Planning & Organisation: Planning Cycle, Principles of Organisational Charts, Resource and Quality management,
Planning change
B. Financial issues including budget and income generation
C. Hospital Management: Hospital Organisation, Staffing, information, Communication and co-ordination with
Physiotherapy.
services of hospital, Cost of service, Monitoring and Evaluation.
D. Self Management:
i) Preparing for first job
ii) Time Management
iii) Career development
2. Administration of the department
a. Describe methods of administration in a Physiotherapy department: Records: their purpose eg. Attendance, statistics,
inventory, stock. Maintenance of records eg. Methods of community and institutional based departments (CBR & IBR) .
Referrals- purpose and types of referral
b. Demonstrate administration of the following: Store keeping materials, inventory records, purchase ordering petty cash
accounting. General maintenance of equipment, furniture, buildings, costing of splints/ aids/ equipment/ articles/ made in
Physiotherapy
c. Describe and demonstrate: Types of correspondence, Methods of filing.
d. Describe methods for care of equipment and materials
e. Discuss budgeting- including items for an annual budget.
f. Discuss considerations for constructions of a new department, and modification of an old department including: Space
required
Allotment of space, eg suitability for access, plumbing requirements & circulation of air.
g. Plan assessment forms eg. Pre-vocational ADL hand function & higher functions for initial evaluation and progress
recording.
h. Outline method of writing Physiotherapy department annual reports. Calculate monthly and annual statistics. Make
plans for
future requirements eg. Consider staff patient ratio, equipment and staff requirements.
i. Plan to organize picnic or sports program for patients
j. Outline legal aspects related to rehabilitation: Medico Legal cases, Workmans’ Compensation Act & Insurance Facilities.
Other
financial benefits available for the disabled.
k. Outline safety precautions in Physiotherapy
3. Physiotherapy Ethics
a) History of Physiotherapy
b) Philosophy of Physiotherapy
c) Major ethical principles applied to moral issues in health care
d) Rules of professional conduct & scope of practice.
e) Relationship with patient
f) Relationship with medical
g) Relationship with the profession
h) Confidentiality and responsibility
i) Provision of services and advertising
j) Sale of goods.
k) Professional and government licensing accreditation and education standards.
l) Laws and legal concepts
m) Law - protection from malpractice claim
n) Consumer protection act, liability and documentation.
o) Indian Association of Physiotherapists

Paper-36 Physiotherapy Project


SINGHANIA UNIVERSITY

RAJASTHAN

DETAILED SYLLABUS

BYNS

(BACHELOR IN YOGA & NATUROPATHY SCIENCE)

FIVE YEARS PROGRAMME


(Four Year Academic & One Year Internship)
BYNS (Bachelor in Yoga and Naturopathy Science)
COURSE TITLE : BYNS
DURATION : 4 YEAR
TOTAL DEGREE MARKS : 1400
FIRST YEAR
COURSE TITLE PAPER CODE MARKS
Theory Practical Total
HUMAN ANATOMY BYNS—110 100 100 200
HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY BYNS —120 100 100 200
HUMAN PATHOLOGY BYNS —130 100 100 200
PHILOSOPHY OF YOGA BYNS – 140 100 100 200
PHILOSOPHY OF NATURECARE BYNS – 150 100 100 200
YOGA CULTURE BYNS —160 100 100 200
COMPUTER SKILLS BYNS – 170 100 100 200
TOTAL 1400

SECOND YEAR
COURSE TITLE PAPER CODE MARKS
Theory Practical Total
BIOCHEMISTRY BYNS—210 100 100 200
HUMAN MICROBIOLOGY BYNS —220 100 100 200
COMMUNITY MEDICINE BYNS —230 100 100 200
HYDRO THERAPY BYNS – 240 100 100 200
FUNDAMENTALS OF AYURVEDA BYNS – 250 100 100 200
FASTING NUTRITION DIETETICS BYNS —260 100 100 200
PHYSIOTHERAPY BYNS – 270 100 100 200
TOTAL 1400
THIRD YEAR
COURSE TITLE PAPER CODE MARKS
Theory Practical Total
YOGA THERAPY BYNS—310 100 100 200
ACCUPRESSURE BYNS —320 100 100 200
ACCUPUNCTURE BYNS —330 100 100 200
MEGNETO THERAPY BYNS – 340 100 100 200
OBSTETITRICS & GYNAECOGY BYNS – 350 100 100 200
PEDIATRICS BYNS —360 100 100 200
PHYSICAL EXERCISE & FITNESS BYNS – 370 100 100 200
TOTAL 1400

FOUTH YEAR
COURSE TITLE PAPER CODE MARKS
Theory Practical Total
DIAGNOSTIC Methods of Yoga BYNS—410 100 100 200
Management of Disease through yoga BYNS —420 100 100 200
Management of Disease through Naturopathy BYNS —430 100 100 200
Modern Diagnostic Method BYNS – 440 100 100 200
Forensic Medicine & Toxicology BYNS – 450 100 100 200
Chroma Therapy & Manipulative therapy BYNS —460 100 100 200
TOTAL 1200

Note:
Theory Paper :30% Continuous Internal Assessment and 70% University
examination. Practical Paper : 30% Continuous Internal Assessment and 70%
University examination.
BYNS Ist YEAR
ANATOMY
PAPER CODE: 110

1. Cell & Tissues


a. Anatomical Nomenclature
b. Structure of Cell, Reproduction Of Cells.
c. Tissues: Epithelial, Connective, Muscle & Nervous

2. Embryology & Development


a. Early Human Development
b. Development of Individual System: Respiratory, gastro-intestinal, Urinary and Vascular System.
c. Prenatal Growth in Form And Size
d. Neonatal Anatomy and Growth

3. Skin
a. Types of Skin, Epidermis, Dermis, Nerves, Blood Vessels, age related Changes, Repair
b. Appendages of Skin: Pilo sebaceous Unit, Nail Unit.

4. Skeletal System
a. Morphology of Human Skeleton: The Skeleton in Life, Shape and Proportions of Bone, Function of Bone
and Skeleton, mechanical Properties of Bone, Growth of Individual Bones
b. Skeleton Connective Tissues: Structure of Cartilage, Bone as a Tissue, Microscopic structure and
Organization of Bone, Blood Vessels and Nerves of Bone
c. Types of Joints:
d. Axial Skeleton: Vertebral Column, Ribs, Sternum, Skull.
e. Appendicular Skeleton: upper limb, Lower Limb.

5. Muscle
a. Types of Muscle, Attachments of Skeletal Muscle
b. Form and Function in Skeletal Muscle: Form and Fiber Architecture, Functional Implications of Form.
c. Muscle and Movement.
d. Muscles and Fasciae of Head, Neck, Trunk, Upper Limb, Lower Limb

6. Nervous System
a. Regional Organization of Central Nervous System: Spinal Cord, Rhombencephalon, Mesencephalon,
Diencephalon, Telencephalon, Basal Nucleii, Fluid Compartments and Fluid Balance in the CNS.
b. Peripheral Nervous System: Cranial Nerves, Spinal Nerves, and Autonomic Nervous System Peripheral
Apparatus of Special Senses: Gustatory, Olfactory, Peripheral Visual, Accessory Visual, Auditory,
Vestibular.
7. Hemolymphoid and Cardiovascular System
a. Haemal Cells and tissue, Haemopoiesis, Lymphoid Cells And Tissues.
b. Blood Vessels, Thoracic Cavity and Heart.
c. Arterial System, Venous System, Lymphatic.

8. Respiratory System
Nose and Paranasal Sinuses, Larynx, trachea. Bronchi, Lungs, Pleura, Mediastinum

9. Alimentary System
Oral Cavity, Abdomen, Oesophagus to Anus

10. Urinary and Reproductive System


a. Kidneys, Ureter, Bladder, Urethra.
b. Reproductive organs of Male and Female.

11. Endocrine System


Pituitary Gland, Pineal Gland, Thyroid Gland, Parathyroid Gland, Chromaffin System, Diffuse Neuroendocrine
System, Adrenal Gland, Paraganglion, Para-aortic Bodies, Tympanic Bodies, Coccygeal Body.

PRACTICAL : 100 Marks

Labeled Digrams of different organs and bones


Viva
BYNS Ist YEAR
HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY
PAPER CODE: 120

THEORY

1. GENERAL PHYSIOLOGY-
 Cell structure, Sub-cellular units, Cell membrane and its properties.
 Transport mechanisms, bioelectrical potentials and Body fluids and homeostasis.

2. BLOOD – PHYSICAL PROPERTIES, COMPOSITION AND FUNCTION OF BLOOD.


 Plasma Proteins – Normal values, Origin and method of separation and Functions and variations in health
and disease
 Erythrocytes – Morphology and variation in health and disease, Development of erythrocytes, Site and
stages in development, Necessary factors, Regulation of development of erythrocytes and Erythrocyte
sedimentation rate (ESR)
 Leucocytes – Classification, morphology, development and functions and Variation in health and disease-
 Haemoglobin – Structure, synthesis, function and metabolism, types of haemoglobin
 Anemia, its definition and classification.
 Jaundice, its definition and classification and function of spleen
 Thrombocytes its Origin, morphology and functions and variation in health and disease
 Haemostasis – Mechanism of heamostasis, coagulation of blood and Fate of clot and disorders of clotting
 Anticoagulants - Mechanism of action and clinical applications.
 Blood group – Classification, ABO and RH system and blood transfusion, indication and hazards
 Lymph and tissue fluids – Lymph and reticular system, Principles of immune system and Cellular and
humoral immunity

3. CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
 Heart – Structure and properties of cardiac muscle, Conduction of heart, Cardiac circulation and
Regeneration and spread of cardiac impulse
 Electrocardiography – Einthoven’s law, Various ECG leads, normal ECG and its interpretation, Cardiac
arrhythmias and heart blocks and Cardiac vector
 Cardiac cycle – Pressure and volume changes ( mechanical events), Heart sounds, Principles of echo-
cardiography and Measurement and regulation of cardiac cutout.
 Heart Sounds – Description, causation and relation to other events in cardiac cycle and clinical significance of
heart sounds.
 Blood Pressure – Definition, regulation and factors influencing B.P. Measurement of blood pressure and
physiology of hemorrhage and shock.
 Circulation – Blood vessels, Physical principles of blood flow, regulation of blood flow, jugular venous pulse
tracing, radial pulse tracing, Coronary, cerebral, renal and pulmonary circulation, splanchnic, coetaneous and
capillary circulation and Cardiovascular changes in altitude and exercise.

4. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
 Introduction, internal and external respiration, physiological anatomy of respiratory system.
 Mechanics of respiration – Inspiration and expiration, Role of respiratory muscles and thoracic cage, Pressure
and volume changes during respiration and Work of breathing, lung compliance and its significance in health
and diseases.
 Lung volumes and capacities, vital capacity, Lung volumes and capacities and their measurements and
Respiratory minute volume and maximum voluntary ventilation
 Composition of atmospheric, inspired, alveolar and expired air
 Pulmonary circulation – Diffusion of gases across pulmonary membrane, Oxygen uptake, transport and
delivery and carbon dioxide, transport and delivery
 Nervous and chemical regulation of respiration, classification and characteristics of hypoxia, cyanosis,
asphyxia, hypercapnoea, dyspnoea, apnoea and orthopnoea and periodic breathing, Respiratory aspects of
high altitude, non- respiratory functions of lungs and artificial respiration.

5. DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
 Introduction, organization and plan of digestive system
 Saliva, its composition, functions, regulation of secretion
 Functions of stomach, Composition and functions of gastric juice, Regulation of secretion and mechanism of
HCL secretion, Gastric emptying time and its regulation and methods of study of gastric function and its
applied aspect
 Composition and functions of pancreatic juice, Regulation of pancreatic secretion and Methods of study of
pancreatic secretion
 Liver functions and formation, storage and emptying of bile and bile composition, function and regulation of
secretion release of bile and entero-hepatic circulation.
 Succus-entericus and its Composition, function and mechanism of secretions
 Large intestine and its Functions
 Gastro-intestinal hormones and their function – Mastication, deglutition and vomiting, movements of
stomach and small intestines, movements of large intestine and defection.
 Digestion and absorption of carbohydrates, fats, proteins and vitamins, minerals and water.

6. EXCRETORY SYSTEM
 General introduction, organs of excretion.
 Renal – Functional and renal circulation
 Mechanism of urine formation, glomerular filtration, tubular function, Concentration and acidification of
urine, Composition of normal urine, and abnormal constitutes of urine and Renal function tests
 Physiology of micturition and its abnormalities.
 Skin – Stucture and functions
 Classification of hormones and mechanism of hormone action and Regulation of hormone secretion and feed
–back system.
 Active principles of each of the hormones & the glands that produce – chemical nature, biosynthesis, role of
action of them, Control of secretion excretion and its applied aspect, Clinical study of their hypo-and hyper
function and Laboratory diagnosis of pituitary ( anterior and posterior) gland, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal
cortex and medulla and islets of langerhans.
7. Reproductive system
 Physiology of reproduction – Sex determination and sex differentiation and chromosomal study
 Male reproductive system – Growth, development and structure of testes, Gonadotropins and gonadal
hormones, Functions of testes and spermatogenesis, Composition of semen and secondary sexual
characteristics
 Female reproductive system – Ovary, gonadotropins, Structure of ovary and corpus lueteum, Functions of
ovary, ovarian hormones, Physiology of menstruation cycle and physiology of pregnancy, Physiology of
placenta, gestation and parturition, Physiological basis of test for ovulation and pregnancy and secondary
sexual characteristics.

8. NERVE MUSCLE PHYSIOLOGY


 Morphology and measures of excitability, classification and properties of nerve fibers and nerve
conductance tests.
 Types of muscles and their properties and morphology, Neuro-muscular junction, excitation-contraction
coupling, action-potential, Clinical study of their hypo and hyper function and myasthenia gravis

9. CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM


 Structural and functional organizational of central nervous system.
 Neuroglia, functional types of neurons.
 Cerebro-spinal fluid its formation, circulation, function of CSF and methods of collection and clinical
significance of CSF
 Sympathetic transmission and General properties of neuro-transmitters
 Reflex and general properties of reflexes and Sensory modalities and stereognosis.
 Ascending tracts their origin, course, termination and functions and physiology of pain
 Pyramidal and extra-pyramidal systems, Upper and lower motor neurons and their lesions, Brown squared
syndrome and syringomyelis
 Cerebellum its functional anatomy, connections and functions, Effects of lesions and rests for cerebellar
functions.
 Basal ganglion its functional anatomy, connections and functions and Diseases of basal ganglion and its
clinical evaluation.
 Vestibular apparatus its functional anatomy, connections and functions, Effects of lesions and their
assessment, physiology of maintenance and regulation of muscle tone, posture and equilibrium and
Decerebrated rigidity and righting reflexes.
 Thalamus its functional anatomy, connections and functions and effects of lesions of thalamus.
 Hypothalamus its functional anatomy, connections and functions and effect of lesions of hypothalamus.
 Body temperature regulation – normal body temperature, pyrexia and hypothermia
 Cerebral cortex its functional anatomy and methods of study of cortical function.
 Limbic system its functional anatomy, connections and function
 EEG, physiology of sleep and wakefulness.
 Higher functions like learning, speech, memory, behavior and emotions

10. AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM

 Sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system

11. SPECIAL SENSES


 Physiology of olfaction and olfactory discrimination and olfactory pathway and defects of olfaction
 Receptors, primary taste sensation and taste pathway
 Vision – Functional anatomy of eye, extra and intra-ocular muscles, Errors of refraction and its correction,
visual activity, Physiology of aqueous humour, cornea, lens, intraocular pressure, accommodation, retina,
rhodopsin cycle, dark and light adaptation, Visual pathways and effects of lesions in visual pathways, Field
of vision, colour blindness and tests for colour blindness aba1 Formation and circulation of tears, lacrimal
glands
 Hearing – Functional anatomy of ear, function of external ear and middle ear, Functional anatomy of
internal ear, cochles, organs of corti, Auditory pathways and auditory cortex, Frequency analysis, sound
localization, defects of hearing and Audiometry, tests for conduction defects, Aphasia

PRACTICAL

Hematology Experiments-

 Study of fresh drop of blood, effects of isotonic, hypertonic and hypotonic saline on RBCs, Determination
RBC count, haemoglobin, Packed cell volume (PCV), Determination of Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR),
WBC (Total count), Differential WBC count platelets (platelet count) and Determination of blood group (ABO
system)
 Recording of blood pressure in human beings and study of effects of exercise on blood pressure
 Electrocardiography (Demonstration) Clinical examination of CVS and radial pulse

Recommended text books for physiology

 Text book of Medical Physiology- by A.C. Guyton


 Review of Medical Physiology- by W.F. Gamong
 Concise text book of Medical Physiology- by C.S. Chatterjee
BYNS Ist YEAR
HUMAN PATHOLOGY
PAPER CODE: 130

THEORY

General Pathology-

1.
a). History, definition, various branches of pathology and scientific study of disease and methodology.

b). The cell and the reaction of cell, tissue and organ to inury-

 Structure of cell and its functions.


 Causes and nature of call injury like Toxic substances, physical agents and lack of nutrients.
 Infection agents & Parasites.
 Immune mechanism and genetic defects.

c). Reaction of cell to injury agents

 Lethal injury – necrosis and gangrene


 Sub-lethal injury: - Cloudy swelling, Fatty changes in liver, heart and kidney, Glycogen infiltration and
hyaline degeneration, Lipoid degeneration, Goucher and Mucoid degeneration

2.

a. Inflammation and Repair –


 Definition and classification.
 Acute inflammation

Vascular and cellular phenomenon, cells of exudates, chemical and mediators and tissue changes in

Acute inflammation, Cardinal signs of acute inflammation and types and systemic effects of acute

inflammation.

Chronic inflammation –
 Difference between acute and chronic inflammation
 Definition of Granuloma

b. Wound Healing –
 Restitution, regeneration and Repair of epithelipal and mesenchymal tissue
 Primary union and secondary union and Mechanism involved and factors modifying repair
process.

3.

a. Granulomas –
 Definition and Classification of Pathology and Granulomas
 Actinomycosis, maduramycosis and rhinosporidiosis
 Tuberculosis, genesis and fate of tubercle, Primary and Secondary tuberculosis.
 Acquired primary, secondary and tertiary stages of syphilis.
 CNS syphilis, CVS syphilis and gumma, congenital syphilis.

b. Fluid and Haemodynamic Changes (circulatory disturbances)

Hyperemia, congestion and haemorrhage, Thrombosis, embolism, ischaemia , infraction and shock.

4.

a. Immunopathology –
Basic pathological mechanism in autoimmune disorders, Concept of immunodeficiency disorders and pathology of AIDS

b. Growth and its disorders like Definition of agenesis, aphasia, atrophy, hyperplasia, hypertrophy,
hypoplasia, metaplasia

c. Neoplasia -
 Definition, classification and Nomenclature
 Characteristic features of benign and malignant
 Route of spread of malignant tumors
 Grading and staging of cancerous and precancerous conditions.
 Carcinogenesis and carcinogens
 Effect of tumor on host and effect of host on tumors.
 Laboratory diagnosis of cancer – Biopsy, exfoliative cytology, and prognostic prediction in cancer.
 Description of common tumors like – Fibroma, Lymphoma, Lipoma, Angioma, Liomyoma and fibrosarcoma,
Lymphosarcoma, Liposarcoma, angiosarcoma and Leiomyosarcoma.
 Embryonal tumors like teratoma and retinoblastoma.

1. Mineral and Pigment Metabolism:-


 Pathology of melanin pigment.
 Pathology of haemoglobin and its derivatives.
 Haemosiderosis and haemochromatosis.
 Genetic disorders: - Klinefelter’s Syndrome, Turner’s syndrome, Down’s syndrome.
SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY –

1.
a. Definition, morphologic and etio-pathologic classification of anaemias
 Iron deficiency anaemia, B12 and folic acid deficiency anaemia , maglo sideroblastic anemia posthemorrhagic
anaemia.

b. Concept and classification of haemolytic anaemia, Acquired hemolytic anaemia and aplastic
anaemia, Polycythemia and Laboratory investigations in anaemia.

c. Leucopenia, Leukocytosis and Leukaemia, Agranulocytosis and Tropical Eosinophilia.

d. Coagulation and Bleeding Disorders –


 Structure, function and pathology of platelets and Laboratory investigation in bleeding disorders.
2.
a. Diseases of cardiovascular System –
 Arteriosclerosis and Atherosclerosis, Aneurysm and Vasculitis and thromboangitis obliterans.
 Rheumatic heart disease, Endocarditis, Myocardial infarction.
 Congenital heart diseases, pericarsitis and congestive cardiac failure.

b. Diseases of Respiratory System –


 Lobar pneumonia, bronchopneumonia, pulmonary tuberculosis
 Bronchial asthma, chronic bronchitis.
 Chronic – obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD)
 Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)
 Tumors of lung of pleura

c. Diseases of Gastro-intestinal System –


 Polymorphic adenoma of salivary gland and Barrel’s esophagus.
 Gastritis and peptic ulcer and tumor and stomach,
 Inflammatory bowel diseases – Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, typhoid ulcer, tumors of small intestine.
 Megacolon and tumor of colon
 Malabsorption syndrome, tropical spur and celiac diseases.
 Amoebiasis, Diarrhea dysentery and intestinal tuberculosis.
3.
a. Diseases of Liver, biliary tract and pancreas.
 Cirrhosis of Liver, tumors of liver and hepatic failure
 Indian childhood cirrhosis.
 Cholecystitis, gall stones
 Acute pancreatitis.
 Cystic fibrosis (mucoviscidosis)
 Liver abscess and alcoholic liver, portal Hypertension.

b. Diseases of Kidney –
 Acute glomerulonephritis, membra-nousglomerulo-nephritis, nephritic syndrome, Renal failure, polycystic kidney.
 Chronic glomerulonephritis, acute tubular necrosis.
 Pyelonephritis effect of kidney in hypertension on record function.
 Urolithiasis, tumors of kidney and pelvis.

c. Diseases of male genital system –


 Orchitis and testicular tumors.
 Nodular hyperplasia of prostate, carcinoma of prostate.
 Carcinoma of penis and lesions of penis.

d. Diseases of Female Reproductive System –


 Vaginal discharge
 Amenorrhea
 Dysmenorrheal
 Polymenorrhea
 D.U.B. (Dysfunctional Uterus Bleeding)
 Endometrial hyperplasia adenomyosis and endometriosis.
 Carcinoma of cervix, tumors Fibroid uterus.
 Pelvic inflammatory diseases.
 Carcinoma and other diseases of vulva.
4.
a. Diseases of Breast –
 Fibrocystic diseases and tumors of breast and Gynaecomastia

b. Endoctrine Pathology
 Pituitary, Acromegaly, Hypothyroidism, & Grave’s disease.
 Thyroiditis, tumors of thyroid function tests.
 Hyperparathyroidism and adenoma of parathyroid.
 Hyperplasia and adenoma of parathyroid.
 Adrenal gland, Addison’s diseases, bushing’s syndrome
 Pheochromocytoma, neuroblastoma.

c. Musculo-skeletal Pathology –
 Osteomyelitis and osteoporosis
 Rickets and osteomalacia
 Osteitis fibrosa cystic and paget’s diseae, fibrous dysptesia.
 Tumors of Bone.
 Rheumatoid Arthritis, Gout osteoarthritis.
 Myasthenia gravis and progressive muscular dystrophy.

d. Diseases of Nervous System-


 Meningitis, Tumors of CMS
 Tumors of Peripheral Nerves.
 Encephalitis.

e. Diseases of Lymph nodes and spleen-


 Lymphadenopathy
 Malignant lymphomas and spleenomegaly
5.
a. Pathology of Skin – Squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, Malignant melanoma, Warts, molluscum
contagiosum and Superficial and deep fungal diseases.

b. Diseases of Ear, Nose & throat


 Acute & chronic otitis media (suppurative and non-suppurative)
 Acute Mastoiditis.
 Ostosclerosis, Maurice’s diseases, tinnitus.
c. NOSE
 Acute chronic and Vasomotor Rhinitis, Nasal allergy, Nasal poly D.N.S.
 Acute and chronic sinusitis

d. THROAT
 Recurrent ulcerative stomatitis. (Aphthous Ulcer)
 Acute & chronic pharyngitis
 Acute & chronic tonsillitis
 Diphtheria
 Acute & chronic laryngitis.

6. OPTHALMOLOGY
 Errors of refraction.
 Presbyopia & anisomatropia
 Conjunctivitis, Corneal ulcers, Glaucoma
 Keratitis, lritis, lridocycliris.
 Cataract, Optic Neuritis, Optic Atrophy.

PRACTICAL

Hematology :-

1. Blood group (ABO system)


2. Estimation of haemoglobin, RBC count, The DLC, Absolute Eosinopill count.
ii. Clinical Pathology –
 Urine analysis
 Semen analysis
 Pregnancy test
 Liver function test.
 Renal fractional test
 Glucose tolerance test

Reference Books:

 Text book of pathology – by Anderson


 Systemic pathology – by Symmers
 Text Book of pathology – by N.C. dey
 Medical laboratory Technology – by Ramnik Sood
BYNS Ist YEAR
PHILOSOPHY OF YOGA
PAPER CODE: 140

THEORY

1. General Introduction to Yoga Philosophy, Definition, Concepts, Aims & Objectives and its importance in
modern sociological life.
Origin and History of Yoga: Psychological and other reasons
Schools of Yoga: Raja. Bhakti, Karma, Mantra, Jnana, Hatha, Laya, Tantra etc.

2. Man as described in Indian and Western Philosophy.


Yoga, Western mysticism and God.
Concept of Soul, Karma and Rebirth.
Yoga Philosophy in relation to other schools of Indian Philosophy.

3. Gheranda Samhita
The seven exercises, the six purificatory process, four internal Doutis Bahiskrita Douti Danta Douti, Danta Mula douti,
Jihva shodhana douti, hrid douti, Vastra douti, Vamana douti, Mulashodhana
Bastis- Jala & Stala
Neti & Trataka
Kaphalabhati- Vamakrama, VyutKrama & Sitkarma

4. Asanas as prescribed in the original text.


Mudras and its benefits as prescribed in the original text.
Pratyahara
Pranayama
 Place, time, six seasons experiencing of seasons Moderation of diet, Prohibited Foods.
 Types of pranayama, purification of nadis, kinds of kumbhaka, vayu and their seats.

5. Dhyana Yoga
 Sthula Dhyana, Jyotir Dhyana, Sukshma Dhyana and Samadhi Yog as mentioned in the original text.

HATHA YOGA PRADEEPIKA

[ The following chapters should be studied in details as in the original text]


Asanas, Pranayamas, Mudras and Samadhi

PRACTICALS:

1. Practice of the asanas, Pranayama, and Shat-kriyas


2. Visit to the yoga Ward in Hospital

Reference Books:

1. Yoga for Health – by Avadhutika Anandamitra


2. Yoga Therapy – by Dr. V. K. Ahluvalia & K.K. Suman
3. Yogasana & Sadhana – by Dr. Satyapal Grover
4. Preksha Yoga – by Dr. J.P.N. Mishra
BYNS Ist YEAR
PHILOSOPHY OF NATURE CURE
PAPER CODE: 150

THEORY

1.
 The revolution of the human body
 Philosophy of the body, mind, soul, life, spirit and spiritual body
 Composition of the human body, according to Ayurveda, Naturopathy, Yoga, Modern Medicine, Homoeopathy and
History and fundamental principles of Naturopathy
 Comparative study of the Naturopathy with other system of medicine
 Ayurvedic approach towards Naturopathy.
2.
 Laws of Nature – Pancha Maha Bhutas, Shareera Dharmas – Ahara. Nidra, Bhaya, Maithunani, Inflammation and its
different stages and Natura rejuvenation.
 Definition of Prakarti and its types
 Unity of disease, unity of cure and unity of treatment. How nature cures?
 Foreign matter and toxins accumulation in the body and its importance in elimination through different ways or
channels
 Definitions and maintenance of nature’s constructive principles of health
 Importance of the physical and mental hygiene
 Personal life and prevention of diseases.
3.
 Introduction to Hydrotherapy – Properties and various forms in which water is used for therapy, Effect of different
temperature on body and Treatments – Hip bath, Arm bath, Spinal bath, Steam bath, Foot bath, Immersion bath,
Enema.
 Introduction to Mud therapy – Collection to composition of mud, Preparation of pack, Types of application and
Effects of MUD on the body
 Magnets, types, application and precaution
 Introduction to Manipulative therapy – Brief introduction to Message, Chiro-Practice, Osteopathy & Acupressure &
effects of Manipulative techniques or body

4.
 Fasting therapy – History and types of fasting, Effects of fasting and How to break a fast
 Introduction to Chromo therapy – Primary and secondary colors and their properties and Treatment
 Equipments in Chromo therapy
 Introduction to Nutrition – Definition and importance and Carbohydrates, fats proteins, vitamins, minerals and
trace elements, availability and function and their importance
 Natural diet – Raw diet and its benefits, Sprouts and its benefits, Advantage and disadvantages of cooked and
uncooked food and diet for different disease and ages
5.
 Old age problems and their management
 Natural contraceptive methods

PRACTICALS

Identification of Naturopathic equipment, diets

Reference books

 Philosophy of Nature Cure – by Hentry Lindlahr


 Human culture & cure – by Dr. E.D. Babbit
 Nature Cure Treatment – by I.N.Y.S. Publications, Bangalore
BYNS 1st YEAR
YOGA CULTURE
PAPER CODE:160

THEORY

1. Rules and Regulations for the practice of Yoga techniques


 Difference between Yogic and non-yogic physical practices
 Physiological effects of various asanas on different system of the body such as Skeletal, Respiratory, Muscular,
Cardio-vascular, etc (in general)
 Research on physiological aspects of yogasanas, Pranayama, Meditation, Concentration, Relaxation techniques,
Kriyas, etc.
 Surya namaskar and its importance in health and diseased conditions
 Mudras & Bandhas – their neuro muscular & glandular effects on the body.

2. THEORY OF PRANAYAMAS: Types of Prana & their function.


 NADI: Ida, Pingala, Sushumna, and upanadis, Preparatory Breathing Exercises Anuloma – Viloma and Nadi
Shudhi,
 Types of Pranayamas: Suryabheda, Ujjayi, Sheetkari, Sitali, Bhastrika, Bhramari, Moorcha and plavani theory
and practice.
 Physiological & Psychological effects of Pranayamas
 Physiological and spiritual importance of shatkriya practice
 Physiological effects of shanka Prakshalana
 Importance of Pratyaharas
 Techniques of Dharana.

3. Psycho – physiological effects of following meditation.


 Religious methods, Zen Meditation, Gurujapa, Transcendental meditation, Preksha meditation, Om meditation,
Brahma meditation and Vipassana meditation
 The basic of yoga science and kundalini
 Different Chakras, its seat, its qualities and methods to awaken different charkas
 Physiology and psychology of kundalini Yoga
 Misunderstanding about kundalini and sex
 Symptoms of kundalini
 Kundalini charkas – innage Lifestyle
 Governors of specific personality patterns
 Symptoms & signs of kundalini awakening Phenomenon

4. Yoga for personality development


 Yoga and Education Misconceptions
 Yoga for woman, Emphasis on Yogic practices during pregnancy.
 Yoga for the elderly person Role of Yoga.
 Yoga teaching methods.
 Yogic training, teaching and physical fitness
 Psychology of Yoga in comparison to modern psychology

5. Yoga Philosophy and sandhana


 Yoga and stress Management
 Yoga and Consciousness
 Yoga and science
 Yoga and Religion

Practical’s
 Practice of Surya Namaskar
 Practice of Mudra & Bandhas

REFERENCE BOOKS

 An autobiography of Yogi – by Paramahamsa Yogananda


 Yoga as Philosophy & Religion – by S.N. Dasgupta
 New perspectives in stress management
 Light on Pranayama by B.K.S, Iyengar
BYNS Ist YEAR
COMPUTER SKILLS
PAPER CODE: 170

THEORY
2. Define computer, its generation, measures, types of computer, software, its type like System software & user designed
application software, CPU, RAM and SSD

3. HARDWARE:- Definition.
Input Devices: - Keyboard, Mouse, Joystick, Light Pen, Optical/ Magnetic Scanner, Touch Screen, Microphone for voice
as input

4. Output Devices: -
 Monitor (visual Display Unit)
 Printers: -
 Laser Printer
 Dot Matrix Printer
 Color Printer
 Line Printer
 Inkjet Printer
 Plotter
 Sound System

5. Storage Devices: -
 Floppy Disc
 Hard Disc
 Cartridge
 Tape
 CD-ROM.

6. Programming language: -
 Compiler, Assembly Language, Machine Language, Main Program Language & Accessories program group.
 What is MS-WORD, Create Document, Tables
PRACTICAL

 Labeled diagrams of different computer parts


 Vivo

Reference books:

1. Microsoft Word by Rajeev Chawla


2. Computer and Introduction by V.K. Jain

BYNS 2nd YEAR


BIO – CHEMISTRY
PAPER CODE – 210

THEORY
1. Hydrogen on concentration, Acids, Bases, Buffers, Henderson hasepbasch education amino acids –
Classification, Structure properties & side chains.

2. Peptides-Biological importance of peptides structure of insulin. Proteins- Definition, biological


importance, classification & properties structure of proteins, coagulation & denaturasation of
proteins.

3. Elimantary aspects of the structure of collagen, Myoglobin & Haemoglobin, enzymes definition,
classification, specificity, co-enzymes, co-factors & activators diagnostic importance of enzymes &
iso-enzymes.

4. Carbohydrates- Definition, classification & Biological importance & function. Lipids – Definition,
classification & biological importance.
Composition of trigycerol, waxes.
Function of phospholipids, Spongiolipids & Glycolipids.
Functions of Fatty acids- Properties of saturated & unsaturated fatty acids.

5. Nucleic Acids – Definition classification, composition & biological importance of Nucleic acids,
Purines & pyrimidine bases.
Vitamins – Definition & Classification,
Minerals- calcium, Phosphosrus, Iron, Copper, Zine, Magnesium, Manganese, Lead, Merury, Arsenic, Metal
Toxcity, Flourine & Iodine.

1. Digestion & absorption of carbohydrates, lipids & proteins carbohydrate metabolism-

Glycogenesis, glycogenolysis & Krebs’ Cycle glycolysis, Pyruvate Oxidation Citric Acid Cycle,
Gluconeogenesis, Metabolism of Fructose & Galactose, Regulation of Metabolic Pathway,

Disorders of Carbohydrate Metabolism, Regulation of Blood Sugar, Glucose Tolerance Test,

Diabetes Mellitus

2. Biological Oxidation

Lipid Metabolism, Lipgenesis, Synthesis of Fatty Acids, Desideration, Phospholipids, Biosynthesis

Of Letting, Cephalic & their Breakdown, Oxidation of fatty Acids, formation & utilization of Ketone

Bodies, Ketosis, Synthesis & breakdown of Cholesterol, disorders of lipid metabolism. Fatty lever &

Lipotropic factors

3. Metabolism of proteins and amino acids – Breakdown of tissue proteins, amino acids poal,
general metabolism of amino acids, disposal of ammonia, urea cycle, formation of glutamate
and glutamine, disorders of amino acid metabolism.
Purina and pyrimidine merabolism – outline of synthesis and breakdown of purine and pyrimidine,
Disorders of metabolism of purine and pyrimidine.

4. Biochemistry of blood – synthesis and degradation of haeme, Function of Haemoglobin,


abnormal haemoglobin, Jaundice importance, functions and separation of plasma preteins,
Function and separation of plasma proteins Function of immunoglobin, regulation of PH of
blood, role of kidney and lungs in maintaining PH of blood, Acidosis and Alkalasis.

5. Kidney Function Tests – Composition of Urine, Urea clearance and creatinin clearance,
Electrolytes and water metabolism

PRACTICALS

Determination of – Blood sugar, Blood Urea, Total serum protein, Total serum
calcium Total serum cholesterol, Total serum billrubin, SCOT and SGPT
Demonstration of principles of Colorimetry and colorimeter, Paper
chromatography, Electrophoresis, Glucose tolerance test (GTT) and Flame
Photometry.

RECOMMENDED TEXT BOOKS:

Text of biochemistry – Harper


Biochemistry for medical studies – Divyajyoti das laboratory
Manual of biochemistry – pittabhikaman & acharya
Laboratory manual in biochemistry – Rajgopal & Ramakrishnan
BYNS 2nd YEAR
HUMAN MICROBIOLOGY
PAPER CODE : 220

1. General Bacteriology:-
 Historical introduction and Morphology and Physiology of Bacteria
 Sterilization and Disinfection
 Cultivation of Bacteria (culture media & methods)
 Identification of Bacteria and Bacterial Growth and Multiplications
 Basic Principles of Bacterial Genetics

Immunology:-

 Infection and immunity, Antigens & immunoglobin


 Structure & function of immune systems & immune Response
 Immune System and Antigen-Antibody response.
 Compliment systems and other Serological Tests.
 Hypersensitivity
 Basic Principles Auto-immunity.
 Immune-deficiency diseases.

2. Systemic Bacteriology:-
 Streptococcus, Staphylococcus and Pneumococcal,
Gonococcus Meningococcal, Carynaebacteruim,
Clostridium, Haemophilas , Bardetaila, Mycobacterium,
Spirochete, Yesinia, Chalarrydia, Enterobactriaceae,
Nonsporing amoeba, vibrio.

3. Parasitology:-

 Protozoalogy – Entamoeba and Plasmodium


 Helminthiology – Ankylostoma, Ascariasis, Taenia, Wucheria
Virology:-

 General properties of virus and their diagnosis.


 Herpes, Adenovirus, Picorna, Hepatitis Virus, Rubella and Poxvirus, Rabies virus, Polio virus, HIV.
 Bacteriophage.

4. Mycology:-
General characters and methods used for study and diagnosis of fungi infections.
Superficial Mycoses, Systemic Mycoses, Candidiasis, Aspergillosis Mycetoma, rhinosperidiosis.

5. Applied Microbiology:
Diagnostic methods in common diseas
Meningitis, UTI, PUO, Gastroenteritis, Respiratory infection Urogenital infection,
Phogenic infections, nosocomia infection, infections of Ear, Eye and Oral Cavity .

PRACTICAL:

Slides of important bacteria, virus & fungi


Disinfection of water & hospital instrument / Equipment sterilization
Identification of different type of culture media

REFERENCE BOOKS:

Text book of the microbiology – by R. Anantha Narayan & C.K. Jaya Ram Panikar
Parasitology – By Jaya Ram Panikar
Text book of microbiology – by Chakravarthy
BYNS 2nd YEAR
COMMUNITY MEDICINE
PAPER CODE – 230

THEORY
1.
 Ancient Medicine, Scientific Medicine, Modern Medicine, Medical Evolution
 Concepts in Community Health, Concepts of Development. Concepts of Disease. Concepts of Prevention,
Disease control & Eradication, Public Health, Social Medicine, Community medicine, Health Services, Planning
and management, Development of Health services
 Genetics
 Screening of Diseases, criteria for screening, sensitivity and specificity and specificity.

2.
 Epidemiology of communicable Diseases-
 Respiratory infection – small Pox, Vericella, Measles, Rubella, Mumps, influenza, Diphtheria,
pertusis, tuberculosis
 Intestinal infections – Polio, viral hepatitis, cholera, acute diarrheal Diseases, Typhoid, Food
poisoning, Ancylioslomiasis, Taoniasis
 Yellow fever, Japanese Encephalitis, Malaria, Filarial
 Rabies Tranchoma, Tetanus, Leprosy, STD, AIDS
3.
 Epidemiology of non-communicable diseases
 Hypertension, Cancer, Cardio-vascular Diseases, Diabetes, Obesity, Blindness, Rheumatic heart diseases and
Accidents.
 Demography & family planning –
 Demographic cycle, Population trends, Fertility related statistics, Health aspects of Family Planning,
Contraceptive Methods and delivery system, National family welfare Programme.
 Preventive Medicine in obstetrics, Pediatrics & Geriatrics – Antenatal, intranatal, Postnatal care, Low birth
weight, infant feeding, growth and development, growth chart, national health services, behavioral Problems,
geriatrics.
4.
 Environment & Health - & occupational health
 Purification of water & water Quality Standards, Air, Ventilation, Lighting, Noise, Radiation, Air temperature &
Humidity, Housing, Solid wastes disposal & control, excreta disposal, Water carriage system, sewage treatment,
Entomology - Mosquite, housefly, lice, ichite , Cyclopes, Rat Flea, Rodents, Insecticides hazards, diseases,
Preplacement examination, measures for general health, Protection of workers, Prevention of Occupational
diseases, Legislation.
 Basic medical statistics censes, vital events, legislation, SRS, notification of diseases, measures of dispersion &
centering, sampling. Tests of significance, Correlation & Regression.
5.
 Health education and communication.
 Health planning – management – international health organization planning cycle. Management methods &
techniques, National health policy. Health planning in India, five year plan, health systems in India – at centre,
state and district levels, Panchayat Raj. Rural development schemes.
 Health care of community – health systems and national health programmes. Levels of health care. Health for
all primary health service and system, Voluntary health agencies, national health programmes.

PRACTICAL

 Insecticides
 Universe immunization programme
 Communicable diseases
 Insect borne diseases
 Microscope slides
 Environment and sanitation
 Field visits
 Water filtration plant

TEXT BOOKS:-

 Text Book of Preventive and Social Medicine – By J.E. Park & K.Park
 Text Book of Preventive and Social Medicine – By B.K. Mahajan & M.C. Gupta.
BYNS 2nd YEAR
HYDROTHERAPY
PAPER CODE – 240

THEORY
1.
 Introduction and history of Hydrotherapy
 Physical propertites and chemical composition of water
 Importance of water to human body
 Effect of the application of hot and cold over reflex areas, Action and reaction, incomplete reaction, Condition
thermic reaction, modified thermic reaction
 Hydrotherapy in preservation and promotion of health
 Hydrotherapy in emergency conditions
 Function of magnesium sulphate – use in Hydrotherapy
 General Principles of Hydrotherapy
 Therapeutic significance of reaction
 Adaptation of individual cases
 Exaggeration of symptoms under treatment the untoward effects and how to avoid them
 General indication and contra-indication of Hydrotherapy
2.
 Therapeutic action and use of Hydrotherapy
 Classification of Hydria tic effect, General Principles excitation and Depression
 Primary excitation effects – when to apply and when not a apply
 Local Haemostalis effects
 Cardiac effects – Hydratic heart tonics
 Vterine excitations , Emanogogic effects
 Vesical excitation
 Intestinal excitation, peristaltic effects
 Secondary excitant effects
 Restorative effects
 Tonic effects of cold water, Physiological effects of cold water, cold water vs medical tonic, application in the
following
 Anemia, Neurasthenia, Hypochondria, Cerebral congestion, Rhevnatism, Diabetes mellitus ovular heart
diseases
3.
 Calorific and Diaphoretic effects of Hydrotherapy
 Importance of attention to the skin in Chronic diseases – alternative & Qualitative effect – Hot baths in Brigit’s
diseases, Sweating baths in dropsy and obesity, Depurative or eliminative effects, Toxemia in Rheumatism
 Expectorant effects of Hydrotherapy
 Diuretic effects Hydrotherapy – Bright’s diseases Uraemia – eclampsia, atonic Dyspepsia, Hyperacidity
 The techniques of Hydrotherapy :- Cold hip bath – Kelog’s & Kunhe’s sitz bath, Shallow bath for males, females
hand and arm bath ,
Gradiuated bath footbath, hot and cold aiternative Natural Bath, Leg bath, Non revulsive bath, Immersion
bath, cold plunge bath, Whirl pool bath, Aeration bath, Viechy spray massage, Rapid bath, Brand bath, fever
bath, river bathing, sea bathing.

 Various baths abd air baths, Russian bath, Turkish bath, steam bath , local steam bath, steam inhalation , Hot air
bath, local hot air bath, super hot air bath, cold air bath, indoor and out-door baths
 Douches and their uses
4.
 Fermentation, compresses and packs:- The hot water bag, the siphon hot water bag, the thermopore, the mustar
fermentation, clay and glycerine poullice , charcoal poullice cotton poullice.
 The wet sheet pack, cooling pack, cold shower pack, sweating pack, dry pack, “half pack, hot blanket pack,
evaporating pack, very cold compress, proximal compress, neutral compress, alternate compress, revulsive
compress of ten days for injuries and eruptions, alternative ten applications to be head and spine, local packs,
wet girdle pack, dry abdominal bandage.

a. Abdominal heating compress, Head pack, Spinal pack.


b. Hot and cold heart compress, Hot and cold lung compress
c. Hot and cold gastro hepatic compress
d. Hot and cold renal compress
e. Hot and cold intestinal compress
f. Hot and cold pelvic compress, Hot and cold abdominal pack
g. Hot and cold spinal pack
h. Hot an cold heart pancreatic pack
5.
 SPECIAL FORMS OF COMPRESS :- Cephalic compress, chest pack, triangular chest pack, Half chest compress,
joint compress, Pelvic pack, Foot pack, cold spinal compress, Towel chest pack.
Pericardial or cardiac compress, Hip pack, Leg pack, Perineal compress prone packs, Lumbar
compress.

 Internal use of water:-


a. Irrigations and enema (Colon flushing)
b. Cold water drinking, Hot water drinking
c. Water emetic, irrigation of ear, Nasal irrigation, Vaginal irrigation, intra-uterine irrigation, rectal
irrigation.
d. Enema :- Hot, Warm, Cold, graduated enema
 Procedures that increase oxidation
 Measures that encourage general and local metabolic activity
 Procedures that increase general blood movement and local blood supply
 Measures that increase heat production
 Measures that increase the elimination of heat
 Measures that combat bacterial development in blood
 Measures that increases/ lessen heat elimination
 Hydriatic in-compatibility
 Adaption of hydriatic prescription of individual diseases
 Hydrotherapy as a means of rehabilitation and health promotion measures
 Emergency treatment in Hydrotherapy.

 Mud Therapy
 Introduction of Mud Therapy
 Classification of mud for therapeutic use
 Precautions for storing mud
 Methods of treatment of mud-applications, packing, hot poulities, effect of body
 Natural mud bath, full and partial mud packs, mud plaster, thermal bat dry pack and sand pack and sand
baths
 Cosmetic uses of mud.

PRACTICALS:-

 Demonstration of various therapeutic Procedure and treatment in Hydrotherapy during clinical classes at the
hospital, At the end of final B.Y.N.S. Course candidate should be in a position to give treatments independently -

REFERENCE BOOKS:-

 Hand Book of Hydrotherapy – By show, Joel


 Hydrotherapy in Practice – By Davis, B.C. & Harrison, R.A
 Baths – By S.J.Singh
 Rational Hydrotherapy – By Dr. J.H. Kellogg
BYNS 2nd YEAR
FUNDAMENTALS OF AYURVEDA
PAPER CODE:-250

THEORY

1.
 Brief history and introduction of Ayurveda.
 Astangas of Ayurveda: -
 The concept of panch Mahabhootas :- Prithvi – Aap – Vayu – Tejas – Akash.
 Manovigyan.

 Shareera Vigyan :-
 Sapta Dhatus: - Rasa – Rakta – Mansa – Meda – Asthi – Majja – Sukra.
 Tridosha Vigyan: - Vata – Pitta – kapha.
 Mala Vigyan: - Mala – Mootra – Sweda.
 Ojas (Vital Force), Vyadhi Kshamatwa.
 Different kinds of Agnis: - Jatharaagni – Bhootaagni – Dhatwaagnis.
 Concept of Atma.
 Marma Vigyan: - Strotas – Kostas.

 Prakriti Vigyan.
2.
 Swastha Vritta, Dinacharya, Ratricharya, Ritucharya, Vegadharanam and Sadvata.
 Importance of Ahara, Nidra, Brahmacharya.
 Bhaishajya Kalpana, Panch vidha kahsya kalpana.
 Roga Vigyanan -
 Vyadhi and classification.
 Nidana pachaka – Nidana – Poorva Roopam – Upasayam and Samprapti
 Asta Vidh Pareeksha.
 Concept of Dosh Kriyakal – Sanchaya – Prakopa – Prasara – Sthaana – Samasraya – Vyakti and Bheda.
3.
 Concept of Arogya and Roga.
 Chikitsa Siddanta: -
 Chikitsa Purusha and Chikitsa Paadas.
 Samanya Chikitsa Siddanthas.

 Dvividhopa Karma.
 Santarapana and Apatarpana.

 Shodhana Karma (Panch Karma), Poorva, pradhana, Paschyaat Sansarjana Karma.


 Importance of pathya Apathya Vichara in Ayurveda.
 Concept of Ras, Guna, Veerya, Vapika and Prabhawa in Ayurveda.

HERBLOLGY

4.
 The following herbs are to be studies with respect to their source and therapeutic uses.

S. No. Botanical Name S. No. Botanical Name

1. Emblica Offcinals 11. Cassia Fistula


2. Ficus Glomerata 12. Vetiveria Zizanodies
3. Cinnamomum Camphora 13. Monsardica Charantia
4. Tribulus Terrestris 14. Myristica Charantia
5. Cuminum Cyminum 15. Seasamum Indicum
6. Ocimum Sanctum 16. Punica Grantum
7. Coriandrum Sativum 17. Azadirachta Indica
8. Allium Cepa 18. Piper Longum
9. Psoraled Corylofolia 19. Taxus Baccata
10. Aegle Marmelos 20. Semecarpus Anacardium

5.
 The following herbs are to be studies with respect to their therapeutic uses.
1. Phyllanthus Niruri
2. Trigonella Foenum – Graecum
3. Allium Sativum
4. Acorus Calamus
5. Rauwolfia Serpentina
6. Terminalia Chebula
7. Syzygium Aramaticulum
8. Gingiber Officinalis
9. Piper Nigrum
10. Santahlum Album
11. Mimosa Pudica
12. Asparagus Racemosus
13. Curcuma Longa
14. Ferula Narthex
15. Terminalia Belerica

PRACTICALS

 Collection of minimum 25 herbs with record


 Visit to the Panch-Karma Ward in the Hospital
BOOKS

1. N.K. Udupa – Fundamentals of Ayurveda.


2. R.H. Singh – Swatha Vritta Vigyana
3. Charaka Samhita
4. Dr. Rakesh Verma & Hari Bhardwaj – Ayurveda Prakash.

BYNS 2nd YEAR


FASTING NUTRITION & DIETETICS
PAPER CODE:-260

THEORY
1. Introduction
 Theory of fasting in animals.
 Fasting of Ancient India. History of fasting in India and foreign country.
 Science and Fasting.

2. The Philosophy of Fasting


 The philosophy of sane fasting and philosophy of Therapeutic Fasting
 Life its existence in connection with health and diseases.
 Theory and physiological fact of fasting-
 Objections commonly raised in fasting therapy.
 Pros and cons of fasting.

3. Physiology of fasting and starvation


 General Physiology
 Effect on metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins during fasting
 Difference between fasting and starvation
 Difference between hunger and appetite

4. Rules & Regulations of Sane Fasting and Therapeutic fasting

5. Definition and classification of fasting in different aspects


 General Physiology
 Methods and types of therapeutic fasting (Dry, Water, Juice, Saline, Monodiet (Kalpa), Fruit, Intermittent,
Preventive weekly etc.)

6. Hygienic Auxiliaries of Fasting


 Air and Breathing, Enema, Bathing, Clothing, Water Drinking, Exercise, Fasting and Menial influence.
7. Study of Patients during and after Fasting
 Crises during fasting and their management.
 Physiological effects of fasting.
 Study of the tongue, the breath, the temperature and pulse etc
 The loss and the gain of weight.
 How and when to break the fast
 Diet after the fast.

8. Indication and contraindication of Fasting

9. Therapeutic aspects of fasting


 Fasting in acute diseases.
 Fasting in chronic-diseases.
 Role of fasting in various diseases.
 Obesity and fasting.
 Fasting for preservation of health and prevention of diseases.

PRACTICALS

 Visits to the Fasting, Nutrition, dietetic department of the hospital.


 Demonstration of sprouts.
 Preparation of low cost balanced diet for different population groups using natural foods.
 Canteen duties at Nature cure hospital
 Knowledge of Sathvic food preparation at Nature cure hospital.
 Field visit – nutrition survey and diet surveys.

Reference Books:

1. Fasting for healthy and long life by Hereward Carrington.


2. The fasting cure and vital economy byLakshamana Sharma.
3. The effects of fasting by dornals Upton.
4. Fasting for Regeneration by seaton, Julia.

Nutrition

1. Introduction of Nutrition
 The nutritional basis of life
 History of Nutrition
 Life in connection with food.
 Food, Nutrition & Health introduction
 Composition of body in relation to nutrition.

2. Components of the food and their classification Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, Vitamins, Minerals and
trace elements and water and Electrolytes
 Metabolism and energy needs of the body
 Energy balance and the regulation of the body weight
 Enzymes
3. Food Groups
 Cereals, Millets and coarse grains, Pulses, Green leafy vegetables, Other vegetables, Roots and tubers, Fruits , Milk
and Milk product, Sugar and Jaggery, Honey, Fats and oils, Spices and condiments, nuts and oils seeds and Fats
and oils
 Nutritive value of food ingredients commonly used in India

4. Food and Toxins


 Infective agents and toxin in food
 Adulteration of food and food additives
 Health hazards of added chemicals in food.
 Nutrition and infection
5. Nutritional Diagnosis and public health and nutrition
 Nutrition and six types of Rasas in Ayurveda.
 Nutritional programme
 Nutrition survey and methodology,
 Balanced diets and changes.
 Nutrition assessment, social aspects of the nutrition,
 Fortification and enrichment

6. Nutrition in Health
 Human nutritional requirements.
 Nutrition in pregnancy , Lactation, infancy, childhood and adolescence
 Nutrition and Immunity.

7. Nutrition deficiency diseases, preventive & curative approach.

PRACTICALS-

 Visit to the nutrition department of the hospital.


 Canteen duties at nature cure hospital.
 Knowledge of satvic food preparation at nature cure hospital.

REFERENCE BOOKS:
1. A complete guide of vitamins-
Edited by J.I. Rodac & staff
2. The complete Book of food & nutrition by J. RODALA
3. Indian journal of nutrition & dietetics
4. Nutrition survey of India.

DIETETICS

1. Concept of health in naturopathy.


2. Dietetic principles in naturopathy.
3. Concept of wholesome diet.
4. Medicinal value of foods.
5. Natural Qualities/ Properties/ Character of food in naturopathy/ Ayurveda/ Modern nutrition.
6. Natural food & health.
 Importance of green vegetable, other vegetables, fruits & the ingredients.
 Chemical composition of different raw juices & their effects & uses.
 Wheat grass, beetroot cabbage, carrot, cucumber, lettuce, garlic, onion, tomato, pomegranate, grapes, apple,
bittergourd, ashgourd, pumpkins etc.
 Sprouts their nutritive values & methods of sprouting
 Food values in raw states, Germination form & cooked form
 Comparison with raw & cooked food.

7. Food combination & health.


8. Health & herbs.
9. Naturopathic hospital dietetics & their classification.
10. Disease management with diet.
 Diabetes, Renal diseases, Anaemia, PEM, Peptic ulcer, Constipation, Malabsorption, Syndrome, Liver diseases like
jaundice fatty liver etc. high B.P low B.P, Atherosclerosis, gall bladder disease, cancer, tuberculosis, and arthritis.

11. Food allergy & dietary management.


12. Diet & obesity.
13. Dietary modification for specific condition.
14. Dietary requirement for a different population groups with special reference to pregnancy, lactation,
infancy.
15. Seasonal changes in the dietary pattern in Ayurveda/Naturopathy & modern nutrition.
16. Food hygiene & health.
17. Methods of cooking & preservation.
18. Naturopathic approach towards vegetarian & non-vegetarian food.
19. Harmful effects of the food colours preservatives, pesticides, artificial manures.
20. Dietary fibre and its therapeutic effects
(eg-Constipation, Ano-rectal disorders, Colonic disorders, GIT disorders, DM etc)
21. Gerietric nutrition and diet
22. Diet and exercise, sports, games, athletics.
23. Pediatric Nutrition
24. Nutrition and life span
25. Green vegetables and fruits.
26. Non- vegetarian diet: its positive and negative aspects in Naturopathy.
27. Customs and manners of eating different views and effects of emotional state on food utilization.
28. Kalpa therapy in naturopathy: grapes, mango, milk etc.

PRACTICALS:-

Visit to dietetics department of the hospital

REFERENCE BOOK:-

1. Clinical diabetes and nutrition by F.P Antia


2. Normal and therapeutic nutrition by Connane H. Robinson.
3. Nutrition diabetes by suohangine
4. Medical science of your food by aman
BYNS 2nd YEAR
PHYSIOTHERAPY
PAPER CODE:-270

THEORY
1. Introduction of Exercise Therapy
Starting Positions- Fundamental Starting Positions, Derived Positions, Muscle work for all the fundamental starting
positions
 Manual Muscle Testing
 Goniometry

2. Classification of movements on details-


 Voluntary Movements
 Involuntary Movements
 Active & Passive movements

3. Techniques of relaxation, Principles of obtaining relaxation in various positions Types, factor responsible
for good posture, factor responsible for poor development of good posture, Principles & Techniques of re-
education, walking aids Analysis of normal Gait with muscles work, various Pathological gaits
Crutch Gait- Introduction, Crutch Measurement, Various types of Crutch gait (in Delhi)

4. Exercise: -
 Mobilization Exercise
 Strengthening Exercise
 Stretching Exercise

5. Electrotherapy
1.
 Shortwave Diathermy
 Microwave Diathermy
 Ultrasonic Therapy
 Interferential Therapy
2.

 Infrared Radiation Therapy


 Ultraviolet Radiation Therapy
 Basic Principles of transcutaneous nerve stimulation & interferential therapy

PRACTICAL:

 Demonstration of all electrotherapy instruments


 Practice of exercise with minimum 100 of case with record

TEXT BOOKS-

 Massage Books – By George Downing


 Massage – By Constant Young
 Massage Therapy – By Dr. J.H. Koloa
 The complete book of Massage – By Clare Maxwell Hudson
 Panchakarma Treatment of Ayurveda – By T.L. Devaraj Brain Massage, Revitalize mind body – By Howell, Kelly.
BYNS 3rd YEAR
YOGA THERAPY
PAPER CODE – 310

THEORY:
1.
 What is Yoga Therapy?
 Basic Principles of Yoga Therapy
 Role of Shatkriyas in health management.
2.
 Yogic therapy for Cardio- vascular diseases, Psychic diseases, Mental retardation, Neuron muscular diseases,
Digestive disorders, Hormonal disorders, Respiratiory diseases, metabolic disorders, Obstetrics &
Gynecological disorders Meditation & its applications on psychosomatic disorders

 Therapeutic effects of yoga relaxation techniques:


 Quick relaxation technique
 Instant relaxation technique
 Deep relaxation technique
 Yoga nidra
3.
 Correction of displaced nabhi
 Therapeutic benefits of Yogic sukshma vyayam, sthula vyayam, shaktibandha series, pavana-muktaana series
& sttdarshana kriya
 Advanced techniques of Yoga Therapy
 Pranic Healing & Reiki therapy (Basics only)
 Yoga and mental health – total integration of Personality, correct mental behaviour and attitude, hormonal
relationship of body and mind, self content
 Yoga & Diet
4.
 Personality : Nature, development & integration, stress – its causes, effects and control, Historical perspective,
identifying psychological disorders like Anxiety disorders, Dissociative Disorders, Personality Disorders,
Schizophrenia, Therapy for psychological disorders like Psychotherapy – Nature and Forms, yoga as a form of
Psychotherapy, Therapy of interpersonal relations and Behavior therapy and methods of administering
questionnaires & their scoring. Pain analogue scale, Personality questionnaire, etc.

5. Hasya Yoga
 Why Hasya Yoga ?
 Principles of hasya Yoga
 Hasya Yoga Meditation
 Hasya Yoga – A Natural Cosmetic
 Hasya Yoga for Corporate, Students, Ladies, Senior Citizens
 Scientific Rationale of Hasya yoga
 Hasya Yoga Exercise – Key to health

PRACTICAL:

 50 Demonstration Classes of Yoga Techniques.


 Demonstration of Hasya Yoga

REFERENCE BOOKS:

 Yogic Therapy – by Dr. Vinekar, Govt, of India Publication


 Yogic Therapy – by Dr. Giarde
 Psychology – by Robert A. Baron
 Hand Book of Behaviour Modification & Therapy – by Plenum Press
 Stress and Mental Disorders – by Adams J.E., Raven Press, New York
 Counseling and Guidance – by Adams J.T.,Mac Million co
 Yogic Sukshma Vyayama – by Swami Dhirender Brahmachari
 Hasya Yoga Vigyan – by Jiten Kofli, Dr. Ram Avtar, Dr. R.K. Verma
BYNS 3rd YEAR
ACUPRESSURE
PAPER CODE – 320

THEORY
1.
 History of Acupressure
 Principle of Acupressure
 Procedure of Acupressure
 Disease of Eye-
 Glaucoma
 Night blindness, Day blindness, Color blindness
 Diplopia
 Cataract

 Disease of Ear
 Otitismedia
 Tinnitus
2.
 Disease if Mouth, Throat & Nose.
 Tonsillitis
 Adenicos
 Sore Throat
 Tooth Ache
 Gingivitis
 Sinusitis
 Epitasis
 Cervical Pain, Shoulder pain, Lumber pain, Sciatica pain
 Disease of Heart
 Hypertension & Hypotension
 Angina Pectoris
3.
 RESPIRATORY DISORDERS-
 Asthma
 Bronchitis
 Cough

 DISORDER OF DIGESTION-
 Disease of Liver
 Jaundice
 Gall stone

 DISEASE OF KIDNEY & URINARY STONE-


 Kidney stone
 Stone in Urinary Bladder
 Enlarged Prostate Gland
 Bed wetting

 DIABETES MELLITUS
4.
 DISORDERS OF JOINTS, BONES, & MUSCLES
 Arthritis
 Rheumatic fever
 Gout
 Ankylosing spondhytis
 Pain in knee joints

 SEVERN HEADACHE
 Migraine

 SPECIAL PROBLEMS OF WOMEN


 Leucoeehora
 Menopause
 Sterility
 Sexual abnormality
 Miscarriage – spontaneous abortion
5.
 SPECIAL PROBLEMS OF MEN
 Impotence
 Premature ejaculation
 Loss of sexual desire
 Enlarged prostate gland

 DISORDERS OF BRAIN & NERVOUS SYSTEM


 Facial paralysis
 Bell’s palsy
 Epilepsy
 Polio

 MENTAL PROBLEM
 Depression
 Anxiety
 Hysteria
 Mental tension

PRACTICAL:

 Demonstration of Acupressure instruments & Techniques


 Study of 100 cases with Record
 Visit to Acupressure ward in the Hospital

REFERENCE BOOKS:

 Acupressure Prakriti Rog Upchar – by Dr. Attar Singh

BYNS 3rd YEAR


ACUPUNCTURE
PAPER CODE – 330

THEORY:
1.
 Definition of Acupuncture.
 History of Acupuncture

2.
 The traditional Chinese Diagnosis Method.
 Contraindification and complication of Acupuncture

3. The concept of meridians-


 Lung meridians (Lu meridians)
 Large intestine (L I meridians)
 Stomach meridians (St meridians)
 Spleen meridians (Sp meridians)
 Heart meridians (H meridians)
 Small intestine (S I meridians)
 Urinary bladder (U B meridians)
 Kidney meridians (K meridians)
 Pericardium meridians (P meridians)
 Sanziao meridians (Sj meridians)
 Gallbladder meridians
 Liver meridians (Liv meridians)
 Du meridians
 Ren meridians
4.
 Auricular Therapy.
 Scalp Acupuncture
5. Treatment of following diseases:
 Head ache, Facial paralysis, Hemiplegic, Paraplegia, Asthma. Hypertension, Nausea & vomiting,
Leucorrhoea, Frozen shoulder, Psoriasis, Night blindness, Hysteria, Sexual impotence, Low back ache, Pain in
knee joint, Warts, Sciatica pain, Alopecia Areats, Cervical spondylosis, Sprain & Strain, Toothache, Deafness
& Tinnitus, Rhinitis & Sinusitis, Amenorrhea, Retention of Urine. Anxiety, Epilepsy, Splenomegoly,
Toothache, Stomatitis, Whooping cough.

PRACTICAL:
 Demonstration of needling Techniques & Electric-stimulation Mexibustion
 Study of 100 cases with Record
 Visit to Acupuncture ward in the Hospital

REFERENCE BOOKS:

 Clinical Acupuncture – by Anton Jayasurya


 Principles & practice of Acupuncture – by Dr. J.K.Patel
 Shiatsu – by Ohashi
BYNS 3rd YEAR
MANGNETOTHERAPY
PAPER CODE - 340

THEORY
1.
 Introduction – Definition of Magneto-therapy, Historical highlights and Use of magnets/upheld by
Naturopathy.
 Magnetism in the universe – Earth a huge natural magnet, Nature of Earth Magnetism and Earth
Magnetism and Earth Magnetic effects on human beings.
2.
 Effects of Magnetism on living organism
 Bio-magnets – Biological experiments with magnets
 Disease & Their Cure
 Headache, Ailments of the eye, Ailments of the ear, Ailments of the mouth & Throat, Nasal Ailments,
Ailments of the Abdomen, women Ailments, Ailments of the Heart
 Problem of the sex organs in man, Blood pressure, Diabetes
 Sleep Disorder, Disorder of the head & Scalp
 Medical influence of magnetic field Rheumatoid arthritis, hemiphlegias arthralgia, Neuralgias
 Stimulation of nervous system, endocrine glands etc. magneto therapy symptomatic relief
3.
 Magnets and their composition – Natural magnets and artificial magnets and Permanent – classification of
magnets material.
 Power of magnets – various qualities of magnet – low, medium and high power magnets and
magnetic belt etc.
 Electro magnets – electro magnetic field on human physiology behaviors, Electro magnets – for
medical purpose – Electro magnetic treatment bed and hand magnetic treatment bed and hand
magnetizer, food magnetizer, vibro electro massager and electro magnetic chair etc. Non
pulsating – Nachketha – clinical electro magnet, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance – theory, Uses,
merits & de- merits.
4.
 Technique of application of magnets – north and south pole, local treatment and general treatment,
techniques of application of magnets in the treatment of various common diseases.
 Magnetized water, magnetized milk, and magnetized oils – magnetized water in nature
influence of magnetic field on the properties of water, methods of preparation of magnetized
water, dosage and therapeutic effect of magnetized water – method of preparation of magnetized
oils and their application and therapeutic effects
 Advantage of Magneto-therapy
5.
 Magneto therapy is a natural treatment
 Use of Magnets as a preventive device.
 Research review from Indian and Foreign Magneto therapists
 Magneto therapy and Acupressure – Acupuncture points – certain clinical case reports – utilization of
Acupuncture points in magneto therapy
 Harmful effects of excessive exposure to a strong electro magnetic field [Acute & chronic]

PRACTICAL:

 Students should have 45 demonstration classes in various types of magnets, equipment and their clinical application
 Case studies (25) with record
 10 cases with bio-chemical reports.

TEXT BOOKS

 Magneto therapy – Dr. H.l. Bansal


 Magnetic cure for common diseases – Dr. R.S. Bansal, Dr.H.L.Bansal
 The text book on Magneto therapy – Dr. Nanubhai painter
 Magneto therapy and Acupuncture – Dr. A.K. Mehta
 The healing power of Chromatography – Hari Om Gupta
BYNS 3rd YEAR
OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY
PAPER CODE – 350

THEORY
1.
 Anatomy of female generative organs and pelvis, Maturation and of Fertilization of ovum
 Diagnosis of pregnancy, Differential diagnosis of pregnancy, Foetus in normal pregnancy and Ante-natal care
 Physiology and stages of labour and mechanism of labour
 Phenomena of normal puerperium, Care of Puerperium and care of new-born child

2.
 Hyperemesis gravidarum, anaemia in pregnancy, Diseases of urinary system, Diabetes in pregnancy, Diseases
and abnormalities of fetal mambrane and placenta. Abortion , Ectopic pregnancy, Ante-partum haemorrhage,
Placenta previa and P.E.T (Pre-eclampic toxaerpia)
3.
 Occipito – posterior position, Breech presentation, Prolapse of the cord, compound Presentation multiple
rd
pregnancy, Contracted Pelvis, management of labour in contracted pelvis and complications of 3 stage of
labour
 Asphyxia neonatorum, Pre-term baby and Congenital malformations.
 Obstetrical Operations like Forceps, Caessarpreansection and induction of abortion and labour.
4.
 Puerperal Infections
 Ultra sonogram in obstetrics and contraception – types procedures Gynecological diagnosis
 Diseases of vulva
 Diseases of vagina
 Sexually transmitted diseases in female
5.
 Diseases of urinary system
 Trophoblastic diseases
 Disorders of menstruation
 Prolapsed of uterus
 New growths of uterus
 Diseases of ovary
 Pelvic inflammatory diseases

PRACTICAL:

 History taking of anti-natal and gynecological cases


 Demonstration of physical examination of anti-natal and Gynecological cases
 Demonstration of conduction labour, normal delivery and use of minor instrument during delivery
 Demonstration of various equipments used in obstetrics and Gynecology.

RECOMMENDED TEXT BOOKS:

 Clinical Obstetrics – By Modular and Menon


 Text Book of Obstetrics – by C.S. Dawn
 Shaw’s text Book of Gynecology
 Text Book of Gynecology – C.S. Dawn
 Text Book of obstetrics – By Dutta
BYNS 3rd YEAR
PEDIATRICS
PAPER CODE – 360

THEORY:
1.
 Growth & Development
 Factors affecting growth
 Growth Table & Growth Chart

 Disorders of Growth & Development


 Cause of short structure
 Learning Disabilities
2.
 Nutrition
 Nutritional Disorders
 Under Nutrition
 Vitamin Deficiencies

 New Born Infants


 Normal Full Term New Born Infants
 Prevention of prenatal Hazards
 Physiological Jaundice of the New Born
 Respiratory Distress in the new Born
 Neonatal Seizures
 Congenital Malformations
 Anemia
 Bleeding Disorders
 Immunity & Infections
 Immuno-deficiencies:
 Prophylactic immunisation
 Program on immunisation of following diseases:
 T.B.
 Diphtheria Pertusis
 Polio
 Hepatitis B
 Measles Mumps Rhinosis (MMR)
 Typhoid Fever

 Fluid & Electrolyte Disturbances


 Principles in Management of Dehydration
 Regulation of Body Water Electroytes Acid Base

3.
 Gastrointestinal System
 Vomiting
 Constipation
 Abdominal Pain
 Acute Chronic Diarrhea
 Hepatomegaly
 Jaundice

 Disorders of Cardiovascular System


 Congestive Heart Failure
 Rheumatic Fever
 Hypertension in Children

 Respiratory System
 Cold & Cough
 Nasal Discharge
 Sore Throat
 Epistaxis
 Pneumonia & Bronchitis
 Bronchial Asthma
 Foreign Body Aspiration
4.
 Disorders of Kidney & Urinary Tract
 Renal Function in Neonatal & infants
 Hematuria
 Urinary Tract Infection
 Renal Failure

 Central Nervous System


 Bacterial & Tubercular Meningitis
 Coma
 Convulsion & Epilepsy
 Mental Retardation
 Disorders of Muscles & joints
 Muscular Dystrophies
 Rheumatoid Arthritis
5.
 Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
 Diabetes Mellitus
 Obesity
 Goiter
 Delayed Puberty
 Cerebral Paslsy.

 Disorders of the skin


 Diaper Rash
 Urticaria

 Eczema
 Dandruff

PRACTICALS

 Case studies (25) with record


 Essential Pediatrics by O.P.Ghai
BYNS 3rd YEAR
PHYSICAL EXERCISE & FITNESS
PAPER CODE - 370

THEORY
1. Exercise and its uses.

2. What is prohibited for exercise

3. Curing diseases with exercise

4. Different kind of exercises:


a. Exercise of neck and chest
b. Exercise of chest & arms
c. Exercise of heart, stomach and liver
d. Exercise of the back
e. Exercise of the hip region
f. Exercise of the women
g. Walking
h. Swimming
i. Push-ups
j. Mugdar
k. Wrestling
l. Horse riding
m. Running
n. Games
o. Gardening
p. Dancing
q. Singing

5. Introduction to Physical fitness

6. Definition of Physical fitness

7. Components of Physical fitness

8. Benefits of Physical fitness

9. Development of Physical fitness


a. Endurance
b. Strength
c. Speed
d. Flexibility

10. Agility

11. Measuring your Heart rate

12. Weight control

13. Factors influencing Physical fitness

14. Clothing

15. When to Exercise & which Exercise should be done

PRACTICAL:-

 Visit to the Physical exercise department of hospital.


 100 Demonstration classes of Physical Techniques

REFERENCE BOOK:-

1. Science of Nature life by Dr. Rakesh

2. Physical Education by Dr. Ajmer Singh

3. Prakartik Chikitsha by Dr. Om Parkash Saxena


BYNS 4th YEAR
DIAGNOSTIC METHODS OF YOGA & NATUROPATHY
PAPER CODE – 410

THEORY:
1.
 Introduction to the science of facial expression
 Characters of Healthy Body – Normal Functions and Normal figure.
 Foreign Matter theory:-
 Definition of foreign matter, the process of accumulation of foreign matter in the body, , encumbrance
and changes caused in the body due to the accumulation of foreign matter and general pathology of
foreign matter.
2.
 The nature: origin and cure of diseases of children for their unity and developments.
 Bad habits support the accumulation of foreign matter in the body like tobacco, alcoholic drinks,
coffee and tea-opium.
 Drug addictions – Pethedine heroin, injection etc., suppression of diseases v/s elimination of morbid and
diseased germs from the system.
3.
 Types of Encumbrance – Front Encumbrance, right side Encumbrance, Front & right side
Encumbrance, left side Encumbrance, mixed or whole Encumbrance, their descriptions, general
characters & possible diseases in the concerned incumberance & their treatment.

4. Diagnosis of the diseases of the following internal organs:


 Pneumonia
 Pleurisy
 Bronchitis
 Asthma
 Angina Pectoris
 Heart Attack
 Acute Myocardial infection

BYNS 4th YEAR


MANAGEMENT OF DISEASE THROUGH YOGA
PAPER CODE – 420

THEORY:
Cause, Symptoms & Treatment of following diseases:

1. Headache 36. Influenza


2. Hernia & Hydrocele 37. Cholera
3. Hypertension 38. Kidney Stone
4. Heart Diseases 39. Leucoderma
5. Hepatitis 40. Lumbago
6. Hysteria & Fainting 41. Leprosy
7. Acidity 42. Menstrual Disorders
8. Allergy 43. Menopause
9. Asthma 44. Mental Health
10. Anemia 45. Malaria
11. Arthritis 46. Nervous Debility
12. Appendicitis 47. Obesity
13. Anxiety 48. Old Age Problem
14. Black Water Fever 49. Piles
15. Beriberi 50. Polio
16. Constipation 51. Psoriasis
17. Cervical Spondylitis 52. Premature Graying Hair
18. Cough & Cold 53. Pleurisy
19. Coronary Heart Disease 54. Pneumonia
20. Carbuncle 55. Pyorrhoea
21. Colitis 56. Sciatica
22. Diarrhoea 57. Stress
23. Diabetes 58. Sterility
24. Duodenal & Gastric Ulcer 59. Spleen Disorders
25. Dyspepsia 60. Tonsillitis
26. Displacement of the Uterus 61. Thinness
27. Eczema 62. Varicose Veins
28. Fever 63. Typhoid
29. Gas Trouble 64. Tooth Trouble
30. Goiter 65. Tuberculosis
31. Gall Stone 66. Tumour
32. Gonorrhea
33. Insomnia
34. Itches
35. Impotency
PRACTICLES:

 Study of 100 cases with record


 Visit to the yoga Ward in hospital

REFERENCE BOOKS:

 Preksha Yoga by Dr. J.P. Mishra


 Yoga Therapy by Dr. V.K. Ahluwalia
 Yoga se Rog Nivaran by Swami Shivananda, Saeaswati
BYNS 4th YEAR
MANAGEMENT OF DISEASE THROUGH NATUROPATHY
PAPER CODE – 430

THEORY:
Cause, Symptoms & Treatment of the following Diseases:

1. Acne
2. Alcoholism
3. Allergies
4. Amnesia
5. Anaemia
6. Anal Fissure
7. Anorexia Nervosa
8. Appendicitis
9. Arteriosclerosis
10. Arthritis
11. Asthma
12. Backache
13. Boils
14. Bronchitis
15. Cancer
16. Cataract
17. Cervical Spondylosis
18. Chicken Pox
19. Cholera
20. Cirrhosis of the Liver
21. Colitis
22. Common Cold
23. Common Fever
24. Conjunctivitis
25. Constipation
26. Corns
27. Cough
28. Dandruff
29. Defective Vision
30. Dental Caries
31. Depression
32. Dermatitis
33. Diabetes
34. Diarrohoea
35. Diphtheria
36. Dropsy
37. Dysentry
38. Eczema
39. Epilepsy
40. Falling of Hair
41. Fatigue
42. Gastritis
43. Gastro-Enteritis
44. Glaucoma
45. Goitre
46. Gout
47. Headache & Migraine
48. Heart Diseases
49. Hiatus-Hernia
50. High Blood Cholesterol
51. High Blood Pressure
52. Hydrocele
53. hypoglycemia
54. Impetigo
55. Indigestion
56. Influenza
57. Insomnia
58. Intestinal Worms
59. Jaundice
60. Kidney stone
61. Leucoderma
62. Low Blood Pressure
63. Malaria
64. Measles
65. Meningitis
66. Mumps
67. Muscle Cramps
68. Neurasthenia
69. Neuritis
70. Nephritis
71. Obesity
72. Osteoporosis
73. Parkinson’s Disease
74. Peptic Ulcer
75. Piles
76. Pleurisy
77. Pneumonia
78. Premature Graying of Hair
79. Prostrate Disorders
80. Psoriasis
81. Pyorrhea
82. Rheumatism
83. Rickets
84. Ringworm
85. Scabies
86. Sciatica
87. Scurvy
88. Sexual importance
89. Sinusitis
90. Sore throat
91. Stomatitis
92. Stress
93. Stroke
94. Styes
95. Thinness
96. Thyroid Fever
97. Thyroid Diseases
98. Tonsillitis
99. Tuberculosis
100.Urticaria
101.Varicose Veins
102.Venereal Diseases
103.Warts
104.Whooping Cough

PRACTICLES

 Study of 150 cases with record


 Visit to the Naturopathy ward in hospital

REFERENCE BOOKS

 Nature cure by Dr. H.K. Bakhru


 Naturopathy by Dr. Om Prakash Sexena
BYNS 4th YEAR
MODERN DIAGNOSTIC METHODS
PAPER CODE – 440

THEORY:

1.
 Examination of the Patient.
 Approach to a Patient.
 History taking and case sheet writing
 Symptomatology
 Examination of Vital Data
 Importance of height, weight, abdominal girth
2.
 General physical examination
 Examination of breasts, back, spine and genitals
 Systemic examination of the patient like Abdomen (Digestive system ), Cardiovascular System,
Respiratory System, Renal System (Urinary system), Central nervous system, Locomotor system,
Examination of ear, nose and throat and Gynecological examination for female only
 Provisional Diagnosis
3.
 Routine and Special Laboratory investigation for urine, stools
 Blood examination like Peripheral smear, Total WBC count, differential WBC count E.S.R. Hb%,
Blood Sugar, Blood urea, serum uric acid, serum lipid profile, Serum Creatinine liver function last
 Radiological investigation and Contrast Radiography
 ECG – Electrocardiography, Echo-cardiography, Coronary angiography and – Electro-
encephalography (EEG)
4.
 Diagnostic Thoracocentesis
 Thyroid T3, T4, TSH estimation.

5.
 Ultra – sonography
 Computerized tomography scan (CT scan)

PRACTICAL:

 History Taking & Physical Examination of cases


 Case Sheet writing in different general cases

REFERENCE BOOKS

 Hutchison’s Clinical Methods


 Manual of Clinical Methods – by S.P.Shanker
 Clinical Diagnosis – by Jal Vakil
BYNS 4th YEAR
FORENSIC MEDICINE & TOXICOLOGY
PAPER CODE – 450

THEORY:
1.
 Definition of Forensic Medicine and its scope
 Procedure of giving medical evidence with reference to Indian evidence act.
 Methods of identification of living and dead body – Race, Age ,Sex etc
 Death – Medico legal aspects, certification of death, sudden death, Medico legal importance, signs of
death, changes due to death and calculating time of death.
2.
 Medico- legal autopsy
 Medico-legal wounds, their classification and study and medico-legal aspects
 Examination of blood stains, hair and seminal stains
 Miscellaneous cause of death form heat, cold, electricity, starvation etc
 Violent asphyxia death-hanging, strangulation, suffocation and drowning
3.
 Sexual offences:- Impotency and sterility, virginity, Legitimacy, Unnatural offences, medico legal
aspect
 Infanticide.
 Medico-legal aspects of insanity.
4.
 Toxicology
 General consideration of poisoning and classification
 Action of poison, factors, modifying their action
 Diagnosis of poisoning
 Treatment of poisoning in general.
 Poisons:-
 Corrosives, Non-metallic, Metallic, Organic Irritant, Somniferous Inebrait, Deliriant, Spinal, Cardiac
poisons, insecticides and weed killers, Food poisoning, Asphyxiants and Drug Dependence
 Legal responsibilities: Medical ethics.
5.
 Responsibilities and duties of the Medical practitioners to the state Professional secrecy and
privileged communication.
 Un-professional conduct, Mal-practice.
 The right and privileges and duties of Medical practitioners.

PRACTICALS:-

 Age estimation
 Skeleton remains
 Spotters
 Examination of injured Alocoholic
 Psychiatric and Toxicology

REFERENCE BOOKS:-

 Medical jurisprudence By Modi


 A text Book of forensic Medicine By Narayana Reddy
 A text Book of Forensic Medicine By M.R.K.Krishna
 The essential of forensic medicine by Dr. C.J.Poison D.J. Gee and B.Knight
 Forensic medicine by Corden and Shapire
 Principles and practice of medical jurisprudence by Taylor’s
BYNS 4TH YEAR
CHROMO THERAPY & MANIPULATIVE THERAPY
PAPER CODE - 460
THEORY:
1. History of chromo therapy.
2. Physiological chemical properties of sunlight.
3. Effects of sunlight on vegetable & micro-organisms.
4. Sun Bath:-
a. Dr. Reiki’s methods of sun bath
b. Dr. Kunhe’s methods of sun bath
c. Sun bath through of wet pack
d. Sun bath of children & aged persons
e. Sun bath with leaves
f. Oil Sun bath

5. Practice of exercise in sunlight.


6. Chromo diagnosis & Chromo hygiene.
7. Chromo philosophy-
a. Refraction
b. Reflection
c. Absorption

8. The source of light- The sun forming resources- The solar atmosphere- Sun power- color effects-
influence of sunlight on skin, muscles, digestive organs and bones.
9. Chromo therapy prescriptions for different diseases:-
a. Headache
b. Ailments of the eyes
c. Ailments of the ears
d. Ailments of the mouth & throat
e. Ailments of the abdomen
f. Nasal ailments
g. Constipation & piles
h. Problems of sex organs in men
i. Backache
j. Severe pain in the knee
k. Pimples
l. Acne
m. Eczema
n. Baldness
o. Paralysis
p. Epilepsy
q. Rheumatism
r. Bed wetting at night
s. Leucorrhoea
t. Miscarriage
u. No menstruation
v. High fever
w. Pneumonia
x. Hypertension & hypotension
y. Diabetes
z. Heart attack

PRACTICALS:-

 Case studies 50 with records.


 Visit to chromo therapy ward in the hospital.

REFERENCE BOOK:-

 The principles of light and color Dr. E.D. Babbit


 Colour therapy by R.S.Amber
 The healing powers of chromo therapy by Hari om gupta

MANIPULATIVE THERPY
THEORY:
1.
 Introduction and History of Massage.
 Rules, Regulations and characteristics of Massage
 Structure especially concerned in massage and part of the body to be specially studied for the purpose are
as follows:
 Skin, Muscular system, Heart and Circulations, Nervous system and skeletal system including
joints
2.
 Effects of the pressure of hand and iubricants on the following systems:-
 Skin
 Muscular system – Nutrition and Development , Excitation of ‘m’, contraction of ‘M’ and muscular electro-
excitability, removal of the fatigue from muscle
 On the ligaments and skeletal
 On the circulatory system
 On the nervous system
 On respiration – increase of respiratory activity and increase of tissue respiration
 On GIT – Improvement in appetite, improvement in secretion of digestive fluid, absorption and
improvement in peristalsis.
 Excretory system
 Powdered Massage – Merits and demerits.
3.
 Massage (side effects and benefits)
 Basic therapeutic massage techniques, indication and contraindications of massage while applying to the
patients.
 Massage and its effects – Nutrition, Haematogenesis, Phagocytosis, increase in the number of blood
corpuscles and Absorption of increased inflammatory exudates, change in the weight of the person, obese
or emaciated
 Different Massage manipulations, classification and their detail explanation, uses and contra-indication, ii)
Manipulative treatments in stress management,
 Shiastu in manipulative therapy (Acupressure)
 Manipulation and life extension
 Dry Brush massage.

4. Movement of Joints:-
 Flexion, Extension, Abduction, Adduction, Supination, Circumduction and Deviations – Medical
and Lateral
 Massaging in local areas under special circumstances:-
 Massage of Abdomen
 Massage to liver
 Massage to stomach
 Massage to heart
 Massage to head
 Massage to spine
 Special type of massage in different diseases.
5.
 Massage to women, infants and children and elderly person.
 Massage for prevention of diseases and maintenances of natural beauty.
 Ayurvedic massage – terminology, Methods and Manipulations

PRACTICALS:-

 35 demonstration classes
 10 demonstration in panchkarma
 Each students should do 35 massages
 Coronary artery blockage
 Jaundice
 Gall stone
 Hepatitis
 Cirrhosis of liver
 Spleenomegaly
 Diabetes
 Kidney stone
 Renal failure
 Urinary tract infection
 Prostate enlargement
 Encephalitis
 Meningitis
 Cervical spondylitis
 Migraine
 Epilepsy

6.
 Process of elimination of foreign matter.
 Importance of Nature care treatments and the digestive process natural dietetics.

 The importance of Nabhi Pareeksha, the methods of Nabhi Pareeksha & the techniques of
correction.

 Introduction to Iridology
 Definition of Iridology

 Instructions in methods of application:-


 Technique in Iris reading – The normal and abnormal Iris, colour of the Iris
 Study of density of the iris

 Case histories according to Iridology.

PRACTICALS:

 Clinical classes and Demonstration in the Nature cure Hospital


 Case studies 50 with Record, Demonstration of Equipments.

RECOMMENDED TEXT BOOKS:

 Science of Facial Expression – By Louis Kuhne


 The New science healing – By Louis kuhne
 The Science and Practice of Iridology- By Bemard Jensen
 Iridiagnosis and Other Diagnostic Methods- By Henry Lindlahr
SINGHANIA UNIVERISITY
RAJASTHAN

CMLT
(CERTIFICATE IN MEDICAL LABORATORY TECHNOLOGY)

SYLLABUS

(YEARLY PROGRAM)
CMLT
(CERTIFICATE IN MEDICAL LABORATORY TECHNOLOGY)

DETAILED SYLLABUS

(MEDICAL SYSTEM)
CMLT (Certificate In Medical Laboratory Technology)
COURSE TITLE : CMLT
DURATION : 1 YEAR
TOTAL MARKS :1200
FIRST YEAR
COURSE TITLE PAPER CODE MARKS
Theory Practical Total
ANATOMY CMLT—110 100 100 200
PATHOLOGY CMLT—120 100 100 200
BIOCHEMISTRY CMLT—130 100 100 200
MICROBIOLOGY CMLT –140 100 100 200
PHYSIOLOGY CMLT—150 100 100 200
COMPUTER SKILLS CMLT –160 100 100 200

TOTAL 1200

Theory Paper :30% Continuous Internal Assessment and 70% University


examination. Practical Paper : 30% Continuous Internal Assessment and 70%
University examination.
CMLT – 110

ANATOMY
Maximum Time : 3 hrs
University Assessment -70%
Total marks :200 Internal Assessment – 30%
Minimum Pass Mark – 40%
COURSE CONTENTS – THEORY 100 Marks

1) Introduction of Bones of the Human Body of :


 Upper Limb : clavicle, scapula, humerus, radius, ulna, carpus, metacarpus & phalanges
 Lower Limb : hipbone, femur, tibia, fibula, tarsus, metatarsus & phalanges
 Skull : name the bone of skull and sutures between them
 Thorax : ribs and their articulations
 Vertebral Column : Cervical, thoracic, lumber, sacral and cocasial vertebrae

2) Surface Markings of the Body :


 Nine regions of the abdomen
 Four quadrants of the Hip
3) Introduction of different Vital Organs :

A) Respiratory Organs :
 Nasopharynx
 Oropharynx
 Larynx
 Trachea
 Bronchi
 Lungs (and their lobular segments)
 Thoracic cavity
 Pleura and Pleural cavity

B) Circulatory Organs :
 Anatomical position of the heart
 Pericardium of the heart
 Chambers of the heart
 Great vessels of the heart
 Valves of the heart
C) Digestive Organs :

 Tongue
 Teeth
 Oral cavity
 Pharynx
 Oesophagus
 Stomach
 Small intestine
 Large intestine and its colons

PRACTICAL : 100 Marks

Labeled Digrams of different organs and bones Vivo


CMLT – 120 PATHOLOGY
Maximum Time : 3 hrs University Assessment -70%
Total marks :200 Internal Assessment – 30%
Minimum Pass Mark – 40%
COURSE CONTENTS – 100 Marks

1) The Cell in health and disease

a. Introduction of pathology
b. Cellular structure and metabolism
c. Inflammation – Acute and Chronic
d. Derangement of Body Fluids and Electrolytes
 Types of shocks
 Ischaemia
 Infection
e. Neoplasia – Etiology and Pathojgenesis

2) Introduction of hematology

a. Formation of Blood
b. Erythropoiesis
c. Leucopoiesis
d. Thrombopoiesis
e. Collection of Blood
f. Anticoagulants
g. Red cell count – Haemocytometer, Methodsand Calculation
h. WBC Count -- Methods
i. Differential Leucocytes Count (DLC)--
Morphology of White Cells, Normal Values
Rananocostry Stains : Staining procedures
Counting Methods, Principle of staining
j. Hb estimation – Method
Colorimetric Method
Chemical Method
Gasmetric Method
S.G. Method
Clinical Importance

I. Hematology :
 ESR
 Methods
 Factors – Affecting ESR
 Normal Values
 Importance
 RBC – Indices
 WBC
 Platelets

II. Body Fluids :


(a) Urine :
 Method of Collection
 Normal Constitutents
 Physical Examination
 Chemical Examination

(b) Stool Examination :


 Method of Collection
 Normal Constituents and appearance
 Abnormal Constituents (Ova, Cyst)

(c) C.S.F. Examination


 Physical Examination
 Chemical Examination
 Microscopy
 Cell 1 Count
 Staining

(d) Semen Analysis


 Collection
 Examination
 Special Tests

Practical : 100 Marks


I.
 Collection of Sample
 Hb estimation
 TLC and DLC
 RBC Count
 Peripheral blood film – staining and study of Malarial Parasite

II. Laboratory management – Sample Collection, Labeling, Transport,


Screening, Reporting and Dispatch of Reports.

(a) Urinek, Stool, Semen and C.S.F. – Collection, Handling, Examinations


(b) Absolute Eosinophil Count, PCV, RBC indices, ESR Estimation, Platelt Count
CMLT – 130 BIOCHEMISTRY
Maximum Time : 3 hrs University Assessment -70%
Total marks :200 Internal Assessment – 30%
Minimum Pass Mark – 40%
COURSE CONTENTS – 100 Marks

1. Introduction of Biochemistry
2. Elementary knowledge of inorganic chemistry :- Atomic weight, molecular weight, equivalent
weight, acid, bases.
3. Definition and preparation of solutions : Percent solution, Molar solution, Normal Solution and
Buffer Solutione etc.
4. Definition and preparation of Regent.
5. Unit of measurement
6. Elementary knowledge of organic chemistry
 Organic compounds
 Aliphatic and Aromatic
 Alcohols, Aldehydes, Ketones, Amines, Esters, Phenol etc
7. Ph indicators : pH paper, universal and other indicators, pH measurement : different methods.

Practical 100 Marks


Introduction and usage of Glassware and Instruments
Glassware :
 Composition of Glass
 General Glass wares
Instruments :
 Balance
 Hot Plate and Magnetic stirrer
 Centrifuges
 Incubators
 Constant temperature bath
 Colorimeter : Principal, Function
 Photometer
 Flame Photometry

1. Aim and Scope of Biochemistry


2. Collection and Recording of Biochemical Specimen, separation of serum/plasma
preservation and siposal of Biological materal.

3. Chemical examination of urine : Qualitative, Sugar, Protein, Bile Salt, Bile Pigment,
Ketones Bodies

4. Chemical examination of Stool : Occult Blood.

5. Chemical examination of other Body Fluids : CSF, Plural Fluids, Ascitic Fluid etc.

6. Laboratory management and Maintenance of Records.

 Urine Examination physical, Chemical, Microscopic, Biochemistry


 Stool Examination
 Body Fluids : Physical and chemical examination CSF, Pleural Fluids, and Ascitic fluid
CMLT – 140 MICROBIOLOGY
Maximum Time : 3 hrs University Assessment -70%
Total marks :200 Internal Assessment – 30%
Minimum Pass Mark – 40%
COURSE CONTENTS – 100 Marks

I. Introduction of brief history of Microbiology


 Historical Aspect
 Relationship of Micro-organism to men
 Micro-organism in Disease and Health
II. Requirement and uses of common Laboratory Equipments
 Incubator, Hot Air Oven, Water Bath
 Anaerobic Jar, Centrifuge, Autoclave
 Microscope
 Glassware – Discription of Glassware, its use, handling and care
III. Sterilization :
 Definition
 Classification and General Principal of Sterlization
 Autoclave – its structure, functioning, control and indicator
IV. Antiseptics & Disinfectants
 Definition
 Types
 Mode of Action
 Uses
V. Collection, Transportation and processing of clinical samples for Microbiological
Investigations

Bacteiology
 Definition
 Bacteria – General characteristics of Bacteria
 Classification and morphology of Bacteria
 Structure of Cell, Capsule, Flagella, and Spore
 Growth of Bacteria
 Nutrition of Bacteria

Virology :
 Definition
 General Introduction of Virus
 Physiochemical characteristic of Viruses
 Diseases caused by different Virus and mode of infection

Parasitology :
 Definition
 General Characteristics of Parasite
 Classification of Parasite
 Mode of transmission

Fungus :
 Definition
 Structure
 Classification

Practical : 100 Marks

Demonstration of washing of instruments

Staining – Type of Staining, Principal, Procedure and Interpretation


CMLT – 150 PHYSIOLOGY
Maximum Time : 3 hrs University Assessment -70%
Total marks :200 Internal Assessment – 30%
Minimum Pass Mark – 40%
COURSE CONTENTS 100 Marks

1. Cell :
 Definition
 Structure and functions the cytoplasmic Organelles
 Reproduction : Miosis, Mitosis

2. The important physic-chemical laws applied to physiology


 Diffusion
 Osmosis
 Bonding
 Filtration
 Dialysis
 Surface Tension
 Adsorption
 Colloid
3. Fundamentals of different Organ Systems

 Cardiovascular System
 Respiratory System
 Digestive System
 Excretory System
 Reproduction System
 Endocrine System
 Lymphatic System
 Practical
 Viva and diagrams of different Vital Organs

Practical : 100 Marks


Viva and diagrams of different Vital Organs
CMLT – 160 COMPUTER SKILLS
Maximum Time : 3 hrs University Assessment -70%
Total marks :200 Internal Assessment – 30%
Minimum Pass Mark – 40%

COURSE CONTENTS

Fundamentals of Computers

Introduction :
Classification of computer & generation, Basic architecture of computer and its building blocks,
input devices, Computer memories.

Number System :
Binary, Octal, Decimal, Hexadecimal representation of characters : ASCII and EBDIC codes, Binary
arithmetic and logic circuit.

Classification of Computer language :


Machine, Assembly and High level language, Brief idea of operating system, Assembler, Compiler
and interpreter.

Fundamentals of Computer Programming :


Problem solving through computer algorithms and flow chart level of programming.

Operating System :
Introduction to O.S., Types of operating system, Multiprogramming, Timesharing, Batch, Real time
and UNIX

Internet :

Introduction to Internet, Components, Services and working on internet, introduction to protocols,


tools.
DETAILED SYLLABUS

(DMLT)

(DIPLOMA IN MEDICAL LABORATORY TECHNOLOGY)

(YEARLY PROGRAM)
DMLT (Diploma In Medical Laboratory Technology)
COURSE TITLE : DMLT
DURATION : 2 YEAR
FIRST YEAR
COURSE TITLE PAPER CODE MARKS
Theory Practical Total
ANATOMY DMLT—110 100 100 200
PATHOLOGY DMLT —120 100 100 200
BIOCHEMISTRY DMLT —130 100 100 200
MICROBIOLOGY DMLT – 140 100 100 200
PHYSIOLOGY DMLT —150 100 100 200
COMPUTER SKILLS DMLT –160 100 100 200

TOTAL 1200
SECOND YEAR
COURSE TITLE PAPER CODE MARKS
PHYSIOLOGY DMLT —210 100 100 200
PATHOLOGY DMLT —220 100 100 200
BIOCHEMISTRY DMLT —230 100 100 200
MICROBIOLOGY DMLT – 240 100 100 200
ANATOMY DMLT —250 100 100 200

TOTAL 1000

Note:
Theory Paper :30% Continuous Internal Assessment and 70% University
examination. Practical Paper : 30% Continuous Internal Assessment and 70%
University examination
DMLT – 110 ANATOMY
Maximum Time : 3 hrs University Assessment -70%
Total marks :200 Internal Assessment – 30%
Minimum Pass Mark – 40%
COURSE CONTENTS – THEORY

1) Introduction of Bones of the Human Body of :


 Upper Limb : clavicle, scapula, humerus, radius, ulna, carpus, metacarpus & phalanges
 Lower Limb : hipbone, femur, tibia, fibula, tarsus, metatarsus & phalanges
 Skull : name the bone of skull and sutures between them
 Thorax : ribs and their articulations
 Vertebral Column : Cervical, thoracic, lumber, sacral and cocasial vertebrae

2) Surface Markings of the Body :


 Nine regions of the abdomen
 Four quadrants of the Hip
3) Introduction of different Vital Organs :

A) Respiratory Organs :
 Nasopharynx
 Oropharynx
 Larynx
 Trachea
 Bronchi
 Lungs (and their lobular segments)
 Thoracic cavity
 Pleura and Pleural cavity

B) Circulatory Organs :
 Anatomical position of the heart
 Pericardium of the heart
 Chambers of the heart
 Great vessels of the heart
 Valves of the heart

C) Digestive Organs :

 Tongue
 Teeth
 Oral cavity
 Pharynx
 Oesophagus
 Stomach
 Small intestine
 Large intestine and its colons

(A) Reproductive Organs :


 Male & Female Conads : Testes, Epididymis, Ovary, Fallopian Tube, Uterus,
Vagine etc.
 Introduction of male Genital Organs
 Introduction of female Genital Organs
(B) Liver and Spleen :
 Introduction
 Anatomical Position
 Gal bladder
(C) Excretory Organs ;
 Cortex and medulla of kidney
 Ureter
 Urinary Bladder
 Urethra (male and female)
(D) Muscles :
 Introduction, Origin and Insertion, Function

PRACTICAL 100 MARKS


Labeled Diagrams of different organs and bones
Vivo
Labeled Digrams of different organs and bones Vivo
DMLT – 120 PATHOLOGY
Maximum Time : 3 hrs University Assessment -70%
Total marks :200 Internal Assessment –
2300% Minimum Pass Mark – 40%
COURSE CONTENTS –

1) The Cell in health and disease

a. Introduction of pathology
b. Cellular structure and metabolism
c. Inflammation – Acute and Chronic
d. Derangement of Body Fluids and Electrolytes
 Types of shocks
 Ischaemia
 Infection
e. Neoplasia – Etiology and Pathojgenesis

2) Introduction of hematology

a. Formation of Blood
b. Erythropoiesis
c. Leucopoiesis
d. Thrombopoiesis
e. Collection of Blood
f. Anticoagulants
g. Red cell count – Haemocytometer, Methodsand Calculation
h. WBC Count -- Methods
i. Differential Leucocytes Count (DLC)--
Morphology of White Cells, Normal Values
Rananocostry Stains : Staining procedures
Counting Methods, Principle of staining
j. Hb estimation – Method
Colorimetric Method
Chemical Method
Gasmetric Method
S.G. Method
Clinical Importance
I. Hematology :
 ESR
 Methods
 Factors – Affecting ESR
 Normal Values
 Importance
 RBC – Indices
 WBC
 Platelets
II. Body Fluids :
(a) Urine :
 Method of Collection
 Normal Constitutents
 Physical Examination
 Chemical Examination

(b) Stool Examination :


 Method of Collection
 Normal Constituents and appearance
 Abnormal Constituents (Ova, Cyst)

(c) C.S.F. Examination


 Physical Examination
 Chemical Examination
 Microscopy
 Cell 1 Count
 Staining

(d) Semen Analysis


 Collection
 Examination
 Special Tests
Practical : 100 MARKS

 Collection of Sample
 Hb estimation
 TLC and DLC
 RBC Count
 Peripheral blood film – staining and study of Malarial Parasite

II. Laboratory management – Sample Collection, Labeling, Transport,


Screening, Reporting and Dispatch of Reports.

(c) Urinek, Stool, Semen and C.S.F. – Collection, Handling, Examinations


(d) Absolute Eosinophil Count, PCV, RBC indices, ESR Estimation, Platelt Count
DMLT – 130 BIOCHEMISTRY
Maximum Time : 3 hrs University Assessment -70%
Total marks :200 Internal Assessment – 30%
Minimum Pass Mark – 40%
COURSE CONTENTS –

1. Introduction of Biochemistry
2. Elementary knowledge of inorganic chemistry :- Atomic weight, molecular weight,
equivalent weight, acid, bases.
3. Definition and preparation of solutions : Percent solution, Molar solution, Normal Solution
and Buffer Solutione etc.
4. Definition and preparation of Regent.
5. Unit of measurement
6. Elementary knowledge of organic chemistry
 Organic compounds
 Aliphatic and Aromatic
 Alcohols, Aldehydes, Ketones, Amines, Esters, Phenol etc
7. Ph indicators : pH paper, universal and other indicators, pH measurement : different
methods.
Practical 100 MARKS
Introduction and usage of Glassware and Instruments
Glassware :
 Composition of Glass
 General Glass wares
Instruments :
 Balance
 Hot Plate and Magnetic stirrer
 Centrifuges
 Incubators
 Constant temperature bath
 Colorimeter : Principal, Function
 Photometer
 Flame Photometry

1. Aim and Scope of Biochemistry

2. Collection and Recording of Biochemical Specimen, separation of serum/plasma


preservation and siposal of Biological materal.
3. Chemical examination of urine : Qualitative, Sugar, Protein, Bile Salt, Bile Pigment,
Ketones Bodies

4. Chemical examination of Stool : Occult Blood.

5. Chemical examination of other Body Fluids : CSF, Plural Fluids, Ascitic Fluid etc.

6. Laboratory management and Maintenance of Records.

 Urine Examination physical, Chemical, Microscopic, Biochemistry


 Stool Examination
 Body Fluids : Physical and chemical examination CSF, Pleural Fluids, and Ascitic fluid
DMLT – 140 MICROBIOLOGY
Maximum Time : 3 hrs University Assessment -70%
Total marks :200 Internal Assessment – 30%
Minimum Pass Mark – 40%
COURSE CONTENTS –

I. Introduction of brief history of Microbiology


 Historical Aspect
 Relationship of Micro-organism to men
 Micro-organism in Disease and Health
II. Requirement and uses of common Laboratory Equipments
 Incubator, Hot Air Oven, Water Bath
 Anaerobic Jar, Centrifuge, Autoclave
 Microscope
 Glassware – Discription of Glassware, its use, handling and care
III. Sterilization :
 Definition
 Classification and General Principal of Sterlization
 Autoclave – its structure, functioning, control and indicator
IV. Antiseptics & Disinfectants
 Definition
 Types
 Mode of Action
 Uses
V. Collection, Transportation and processing of clinical samples for Microbiological
Investigations
Bacteiology
 Definition
 Bacteria – General characteristics of Bacteria
 Classification and morphology of Bacteria
 Structure of Cell, Capsule, Flagella, and Spore
 Growth of Bacteria
 Nutrition of Bacteria
Virology :
 Definition
 General Introduction of Virus
 Physiochemical characteristic of Viruses
 Diseases caused by different Virus and mode of infection

Parasitology :
 Definition
 General Characteristics of Parasite
 Classification of Parasite
 Mode of transmission

Fungus :
 Definition
 Structure
 Classification

Practical : 100 MARKS

Staining – Type of Staining, Principal, Procedure and Interpretation


Demonstration of washing of instruments
DMLT – 150 PHYSIOLOGY
Maximum Time : 3 hrs University Assessment -70%
Total marks :200 Internal Assessment – 30%
Minimum Pass Mark – 40%
COURSE CONTENTS

1. Cell :
 Definition
 Structure and functions the cytoplasmic Organelles
 Reproduction : Miosis, Mitosis

2. The important physic-chemical laws applied to physiology


 Diffusion
 Osmosis
 Bonding
 Filtration
 Dialysis
 Surface Tension
 Adsorption
 Colloid
3. Fundamentals of different Organ Systems

 Cardiovascular System
 Respiratory System
 Digestive System
 Excretory System
 Reproduction System
 Endocrine System
 Lymphatic System
 Practical
 Viva and diagrams of different Vital Organs

Practical : 100 MARKS


Viva and diagrams of different Vital Organs
DMLT – 160 COMPUTER SKILLS
Maximum Time : 3 hrs University Assessment -70%
Total marks :200 Internal Assessment – 30%
Minimum Pass Mark – 40%
COURSE CONTENTS
Theory 100 Marks

Introduction to Computers : purpose and meaning of data, information and knowledge for
business organizations. Information technology, its definition, scope and related technologies.
Relationship of information technology with management.

Types of Computers: Digital, Analog and hybrid Computers, General Model of Computer, Size wise
Organization of Computers-Mini, Micro, desktop, workstationand Supercomputer

Practical 100 Marks

VIVA

Internet Practical
DMLT – 210 PHYSIOLOGY
Maximum Time : 3 hrs University Assessment -70%
Total marks :200 Internal Assessment – 30%
Minimum Pass Mark – 40%
COURSE CONTENTS

1. Blood
 Definition
 Composition
 Function
2. Formation of different type of blood cells
 Erythrocytes
 Leucocytes
 Thrombocytes
3. Mechanism of Blood Cltting
4. Cerebrospinal Fluid
 Formation
 Composition
 Function
5. Special Senses
 Hearing
 Taste
 Smell
 Touch
 Sight

PRACTICAL : 100 Marks

Viva and diagrams of Corpuscles


DMLT – 220 PATHOLOGY
Maximum Time : 3 hrs University Assessment -70%
Total marks :200 Internal Assessment – 30%
Minimum Pass Mark – 40%
COURSE CONTENTS
(a) Human blood group antigens and antibodies

(b) ABO Blood group systems


 Sub. – group
 Source of antigens and types of antibodies
(c) Rh Blood group System
 Types of Antigen
 Mode of Inheritance
 Types of Antibodies

(d) Other Blood group Antigens

(e) Blood Collection

 Selection and screening of donor


 Collection of blood
 Various anticoagulants
 Sotrage of Blood
 Changes in Blood on Sotrage

PRACTICAL :

Blood grauping
Tube Method
Slide Method
DMLT – 230 BIOCHEMISTRY
Maximum Time : 3 hrs University Assessment -70%
Total marks :200 Internal Assessment – 30%
Minimum Pass Mark – 40%
COURSE CONTENTS

1. Carbohydrates :-
 Introduction
 Importance
 Classification
 Properties
 Estimation of Glucose
 Clinical Significance
2. Protein : -
 Introduction and Physiological importance
 Amino acids
 Essential amino acids
 Classification
 Denaturation of Proteins
 Estimation of Total protein, Albumin, Globilin, A/G Ratio
3. Introduction, Properties and function of important hormones
4. Enzymes and Co-enzymes
 Introduction and difference
 Functions
 Estimation of important enzymes
i. SGOT (AST)
ii. SGPT (ALT)
iii. Alkaline Phosphatase
iv. Acid Phosphatase
v. Amylase, lactate dehydrogenase
vi. CPK, CPK-MB

1. Lipids : -
 Introduction and functions
 Classification
 Steroids
 Metabolism
 Estimation : Total lipids, HDL, LDL, VLDL, Total cholesterol, Trigycede
 Clinical significance
2. Principal of Assay procedures for biological materal and estimation of kidney function
tests.
 Urea
 Uric acid
 Creatinine
3. Electrolytes :
 Function
 Properties
 Estimation of Essential electrolytes : Soldium, potassium, calcium, chloride and Phos
phorus etc.
 Clinical Importance
4. Genetics
 DNA, RNA Structure
 Gene coding
 Transciption & Translation
 Genetic Disorders

PRACTICAL :
100 Marks

Method of estimation of Urea


Method of estimation of Creatinine
Method of estimation of Cholesterol

Method of estimation of glucose : Benedicts Reaction, Glucose oxidase


Method
Method of estimation of P
DMLT – 240 MICROBIOLOGY
Maximum Time : 3 hrs University Assessment -70%
Total marks :200 Internal Assessment – 30%
Minimum Pass Mark – 40%
COURSE CONTENTS

Staining of Bacteria :
1. Composition and preparation of staining
2. Principal and Procedure of Bacteriological stain
 Gram’s Stain
 Ziehl-Neelsen Stain
 Albert Stain
 Spore and Negative Stain
Cultivation of Micro-organism :
 Introduction and uses of culture
 Classification o f culture media
 Composition of common of Laboratory culture media
 Special media and preparations
 Techniques of inculation and isolation
 Antimicrobial sensitivity
 Anaerobic cultivation techniques
Isolation of Viruses in Laboratory by tissue culture
 Cell and tissue culture technology
 Embryonated Egg
 Principles of animal cell culture and their use in Virology

Different staining techniques used in Virology


Principle of different serological test used in Virology
Mode of Transmission of Viral agents
Prevention of Viral disease
Immunity in Viral infection
1) Immunology
 Definition
 Immunity : Definition and Classification
 Antigen
 Antibodies – Immunoglobulin
 Antigen and antibody reaction and clinical importance
 Structure and function of immune system
 Immune response
 Hypersensitivity
2) I Principal & Procedure of Serological Tests.
 BICAL, CRP, Brucella, Agglutination, ASO
 Cold agglutination, VDRL, TPHA
(i) Advanced techniques in Microbiology ELISA, RIA etc.
(ii) Epidemiological Markers of Micro-organism serotyping
(iii) Preparation & Standardization of Antigen and Antisera
(iv) Preparation & Standardization of vaccine and immunization
3) I) General Introduction, life cycle, mode of transmission, pathogenicity, and lab
diagnosis of various Protozoa.
(ii) Entamoeba Hisolytica
(iii) Entamoeba coli
(iv) Giardia lamblia
(v) Trichomonas Vaginalios
(vi) Leishmenia donovani

4) Sprozoa
 Malaria Parasite
 Toxoplasma Gondii
(ii) Balatidium Coli

5) General Introduction life cycle, mode of transmission, pathogenicity and lab


diagnosis of various Helminths :
(i) Cestodes or Tapeworms :
 Taenia solium
 Taenia sagnata
 Hymenolepis nana
 Echincoccus granulosus
(ii) Trematodes of Flukes :
 Fasciola hepatica
 Fasciola gigantica
 Gestrodiscoides hominis

(iii) Nematodes :
 Trichinella spiralis
 Trichuris trichiura
 Ancylostoma duodenale
 Enterobjus vermicularis
 Ascaris lumbricoides

PRACTICAL : 100 Marks

Demonstration :-
Slide Agglutination
 VDRL
 VIDAL
 ASO
 CRP
 Stool Examination
 Physical
 Microscopic Demonstration of Ova, Cyst, Pus, Cells
 Hanging Drop Examination

1. Staining : ZN Staining of M.T.B. and M. Lepra, Albert Staining


2. Culture
 Types of Media
 Preparation
 Inoculation
 Colony Characteritic
 Staining and Antibiotic Sensitivity
DMLT – 250 ANATOMY
Maximum Time : 3 hrs University Assessment -70%
Total marks :200 Internal Assessment – 30%
Minimum Pass Mark – 40%
COURSE CONTENTS – THEORY 100 Marks

(E) Reproductive Organs :


 Male & Female Conads : Testes, Epididymis, Ovary, Fallopian Tube, Uterus,
Vagine etc.
 Introduction of male Genital Organs
 Introduction of female Genital Organs
(F) Liver and Spleen :
 Introduction
 Anatomical Position
 Gal bladder
(G) Excretory Organs ;
 Cortex and medulla of kidney
 Ureter
 Urinary Bladder
 Urethra (male and female)
(H) Muscles :
 Introduction, Origin and Insertion, Function

PRACTICAL 100 Marks

Labeled Diagrams of different organs and bones


Vivo
Labeled Digrams of different organs and bones Vivo
SINGHANIA UNIVERISITY

RAJASTHAN

DETAILED SYLLABUS

Under Graduate Degree Program


(B.Sc. MLT)

B.Sc.MLT (MEDICAL LABOATORY TECHNOLOGY)

(YEARLY PROGRAMME)
B.Sc.MLT (Medical Laboratory Technology)
COURSE TITLE : BMLT
DURATION : 3 YEAR
TOTAL DEGREE MARKS : 3300
FIRST YEAR
COURSE TITLE PAPER CODE MARKS
Theory Practical Total
ANATOMY BMLT—110 100 100 200
PATHOLOGY BMLT —120 100 100 200
BIOCHEMISTRY BMLT —130 100 100 200
MICROBIOLOGY BMLT – 140 100 100 200
PHYSIOLOGY BMLT – 150 100 100 200
COMPUTER SKILLS BMLT – 160 100 100 200
TOTAL 1200

SECOND YEAR
COURSE TITLE PAPER CODE MARKS
Theory Practical Total
ANATOMY BMLT —210 100 100 200
PATHOLOGY BMLT —220 100 100 200
BIOCHEMISTRY BMLT —230 100 100 200
MICROBIOLOGY BMLT – 240 100 100 200
PHYSIOLOGY BMLT – 250 100 100 200
TOTAL 1000
THIRD YEAR
COURSE TITLE PAPER CODE MARKS
Theory Practical Total
Preventive &social medicine BMLT —310 100 100 200
PATHOLOGY BMLT —320 100 100 200
BIOCHEMISTRY BMLT —330 100 100 200
MICROBIOLOGY BMLT – 340 100 100 200
LAB MANAGEMENT BMLT —350 100 100 200
TOTAL 1000
Note:
Theory Paper :30% Continuous Internal Assessment and 70% University
examination. Practical Paper : 30% Continuous Internal Assessment and 70%
University examination.
BMLT – 110 ANATOMY
Maximum Time : 3 hrs University Assessment -70%
Total marks :100 Internal Assessment – 30%
Minimum Pass Mark – 40%
COURSE CONTENTS – THEORY

1) Introduction of Bones of the Human Body of :


 Upper Limb : clavicle, scapula, humerus, radius, ulna, carpus, metacarpus & phalanges
 Lower Limb : hipbone, femur, tibia, fibula, tarsus, metatarsus & phalanges
 Skull : name the bone of skull and sutures between them
 Thorax : ribs and their articulations
 Vertebral Column : Cervical, thoracic, lumber, sacral and cocasial vertebrae

2) Surface Markings of the Body :


 Nine regions of the abdomen
 Four quadrants of the Hip
3) Introduction of different Vital Organs :

A) Respiratory Organs :
 Nasopharynx
 Oropharynx
 Larynx
 Trachea
 Bronchi
 Lungs (and their lobular segments)
 Thoracic cavity
 Pleura and Pleural cavity

B) Circulatory Organs :
 Anatomical position of the heart
 Pericardium of the heart
 Chambers of the heart
 Great vessels of the heart
 Valves of the heart
C) Digestive Organs :

 Tongue
 Teeth
 Oral cavity
 Pharynx
 Oesophagus
 Stomach
 Small intestine
 Large intestine and its colons

PRACTICAL : 100 Marks

Labeled Digrams of different organs and bones


Viva
BMLT – 120 PATHOLOGY
Maximum Time : 3 hrs University Assessment -70%
Total marks :100 Internal Assessment – 30%
Minimum Pass Mark – 40%
COURSE CONTENTS –

1) The Cell in health and disease

a. Introduction of pathology
b. Cellular structure and metabolism
c. Inflammation – Acute and Chronic
d. Derangement of Body Fluids and Electrolytes
 Types of shocks
 Ischaemia
 Infection
e. Neoplasia – Etiology and Pathojgenesis

2) Introduction of hematology

a. Formation of Blood
b. Erythropoiesis
c. Leucopoiesis
d. Thrombopoiesis
e. Collection of Blood
f. Anticoagulants
g. Red cell count – Haemocytometer, Methodsand Calculation
h. WBC Count -- Methods
i. Differential Leucocytes Count (DLC)--
Morphology of White Cells, Normal Values
Rananocostry Stains : Staining procedures
Counting Methods, Principle of staining
j. Hb estimation – Method
Colorimetric Method
Chemical Method
Gasmetric Method
S.G. Method
Clinical Importance
III. Hematology :
 ESR
 Methods
 Factors – Affecting ESR
 Normal Values
 Importance
 RBC – Indices
 WBC
 Platelets

IV. Body Fluids :


(e) Urine :
 Method of Collection
 Normal Constitutents
 Physical Examination
 Chemical Examination

(f) Stool Examination :


 Method of Collection
 Normal Constituents and appearance
 Abnormal Constituents (Ova, Cyst)

(g) C.S.F. Examination


 Physical Examination
 Chemical Examination
 Microscopy
 Cell 1 Count
 Staining

(h) Semen Analysis


 Collection
 Examination
 Special Tests
Practical : 100 Marks

(e) Urinek, Stool, Semen and C.S.F. – Collection, Handling, Examinations


(f) Absolute Eosinophil Count, PCV, RBC indices, ESR Estimation, Platelt Count

 Collection of Sample
 Hb estimation
 TLC and DLC
 RBC Count
 Peripheral blood film – staining and study of Malarial Parasite

II. Laboratory management – Sample Collection, Labeling, Transport,


Screening, Reporting and Dispatch of Reports.
BMLT – 130 BIOCHEMISTRY
Maximum Time : 3 hrs University Assessment -70%
Total marks :100 Internal Assessment – 30%
Minimum Pass Mark – 40%
COURSE CONTENTS –

1. Introduction of Biochemistry
2. Elementary knowledge of inorganic chemistry :- Atomic weight, molecular weight,
equivalent weight, acid, bases.
3. Definition and preparation of solutions : Percent solution, Molar solution, Normal Solution
and Buffer Solutione etc.
4. Definition and preparation of Regent.
5. Unit of measurement
6. Elementary knowledge of organic chemistry
 Organic compounds
 Aliphatic and Aromatic
 Alcohols, Aldehydes, Ketones, Amines, Esters, Phenol etc
7. Ph indicators : pH paper, universal and other indicators, pH measurement : different
methods.
1. Aim and Scope of Biochemistry

2. Collection and Recording of Biochemical Specimen, separation of serum/plasma


preservation and siposal of Biological materal.

3. Chemical examination of urine : Qualitative, Sugar, Protein, Bile Salt, Bile Pigment,
Ketones Bodies

4. Chemical examination of Stool : Occult Blood.

5. Chemical examination of other Body Fluids : CSF, Plural Fluids, Ascitic Fluid etc.

6. Laboratory management and Maintenance of Records.


Practical : 100 Marks

 Urine Examination physical, Chemical, Microscopic, Biochemistry


 Stool Examination
 Body Fluids : Physical and chemical examination CSF, Pleural Fluids, and Ascitic fluid

Introduction and usage of Glassware and Instruments


Glassware :
 Composition of Glass
 General Glass wares
Instruments :
 Balance
 Hot Plate and Magnetic stirrer
 Centrifuges
 Incubators
 Constant temperature bath
 Colorimeter : Principal, Function
 Photometer
 Flame Photometry
BMLT – 140 MICROBIOLOGY
Maximum Time : 3 hrs University Assessment -70%
Total marks :100 Internal Assessment – 30%
Minimum Pass Mark – 40%
COURSE CONTENTS –

I. Introduction of brief history of Microbiology


 Historical Aspect
 Relationship of Micro-organism to men
 Micro-organism in Disease and Health
II. Requirement and uses of common Laboratory Equipments
 Incubator, Hot Air Oven, Water Bath
 Anaerobic Jar, Centrifuge, Autoclave
 Microscope
 Glassware – Discription of Glassware, its use, handling and care
III. Sterilization :
 Definition
 Classification and General Principal of Sterlization
 Autoclave – its structure, functioning, control and indicator
IV. Antiseptics & Disinfectants
 Definition
 Types
 Mode of Action
 Uses
V. Collection, Transportation and processing of clinical samples for Microbiological
Investigations

Bacteiology
 Definition
 Bacteria – General characteristics of Bacteria
 Classification and morphology of Bacteria
 Structure of Cell, Capsule, Flagella, and Spore
 Growth of Bacteria
 Nutrition of Bacteria

Virology :
 Definition
 General Introduction of Virus
 Physiochemical characteristic of Viruses
 Diseases caused by different Virus and mode of infection

Parasitology :
 Definition
 General Characteristics of Parasite
 Classification of Parasite
 Mode of transmission

Fungus :
 Definition
 Structure
 Classification

Practical : 100 Marks

Staining – Type of Staining, Principal, Procedure and Interpretation

Practical :

Demonstration of washing of instruments


BMLT – 150 PHYSIOLOGY
Maximum Time : 3 hrs University Assessment -80%
Total marks :100 Internal Assessment – 20%
Minimum Pass Mark – 40%
COURSE CONTENTS

1. Cell :
 Definition
 Structure and functions the cytoplasmic Organelles
 Reproduction : Miosis, Mitosis

2. The important physic-chemical laws applied to physiology


 Diffusion
 Osmosis
 Bonding
 Filtration
 Dialysis
 Surface Tension
 Adsorption
 Colloid
3. Fundamentals of different Organ Systems

 Cardiovascular System
 Respiratory System
 Digestive System
 Excretory System
 Reproduction System
 Endocrine System
 Lymphatic System
 Practical
 Viva and diagrams of different Vital Organs

Practical : 100 Marks

Viva and diagrams of different Vital Organs


BMLT – 160 COMMUNICATION SKILL
Maximum Time : 3 hrs University Assessment -70%
Total marks :100 Internal Assessment – 30%
Minimum Pass Mark – 40%

COURSE CONTENTS :

Concept of beliefs and values and how how they determine our behavior :Mc
Gregor’s theory X and Y orientations and how they shape our attitudes towards
people.

Concept of Perception-one way and two way communication and the effect it has
on people to produce desire results and productivity how inadequate and
incomplete communications lead to rumors and dysfunctional behaviors the need
For shared objectives and values for effective communication the art of listening
and enhancing understanding when relating with other people.

Under interpersonal relations styles and learning skills to communicate effectively


Learning dynamics of intra and intergroup behavior resolving conflicts and getting
operation and commitment from colleagues building trust collaboration

Developing presentations skills to create impact use of presentation ads,


developing objectives handing objections and some facilitation skills all this leading
to personality development.
BMLT – 170 COMPUTER SKILL
Maximum Time : 3 hrs University Assessment -70%
Total marks :100 Internal Assessment – 30%
Minimum Pass Mark – 40%
COURSE CONTENTS :

Introduction to Computers : purpose and meaning of data, information and knowledge for

business organizations. Information technology, its definition, scope and related technologies.

Relationship of information technology with management.

Types of Computers: Digital, Analog and hybrid Computers, General Model of Computer, Size wise

Organization of Computers-Mini, Micro, desktop, workstation and Supercomputers.


BMLT – 210 ANATOMY
Maximum Time : 3 hrs University Assessment -70%
Total marks :100 Internal Assessment – 30%
Minimum Pass Mark – 40%
COURSE CONTENTS
(A) Reproductive Organs :
 Male & Female Conads : Testes, Epididymis, Ovary, Fallopian Tube, Uterus,
Vagine etc.
 Introduction of male Genital Organs
 Introduction of female Genital Organs
(B) Liver and Spleen :
 Introduction
 Anatomical Position
 Gal bladder
(C) Excretory Organs ;
 Cortex and medulla of kidney
 Ureter
 Urinary Bladder
 Urethra (male and female)
(D) Muscles :
 Introduction, Origin and Insertion, Function

PRACTICAL 100 Marks

Labeled Diagrams of different organs and bones


Vivo
BMLT – 220 PATHOLOGY
Maximum Time : 3 hrs University Assessment -70%
Total marks :100 Internal Assessment – 30%
Minimum Pass Mark – 40%
COURSE CONTENTS
(a) Human blood group antigens and antibodies

(b) ABO Blood group systems


 Sub. – group
 Source of antigens and types of antibodies
(c) Rh Blood group System
 Types of Antigen
 Mode of Inheritance
 Types of Antibodies

(d) Other Blood group Antigens

(e) Blood Collection

 Selection and screening of donor


 Collection of blood
 Various anticoagulants
 Sotrage of Blood
 Changes in Blood on Sotrage

IMMUNOLOGY AND SEROLOGY


Hormones –
 Thyroid Hormones
 Growth Mhormones
 Isulin

Glycosylated Hemoglobin

COOMB’S Test
 Direct and Indirect Test
 Titration of Antibody
HISTOPATHOLOGY (Theory and Practical )

a) Fixation of tissues
 Classification of Fixatives
b) Tissue Processing
 Collection
 Steps of fixation
c) Section Cutting
 Microtome and Knives
 Techniques of Section Cutting
 Mounting of Section
 Frozen Sections
d) Decalcification
 Fixation
 Declacification
 End Point
e) Staining Dyes and their properties, H & E Stain, Special Stains

IMMUNOLOGY AND SEROLOGY


Hormones –
 Thyroid Hormones
 Growth Mhormones
 Isulin

Glycosylated Hemoglobin

COOMB’S Test
 Direct and Indirect Test
 Titration of Antibody
HISTOPATHOLOGY (Theory and Practical )

a) Fixation of tissues
 Classification of Fixatives
b) Tissue Processing
 Collection
 Steps of fixation
c) Section Cutting
 Microtome and Knives
 Techniques of Section Cutting
 Mounting of Section
 Frozen Sections
d) Decalcification
 Fixation
 Declacification
 End Point
e) Staining Dyes and their properties, H & E Stain, Special Stains

PRACTICAL : 100 Marks

 COOMB’S Test
 Anti D Titr

Blood gruping
Tube Method
Slide Method

 COOMB’S Test
 Anti D Titre
BMLT – 230 BIOCHEMISTRY
Maximum Time : 3 hrs University Assessment -70%
Total marks :100 Internal Assessment – 30%
Minimum Pass Mark – 40%
COURSE CONTENTS

1. Carbohydrates :-
 Introduction
 Importance
 Classification
 Properties
 Estimation of Glucose
 Clinical Significance
2. Protein : -
 Introduction and Physiological importance
 Amino acids
 Essential amino acids
 Classification
 Denaturation of Proteins
 Estimation of Total protein, Albumin, Globilin, A/G Ratio
3. Introduction, Properties and function of important hormones
4. Enzymes and Co-enzymes
 Introduction and difference
 Functions
 Estimation of important enzymes
vii. SGOT (AST)
viii. SGPT (ALT)
ix. Alkaline Phosphatase
x. Acid Phosphatase
xi. Amylase, lactate dehydrogenase
xii. CPK, CPK-MB
PRACTICAL : 100 Marks

Method of estimation of glucose : Benedicts Reaction, Glucose oxidase


Method
Method of estimation of Protein, Albumin
BMLT – 240 MICROBIOLOGY
Maximum Time : 3 hrs University Assessment -70%
Total marks :100 Internal Assessment – 30%
Minimum Pass Mark – 40%
COURSE CONTENTS

Staining of Bacteria :
3. Composition and preparation of staining
4. Principal and Procedure of Bacteriological stain
 Gram’s Stain
 Ziehl-Neelsen Stain
 Albert Stain
 Spore and Negative Stain
Cultivation of Micro-organism :
 Introduction and uses of culture
 Classification o f culture media
 Composition of common of Laboratory culture media
 Special media and preparations
 Techniques of inculation and isolation
 Antimicrobial sensitivity
 Anaerobic cultivation techniques
Isolation of Viruses in Laboratory by tissue culture
 Cell and tissue culture technology
 Embryonated Egg
 Principles of animal cell culture and their use in Virology

Different staining techniques used in Virology


Principle of different serological test used in Virology
Mode of Transmission of Viral agents
Prevention of Viral disease
1) Immunity in Viral infection Immunology
 Definition
 Immunity : Definition and Classification
 Antigen
 Antibodies – Immunoglobulin
 Antigen and antibody reaction and clinical importance
 Structure and function of immune system
 Immune response
 Hypersensitivity
2) I Principal & Procedure of Serological Tests.
 BICAL, CRP, Brucella, Agglutination, ASO
 Cold agglutination, VDRL, TPHA
(i) Advanced techniques in Microbiology ELISA, RIA etc.
(ii) Epidemiological Markers of Micro-organism serotyping
(iii) Preparation & Standardization of Antigen and Antisera
(iv) Preparation & Standardization of vaccine and immunization
3) I) General Introduction, life cycle, mode of transmission, pathogenicity, and lab
diagnosis of various Protozoa.
(ii) Entamoeba Hisolytica
(iii) Entamoeba coli
(iv) Giardia lamblia
(v) Trichomonas Vaginalios
(vi) Leishmenia donovani

4) (i)Sprozoa
 Malaria Parasite
 Toxoplasma Gondii
(ii) Balatidium Coli

5) General Introduction life cycle, mode of transmission, pathogenicity and lab diagnosis of
various Helminths :
(i) Cestodes or Tapeworms :
 Taenia solium
 Taenia sagnata
 Hymenolepis nana
 Echincoccus granulosus
(ii) Trematodes of Flukes :
 Fasciola hepatica
 Fasciola gigantica
 Gestrodiscoides hominis

(iii) Nematodes :
 Trichinella spiralis
 Trichuris trichiura
 Ancylostoma duodenale
 Enterobjus vermicularis
 Ascaris lumbricoides
PRACTICAL : 100 Marks

Demonstration :-
Slide Agglutination
 VDRL
 VIDAL
 ASO
 CRP
 Stool Examination
 Physical
 Microscopic Demonstration of Ova, Cyst, Pus, Cells
 Hanging Drop Examination

3. Staining : ZN Staining of M.T.B. and M. Lepra, Albert Staining


4. Culture
 Types of Media
 Preparation
 Inoculation
 Colony Characteritic
 Staining and Antibiotic Sensitivity
BMLT – 250 PHYSIOLOGY
Maximum Time : 3 hrs University Assessment -70%
Total marks :100 Internal Assessment – 30%
Minimum Pass Mark – 40%
COURSE CONTENTS

1. Blood
 Definition
 Composition
 Function
2. Formation of different type of blood cells
 Erythrocytes
 Leucocytes
 Thrombocytes
3. Mechanism of Blood Cltting
4. Cerebrospinal Fluid
 Formation
 Composition
 Function
5. Special Senses
 Hearing
 Taste
 Smell
 Touch
 Sight

PRACTICAL :

Viva and diagrams of Corpuscles


BMLT – 310 Preventive & Social Medicine
Maximum Time : 3 hrs University Assessment -70%
Total marks :100 Internal Assessment – 30%
Minimum Pass Mark – 40%
COURSE CONTENTS

1. Concept of Health and Disease


 Definition of Health
 Positive Health
 Concept of Well – being
 Concep of Disease
 Natural History of Disease
 Concept of Prevention

2. Health Programs in India


 National Vector Born Disease Program
 National Anti Malaria Program
 National Eradication Program
 Revised National T.B. control Program

3. Brief information of national Rural Health Mission

4. Nutrition and Health


 Carbohydrate
 Vitamins
 Protein
 Minerals
 Other trace elements

5. Environmental Health

6. Hospital Waste Management


 Definition
 Sources of healthcare waste
 Healthcare waste generation
 Health hazards of Healthcare Wastes
 Treatment of Disposal Technologies for Healthcare Waste

7. Communication for Health Education


 Definition
 The communicate rocess
 Type of Communication
 Health Communication
 Health Education
BMLT – 320 PATHOLOGY
Maximum Time : 3 hrs University Assessment -80%
Total marks :100 Internal Assessment – 20%
Minimum Pass Mark – 40%
COURSE CONTENTS
I. Anaemias :

(a) Definition and classification of Aaemia


(b) Laboratory Diagnosis of
 Iron Deficiency Anaemia
 Megaloblastic Anaemia
 Post Heamorrhagic Anaemia
 Thalessemia Syndrome
II. Haemorrhagic Disorders – Definition and Classification
 Haemostasis and Coagulation Factors
 Investigations and Lab Diagnosis
III. Leukaemia Disorders--
 Definition and Classification
 Lab Diagnosis

IV. Hormones -- Techniques


 ELISA
 RIA
V. Cytology
 Fine needle Aspiration Technique
 Staining
 Papanicaloav Staining Technique

PRACTICAL : 100 Marks

 Bleeding Time, Clotting Time, PT,APTT,TT, Platelet Count & Platelet Function Test
 Sickle Cell preparation
 Reticulocyte Count
 Osmotic Fragility Test
 Brie Marrow Smears Preparation
 ELISA Demonstration
 LE Cell Preparation
BMLT – 330 BIOCHEMISTRY
Maximum Time : 3 hrs University Assessment -70%
Total marks :100 Internal Assessment – 30%
Minimum Pass Mark – 40%
COURSE CONTENTS
I. Liver Function Test :
 Introduction
 Type of Jaundice
 Detection of Bilirubin
II. Haemorrhagic Disorders – Definition and Classification

III. Water and Minerals Metabolism:


 Deydration
 Calcium
 Phosphorus
 Sodium
 Potassium
 Cloride
 Iron
 Iodine
 And their physiological function and diseased state.

IV. Gastric Juice


 Importance
 Constituents
 Collection

COURSE CONTENTS :
1. Special Profiles :
 Glucose Tolerance Test
 Insulin Tolerance Test
 Gastric analysis
 Xylose absorption Test
 Clearance Test for Renal Function
2. Analysis of Calcult
3. Introduction of
 Chromatography
 Electrophoresis
 Radio immunoassay (RIA)
 ELISA
4. Electrometric determination of sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+)
5. Quality control of clinical investigation and Automation in clinical biochemistry.
6. Cardiac enzymes CPK, CPK MB, LDH, Troponin
PRACTICAL : 100 Marks

 Revision of all Biochemical Tests


 Demonstration of Chromatography and Electrophoresis
 ELISA and RIA

Method of estimation of Bilirubin

Method of estimation of SGOT, GPT, Alk Po4 Acid Po4


BMLT – 340 MICROBIOLOGY
Maximum Time : 3 hrs University Assessment -70%
Total marks :100 Internal Assessment – 30%
Minimum Pass Mark – 40%
COURSE CONTENTS
1. Study of systematic Bacteriology:
 Streptococci
 Staphylogocci
 Pneumococci
 Corynebacteria
 Escherichia
 Klebsiella
 Enterobacter
 Proteus
 Salmonella
 Shigella
 Pseudomonas
 Vibro
 Haemophilus
 Mycobacterium
 Brucella
 Clostridia
 Treponema
 Niesseria
 Leptospira
 Microlasma
 Ricketessia
 Clamydia

1. Interdiction of Anaerobic culture media name of


2. Identification of Fungi
 Growth
 Characteristics
 Diseases caused by Fungi
3. Laboratorial Management and Stock Maintenance of Microbiology
Laboratory
PRACTICAL : 100 Marks

 Biochemical Test used for identification of bacteria


 Lab diagnosis of Fungi
 Smear preparations
 KOH solution
 Fungus Culture :-
a. Media
b. B. Colony Characters of arious fungi

Staining characters of different type of Bacteria Identification of type

colony growth Biochemical character of Organism


BMLT – 350 LABORATORY MANAGEMENT
Maximum Time : 3 hrs University Assessment -70%
Total marks :100 Internal Assessment – 30%
Minimum Pass Mark – 40%
COURSE CONTENTS :

1. Laboratory Planning
 General Principles
 Planning at different levels
 Planning for Hospital Lab Services
 Section for a Hospital Laboratory
 Space requirement
2. Laboratory management Technique
 General Principle
 Component and function of Laboratory
 Staffing the Laboratory
 Job Specification
 Work Shedule
3. Care of Laboratory Glassware, Equipments, Instruments and Chemical etc.
 General Principle
 Care and Cleaning of Glassware
 Care of equipment and instruments
 Lab chemicals, their proper use and care
 Labeling
4. Laboratory Safety
 General Principle
 Laboratory hazards
 Safety programs
 First Aid
5. Quality Control of Laboratory
6. Stores Oranisation
 Introduction
 Function
 Organisation and Structure
 Duties
 Type of Store
 Goods inward Store
 Main Store
 Main Records
7. Relationship with other function value analysis
8. Store/Office use stationary

 Material Receipts Advice Form


 Goods inwards Note Form
 Material requisition Form
 Bin Card
 Electrophoresis Technique – Protein & Heamoglobin
 High performance liquid Chromatography
 Micro column technique
Detailed Syllabus
of
DIPLOMA IN AYURVEDIC PHARMACY
(DAP)
DIPLOMA IN AYURVEDIC PHARMACY
Duration of Course : Two years
FIRST YEAR
Sl. Paper Code No Subject

1 . DAP 110 Ayurved Siddhant Evam Itihas


2. DAO 120 Sharir Rachana 110 100 100
3. DAP 130 Dravyaguna vigyan-1 110 100 100
4. DAP 140 R.S. & B.K. - 1 110 100 100
5. DAP 150 Prathmik Upachar Evam Rugna Paricharya

SECOND YEAR
Sl. Paper Code No Subject

1 . DAP 210 Dravyaguna vigyan-2


2. DAP 220 R.S. & B.K. – 2
3. DAP 230 Ayurved Parichay including roga nidan Evam Chikitsa
4. DAP 240 Ayurvedic Pharmaceutics including Hospital and Clinical Pharmacy
5. DAP 250 Kriya Shaarir
6. DAP 260 Selected Topics in Pharmacy
FIRST YEAR
DAP 110: AYURVED SIDDHANT EVAM ITIHAAS
(Basic Principles and History of Ayurveda)

Time : 3 Hours Theory Theory : 100 Marks

ò Definition of Ayurved.
ò Ashtanga Ayurved – The eight specialized branches of Ayurveda, concept and definition.
Ayurvediya Padarth Vigyan and its importance. Characteristics and classification of Padarth.

Dravyaguna Vigyaniyam, characteristics, number and classification of dravyas. The characteristics, qualities (gunnas) and
origin of Panchamahabhutas and their mutual micro-merging (Paraspara anupravesh).
ò Applied studies of dravyas from Ayurvedic perspective.
ò Characteristics of Dik, Kala, Atma and Mana.
Guna Vigyaniyam : characteristics and types of Gunas as gurvadi guna, adhyatmika guna, vaisheshika guna, saamanya
guna.
ò Karma vigyaniyam : characteristics and types of Karmas.
ò Saamanya, Vishesha, Samvaya Vigyaniyam – characteristics and types.
Pramaana vigyaniyam : characteristics, importance and number of Pramaana. The Pramaanas accepted by Ayurveda–
Pratyaksha. Anumaana, Aptopdesha and Yukti Pramaanas.
Effect and causative factor (Karya, Karana Bhava) : Description of Karya–Karana Bhava and various Vaadas. Features of cause
(Kaarana) and types. Description of samavayi, asamavayi and nimitta karana in Ayurved. Satkaryavad, Asatkarya vada,
Parmanu vada, Pilupaka, Pitharapaka etc.
The advent of Ayurveda (Ayurvedavatarana) : The Atreya (Charaka Samhita) and the Dhanvantari (Sushruta Samhita)
traditions of Ayurveda.
ò Laghutrayi and Brihattrayi Parichaya.
ò Development of Ayrvediya Rasashastra & Bhaishajya Kalpana.
ò Propagation of Ayurveda in foreign countries.
DAP 120: SHARIR RACHANA
Time: 3 Hours Theory Marks: Theory: 100 Marks

1. Definition of Shaariram, its derivation, meaning, synonym and Interpretation.


2. Shadang Sharira: Six regions of Body, organs of abdomen, their names and description.
3. Asthi sharira: Number and types of bones according to Sushrut and Modern Science.
4. Sandhi sharira: Number and types of joints with examples according to Sushrut.
5. Koshtha & Ashaya sharira: Define Koshtha and enumerate the koshthangs and ashayas in the body.
6. Peshi sharira: Definition of Peshi and their importance in the body.
7. Shira, Dhamani & Srotas sharira: srotas, sira, dhamani are similar structures what is the difference between
them.
8. Definition of srotas, its derivation and number, names and importance.
9. Structure of eye, ear, brain, heart, pancreas, gall-bladder, spleen.
10. Garbha sharira – foetal anatomy-shukra & artava’s qualities qualifying them as pure & competent for
conception.
11. Beeja, Beejabhaga, Beeja bhagavayava.
12. Morphological and physiological changes in the embryo during nine months in the womb.
13. Indriya vigyan sharira: Sensory organs and their locations and nerves concerned with each.
14. Twak sharira: layers of skin, their names according to Sushrut and modern science.
15. Organs participating in the digestion process in the Alimentary canal.
16. The anatomical description of organs of urinary system.
17. Kala sharira: Definition and names of kala according to Sushruta.
18. Spinal cord, cranial nerves.
19. Describe in detail the vertebrae of vertebral column.
20. 12 pranas, 10 pranayatana, 3 pradhaanmarmani, 15 koshthagni.
21. Description of Hridayam according to Sushruta and its importance and functions in health.

22. Description of Yakrita, its importance and functions according to modern science.
DAP 130: DRAVYAGUNA VIGYAN–I
Time: 3 Hours Theory : 100 Marks Practical : 100 Marks
Theory
1. Definition of Dravyaguna Vigyan and its importance.
2. Definition of Dravya and its importance.
3. Definition of Rasa, types and Panchbhautic composition of Rasa.
4. Definition, types and importance of Gunas, Vipaka, Veerya, Prabhav.
5. Introduction to Karmas (actions)
Deepan, Paachan, Graahi, stambhan, Bhedan, Rechan, Anuloman, Sramsana, Samshodhana, Rasayana, Vajikarana, Vyavai,
Madakari, Vikasi.
Introduction to Mishrak Varga
Triphala, Madhurtriphala, Sugandhatriphala, Swalptriphala, Trijatake, Chaturjata, Trikatu, Trimada, Panchkola, Shadushan,
Panchawalkala, Chathurshana, Trikantaka, Panchapallav, Laghu Panchamool, Brihad Panchmoola, Vallipanchmoola,
Trinpanchmoola, Ashtavarga.
6. Classification of Drugs according to Ayurvedic principles.
Study of following drugs including Classification, Latin name. Family, Vernacular name, Synonyms, Botanical description,
Varities. Habitat, Chemical composition, Properties, Doshakarm, Actions. Uses, Parts used : Dosage, Formulations, Substitute
and Adulteration.
1. Aragvadha 2. Ardraka
3. Apaamarga 4. Arjuna
5. Ashwagandha 6. Arka
7. Aamalaki 8. Ashok
9. Balaa 10. Bilva
11. Bhringraj 12. Dhatura
13. Ela 14. Gokshur
15. Guduchi 16. Guggulu
17. Chandan 18. Chitrak
19. Haritakee 20. Haridra
21. Jyotishmati 22. Jamboo
23. Jataamansi 24. Kutaja
25. Khadira 26. Bhumyamalki
27. Nirgundi 28. Nimba
29. Marich 30. Madanphala
31. Pareesha 32. Punarnava
33. Pippali 34. Rohitak
35 .Rasona 36. Shirisha
37. Shatavari 38. Karanja
39. Kumari 40 . Shalmali
41 Sudershan 42 . Tulsi
43. Tvak 44 .Udumber
45. Vansh 46 . Vacha
47. Vibhitaki 48 . Lodhra
49. Vidang 50. Yashtimadhu
51. Katuka 52. Vasa
53. Sarpgandha 54. Sunthi
Practical
1. Preparation of Herbarium Sheets of 25 drugs.
2. Method of Identification of Drugs.
3. Description and identification of at least 30 important drugs mentioned in the theory.
DAP 140: RASA SHASTRA AND BHAISHJYA KALPANA-I
Time: 3 Hours Theory Theory: 100 Marks

SECTION – I RASA SHASTRA


1. Definition of Rasa Shastra, importance in Ayurveda and brief history of Rasa Shastra, its relevance in vedic era, Ayurvedic
literature and in Modern science.
2. Define (Pribhashas) Shodhana, Sanskar, Marana, Satvapatan, Nirvap, Avap, Dhanvantaribhag, Rudrabhag, kajjali,
Patanpisht, Dhanyabhrak, Bubhukshitparad, Hinguloth Parad.
3. Parada – Its synonyms, origin, its impurities, gatis, Samanya – Vishesh Shodhana, Shudh parad lakshana paradiya
Kalpnana – Kajjali, Parpati, Pottali, Kuppipakva rasayana and Kharliya Rasayana.
4. Brief descriptions of Yantra, puta and Musha, Yantra – Dolayantra. Vidyadhar yantra, Taptakhalva yantra,
5. Musha – Samanya, Vajra, Vajradravani, Yog, Gar, Var, Varnya, Ropya. Bid, Gostani, Vrintaak, Gol, Malla, Pakva, Maha,
Manduk, Musha.
6. Classicification of drugs in Rasa Shastra.
7. Maharasas – their synonyms, indentification, types impurities shodhana, Marana, therapeutic doses and compound
formulations, side effects and its antidote.

8. Aushadh Yogas:
1. Panchamrit Parpati 2. Shweta Parpati
3. .Abragarbha pottali 4. Hemagarbha pottali
5. Rasa Sindur 6. Mallasindur
7. Makardhwaj 8. Suvarnabang
9. Saptamrita loha 10 .Kamadudha rasa
Their composition, properties and uses.
SECTION - II: BHAISHJYA KALPANA
1. Definition of Bhaishaja – Bhaishjya kalapna and its brief history in vedas Ayurvedic samhitas and in samgrah period.
2. Paribhashas – Deepana, Paachana, Rasayana, Vajikarna, Stambhana, Stransana, Virechak, Vamana.
3. Maana Paribhasha according to Sharangdhar samhita.
4. Panchavidha kashaya kalpna, their method of preparation and their uses.
5. Preparation methods of Avaleha Kalpana, Churna, Vati, Guggula Kalpana.
6. Aushadh Yoga:

1.Dashamool Kwath 2 .Phalatrikadi Kwath


2 Pathyadi Kwath 4. Rasnasaptak Kwath
5. Vasavaleha 6 .Chyavanaprashavaleha
7. .Sitopaladi Churna 8 .Talisaadi Churna
9. .Dashanasamskar Churna 10 .Lavanbhaskar Churna
11. Triphala Guggulu 12 .Abha Guggulu
13. Yograj Guggulu 14 .Bala Chaturbhadra Churna
Their composition, properties and uses.

Practical
Preparation of at least 20 yogas (formulations) from Rasa Shastra and Bhaishjya Kalpana, including purification
processes.
DAP 150: PRATHAMIK UPACHAR EVAM RUGNA PARICHARYA
Time: 3 Hours Theory Theory: 100 Marks
Vegan dharniyadharniyam Vivek, Kitpatangadinam, Jiwanaitiham, Masak.
Makshika, Pipalikadi, Sansargatah, Roghvishesha, Tesham manavdeho raktagatam chatra gatam vaishamyam.
Sankramak Nirodhak Bhavaha
Sankramak roga prasarasheha, prasangat Gatra sansparsati, Nihswarat, Sah Bhojanat, Ekasayyashat. Gandhamalyadi, sam
parkaccho psarga Rogah
Teshaam vishistam vigyanam tanni Rodhak & Niwarnabhu tascha Bhavah Swasthasyalakshnam, Swasthya swarupam,
swasthsya rakshanartham. Upachar Dincharya, Ratricharya, Ritucharya, Rituwanusaren, Ahara swarupam, Nivas sthan
vichar, Ahara vidhi vishesayatanani, paraspara viruddha dravya gunam Peyadravya vishesh, Anupan vichar, Niwas sthan,
udyoga sthan, krida sthan, siksha sthan, Paniyajalasthan. Aramgnna, Jalapan griha, Manovinod sthaladinam niyojana,
Aaudogika sadvrita samanye sadurita.
Satmya satmya vichar, Shuchitvam, Vaidya guna, Chikitsalaya Bhesajya nirman Garadisu cha. Shuchitvavivek, asuchan,
Bhutanma, Kitadinamacy pravesha.
Tatjanya vikriti vigyanam, tannivarkopaya prati Rodhakapaya.
Sankramak Roga Gyanam, Tanpodwanshakarnam, Teshma viwarnopaya.
Vayu, Tala, Kala, Deshashacha, Tesham Durtih Tanniwarnopaya.
SECOND YEAR
DAP 210: DRAVYAGUNA VIGYAN – II
Time: 3 Hours Theory Theory: 100
Marks

1. Brief History of the Science of Drvayaguna Shastra.


2. Concept of Rasa, Guna, Veerya, Vipak and Prabhava.
3. Collection Storage and Preservation of Drugs.
4. Various impurities of Drugs, methods of Purification of Drugs.
Ayurvedic concept of pharmaclogical actions of drugs like, Rasayan, Vajikarana, Medhya, Vyavayi, Vikasi, Pramathi, Madkari,
Anulomana, Chhedna.
6. Characteristic functions of Samanyapratyarabdha and Vichitra pratyarabdha.
Knowledge, properties, effect and uses of following drugs of Animal origin : Kasturi, Gorochan, Prawal, Mukta, Shankh,
Shambook, Varatika, Shukti, Mrig shringa.
8. Mishrak Varga dravyas
Chaturbeeja, Kantakpanchmoola, Panchkshiri vriksha, Panchpallava, Shadanga paneeya, Madhyampanchmoola. Upavisha
9. Study of following drugs including classification, Latin name, Family, Vernacular name, Synonyms, Botanical description,
Varities, Habitat, Chemical composition, Properties, Doshakarm, Actions and Uses, Part used, Dosage, Formulation, Substitutes
and Adulterants.
1. Agnimanth 2. Aristak
3. Ativisha 4. Aparajita
5. Amragandhi–haridra 6. Asthishrimkhala
7. Banfsa 8. Bhallatak
9. Brahmi 10 Bhanga
11. Arka 12. Chakramarda
13. Changeri 14. Champak
15. Dantee 16. Draksha
17. Doorva 18. Dhatura
19. Erand 20. Gambhari
21. Gunja 22. Hingu
23. Hrinsa 24. Irimeda
25. Kanchnar 26. Kirattikta
27. Kapikachchu 28. Karveera
29. Langali 30. Mandookparni
31. Methika 32. Mamajjak
33. Mustaka 34. Patha
35. Sleshmatak 36. Saptaparna
37. Vansha 38. Trikantak
39. Varuna 40. Aralu
41. Bakul 42. Gojiwha
43. Manjistha 44. Sariva

Practical :

1. Preparation of Herbarium sheets of 50 drugs.


2. Methods of Identification of drugs.
3. Descripition and identification of at least 30 important drugs mentioned in the theory.
DAP 220: RASA SHASTRA AND BHAISHJYA KALPANA–II
Time: 3 Hours Theory Theory: 100
Marks
Section – I Rasa Shastra 50 Marks
1. Principles of Shodhana, Marana and Jarana of Metals & Minerals.
2. Introduction, identification, types, impurities, shodhana, marana, therapeutic dose, adverse effects and antidotes of
Uparasas, Sadharan Rasa, Dhatu and Ratna.
3. Introduction, shodhana, therapeutic dose, antidotes, toxicity of visha-upavisha varga.
4. Preparation of several Ayurvedic formulations like Bhasma, Sindooras, Netrabindu, Varti & Rasa preparations.

5. Aushadha Yoga
1. Anandbhairav rasa 2 .Arogyavardhini rasa
3. Garbhapal rasa 4. Gandhak rasayana
5. Tribhuvankirtirasa 6. Laxmivilas rasa
7. Navajivan rasa 8. Shwaskuthar rasa
9. Ichchhabhedi rasa 10. Chandraprabhavati
Section – II Bhaishajya Kalpana 50 Marks
1. Preparatory methods of Sneha Kalpana and Sandhan Kalpana.
2. Definition and application of Bhojana, Bhavana, Samskara, Mardana.
3. Preparatory methods of satva, Ghan Kalpana, Kshar Nirmana, Malhar Kalpana.
4. Preparation of several Ayurvedic formulations : Asavas, Arishtha, Taila, Ghrita, etc.
5. Aushadha Yogas:
1. Panchatikta Ghrita 2. Jatyadi Ghrita
3. Triphala Ghrita 4. Pind tail
5.. Satapaki Balitail 6. Panchagun tail
7. Drakshasava 8. Kutajarishta
9. Bhringraj tail 10. Shadabindu tail
11. Vishgarbha tail 12. Shakha vati
13. Khadiradi vati 14. Lavangadi vati

Their compositions, properties and uses.


Practical:
Preparation of at least 30 yoga (Formulations) of different kalpanas.
DAP 230: AYURVED PARICHAY INCLUDING ROGA NIDAN EVAM
CHIKITSA
Time: 3 Hours Theory Theory: 100 Marks

• Definition of Ayurveda as science of life.


• Brief introduction of Ashtang Ayurveda, Ayurveda Utpatti and Vikas.
• Important literary works, especially texts – Brihattrayi & Laghutrayi.
• Panchakarma, Kriyakalpa, Agnikarma, Kshara Karma etc. Special therapeutic procedures – brief description.
• Aushadha, Ahara, Aushadha sevana kala, Anupana, Anupana & Sahapana, Pathya- Apathya.
• Clinical importance of Chikitsa Chatuspada, Tridosha, Dhatu, Mala, Siddhanta.
• Definition and importance of Roga Vignan and Vikruti Vignan.
• Signs and symptoms of the increase and decrease of Doshas, Dhatu and Malas.
• Kriyakala.
• The importance of srotasa in the production of diseases.
• The determination of the disorders of srotasa.
• The causes and signs and symptoms of the vitiation of srotasa.
• The causes of the diseases of the different srotasa.
• Definition, General discussion and types of Vyadhi (disease).
• Astha mahagada (major disease) and astha nindita (condemned).
• General description and importance of Nidana - panchaka.
• Trividha Rogi pariksha vidhi (Darshana etc. three types of Methodology of investigating a patient).
• Signs, Symptoms and diseases of ojovyapata, ojokshaya and ojochyuti.
• Vyadhikshamatva (Immunity).
• General description of Janapadodhvamasaka vyadhi (Epidemics) and Aupsargika Roga and Sansargaja Roga (Infectious
and communicable diseases).
DAP 240: AYURVEDIC PHARMACEUTICS INCLUDING HOSPITAL AND
CLINICAL PHARMACY
Time : 3 Hours Theory Theory : 100 Marks
1. Introduction of Different dosage forms.
Introduction to Pharmacopoeias with special reference to the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India.
3. Metrology – Systems of Weight and measures.
4. Packaging of Pharmaceuticals.
5. Sterilization – Concept of Sterilization and its types.
6. Brief introuduction to processing of tablets, capsules, syrups, etc.
Prescriptions – Reading and understanding of prescriptions, Latin terms commonly used Modern methods of prescribing,
adoption of metric system. Calculations involved in dispensing. Incompatibilites in Prescriptions.
Posology – Dose and dosage of drugs.
8. Brief introduction to semi–solid form like ointment etc.
Brief introduction to sterile Dosage form with special reference to precautions in their handling and storage.
10. Hospital pharmacy.
11. Drug distribution system in Hospital.
Practical:
1. Dispensing Pharmacy in OPD/IPD for two days in a week.
2. To prescribe and distribute drugs for at least 15 different diseases.
To identfiy and note the organoleptic characters and uses of at least 50 yogas seen in the OPD/IPD.
Books Recommended:
1. Remington’s Pharmaceutical sciences.
2. Benttleys Text – book of pharmaceutics – Rawlins.
3. Coper and Gunn’s Dispensing for pharmaceutical students Carter.
4. Dispensing of Medication – Martin.
5. Pharmaceutical Arithmetic and Lating–Schroff and Srivastava.
DAP 250: KRIYA SHARIRA
Time: 3 Hours Theory Theory: 100 Marks
1. Dosh, dhatu, mala mulam shariram.
2. Five types of vata, their names, locations and functions in health.
3. Five types of pitta, their names, locations and functions in health.
4. Five types of kapha their names, locations and functions in health.
Dehprakriti, types of dosha prakritis and characterisitics of vata, pitta and kapha dominant person.
6. Rashi purusha and its components according to ayurveda.
7. Names of seven Dhatus, upadahtus and their nutrition from digested essence of the food.
Description of Agni and complete process of the digestion of Food. (Ahara paka kriya and avastha paka Kriya).
The nutrition of sevedhatus as explained by kshirdadhinyaya, kedarikulya nyayand khalekapota nyaya (Theories).
10. Definition, production types qualities and importance of Ojas and bala.
11. Description of Vyadhi Kshmatva.
12. Characteristics of presence of Atma in the body.
13. Concept of mind, it number, functions and role in health.
14. The description of blood according to Ayurved and modern science.
15. The process of recognition–Gnanotpatti–according to charak.
16. Endocrine glands, their name, location and fuctions in health.
7 . Composition of blood functions of blood elements. Blood group and coagulation of blood. Brief information regarding disorders
of blood.
DAP 260: SELECTED TOPICS IN PHARMACY
Time: 3 Hours Theory Theory: 100 Marks
1. Pharmaceutical jurisprudence & toxicology.
2. Drugs & cosmetics Act and rules.
3. Quality assurance & GMP.
4. Good dispensing practices.
5. Drug’s store establishment and management of Pharmacy stores.
SINGHANIA UNIVERSITY
(RAJASTHAN)

DETAILED SYLLABUS

DIPLOMA IN PHYSIOTHERAPY (DPT)

(DPT)
(YEARLY SYSTEM)
SUMMERISED SHEET OF DPT

FIRST YEAR
s.no Paper Name Paper Code Theory Practical Total
1 HUMAN ANATOMY DPT-110 100 100 200

2 HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY DPT-120 100 100 200


3 BIOCHEMISTRY DPT-130 100 100 200

4 BIOMACHANICS DPT-140 100 100 200


5 PATHOLOGY & DPT-150 100 100 200
MICROBIOLOGY
6 PRINCIPAL OF BIO- DPT-160 100 100 200
ELECTROICALS
MODALITIES
7 COMPUTER SKILL DPT-170 100 100 200

1400

SECOND YEAR
S.No. Paper Name Paper Code Theory Practical Total

1. Exercise Therapy DPT-210 100 100 200


2. Pharmacology DPT-220 100 100 200
3. Orthopaedics DPT-230 100 100 200
4. Electrotherapy DPT-240 100 100 200
5. Sociology and psychology DPT-250 100 100 200
6. Physiotherapeutic in DPT-260 100 100 200
orthopaedic
TOTAL 1200
FIRST YEAR
DPT – 110 HUMAN ANATOMY
Maximum Marks : 100 Duration : 3 hours

Objectives:
1. To know gross structure of various body parts especially Musculo-skeletal,
cardiorespiratory and nervours system.
2. T study effects of physical therapy on body anatomy.
General Anatomy:
1. Introduction, various terminologies used, anatomical position etc.
2. Regions of Body, cavities and Systems outline.
3. connective tissue & its modification, tendons, membranes, Special connective tissue.
4. Bone structure, blood spply, growth, ossification, and classification.
5. Muscle, Nerve, blood vessels & lymphatics – structure, types & distribution
6. Joints – classification, structures of joints, movements, range, limiting factors, stability,
blood supply nerve supply, dislocations and applied anatomy.
Thorax (In brief):
1. Thoracic cage
2. Pleural cavities & pleura
3. Lungs and respiratory tree
4. Mediastinum & pericardium
5. Heart and great vessels
6. Diaphragm
Upper extremity :
1. Bones & joints.
2. Muscles – origin,insertion, actions, nerve supply & blood supply.
3. Maor nerves – course, branches and implications of nerve injuries.
4. Development of limb bones, muscles and anomalies.
Lower Extremity:
1. Bones & joints
2. Muscles – origin, insertion, actions, nerve supply & blood supply
3. Major nerves – course, branches and implications of nerve injuries
4. Development of limb cones, muscles andanomalies
Spine :
1. Back – muscles - Superficial layer, Deep muscles of back, their origin, insertion, action
and nerve supply.
2. Vetebral column – Structue & Development, Structure & Joints of vertebra
3. Applied anatomy & Developm,ental defects.
Abdomen and pelvis:
1. Abdominal cavity – divisions
2. Muscles of Abdominal wall, pelvic floor
3. Bony Pelvis
4. Digestive system (Liver & pancreas, Alimentary canal).
5. Urinary system. -= Kidney, Urter, bladder, urethra
6. Adrenal gland
7. Genital system – male and female
Head and neck :
1. Cranium
2. Central nervous system – disposition, parts and functions
3. Cerebrum (Brief Description)
4. Cerebellum (\Brief Description)
5. Midbrain & brain stem (Brief Description)
6. Blood supply & anatomy of strokes
7. Spinal cord-anatomy, blood supply, nerve pathways, applied significance
8. Pyramidal, extra pyramidal system
9. Thalamus, hypothalamus (Brief Description)
10. Ventricels of brain, CSF circulation (Brief Description).
11. Development of nervous system & defects (Brief Description)
12. Nerve plexuses.
13. Cranail nerves – special emphasis on V, VII, X, XI, XII (course, distribution and palsies)
14. Sympathetic nervours system, its parts and components (Brief Description).
15. Parasympathetic nervours system (Brief Description).
1. Endocrine – system – Pituitary, Thyroid, parathyroid (Brief Description)
2. Special senses (Brief Description) : Nerve receptors, Eye, Ear, Labyrinth
3. Embryology (Brief Description) : - General embrylolgy, placentra, fetal membranes, twining, and
teratogenesis.
Suggested Readings :
1. B. D. Chaurasia, “Human Anatomy”.
2. B. D. Chaurasia, “Hand Book of General Anatomy”.
3. B. D. Charasia, “Human Osteology”.
4. Inderbir Singh, “Text Book of Neuranatomy”.
5. Inderbir Singh, “Text Book of Human Histology”
6. inderbir Singh, “Text Book of Human Osteology”.
7. Krishna Garg, “Basics of Anatomy and Physiology”.
8. Gray, “Gray’s Anatomy”.
DPT – 120 HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY
Maximum Marks : 100 Duration : 3 hours

Objectives : To know the Physiology of human body.To understand the effects of physical therapy
on human physiology with major emphasis on cardio-respiratory, Musculo-skeletal and nervous
system.
1. Genral Physiology (brief description only)
1. Structure of cell.
2. Functional morphology of the cell
3. Intercellular communication
4. Homeostasis
2. Cardiovascular System (descriptive)
1. Anatomical, biophysical consideration of arterial, arteriolar & capillary venous level,
Lymphatic circulation
2. Homodynamics.
3. Origin and spread of cardiac excitation
4. Basic idea of Electrocardiogram
5. Cardiac cycle, Cardiac output, its regulation
6. Local & systemic regulatory mechanisms of CVS, humeral & neural
7. Cerebral, coronary, splachnic, skin, Placental & Fetal circulation
3. Respiratory System (descriptive)
1. Physiological anatomy of lungs, mechanics of respiration
2. Pulmonary circulation, Ges exchange in lungs
3. Oxygen & Carbon dioxides transport
4. Other function of respiratory system
5. Neural & chemical control of breathing
6. Regulation of respiratory activity, non-chemical influences on respiratory activity
4. Cardio respiratory adjustments in health & disease (descriptive)
1. Exercise, high altitude, deep sea diving
2. Hypoxia, hypercapnia, hypomania, oxygen treatment
3. Asthma, emphysema, artificial respiration
5. Blood (brief description only)
1. W.B.C., R.B.C. Platelets formation & functions
2. Plasma, Blood Groups
3. Homeostasis, Immunity
6. Digestive System & excretory System (In brief)
7. Nerve (descriptive)
1. Nerve _ General Concept
2. Nerve cell – structure
3. Genesis of resting membrane potential & Action potential
4. Their ionic basis, All or None phenomenon
5. Ionic basis of nerve conduction
6. Classification & types of nerve fibre
7. Miaxed nerves & compound action potential
8. Concept of nerve injury & wallerian degeneration
8. Muscle (descriptive)
1. Skeletal & cardiac muscle
2. Morphology, properties
3. Electric & Mechanical responses & their basis
4. Concept of isometric & isotonic muscle contraction
5. Pace maker tissues & their potential in cardiac muscle
6. Metabolism
9. Synaptic & Junction Transmission (brief description only)
1. Functional anatomy of sy6napses
2. Electrical events in postsynaptic neurons
3. Inhibition & facilitation at synapses
4. Chemical transmission of synaptic activity
5. Principal neurotransmitter system
6. Neuromuscular junction, structure & events occurring dring excitation
7. Concept of denervation hypersensitivity
10. Function of Nervous system 9descriptive)
1. Reflexes, monosynaptic, polysynaptic, withdrawal reflex
2. Properties of reflexes
3. Sense organ, receptors, electrical & chemical events in receptors
4. Ionic basis of excitation
5. Sensiroy pathways for touch, temperature, pain, proprioception, others
6. Control of tone & posture: integration at spinal, brain stem, cerebellar, basal ganlion
levels, along with their functions & clinical aspects
11. Endocrinology (brief description only)
12. Male & female reproductive system (brief description only)
13. Autonomic nervous system (brief description only)
14. Hypothalamus (brief description only)
15. Higher functions of nervous system (brief description only)
1. Learning & memory, neocortex, limbic functions, sexual behavior, fear & range,
motivation – brief idea
16. Special senses (brief description only)
17. Arousal mechanisms & sleep (brief description only)
Suggested Readings :
1. C. C. Chatterji, “Human Physiology”
2. Keele, “Samson’s Wright’s Applied Physiology”.
3. Bijlani, “Understanding Medical Physiology”.
4. Ganong, “Review of medical Phtysiology”.
5. Guyton, “Texbook of Medical Physiology”.
6. A. K. Jain, “Manual of Pratical Physiology”.
DPT – 130 BIOCHEMISTRY
FIRST YEAR
Maximum Marks : 100 Duration : 3 hours

A brief outline of metabolic pathways mentioned herein is indicate.


Details and structures are to be avoided.

1. Carbohydrates : Definition, classification with examples and general functions. Metabolism-


Glycolysis, T.C.A. Glycogen metabolism, Blood Sugar regulation Diabetes and diabetic
keto-acidosis.
2. Lipids : Definition, classifications and general functions, Essential fatty acids, cholesterol,
Blood lipid. Brief \review of liporoteins. Metabolism-Oxidation of fatty acids, cholesterol
synthesis, and fatty liver.
3. Proteins. : Definition, classification, and Bio-medical Imporance. Study of hemoglobin and
immunoglobulins.
4. with functions. Plasma Proteins and functions. Metabolism : General reactions of amino acids.
Formation and fate of ammonia – Urea cycle.
5. Nucleic Acids : Brief overview of the structure of RNA and DNA including nucleotiedes.
6. Nutritiosn : Basic principles of nutrition of carbohydrates, Proteins and Lipid caloric
requirement and balance diet.
7. Enzymes : Definition, classification with examples. Factors affecting enzyme action. Brief
study of enzyme inhibition. Clinical importance of enzymes.
8. Vitamins : Definition, classification and functions. Dietary source, Daily requirement and
deficiency disorders.
9. Water and Electrolyte Balance : General outline of fluid compartments of the body with their
water and electrolyte content and balance, Dehydration.
10. Tissue chemistry : Chemistry of connective tissue, bone and teeth. Composition function and
chemical mediators of nerve structure of muscle tissue. General Biochemistry of muscle
contraction and relaxation.

Suggested Readings :
1. Chatterje & Shinde, “Textbook of Medical Biochemistry”
2. A. C.Deb, “Fundamentals of Biochemistry”
3. lahinger, “Principles of Biochemistry”.

4. Murray, “Harper’s Biochemistry”.


DPT –140 BIOMECHANICS

FIRST YEAR
Maximum Marks : 100 Duration :3 hours

Objectives :
To understand the basic principles of biomechanics.
All topics are for a brief description only.

Definition of mechanics and Biomechanics


Force – Definition, diagrammatic representation, classification of roces, concurrent, coplanar and co-
linear forces, composition and resolution fo forces, angle of pulls of muscle.
Momentum-principles, and practical application
Friction
Gravity : Definition, line of gravity, Centre of gravity.
Equilibrium : Supporting base, types, and stability of equilibrium.
Energy work and power : Energy (potential and kinetic) works and power.
Levers : Definition, function, classification and application of levers in physiotherapy & order of
levers with example of lever in human body.
Pulleys : system of pulleys, types and application.
Elasticity : - Definition, stress, strain, HOOKE’S Law,.
Springs – properties of springs, springs in series and parallel, elastic materials in use.
Aims and scope of varius biomechanical modalities : Shoulder wheel, shoulder ladder, shoulder
pulleys, pronator0supinator instrument, static cycle, rowing machine, ankle exerciser, balancing
board, springs, weights, etc.
Hydrostatics and Hydrodynamics : Specific gravity, Hydrostatic ressure, Archimedes, principle,
Properties of water, and other liqids, Buoyancy-law of floatation, factors determining up-thrust,
effectof buoyancy on movements performed in water. Equilibrium of a floating body, Bernolli’s
theorem.
Suspension Therapy : Principles of suspension, types, components of suspension apparatus, effects
and uses of suspension therapy – their therapeutic application.
Soft tissue manipulation : History, definition, types and their rationale, general effects, local effects
of individual manipulation (physiological effects) and uses, contra-indications and techniques of
application.
Hydrotherapy : History and introduction, indication and contraindiction dangers and precautions,
hydrotherapy regimes ofexercises, hydrotherapy exercise for all age groups, different types of pools
and baths.
Suggested Readings :

1. hollis & Cook, “Practical Exercise Therapy”

2. Gardiner, “Principles of Exercise Therapy”.


DPT – 150 PATHOLOGY & MICROBIOLOGY

. FIRST YEAR (2nd Semester)

Maximum Marks : 100 Duration : 3 hours

Course objectives : Brief concept of health and illness, health promotion and diseases prevention.
Contents :
1. Immunology: Brief outline of immune system, Immunity, immune responses & immune
deficiency. Immunology and exercise with us implications on Physical therapy,
Hypersensitivity disorders
2. Infectious diseases: Brief description of classification of microorganisms, morphology, and
identification. Sterilization and disinfections.
3. Brief outline of identification, disease produced, prevention and treatment of common
pathogens – streptococus, staphylococci, gonococci, Meningococci, salmonella, V.
cholerae, E. coli, shigella, tetanus, Diphtheria, M. leprse, M. tuberculosis, Poliomyelitis,
Rabies, Matera, Amoebiasis, Helminthiasis, Scabies, ringworm, candidiasis.
4. Inflammation, inury and repair (Brief description)
5. Oncology : Classification, general clinical features, relationship with exercise, cancer pain
syndrome. (brief Outline only)
6. Skin : (Brief outline only) – Etio – pathogenesis, gross pathology, and clinical features of
commonly occurring skin Diseases, Burns, Pressure ulcers.
7. Cardiovascular system : (Brief description only) – Etio – pathogensis, gross pathology, and
clinical features of conditions 0 agining, IHD, MI, CCF, HT, RHD, Congenital heart
disease, Arteriosclerosis, Thrombo-angitis, Vasomotor0Raynaud’s, venous thrombosis,
Gangrene Lymph edema.
8. Haematology : (Brief outline only) – Etio -pathogenesis,m gross pathology, and clinical
Features of conditions- anaemia, polycythaemia, leukaemia, haemolytic disease, and
Haemophilia.
9. Respiratory system : (Brief description only) - Etio - pathogenesis, gross pathology, and
clinical features of conditions-aging, Pneumonia, Pulmonary TB, Bronchiectasis, COPD,
Bronchial Asthma, Restrictive Lung disease, Occurpational lung disease.
10. Musculoskeletal system : (Brief description only) - Etio-pathogenesis, gross pathology,
and clinical features of conditions - Biological responses to trauma, bone and soft tissue
immobilization, osteomalacia, Osteoporosis, Osteomyelitis, Osteoerthritis, rheumatoid
arthritis, Gout, spondyloarthropathy, Ostenecrosis, Myofascial pain syndrome.
11. CNS AND PNS: (Brief description only) - Etio-pathogenesis, gross patholog, and clinical
features of conditions - aging, meningitis, Encephalitis, Parkinson’s, Amyotrophic lateral
Sclerosis, storke, Neuropathies (Carcoat Marie Tooth’s disease, Compression and
entrapments, diabetic, G.B. syndrome) Poliomyelities erd post-polio syndrome,
Myasthenia Gravis.

Suggestion Readings:

1. P. Chakraborty, “Textbook of Microbiology:.


2. Ananthnarayan, “Textbook of Microbiology”.
3. Harsh Mohan, “Textbook of Pathology”.
4. Kumar, Coutran, “Basic Pathology”.
5. Nagalotima, “Textbook of Pathology”.
DPT –160 PRINCIPALS OF BIO-ELECTRICAL MODALITIES
FIRST YEAR (2nd Semester)
Maximum Marks : 100 Duration : 3 hours

Course Objective:
To understand the basic electricity, equipments and their application in Electrotherapy.

All topics are for a brief description only.

Fundamentals of Electricity:
DC Currents - Modern concept of electricity: fundamental electric charges (protons and
electron), bound free electrons, free electron and current, static electric charge, charging of an
object potential difference and EMF.
A. C. currents : Sinusoidal wave fro, frequency, wavelength, Amplitude and phase of a sine
wave, Average & RMS value of a sine wave
Quantity of electricity, magnitude of current, conductors and insulators, reistance of
conductor and Ohm’s law, resistances in series and parallel.
Capacitors: Electric field around a capacitor, charging and discharging a capacitor, types of
capacitor with application of each in physiotherapy department.
Rheostat: Series and shunt Rheostat with application of each in the Physiotherapy
department.
Effects of electric Current: Thermal effect, chemical effect (ionization) and magnetic effect.
Electric shock, Earth shock, causes and its prevention.
Magnetism : magnetic - non-magnetic substances and their properties, properties of magnet,
molecular theory, poles of magnet and its properties, magnetic lines of force and their properties,
Electromagnetism, magnetic effects of electric current, Electromagnetic induction, Lenz’s law,
Inductor and Inductance types of inductor, reactance and impedance.

BASIC ELECTRICAL INSTRUMENTATION


THERMIONIC VALVES : Thermionic emission, Biode and Triode valves and their
characteristics, Construction and application of Cathode Ray Oscilloscpe.
SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES : Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors, advantages of diode
and transistors devices. Basing of Diode and their characteristics, Light Emitting Diodes,
integrated circits.
ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS : Rectifiers & smoothing circuits, Oscillators - Sinusoidal and
nonsinusoidal types.
a.c. AND D.C. METERS : Functions and applications of Ammeter and volt meters, Ohmmeters,
Wheat stone bridge
Emphasis should be given to fundamental part with formulae without mathematical drivations
wherever necessary.
PHYSICAL ENERGY : Definition, description, effects, physiological effects and dangers of heat
and Electromagnetic radiations.
MEDICAL INSTRUMENTATION FOR PHYSICAL THERAPY : Brief description of generation,
circuit diagrams and testing.
Low frequency currents, Direct currents, Medium frequency currents
Short wave Diathermy-continuous and pulsed
Microwave Diathermy
Ultrasonics
Actino-therapy Infared, UVR and lasers.

NOTE: Emphasis is given only to generation circuit diagram and testing of the various
electrotherapy apparatus.

Suggested Reading:

1. Forster & Palastanga “Clayton’s Electrotherapy”

2. Low & Reed, “Electrotherapy Explained”


3. Nelson & Currier, “Clinical Electrotherapy”
DPT-170 Computer Skill

Theory 100 Marks

Introduction to Computers : purpose and meaning of data, information and knowledge for
business organizations. Information technology, its definition, scope and related technologies.
Relationship of information technology with management.

Types of Computers: Digital, Analog and hybrid Computers, General Model of Computer, Size
wise Organization of Computers-Mini, Micro, desktop, workstationand Supercomputer

Practical 100 Marks

VIVA

Internet Practical
DPT – 210 THERAPY

SECOND YEAR
Maximum Marks : 100 Duration : 3 hours
Course Objectives :
1. To understand the principlesof exercisetherapy & therapeutic massage and its application
Contents :
Starting positions :

1. Description and muscle work


2. Importance of fundamental and derived types.
3. Effects and uses of individual positions.
Movements :

1. Anatomical definition and description


2. Movements and exercise as therapeutic modality and their effects
3. Physiological reaction of exercise
Passive movements :

1. Definition
2. Relaxed, forced and stretching type.
3. Indications, contraindications, advantages and Techniques of various passive move ments.
Muscle Stretching :

1. Special aphasis on stretching of : Pectoral major, biceps branii, triceps brachii, long flexors
of fingers, Rectus Femoris, llio-tibial band, gastrocnemius-soleus, hamstrings, hip
abductors, ilio-psas. Stermocleidomstoid.
Active movemtns :

1. Free, assisted and resisted


2. Indication, contraindications, advantages andtechniques of various types of active
exercises.
3. Home programs of streengthening of various muscle group including progressive resisted
exercises.
4. Special emphasis on : Shoulder abductors & flexsors, Triceps brachii, Hip abductors &
flexors, quadricps fmoris, Abdominal and back extensors.
Manual Muscle Testing :

1. Concept, introduction, significance andlimitations.


2. Grade systems
3. Techniques of Muscle testing
4. Empahsis on skills to grade upper, lower limb, neck and trunk muscles including trick
movements.
Goniometry

1. Measurement of various joints range in normal and disease condition.


2. Different techniques of goniometry.
3. Limb length measurements.
Relaxation
1. Description of fatigue and spasm & factors.
2. General causes, signs and symptoms of fatigue

3. Techniques of Relaxation - local and General with indication


4. Rationale of relaxation Techniques.
Joint Mobility :
1. Joint range, stiffness, range and limitations
2. Accessroy movements - glides, traction and approximation
3. Mobilization of peripheral joints in detail.
Re-education of muscles :
1. Concept, technique, spatial and temporal summation.
2. Various reduction techniques and facilitating methods.
3. Progressive strengthening of various muscle groups in Grade-I-Grade IV.
4. Muscle strengthenng technique-PNF
Crutch Waling :
1. Description of crutch - components, clasification
2. Good crutch, measurements
3. Crutch use - Preparation, Training, counseling.
4. Crutch gaits - types, & significance.
5. Crutch complications, Palsy, dependency etc.
Normal Posture :
1. Posture - definition & description, static and dynamic.
2. Posture - alignments of various joints, centre of gravity, planes & muscular moments
3. Analysis of posture.
Normal Gait :
1. Normal gait - definition & description, centre of gravity
2. Normal gait - alignments of various joints, centre of gravity, planes & muscle acting
mechanisms, pattern, characteristics.
3. Normal gait cycle, time & distance parameters, & determinants of Gait.
Co-ordinations :
1. Balance - static and Dynamic
2. Discoordination : LMNL & UMNL, cerebellar lesion, loss of kinesthetic sense
((Tabes0dorsalis, leprosy, syringomyelia)
3. Reeductiona of balance and coordination : PNF and Frenkel’s exercise.
Traction : Rationale, Technique, indication & contra- indications.
Yogasenas and Pranayma : Physiology and therapeutic principles of yoga, Yogasana for physical
culture, relaxation and medication. Application of yogasana in physical fitness, flexibility.
Tehrapeutic application of yoga. Yoga a holistic approach.
Suggested Readings :
1. Hollis & Cook, “Pactical Exercise Therapy”.
2. Gardiner, “Principles of Exercise Therapy”.
3. Kolby Kisner, “Theraputic Exercise”.
4. Holey, “Theraputic Massage”.
5. Margret Hollis, “Massage for Therapist”.
6. Kendal, “Muscles Testing and Function”.
7. Norkin, “Measurement of Joint Motion”.
DPT – 220 PHARMACOLOGY
SECOND YEAR
Maximum Marks : 100 Duration : 3 hours
Course Objectives :
1. To understand the principlesof exercisetherapy & therapeutic massage and its application
2. To understand the drug actionsthat may affect thephysical therapy treatment.
Contents :
1. Genral Pharmacology (In brief) :
1. Introduction & genral concepts
2. Pharmaco-kinetics (routes of adminstration, metabolism & elimination)
3. Pharmaco-dynamics (mechanism of drug action, therapeutic & side effects, toxicity)
2. Autonomic Nervours System (In brief)
1. Brief outline of Sympathetic-parasympathetic nervous system
2. Therapeutic egents-uses, effects and interaction with physical therapy
3. Cardio-vascular System (In brief)
Drug classification.
Commonly used drugs andits interaction with physical therapy.

4. Glcocorticoids, thyroxin-uses, side effects and interaction with physical therapy (In brief)

5. Central Nervous System (In brief)


1. Anaesthetic agenst - uses, side effects and interaction with physical therapy
2. Sedatives and hypnotics - uses, side effects and interaction with physical therapy
3. Anti epileptic drugs - uses, side effects and interaction with physical therapy
4. Analgesics - uses, side effects and interaction with physical therapy
5. Anti inflammatory drugs - uses, side effects and interaction with physical therapy
6. Psychotherpeutic agents - uses, side effects and interaction with physical therapy
7. Alcoholism and drug dependence and interaction with physical therapy
8. Therapeutic agents used for movement disorders - uses, side effects and interaction with
physical therapy.
6. Respiratory system (In brief)
1. Therapeutic agents - uses, side effects and interaction with physical therapy
7. Goniometry
1. Therapeutic agents in Peptic ulcer, diarrhoea - uses, side effects and interaction with
physical therapy
8. Diabetes mellitus (In brief)
1. Drug therapy and its interaction with physical therapy

9. Geriatric (In brief)


Pharmacological challenges in geriatric are group and its effects on physical therapy.
1. K. D. Tripathi, “Essentials of Med Pharmacology”.
2. Larence & Bernett, “Clinical Pharmacology”.
3. Lynne Eddy, “Physical Therapy in Pharmacology”.
4. F. S. K. Barar, “Essentials of Pharmacotherapeutics”.
DPT – 230 ORTHOPAEDICS
SECOND YEAR
Maximum Marks : 100 Duration : 3 hours
Course objectives :
To know common orthopaedic conditions and procedures and applications of physical therapy in
various orthopaedic conditions.
Contents :
1. Introduction : history taking, clinical features, clinical examination, and investigation.
2. The Musculo-skeletal system : Gross anatomy of bones, joints, muscles and neres in brief.
Skeletal growth and development (normal & pathological) in brief.
Fracture healing (Normal & pathological) in brief.
Types of muscle contractor. nerve-muscle physiology in brief.
Calcium-phosphorus metabolism-nnormal and pathological states.
3. Congenital malformations :
Brief descriptions of following congenital conditions along with the outline of treatment :
Congential Hip Displasia, Congential Talipes Equinovarus / Calcaniovalgus, Arthrogryposis
Multiplex Congenita, Congenial Torticlis, Acromelia, phocomelia, amelia. Spina Bifida:
all types, clinical presentation sequel & management.
4. Development diseases of skeleton : (Brief description only)
Chndro-osteodystrophy, Osteogenesis imperfeta, Osteoprosis, heterotpic ossification,
Osteochnodiritis, (Perthes’ disease, tibial epiphysitis, Cong. Coax vara)
5. Neuromuscular diseases : (Brief descriptions only)
Muscular dystrophies, infantile hypotonia, Volkmann’s Ischaemic contracture, obstetrical
paralysis, and peroneal muscular atrophy.
Cerebral palsy, Poliomyelitis - full description including management, (surgical management
- utline only)
6. Spinal deformities : Brief description & Conservative mangemetn of Scoliosis, Kyphosis,
and traumatic deformities.
7. Infections of Musculoskeletal system : Bacterial infections of bones & joints with
consevative management (in brief); Tubercular infections of bones & joints with
conservative mangement (in brief); Leprosy, Pott’s paraplegia (Brief Description)
8. Arthritis & Rheumatic Diseases : Clinical features, evaluation & conservative management
of various categories of arthritis e.g. Rheumatoid arthritis, Juvenile Ch. Arthritis, Reiter’s
diseases, polymylagia rheumatica, Gout, Osteoarthritis, Ankylosing spondylitis,
Neuropathic - joins, haemophilic arthropathy, Avascular necrosis.
9. Neuro-vascular Diseases (brief Description): Clinical features, evaluation and consevative
management of various conditions e.g. Nerve injuries, (general & specific), Plexus
inuries, vascular ailments (Raynaud’s, Thrombangitisolitrans, Frostbite, Dioabetic foot).
10. Bony & Soft tissue injuries : Injury & repair, Clinical presentation, evaluation & general
princiles of rehabilitation mangement. (Brief Description)
11. Spine : Brief anatomy & mechanics, clinical presentation evaluation and conservative
management of affections in various regions of spine - (disc prolapse, cord compression,
spondylosis, Ankylosing spondylosis, etc.) and Spinal injury.
12. Upper Limbs : Brief anatomy & mechanics of upper limb joints. Clinical presentation,
evaluation & conservative managment of affections in various regions of Uppper limb
(sprain of shoulder joint, bursitis, tendonitis, shoulder dislocation, snapping & winged
scapula, tennis elbow, bursitis, Bony & soft tissue injuries Arthritic conditions,
tenosynovitis, Carpal tunnel syndrome, deformities Dupnytren’s contracture, VIC, reflex
sympathetic dystrophy).
13. Lower Limb: Brief anatomy and mechanics of Lower Limb Joints. Clinical presentation,
evaluation and conservative management of afections in various regions of lower limb
(Arthritic conditions, Injuries bony & soft tissue, deformities, reflex sympathetic
dystrophy, neuropathic Joints)
14. Amputations-Justification, outline of surgical approaches, incisions, procedres,
indications, contraindications, complications & management.
Suggested Readings:
1. Joshi & Kotwal, “Essentials of Orthopaedics”.
2. Magee, “Orthopaedic & Physical Assessment”.
3. Adams, “Outlines of Fractures”.
4. J. maheshwari, “Essential orthopaedics”.
5. Louis Solomon, “Apley’s System of Orthopaedics & Fractures”.
6. Brown & Newman, “Orthpaedic Secrets”.
DPT –240 ELECTROTHERAPY
SECOND YEAR
Maximum Marks: 100 Duration : 3 hours

Objectives:
1. To list indications and contraindications of various Modalities.
2. To understand different techniques of applications, their justification and effects.
3. Demonstration of individual techniques of applications of various modalities.
Contents:
A. Low Frequency Currents:
1. Nerve Muscle Physiology: brief outline
2. Faradic current.
1. Indications, contraindications, Techniques, parameters, Gruop muscle stimulation.
2. Faradic footbath, Faradism under pressure and muscle re-education.
3. Dosimetry
3. Galvanic current.
1. Indications, contraindication, precautions and therapeutic effects of stimulation
2. Techniques, parameters, Dosimetry
4. Electro-Diagnosis :
1. S. D. Curve, Reaction of degeneration, chronaxie & Rheobase
2. Outline of EMG & Nerve conduction velocity
5. Iontophoresis :
1. Definition and principles & factors
2. indications, effects, techniques, contraindications, precautions and Potetial harmful effects.
6. TENS therapy :
1. Principle of therapy, Parameters and therapeutic uses.
2. Theories of pain and pain control.
3. Indications and contra-indications, Dosimetry.
B. Infrared Therapy.
1. Therapeutic effects and uses, Techniques of application.
2. Theories of pain and pain control.
3. Indications and contra-indications, Dosimetry.
C. Heating Modalities :
1. Therapeutic effects and uses, Techniques and applications
2. Indications, contraindications, precautions and Potential harmful effects of various heat
modalities :
Paraffin wax bath therapy, Hydro collator packs, Whirlpool and moist heat Heating pads, hot
air chambers.
D. Cold-therapy :
1. Indications, contraindications and therapeutic effects.
5. Technique, precautions and Potential harmful effects of treatment, Dosimetry.
E. Medium frequency currents :
Definitions, effects, indications, techniques of application, contraindications.
Interferential therapy :
1. Physiological, therapeutic effects & dangers, Indications & contra indications.
2. Technique and method of applications, Dosimetry.
F. High Frequency currents:
Short wave Diathermy: Continuous & Pulsed
1. Indications, contraindications and therapeutic effects.
6. Methods of application-capacitor and induction electrode, precautions and Potential
harmful effects of treatment, Dosimetry.
Microwave Diathermy:
1. Characteristics and therapeutic effects.
2. Application teachniques, indications, contraindications, precautions andpotential harmful
effects, Dosimetry.
G. Ultrasonic Therapy:
7. Physiological and therapeutic effects & potential harmful effects.
1. Indications, contraindications, methods of application and precautions, Dosimetry.
H. Laser
8. Introduction, effects and potential harmful effects.
1. Indication, contraindications, recautions, method of application, dosimetry.
H. Ultraviolet therapy:
2. Physiological and therapeutic effects - photosensitization
9. Indications and contraindications and Ptotential harmful effects.
3. Methods of application, Sensitizes, Filters, Dosage, wavelength, penstration. Tolerance,
Treatment / Application condition wise
4. Comparison between UVR & IR Therapy.
I. Advanced electrotherapy:
1. Computerization of modalities
2. Programming of parameter.
3. Selection and combination of parameters.
4. Combined therapy-U.S.+TENS-Principles, uses, indications etc.
5. Principles of Bio-feed back. indications & uses.
J. Traction instruments :
Rationale, technique, indications, contraindications, precautions of electric traction
equipments.

Suggested Readings :

1. Forster & Palastanga, “Clayton’s Electrotherapy”.


2. Low & Reed, “Eelctrotherapy Explained”.
3. Gersh, “Electrotherapy in REhabilitation”.
4. Cameroon, “Physical Agents in Rehabilitation”.
5. Susan Michloviz, “Termal Agents in REhabilitation”.
DPT – 250 PSYCHOLOGY & SCIOLOGY
SECOND YEAR
Maximum Marks: 100 Duration: 3 hours

Course Objectives:
Two know various psychological factors and effects in physical illness and its application while
dealings with patients during admission, treatment, rehabilitation and discharge.
PART - A
PSYCHOLOGY
1. Definition and Fields of application of psychology.
2. The influences heredity and environment on the individual.
3. Development and growth of behavior in infancy and childhood.
4. Intelligence, theories of intelligence and Intelligence testing. Intelligence and occupation.
5. Motivation, theories of Motivation. Primary and Secondary motives. Frustration and
confict.
6. Emotions, theories of Emotions and emotional development.
7. Personality, theories of personality, factors influencing personality. personality
Assessment.
8. Memory, Forgetting, theories of memory and foregtting, thinking, methods to improve
memory.
9. Learning: theories, methods of learning. interest and motivation in learning.
10. Sensation, perception-depth, form, brightness. (In brief)
11. Social psychology, influence, individual or groups have on behavior of others,
1. Leadership, and group psychology.
12. Behavior : normal and abnormal. Paadigms in psychopathology and therapy. Behavioral
assessment.
13. Emotional and behavioral disorders of childhood and adolescence - (In brief)
1. Disorders of under and over controlled behavior
2. Eating disorders
14. Maturation - with special reference to learning.
15. Cmmuniation : Types and development, Effective communciation.
16. Counseling: Defiaition, Aims and principles
17. Compliance: nature and factors of compliance, Non-compliance, Improving complaince
including factors
18. Psychological need of children and geriatric patients
19. Mental deficiency - (descriptive)
1. Mental retardation.
2. Learning disabilities
3. Autistic behavior.
20. Anxiety Disorders - (brief outline)
1. Phobias, panic disorder, Generalized Anxiety disorder, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder,
Post - traumatic Stress Disorder.
21. Somatoform and Dissociate Disorders. (Brief outline)
22. Conservation Disorder, Somatization Disorder, Dissociate Amnesia, Dissociate Fugue
23. Personality Disorder (definitions only)
PART - B
SOCIOLOGY
A-Introduction
1. Definition and scope of Sociology
2. Its relation with Anthropology, Psychology, Social Psychology and ethics.
3. Methods of Sociology-case study, Social Survey, Questionnaire, interview and opinion
poll methods.
4. Importance of its study with special reference to health care professionals.
B-Social Factors in health and Disease :
1. The meaning of Social Factors.
2. The role of Social factors and illness.
C-socialization :
1. Concepts of social groups.
2. Influence of formal and informal groups on health and sickness.
3. The roll of primary groups and secondary groups in the hospital and rehabilitation setting.
E - Family:
1. The family.
2. Meaning and definition.
3. Functions.
4. Changing family Patterns.
5. Influence of family on the individual health, family, and nutrition. The effects of sickness
of family and psychosomatic disease and their importance to Physiotherapy.
F-Community:
1. Rural community-Meaning and features-Health hazards of ruralities.
2. Urban community-meaning and features-Health hazards of urbanites.
G-Culture and Health:
1. Concept of culture.
2. Cultures and Behaviour.
3. Cultural meaning of sickness.
4. Culture and health disorders.
H-Social change:
1. Meaning of social changes & Factors of social changes
2. Human adaptation and social change.
3. Social change and stress.
4. Social and deviance.
5. Social change and health Program.
6. The role of social planning in the improvement of health and in rehabilition.
I-Social problems in disabled:
Consequences of the following social problems in relation to sickness and disability,
remedies to prevent these problems.
1. Population explosion.
2. Poverty and unemployment.
3. Beggary.
4. Juvenile delinquency.
5. Prostitution.
6. Alcoholism.
7. Problems of women in employment.
J-Social security: Social security and social legislation in relation to the Disabled.
K-Social work : Meaning of social work ; the role of a medical social worker.

Suggested Readings :

1. Morgan & King, “Introduction to Psychology”.


2. Manju Mehta, “Behavioral sciences in Medical practice”.
3. Davison, “Abnormal Psychology”.
4. Vidya Bhushan, “Introduction to Sociology”.
5. Turner, “Ther Structre of Sociological Th.”
6. Cuff, Shaerock, Perspectves in Sociology
DPT – 260 PHYSIOTERAPEUTIC IN ORTHOPAEIDC
SECOND YEAR
Maximum Marks: 100 Duration: 3 hours

Course objectives:
1. To identify various Musculo Skeletal dysfunction clinically
2. To set goals and apply therapeutic skills in different orthopaedic conditions.
Traumatology :
1. Physical evaluation of an orthopedic patient
2. General principles of physiotherapy in fracture management including complications at different
stages.
3. General principles of physiotherapy in dislocations management including complications.
4. specific assessment and management of : Fractures of upper limb, lower limb
5. Specific assessment and management of : Fractures of spine with or without neurological
involvement
6. Assessment and therapeutic management of:
7. Soft tissue injuries - Sprains, strains, ligament and cartilage tear/rupture.
Orthopaedic surgery:
General principles of assessment, physiotherapy management in surgical conditions likes:
1. Bones and joint surgeries: joint replacements, orthodoxies, illizarov’s technique, etc.
2. Tendon transplant, soft tissue release.
3. Spinal stabilization, surgeries in C.P. & Polio
Assessment, management and treatment goals of:
1. Osteoarthritis
2. Spondlosis, spondylolisthesis
3. PIVD
4. Periarthrities, rotator cuff lesion of shoulder.
5. Tuberculosis of the spine, bone and major joints
6. A vascular bony necrosis at different joints.
7. Rheumatoid arthritis.
8. Ankylosing spondylitis, etc.
9. Deformities: (Congenital - Torticollis, cervical rib, CTEV, pes cavus, pes planus, etc., Acquired-
Scoliosis, kyphosis, lordosis, coxa vara, genu valgum-varum-recurvatum)
Amputation:
1. Levels of amputation of lower and upper extremities.
2. Stump care : bandaging, pre and post prosthetic assessment and training.
3. Complications of amputation and their management.
Manipulation therapy:
1. Introduction to manipulation therapy.
2. Assessment, principles of various schools of manipulation
Suggested Readings:
1. Thomson, “Tidy’s Physiotherapy”.
2. Kolby Kisner, “Therapeutic Exercise”.
3. Joshi & Kotwal, ‘Essentials of Orthopedics”.