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CHAPTER- 1

INTRODUCTION TO THE
STUDY

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INTRODUCTION

EMPLOYEE WELFARE

Anything done for the intellectual physical and economic betterment of the workers, by
employers, by government about what is laid down by law or what is normally expected of
the contractual benefits for which workers may have bargained.

Employee welfare measures increase the productivity of organization and promote healthy
industrial relations their by maintaining industrial peace. Organizations provide welfare
facility to their employees to keep their motivation levels high.

Meaning & Definition:

Welfare means faring or doing well. It is a comprehensive terms and refers to the physical,
mental, moral and emotional well - being of an individual. Labor welfare also referred to as
betterment work for employees, related to taking care of the well -being of workers by
employers, trade unions and govt. and non - government agencies .

Employee welfare has two aspects negative and positive. On the negative side, labor welfare
is concerned with counteracting the baneful effects of the large - scale industrial system of
production- especially capitalistic. So far as India is concerned - on the personal/ family,
and social life of the workers.

On the positive side, it deals with the provisi on of opportunity for the worker and his/her
family far a good life as understood in its most comprehensive sense .Employee welfare
defines as “efforts to make life worth living for workmen “. These efforts have their origin
either in some statute formed by the state or in some local custom or in collective
agreement or in the employer’s own initiative.

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FEATURES OF EMPLOYEE WELFARE MEASURES :
1) Employee welfare includes various facilities, services and amenities provided to workers for
improving their health, efficiency, economic betterment and social status.
2) Welfare measures are in addition to regular wages and other economic benefits available to workers
due to legal provisions and collective bargaining.
3) Employee welfare schemes are flexible and ever-changing. New welfare measures are added to the
existing ones from time to time.
4) Welfare measures may be introduced by the employers, government, & employees of any society.

THEORIES

I. Policing:-

According to this view, the factory and other industrial workplaces provide ample opportunities for owners
and managers of capital to exploit workers in an unfair manner. This could be done by making the labour
work for long hours, by paying workers low wages, by keeping the workplaces in an unhygienic condition,
by neglecting safety and health provisions, and by ignoring the provision of elementary human amenities,
such as drinking water, latrines, rest rooms and canteens. Clearly, a welfare state cannot remain a passive
spectator of this limitless exploitation. It enacts legislation under which managements are compelled to
provide basic amenities to the workers. In short, the state assumes the role of a policeman, and compels the
managers of industrial establishments to provide welfare facilities, and punishes the non-complier.

II. Philanthropic theory

Philanthropy means affection for mankind. The philanthropic theory of employee welfare refers to the provi-
sion of good working conditions, creches and canteens out of pity on the part of the employers who want to
remove the disabilities of the workers. Robert Owen of England was a philanthropic employer, who worked
for the welfare of his workers. The philanthropic theory is more common in social welfare. Student hostels,
drinking water facilities, the rehabilitation of crippled persons, donations to religious and educational
institutions, and so forth are examples of philanthropic deeds.

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III. Paternalistic Theory:-

According to the paternalistic theory, also called the trusteeship theory, of employee welfare, the industrialist
or the employer holds the total industrial estate, properties and the profits accruing from them, in trust. The
property which he/she can use or abuse as he/she likes is not entirely his/her own. He/she holds it for his/her
use, no doubt, but also for the benefit of his/her workers, if not for the whole society. For several reasons,
such as low wages, lack of education, and so forth the workers are at present unable to take care of
themselves. They are, therefore, like minors, and the employers should provide for their well-being out of
funds in their control. The trusteeship is not actual and legal, but it is moral and, therefore, not less real.

IV. Placating Theory:-

This theory is based on the assumption that appeasement pays when the workers are organised and are
militant. Peace can be bought by welfare measures. Workers are like children who are intelligent, but not
fully so. As crying children are pacified by sweets, workers should be pleased by welfare works.

V. Public Relations Theory:-

According to this theory, welfare activities are provided to create a good impression on the minds of the
workers and the public, particularly the latter. Clean and safe working conditions, a good canteen, creche and
other amenities, make a good impression on the workers, visitors and the public. Some employers proudly
take their visitors round the plant to show how well they have organised their welfare activities.

VI. Functional Theory:-

Also known as the efficiency theory of employee welfare, the functional theory implies that welfare facilities
are provided to make the workers more efficient. If workers are fed properly, clothed adequately and treated
kindly, and if the conditions of their work are congenial, they will work efficiently. Welfare work is a means
of securing, preserving and increasing the efficiency of labour.

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VII. Social Theory:-

The social obligation of an industrial establishment has been assuming great significance these days. The
social theory implies that a factory is morally bound to improve the conditions of the society in addition to
improving the condition of its employees. Employee welfare, as mentioned earlier, is gradually becoming
social welfare.

Important of employee welfare

1. Compliance

As a business owner, you are required by law to provide certain benefits for the welfare of your employees.
You have to match the Social Security taxes your employees pay and obtain a worker's compensation
insurance policy. If you terminate an employee, you have to provide Consolidated Omnibus Budget
Reconcilication Act (COBRA) funds to extend his health insurance.

2. Recruitment and Retention

The benefits an employee receives from his employer for his welfare are often a significant reason why he
decides to accept a job offer. As such, providing employee benefits allows you to compete with other
businesses to recruit and retain qualify employees. If other employers offer better benefits , good employees
may choose to go there.

3. Employees' Well-Being

By providing a plan that's good for employees' welfare, you show them that you value them. This can help
make them feel welcome and happy in your company, motivating them to work harder. If your health plan
has wellness coverage and preventative care, employees are more likely to stay healthy, cutting down on
absenteeism and sick days.

4. Company Image

Providing a good employee welfare plan reflects well on your business, building a good company image. It
may even earn you some press coverage, giving you free publicity to improve awareness among potential
customers. This may boost your sales and increase your profits.

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CHAPTER-2
INDUSTRY PROFILE

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FERTILIZER INDUSTRY

A fertilizer (American English) or fertiliser (British English; see spelling differences) is any material of
natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is applied to soils or to plant tissues to supply
one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants. Six tomato plants grown with and without
nitrate fertilizer on nutrient-poor sand/clay soil. One of the plants in the nutrient-poor soil has died.

Fertilizers enhance the growth of plants. This goal is met in two ways, the traditional one being additives that
provide nutrients. The second mode by which some fertilizers act is to enhance the effectiveness of the soil
by modifying its water retention and aeration. This article, like many on fertilizers, emphasises the nutritional
aspect. Fertilizers typically provide, in varying proportions.

 three main macronutrients:


 Nitrogen (N): leaf growth;
 Phosphorus (P): Development of roots, flowers, seeds, fruit;
 Potassium (K): Strong stem growth, movement of water in plants, promotion of flowering and
fruiting;
 three secondary macronutrients: calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and sulfur (S);
 micronutrients: copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), zinc (Zn), boron (B). Of
occasional significance are silicon (Si), cobalt (Co), and vanadium (V).

The nutrients required for healthy plant life are classified according to the elements, but the elements are not
used as fertilizers. Instead compounds containing these elements are the basis of fertilizers. The macro-
nutrients are consumed in larger quantities and are present in plant tissue in quantities from 0.15% to 6.0%
on a dry matter (DM) (0% moisture) basis. Plants are made up of four main elements: hydrogen, oxygen,
carbon, and nitrogen. Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen are widely available as water and carbon dioxide.
Although nitrogen makes up most of the atmosphere, it is in a form that is unavailable to plants. Nitrogen is
the most important fertilizer since nitrogen is present in proteins, DNA and other components
(e.g., chlorophyll). To be nutritious to plants, nitrogen must be made available in a "fixed" form. Only some
bacteria and their host plants (notably legumes) can fix atmospheric nitrogen (N2) by converting it
to ammonia. Phosphate is required for the production of DNA and ATP, the main energy carrier in cells, as
well as certain lipids.
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Micronutrients are consumed in smaller quantities and are present in plant tissue on the order of parts-per-
million (ppm), ranging from 0.15 to 400 ppm DM, or less than 0.04% DM. These elements are often present
at the active sites of enzymes that carry out the plant's metabolism. Because these elements enable catalysts
(enzymes) their impact far exceeds their weight percentage.

Fertilizers are classified in several ways. They are classified according to whether they provide a single
nutrient (e.g., K, P, or N), in which case they are classified as "straight fertilizers." "Multinutrient fertilizers"
(or "complex fertilizers") provide two or more nutrients, for example N and P. Fertilizers are also sometimes
classified as inorganic (the topic of most of this article) versus organic. Inorganic fertilizers exclude carbon-
containing materials except ureas. Organic fertilizers are usually (recycled) plant- or animal-derived matter.
Inorganic are sometimes called synthetic fertilizers since various chemical treatments are required for their
manufacture.

Single nutrient ("straight") fertilizers

The main nitrogen-based straight fertilizer is ammonia or its solutions. Ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) is also
widely used. Urea is another popular source of nitrogen, having the advantage that it is solid and non-
explosive, unlike ammonia and ammonium nitrate, respectively. A few percent of the nitrogen fertilizer
market (4% in 2007) has been met by calcium ammonium nitrate (Ca(NO3)2•NH4NO3•10H2O).

The main straight phosphate fertilizers are the superphosphates. "Single superphosphate" (SSP) consists of
14–18% P2O5, again in the form of Ca(H2PO4)2, but also phosphogypsum (CaSO4 · 2 H2O). Triple
superphosphate (TSP) typically consists of 44-48% of P2O5 and no gypsum. A mixture of single
superphosphate and triple superphosphate is called double superphosphate. More than 90% of a typical
superphosphate fertilizer is water-soluble.

Multinutrient fertilizers

These fertilizers are the most common. They consist of two or more nutrient components.

Binary (NP, NK, PK) fertilizers

Major two-component fertilizers provide both nitrogen and phosphorus to the plants. These are called NP
fertilizers. The main NP fertilizers are monoammonium phosphate (MAP) and diammonium

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phosphate (DAP). The active ingredient in MAP is NH4H2PO4. The active ingredient in DAP is (NH4)2HPO4.
About 85% of MAP and DAP fertilizers are soluble in water.

NPK fertilizers
Main article: Labeling of fertilizer

NPK fertilizers are three-component fertilizers providing nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium.

NPK rating is a rating system describing the amount of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in a fertilizer.
NPK ratings consist of three numbers separated by dashes (e.g., 10-10-10 or 16-4-8) describing the chemical
content of fertilizers. The first number represents the percentage of nitrogen in the product; the second
number, P2O5; the third, K2O. Fertilizers do not actually contain P2O5 or K2O, but the system is a
conventional shorthand for the amount of the phosphorus (P) or potassium (K) in a fertilizer. A 50-pound
(23 kg) bag of fertilizer labeled 16-4-8 contains 8 lb (3.6 kg) of nitrogen (16% of the 50 pounds), an amount
of phosphorus equivalent to that in 2 pounds of P2O5 (4% of 50 pounds), and 4 pounds of K2O (8% of 50
pounds). Most fertilizers are labeled according to this N-P-K convention, although Australian convention,
following an N-P-K-S system, adds a fourth number for sulfur, and uses elemental values for all values
including P and K.

Micronutrients

The main micronutrients are molybdenum, zinc, and copper. These elements are provided as water-soluble
salts. Iron presents special problems because it converts to insoluble (bio-unavailable) compounds at
moderate soil pH and phosphate concentrations. For this reason, iron is often administered as a chelate
complex, e.g., the EDTA derivative. The micronutrient needs depend on the plant. For example, sugar
beets appear to require boron, and legumes require cobalt.

Nitrogen fertilizers

Nitrogen fertilizers are made from ammonia (NH3), which is sometimes injected into the ground directly.
The ammonia is produced by the Haber-Bosch process. In this energy-intensive process, natural
gas (CH4) usually supplies the hydrogen, and the nitrogen (N2) is derived from the air. This ammonia is used
as a feedstock for all other nitrogen fertilizers, such as anhydrous ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3)
and urea (CO(NH2)2).

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Deposits of sodium nitrate (NaNO3) (Chilean saltpeter) are also found in the Atacama desert in Chile and
was one of the original (1830) nitrogen-rich fertilizers used. It is still mined for fertilizer.

Phosphate fertilizers

All phosphate fertilizers are obtained by extraction from minerals containing the anion PO43−. In rare cases,
fields are treated with the crushed mineral, but most often more soluble salts are produced by chemical
treatment of phosphate minerals. The most popular phosphate-containing minerals are referred to collectively
as phosphate rock. The main minerals are fluorapatite Ca5(PO4)3F (CFA) and hydroxyapatite Ca5(PO4)3OH.
These minerals are converted to water-soluble phosphate salts by treatment with sulfuric or phosphoric acids.
The large production of sulfuric acid as an industrial chemical is primarily due to its use as cheap acid in
processing phosphate rock into phosphate fertilizer. The global primary uses for
both sulfur and phosphorus compounds relate to this basic process.

In the nitrophosphate process or Odda process (invented in 1927), phosphate rock with up to a 20%
phosphorus (P) content is dissolved with nitric acid (HNO3) to produce a mixture of phosphoric acid (H3PO4)
and calcium nitrate (Ca(NO3)2). This mixture can be combined with a potassium fertilizer to produce
a compound fertilizer with the three macronutrients N, P and K in easily dissolved form

Potassium fertilizers

Potash is a mixture of potassium minerals used to make potassium (chemical symbol: K) fertilizers. Potash is
soluble in water, so the main effort in producing this nutrient from the ore involves some purification steps;
e.g., to remove sodium chloride (NaCl) (common salt). Sometimes potash is referred to as K2O, as a matter
of convenience to those describing the potassium content. In fact potash fertilizers are usually potassium
chloride, potassium sulfate, potassium carbonate, or potassium nitrate.

Compound fertilizers

Compound fertilizers, which contain N, P, and K, can often be produced by mixing straight fertilizers. In
some cases, chemical reactions occur between the two or more components. For example, monoammonium
and diammonium phosphates, which provide plants with both N and P, are produced by neutralizing
phosphoric acid (from phosphate rock) and ammonia :

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NH3 + H3PO4 → (NH4)H2PO4
2 NH3 + H3PO4 → (NH4)2HPO4

Organic fertilizers

“Organic fertilizers” can describe those fertilizers with an organic — biologic — origin -- that is, fertilizers
derived from living or formerly living materials. Organic fertilizers can also describe commercially available
and frequently packaged products that strive to follow the expectations and restrictions adopted by “organic
agriculture” and ”environmentally friendly" gardening — related systems of food and plant production that
significantly limit or strictly avoid the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides. The “organic
fertilizer” products typically contain both some organic materials as well as acceptable additives such as
nutritive rock powders, ground sea shells (crab, oyster, etc.), other prepared products such as seed meal or
kelp, and cultivated microorganisms and derivatives.

Fertilizers of an organic origin (the first definition) include such animal wastes, plant wastes from
agriculture, compost, and treated sewage sludge (biosolids). Beyond manures, animal sources can include
products from the slaughter of animals — bloodmeal, bone meal, feather meal, hides, hoofs, and horns all are
typical components. Organically derived materials available to industry such as sewage sludge may not be
acceptable components of organic farming and gardening, because of factors ranging from residual
contaminants to public perception. On the other hand, marketed “organic fertilizers” may include, and
promote, processed organics because the materials have consumer appeal. No matter the definition nor
composition, most of these products contain less concentrated nutrients, and the nutrients are not as easily
quantified. They can offer soil-building advantages as well as be appealing to those who are trying to farm /
garden more “naturally”.

In terms of volume, peat is the most widely used packaged organic soil amendment. Since this immature
form of coal, which improves the soil by aeration and absorbing water, confers no nutritional value to the
plants, it is thus not a fertilizer as defined in the beginning of the article, but rather an amendment. Coir,
(derived from coconut husks), bark, and sawdust when added to soil all act similarly (but not identically) to
peat and are also considered organic soil amendments - or texturizers - because of their limited nutritive
inputs. Some organic additives can have a reverse effect on nutrients — fresh sawdust can consume soil
nutrients as it breaks down, and may lower soil pH — but these same organic texturizers (as well as compost,
etc.) may increase the availability of nutrients through improved cation exchange, or through increased
growth of microorganisms that in turn increase availability of certain plant nutrients. Organic fertilizers such
as composts and manures may be distributed.
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\APPLICATIONS:

Fertilizers are commonly used for growing all crops, with application rates depending on the soil fertility,
usually as measured by a soil test and according to the particular crop. Legumes, for example, fix nitrogen
from the atmosphere and generally do not require nitrogen fertilizer.

Liquid vs solid

Fertilizers are applied to crops both as solids and as liquid. About 90% of fertilizers are applied as solids. The
most widely used solid inorganic fertilizers are urea, diammonium phosphate and potassium chloride. Solid
fertilizer is typically granulated or powdered. Often solids are available as prills, a solid globule. Liquid
fertilizers comprise anhydrous ammonia, aqueous solutions of ammonia, aqueous solutions of ammonium
nitrate or urea. These concentrated products may be diluted with water to form a concentrated liquid fertilizer
(e.g., UAN). Advantages of liquid fertilizer are its more rapid effect and easier coverage. [1] The addition of
fertilizer to irrigation water is called "fertigation".

Slow- and controlled-release fertilizers

Slow- and controlled-release involve only 0.15% (562,000 tons) of the fertilizer market (1995). Their utility
stems from the fact that fertilizers are subject to antagonistic processes. In addition to their providing the
nutrition to plants, excess fertilizers can be poisonous to the same plant. Competitive with the uptake by
plants is the degradation or loss of the fertilizer. Microbes degrade many fertilizers, e.g., by immobilization
or oxidation. Furthermore, fertilizers are lost by evaporation or leaching. Most slow-release fertilizers are
derivatives of urea, a straight fertilizer providing nitrogen. Isobutylidenediurea ("IBDU") and urea-
formaldehyde slowly convert in the soil to free urea, which is rapidly uptaken by plants. IBDU is a single
compound with the formula (CH3)2CHCH(NHC(O)NH2)2 whereas the urea-formaldehydes consist of
mixtures of the approximate formula (HOCH2NHC(O)NH)nCH2.

Besides being more efficient in the utilization of the applied nutrients, slow-release technologies also reduce
the impact on the environment and the contamination of the subsurface water.[18] Slow-release fertilizers
(various forms including fertilizer spikes, tabs, etc.) which reduce the problem of "burning" the plants due to
excess nitrogen. Polymer coating of fertilizer ingredients gives tablets and spikes a 'true time-release' or
'staged nutrient release' (SNR) of fertilizer nutrients.

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Controlled release fertilizers are traditional fertilizers encapsulated in a shell that degrades at a specified rate.
Sulfur is a typical encapsulation material. Other coated products use thermoplastics (and sometimes ethylene-
vinyl acetate and surfactants, etc.) to produce diffusion-controlled release of urea or other fertilizers.
"Reactive Layer Coating" can produce thinner, hence cheaper, membrane coatings by applying reactive
monomers simultaneously to the soluble particles. "Multicote" is a process applying layers of low-cost fatty
acid salts with a paraffin topcoat.

Foliar application

Foliar fertilizers are applied directly to leaves. The method is almost invariably used to apply water-soluble
straight nitrogen fertilizers and used especially for high value crops such as fruits.

Chemicals that affect nitrogen uptake


Various chemicals are used to enhance the efficiency of nitrogen-based fertilizers. In this way farmers can
limit the polluting effects of nitrogen run-off. Nitrification inhibitors (also known as nitrogen stabilizers)
suppress the conversion of ammonia into nitrate, an anion that is more prone to leaching. 1-Carbamoyl-3-
methylpyrazole (CMP), dicyandiamide, nitrapyrin (2-chloro-6-trichloromethylpyridine) and 3,4-
Dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) are popular. Urease inhibitors are used to slow the hydrolytic
conversion of urea into ammonia, which is prone to evaporation as well as nitrification. The conversion of
urea to ammonia catalyzed by enzymes called ureases. A popular inhibitor of ureases is N-(n-
butyl)thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT).

Over fertilization
Careful fertilization technologies are important because excess nutrients can be detrimental. Fertilizer
burn can occur when too much fertilizer is applied, resulting in damage or even death of the plant. Fertilizers
vary in their tendency to burn roughly in accordance with their salt index.

HISTORY:

Management of soil fertility has been the preoccupation of farmers for thousands of years. Egyptians,
Romans, Babylonians, and early Germans all are recorded as using minerals and or manure to enhance the
productivity of their farms. The modern science of plant nutrition started in the 19th century and the work of
German chemist Justus von Liebig, among others. John Bennet Lawes, an English entrepreneur, began to
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experiment on the effects of various manures on plants growing in pots in 1837, and a year or two later the
experiments were extended to crops in the field. One immediate consequence was that in 1842 he patented a
manure formed by treating phosphates with sulfuric acid, and thus was the first to create the artificial manure
industry. In the succeeding year he enlisted the services of Joseph Henry Gilbert, with whom he carried on
for more than half a century on experiments in raising crops at the Institute of Arable Crops Research.

The Birkeland–Eyde process was one of the competing industrial processes in the beginning of nitrogen
based fertilizer production. This process was used to fix atmospheric nitrogen (N2) into nitric acid (HNO3),
one of several chemical processes generally referred to as nitrogen fixation. The resultant nitric acid was then
used as a source of nitrate (NO3−). A factory based on the process was built in Rjukan and Notodden in
Norway, combined with the building of large hydroelectric power facilities.

The 1910s and 1920s witness the rise of the Haber process and the Ostwald process. The Haber process
produces ammonia (NH3) from methane (CH4) gas and molecular nitrogen (N2). The ammonia from the
Haber process is then converted into nitric acid (HNO3) in the Ostwald process. The development of
synthetic fertilizer has significantly supported global population growth — it has been estimated that almost
half the people on the Earth are currently fed as a result of synthetic nitrogen fertilizer use.

The use of commercial fertilizers has increased steadily in the last 50 years, rising almost 20-fold to the
current rate of 100 million tonnes of nitrogen per year. Without commercial fertilizers it is estimated that
about one-third of the food produced now could not be produced. The use of phosphate fertilizers has also
increased from 9 million tonnes per year in 1960 to 40 million tonnes per year in 2000. A maize crop
yielding 6–9 tonnes of grain per hectare (2.5 acres) requires 31–50 kilograms (68–110 lb)
of phosphatefertilizer to be applied; soybean crops require about half, as 20–25 kg per hectare. Yara
International is the world's largest producer of nitrogen-based fertilizers.

Controlled-nitrogen-release technologies based on polymers derived from combining urea and formaldehyde
were first produced in 1936 and commercialized in 1955. The early product had 60 percent of the total
nitrogen cold-water-insoluble, and the unreacted (quick-release) less than 15%. Methylene ureas were
commercialized in the 1960s and 1970s, having 25% and 60% of the nitrogen as cold-water-insoluble, and
unreacted urea nitrogen in the range of 15% to 30%.

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In the 1960s, the Tennessee Valley Authority National Fertilizer Development Center began developing
sulfur-coated urea; sulfur was used as the principal coating material because of its low cost and its value as a
secondary nutrient. Usually there is another wax or polymer which seals the sulfur; the slow-release
properties depend on the degradation of the secondary sealant by soil microbes as well as mechanical
imperfections (cracks, etc.) in the sulfur. They typically provide 6 to 16 weeks of delayed release in turf
applications. When a hard polymer is used as the secondary coating, the properties are a cross between
diffusion-controlled particles and traditional sulfur-coated.

Fertilizers of an organic origin (the first definition) include such animal wastes, plant wastes from
agriculture, compost, and treated sewage sludge (biosolids). Beyond manures, animal sources can include
products from the slaughter of animals — bloodmeal, bone meal, feather meal, hides, hoofs, and horns all are
typical components. Organically derived materials available to industry such as sewage sludge may not be
acceptable components of organic farming and gardening, because of factors ranging from residual
contaminants to public perception. On the other hand, marketed “organic fertilizers” may include, and
promote, processed organics because the materials have consumer appeal. No matter the definition nor
composition, most of these products contain less concentrated nutrients, and the nutrients are not as easily
quantified. They can offer soil-building advantages as well as be appealing to those who are trying to farm /
garden more “naturally”.

THERE ARE THE FOLLOWING COMPANY WHICH ARE RELATED


TO THE FERTILIZERS INDUSTRY:-

 National fertilizer ltd.

 Chambal fertilizer

 Indian Farmers Fertiliser Cooperative Limited

 Krishak bharati cooperative

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NATIONAL FERTILIZERS LTD.

National Fertilizers Limited (NFL) – Miniratna (Cat-1) company is a major Indian producer
of chemical fertilizers, organic fertilizers and industrial chemicals. NFL, incorporated in 1974 is
India's largest Central Public Sector Enterprise (Government of India Undertaking)
in Fertilizer Sector with a turnover of over Rs. 75 billion. Coming under the administrative control
of Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers, it is the second largest producer of the key fertiliser Urea in
India.NFL has five gas based Ammonia-Urea plants viz Nangal & Bathinda in Punjab,Panipat in
Haryana and two at Vijaipur (Madhya Pradesh) NFL was established in 1974, as a public-sector
undertaking of the Government of India.

NFL initially operated two plants in Bathinda and Panipat. In 1978, the ownership and operations of
the Nangal plant of FCI was transferred to NFL.

The Govt. of India, in 1984, entrusted the Company to execute the country's first inland gas based
fertiliser project of 726,000 tonnes Urea capacity in District Guna of Madhya Pradesh and
commercial production started rom 1 July 1988.The company built and commissioned
its Vijaipur plant in Guna district of Madhyacapacity was doubled to 1.45 million tonnes in 1997.

NFL was granted the Mini-Navratna status with additional autonomy due to its profitable operations.

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In 2001, the company went public company, with listings on the Bombay Stock Exchange and
the National Stock Exchange.

Industrial and Business operations


NFL has five gas based Urea plants viz Nangal & Bathinda in Punjab,Panipat in Haryana and two at
Vijaipur (Madhya Pradesh). The plants at Panipat, Bathinda & Nangal have recently been converted
from fuel oil feedstock to natural gas. Vijaipur plants have also been revamped for energy saving &
capacity enhancement.

Products

NFL is engaged in manufacturing and marketing of Urea, Neem Coated Urea, Bio-Fertilizers (solid
& liquid) and other allied Industrial products like Ammonia, Nitric Acid, Ammonium
Nitrate, Sodium Nitrite, Sodium Nitrate etc.

The value-added Neem Coated Urea developed by NFL & widely recognized for its effectiveness is
being produced at its three units at Panipat, Bathinda & Vijaipur. NFL is the first company in India
to be permitted by the Government of India to produce and market Neem Coated Urea.

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NFL manufactures and markets three types of Bio-Fertilizers namely Rhizobium, Phosphate
Solubilizing Bacteria (PSB) and Azotobacter. Starting with a mere 23 MT production in 1995–96,
the production has risen to 231 MT (Approx) in 2010–11.

Business

The Company is also doing trading business in various agro-inputs like certified quality seeds,
compost / Vermicompost manure, agrochemicals like Insecticides / Herbicides, Bentonite Sulphur
etc. Company is also taking up initiative for setting up of Single Super Phosphate (SSP), Heavy
water, Bentonite Sulphur plants etc.

Future Projects

An agreement for a Joint Venture Company "Ramagundam Fertilizers And Chemicals Limited" has
been signed on 14 January 2015 between National Fertilizers Limited, Engineers India Limited(EIL)
and FCIL for setting up new Ammonia and Urea plants of 2200 MT per day & 3850 MT per day
capacity respectively at the existing site of Ramagundam Fertilizer Plant in Distt. Karim Nagar in
Telangana.As per this joint venture agreement, NFL shall provide
commissioning,operation,maintenance and marketing services to the Joint Venture Company and
EIL shall provide Engineering, Procurement and Construction Management (EPCM) Consultancy
Services for the project. The total capital expenditure of 50 billion is being funded in Debt:Equity of
70:30 percentage.NFL and EIL are contributing equity of 26% each and 11% is from FCIL. The
balance equity is in the process of being tied up. The Company also has a Joint Venture (33.33%
share) “Urvarak Videsh Limited” with M/s. KRIBHCO and RCF as promoters. The main objective
of the joint venture company is to explore investment opportunity abroad and within the country in
nitrogenous, phosphatic and potassic sectors and to render consultancy services for setting up
projects in India and abroad.

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Production

The percentage share of NFL in Urea production in the country was 14.2% during 2012–13.The
Company produced 3211,000 tonnes of Urea which includes 10.83 LMT of Neem coated Urea. 448
MT of Bio-fertilizers (solid & liquid) was produced during the year.

Sales & Marketing

During 2012–13, company sold 31.62 LMT of Urea (including 10.92 LMT of Neem Coated Urea).
Industrial products of worth ` 956.3 million & Bio-Fertilizers (liquid & solid) of` 36.5 million were
sold during 2012–13. Turnover of traded Agri products (Compost, Seeds, Bentonite Sulphur &
Pesticides) was ` 300.8 million.

Financial

The company during 2012–13, achieved a sales turnover of ` 67.47 billion (previous year `
73.41 billion). The lower turnover was primarily due to lower urea production as all the Units were
under shut down for hooking up and commissioning activities of the projects. The loss before tax
was ` 2306.2 million (previous year profit `1842.0 million) and loss after tax was ` 1707.3 million
(previous year profit `1267.3 million). The main reasons for loss were due to the following:

1) Lower production / sale because of shut-downs taken for commissioning of Urea Capacity
Enhancement Projects at Vijaipur and changeover of feedstock from Fuel-oil to Natural Gas
at Nangal, Bathinda and Panipat Units.

2) Decrease in sale and contribution of industrial products due to non-availability of cheaper


ammonia, non-availability of gases,Sulphur and Argon gas at three Fuel-oil based Units post
commissioning.

3) Provision for Purchase Tax liability pertaining to previous years.

4) Higher interest expenditure mainly due to delay in receipt of subsidy.

5) Some of the major strategic issues affecting the Profitability of the company include:

19
CHAMBAL FERTILIZER:-
Chambal Fertilisers and Chemicals Limited (Chambal) is one of the largest private sector fertilizer producers
in India. It was promoted by Zuari Industries Limited in the year 1985. Its two hi-tech nitrogenous fertiliser
(urea) plants are located at Gadepan in Kota district of Rajasthan. The two plants produce about 2 million
MT of Urea per annum. The first plant was commissioned in 1993 and second plant in 1999. These plants
use state-of-the-art technology from Denmark, Italy, United States and Japan.

Chambal caters to the need of the farmers in eleven states in northern, eastern, central and western regions of
India and is the lead fertiliser supplier in the State of Rajasthan. The Company has a vast marketing network
comprising 13 regional offices, 1,700 dealers and 20,000 village level outlets.

The Company has donned the mantle of providing all agri-products through a 'single window' to enable the
farmer to buy all products from one source. The Company dealers provide Urea and other agri-inputs
like diammonium phosphate (DAP), muriate of potash (MOP), single super phosphate (SSP), pesticides and
seeds. Most of these products are sourced from reputed suppliers and sold under the 'Uttam' umbrella brand.
Today, the Company has attained a leadership position in the pesticide business in North India.

To promote sustainable farming practices, Chambal has a well structured farmer advisory programme known
as 'Uttam Bandhan'. Under this programme, the company organizes crop seminars, product and field

20
demonstrations and farmer meets. Soil and water analysis is also conducted for free at Chambal's laboratories
and based on the results; Chambal experts emphasize on balance use of fertilisers.

To encourage the new age farmer, a website, 'uttamkrishi.com', provides information on the weather, suitable
cropping techniques and markets in Hindi language. Hello Uttam[2]toll-free telephonic helplines have been
set up to answer the queries raised by farmers. Unemployed youth from villages are enrolled as 'Uttam Krishi
Salhakars'. They are trained in the latest farming techniques and provide specialised services to farmers.

The company has won the Sword of Honour from the British Safety Council for two consecutive years. It has
been awarded ISO 14001 (Environment Management System Standard), ISO 9001 (Quality Management
System Standard) and OHSAS 18001 (Occupational Health and Safety Management System Standard)
certifications.

Chambal is committed to its social responsibilities and has invested in water harvesting, healthcare, rural
infrastructure, education and women empowerment. It also provides education aid to rural schools. A mobile
medical unit with a doctor visits 22 villages in the vicinity of its plants, providing free check-ups and
medication. Chambal constantly tries to improve the quality of life in the areas it operates in. The Company
won the coveted Golden Peacock Award for Corporate Social Responsibility in the year 2009-10.

Today, Chambal Fertilisers has consolidated its position in agri-business and diversified into other sectors. Its
shipping division under the name India Steamship operates 5 Aframaxtankers with a combined capacity of
over 5,00,000 DWT. Birla Textile Mills is the textile division of Chambal Fertilisers.

21
INDIAN FARMERS FERTILISER COOPERATIVE LIMITED

Indian Farmers Fertiliser Cooperative Limited, also known as IFFCO, is a small scale fertiliser cooperative
federation based in Indiawhich is registered as a Multistate Cooperative Society. IFFCO has 40,000
member cooperatives. IFFCO has been ranked#37 in top companies in India in 2011 by Fortune India
500 list

On 3 November 1967 Indian Farmers Fertiliser Cooperative Limited (IFFCO) was registered as a Multi-unit
Co-operative Society. It got deemed recognisation under the provisions of Multistate Cooperative Societies
Act 1984 & 2002 later.

Plant

Initially, IFFCO commissioned an ammonia – urea complex at Kalol and the NPK/DAP plant at Kandla both
in the state of Gujarat in 1975. Another ammonia – urea complex was set up at Phulpur in the state of Uttar
Pradesh in 1981. The ammonia – urea unit at Aonlawas commissioned in 1988. Recently, IFFCO has
acquired an NPK/DAP and Phosphoric acid fertiliser unit at Paradeep in Orissa in September 2005. The
marketing of IFFCO's products is channelled through cooperative societies and institutional agencies in over
29 states and union territories of India.

Production & sales


During the year 2008–09 IFFCO produced 7,168,000 tonnes of fertiliser material; registering overall capacity
utilisation of 98 percent for nitrogenous and 53 per cent for phosphate fertiliser. It contributes 21.4% of
country's total nitrogenous fertiliser production and 27% of total phosphate fertiliser production in the same

22
period. Plant productivity during the year stood at 1373 tonnes/person. The Society has also achieved another
important landmark in

the field of energy conservation by clocking overall annual energy of 5.943 Gcal/tonne of urea. The Society
has cloaked an all-time high sales of 11,258,000 tonnes of fertiliser during 2008–09.

23
KRISHAK BHARATI COOPERATIVE
Krishak Bharati Cooperative Limited (KRIBHCO) is an Indian cooperative society that
manufactures fertilizer, mainly urea. It is registered under the Multi-State Cooperative Societies Act 2002,
and The Government of India through the Department of Fertilizers was a member of KRIBHCO but its
equity holding was reduced to NIL on 4 July 2013 under the provisions of the MSCS Act 2002. KRIBHCO is
not owned nor controlled nor financed by the Government of India / Any State Governments.Its main plant is
located in Surat, Gujarat.

KRIBHCO manufactures urea, ammonia Argon, bio-fertilizers, hybrid seeds & heavy water at Hazira in the
State of Gujarat, on the bank of the Tapti River near Kawas village, 15 km from Surat and 20 km from the
Surat Railway Station, on the Surat-Hazira State Highway.

Hazira Fertiliser Complex has 2 Streams of Ammonia Plant and 4 Streams of Urea Plant. Annual re-assessed
capacity for Urea and Ammonia is 1.729 million MT and 1.003 million MT respectively.

Production of Biofertilizer plant commenced plant of 100 MT per year capacity was commissioned at Hazira
in 1995. An additional capacity of 150 MT was added to that plant in 1998. Subsequently, two more Bio-
fertilizer plants, each of 100 MT capacity, were installed at Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh and
Lanja, Maharashtra in 2003 and 2004 respectively.

24
The Hazira Fertilizer Complex was subsequently revamped in 2013 to increase its production capacity by
4.65 LMTPA of Urea. After the revamp, the rated capacity has been enhanced to 2x3325 MTPD Urea (21.95
LMTPA) and 2 x 1890 MTPD Ammonia (12.47 LMTPA). With this, the Hazira fertilizer complex has
become largest single location urea plant in India.

Dr. Chandrapal Singh Yadav has been chairman of KRIBHCO since 1996 under his leadership KRIBHCO
achieved the turnover of ₹2400 crores in the financial year 2007-08. Shri Vaghjibhai Rugnathbhai Patel took
charge as Chairman of KRIBHCO and Dr. Chandrapal Singh Yadav is acting as Vice-Chairman. At present
Shri N.S.Rao is the Managing Director.

25
CHAPTER-3
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

26
EMPLOYEE WELFARE

Anything done for the intellectual physical and economic betterment of the workers, by
employers, by government about what is laid down by law or what is normally expected of
the contractual benefits for which workers may have bargained.

Employee welfare measures increase the productivity of organization and promote healthy
industrial relations their by maintaining industrial peace. Organizations provide welfare
facility to their employees to keep their motivation levels high.

Meaning & Definition:


Welfare means faring or doing well. It is a comprehensive terms and refers to the physical,
mental, moral and emotional well - being of an individual. Labor welfare also referred to as
betterment work for employees, related to taking care of the well -being of workers by
employers, trade unions and govt. and non - government agencies .

Employee welfare has two aspects negative and p ositive. On the negative side, labor welfare
is concerned with counteracting the baneful effects of the large - scale industrial system of
production- especially capitalistic. So far as India is concerned - on the personal/ family,
and social life of the wor kers.

On the positive side, it deals with the provision of opportunity for the worker and his/her
family far a good life as understood in its most comprehensive sense .Employee welfare
defines as “efforts to make life worth living for workmen “. These eff orts have their origin
either in some statute formed by the state or in some local custom or in collective
agreement or in the employer’s own initiative.

FEATURES OF EMPLOYEE WELFARE MEASURES :

1. Employee welfare includes various facilities, services and amenities provided to workers for
improving their health, efficiency, economic betterment and social status.
2. Welfare measures are in addition to regular wages and other economic benefits available to workers
due to legal provisions and collective bargaining.
3. Employee welfare schemes are flexible and ever-changing. New welfare measures are added to the
existing ones from time to time.
27
4. Welfare measures may be introduced by the employers, government, & employees of any society.

The approaches and their brief descriptions are:

1. The policing theory of employee welfare.


2. The religion theory of employee welfare.
3. The philanthropic theory of employee welfare
4. The paternalistic theory of employee welfare.
5. The placating theory of employee welfare.
6. The public relations theory of employee welfare.
7. The functional theory of employee welfare.
8. The social theory of employee welfare.

THEORIES

1. Policing:-

According to this view, the factory and other industrial workplaces provide ample opportunities for owners
and managers of capital to exploit workers in an unfair manner. This could be done by making the labour
work for long hours, by paying workers low wages, by keeping the workplaces in an unhygienic condition,
by neglecting safety and health provisions, and by ignoring the provision of elementary human amenities,
such as drinking water, latrines, rest rooms and canteens. Clearly, a welfare state cannot remain a passive
spectator of this limitless exploitation. It enacts legislation under which managements are compelled to
provide basic amenities to the workers. In short, the state assumes the role of a policeman, and compels the
managers of industrial establishments to provide welfare facilities, and punishes the non-complier.

2. Philanthropic theory

Philanthropy means affection for mankind. The philanthropic theory of employee welfare refers to the provi-
sion of good working conditions, creches and canteens out of pity on the part of the employers who want to
remove the disabilities of the workers. Robert Owen of England was a philanthropic employer, who worked
for the welfare of his workers. The philanthropic theory is more common in social welfare. Student hostels,
drinking water facilities, the rehabilitation of crippled persons, donations to religious and educational
institutions, and so forth are examples of philanthropic deeds.

28
3. Paternalistic Theory:-

According to the paternalistic theory, also called the trusteeship theory, of employee welfare, the industrialist
or the employer holds the total industrial estate, properties and the profits accruing from them, in trust. The
property which he/she can use or abuse as he/she likes is not entirely his/her own. He/she holds it for his/her
use, no doubt, but also for the benefit of his/her workers, if not for the whole society. For several reasons,
such as low wages, lack of education, and so forth the workers are at present unable to take care of
themselves. They are, therefore, like minors, and the employers should provide for their well-being out of
funds in their control. The trusteeship is not actual and legal, but it is moral and, therefore, not less real.

4. Placating Theory:-
This theory is based on the assumption that appeasement pays when the workers are organised and are
militant. Peace can be bought by welfare measures. Workers are like children who are intelligent, but not
fully so. As crying children are pacified by sweets, workers should be pleased by welfare works.

5. Public Relations Theory:-


According to this theory, welfare activities are provided to create a good impression on the minds of the
workers and the public, particularly the latter. Clean and safe working conditions, a good canteen, creche and
other amenities, make a good impression on the workers, visitors and the public. Some employers proudly
take their visitors round the plant to show how well they have organised their welfare activities.

6. Functional Theory:-
Also known as the efficiency theory of employee welfare, the functional theory implies that welfare
facilities are provided to make the workers more efficient. If workers are fed properly, clothed adequately
and treated kindly, and if the conditions of their work are congenial, they will work efficiently. Welfare
work is a means of securing, preserving and increasing the efficiency of labour.

7. Social Theory:-

The social obligation of an industrial establishment has been assuming great significance these days. The
social theory implies that a factory is morally bound to improve the conditions of the society in addition to

29
improving the condition of its employees. Employee welfare, as mentioned earlier, is gradually becoming
social welfare.

Objectives of Employee Welfare

Labour Welfare aims at the whole development of the person of the working class. The Labour Welfare
Policies of any organization should keep in mind the following objectives:

1. To increase the standard of living of the. Working class: The labourer is more prone to
exploitation from the capitalists if there is no standardized way of looking after their welfare.
2. To make the management feel the employees are satisfied: about the work and working
conditions.
3. To reduce the labour problems in the orgnisaton: There are various problems affecting the
workers, problems like absenteeism, turnover ratio, indebtedness, alcoholism, etc., which make the
labourer further weak both physically and psychologically. Labour Welfare looks forward to helping
the labourer to overcome these problems.
4. To recognize human values: Every person has his own personality and needs to be recognized and
developed. It is in the hands of the management to shape them and help them grow. The management
employs various methods to recognize each one’s worth as an individual and as an asset to the
organization.
5. Labour Welfare helps to foster a sense of responsibiJjty in the industry: A person works both in
a group and as an individual. If the person is given responsibility he will act better or else he will be
only a slave to the direction of the superiors and will not show any initiative to prove his worth,
6. Labour Welfare improves industrial relations and reduces industrial disputes: Industrial dispute
in any industry is a sign of unsatisfied employees. Labour Welfare measures act as a preventive tool
to most of these disputes.
7. To retain the employees: There should be fixed policies: This calls in to prepare the policies, to
conduct different training programmes, to have various motivational schemes, to create interest in the
job. The employees who feel secure in an organisation, backed by fixed welfare policies have less
chance of looking for a job elsewhere.
8. To show up their positive mind in the work: Positive mind refers to the development of one’s
attitudes. This is to change the negative attitude into positive.
9. To influence over other employees: This means Labour Welfare helps to change one’s personality –
presentation skills, communication skills, inter-personal relationships, etc. This is best achieved when
their morale is kept high by the different welfare schemes.

30
10. To increase the bargaining power of the employees: Bargaining means to systematically extract
something from the opponent. The better bargaining power, the better influence on the opponent.
Labour welfare measures like formation of works committee, worker’s participation, Trade Union,
etc., will surely help them to have better bargaining power.

Important of employee welfare

5. Compliance

As a business owner, you are required by law to provide certain benefits for the welfare of your employees.
You have to match the Social Security taxes your employees pay and obtain a worker's compensation
insurance policy. If you terminate an employee, you have to provide Consolidated Omnibus Budget
Reconcilication Act (COBRA) funds to extend his health insurance.

6. Recruitment and Retention

The benefits an employee receives from his employer for his welfare are often a significant reason why he
decides to accept a job offer. As such, providing employee benefits allows you to compete with other
businesses to recruit and retain qualify employees. If other employers offer better benefits , good employees
may choose to go there.

7. Employees' Well-Being

By providing a plan that's good for employees' welfare, you show them that you value them. This can help
make them feel welcome and happy in your company, motivating them to work harder. If your health plan
has wellness coverage and preventative care, employees are more likely to stay healthy, cutting down on
absenteeism and sick days.

8. Company Image

Providing a good employee welfare plan reflects well on your business, building a good company image. It
may even earn you some press coverage, giving you free publicity to improve awareness among potential
customers. This may boost your sales and increase your profits.

31
Principles of Employee Welfare Service

Following are generally given as the principles to be followed in setting up a employee welfare service:

 The service should satisfy real needs of the workers. This means that the manager must first determine
what the employee’s real needs are with the active participation of workers.
 The service should such as can be handled by cafeteria approach. Due to the difference in Sex, age,
marital status, number of children, type of job and the income level of employees there are large
differences in their choice of a particular benefit. This is known as the cafeteria approach. Such an
approach individualises the benefit system though it may be difficult to operate and administer.
 The employer should not assume a benevolent posture.
 The cost of the service should be calculate and its financing established on a sound basis.
 There should be periodical assessment or evaluation of the service and necessary timely on the basis of
feedback.

Non Statutory Schemes

Many non statutory welfare schemes may include the following schemes:

1. Personal Health Care (Regular medical check-ups): Some of the companies provide the facility for
extensive health check-up.

2. Flexi-time: The main objective of the flextime policy is to provide opportunity to employees to work
with flexible working schedules. Flexible work schedules are initiated by employees and approved by
management to meet business commitments while supporting employee personal life needs.

3. Employee Assistance Programs: Various assistant programs are arranged like external counseling
service so that employees or members of their immediate family can get counseling on various matters.

4. Harassment Policy: To protect an employee from harassments of any kind, guidelines are provided for
proper action and also for protecting the aggrieved employee.

5. Maternity & Adoption Leave: Employees can avail maternity or adoption leaves. Paternity leave
policies have also been introduced by various companies.

6. Medi-claim Insurance Scheme: This insurance scheme provides adequate insurance coverage of
employees for expenses related to hospitalization due to illness, disease or injury or pregnancy.

7. Employee Referral Scheme: In several companies employee referral scheme is implemented to


encourage employees to refer friends and relatives for employment in the organization.
32
Statutory Welfare Schemes

The statutory welfare schemes include the following provisions:

1. Drinking Water: At all the working places safe hygienic drinking water should be provided.

2. Facilities for sitting: In every organization, especially factories, suitable seating arrangements are to be
provided.

3. First aid appliances: First aid appliances are to be provided and should be readily assessable so that in
case of any minor accident initial medication can be provided to the needed employee.

4. Latrines and Urinals: A sufficient number of latrines and urinals are to be provided in the office and
factory premises and are also to be maintained in a neat and clean condition.

5. Canteen facilities: Cafeteria or canteens are to be provided by the employer so as to provide hygienic
and nutritious food to the employees.

6. Spittoons: In every work place, such as ware houses, store places, in the dock area and office premises
spittoons are to be provided in convenient places and same are to be maintained in a hygienic condition.

7. Lighting: Proper and sufficient lights are to be provided for employees so that they can work safely
during the night shifts.

8. Washing places: Adequate washing places such as bathrooms, wash basins with tap and tap on the
stand pipe are provided in the port area in the vicinity of the work places.

9. Changing rooms: Adequate changing rooms are to be provided for workers to change their cloth in the
factory area and office premises. Adequate lockers are also provided to the workers to keep their clothes
and belongings.
10. Rest rooms: Adequate numbers of restrooms are provided to the workers with provisions of water
supply, wash basins, toilets, bathrooms, etc.

33
CHAPTER-4
RESEARCH
METHODOLOGY

34
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

RESEARCH:-
Research is the systematic and objective identification, collection, analysis, dissemination and use of
information for the purpose of improving decision making related to the identification and solution of
problems.

RESEARCH DESIGN:-

It is a framework for conducting the research project. It details the procedure necessary for obtaining the
information needed to structure or solve research problems.
The research is an exploratory research. Exploratory research is done to clarify the exact nature of the
problem to be solved. It is conducted so as to define the research problem more specifically and more
precisely.

OBJECTIVIES OF THE STUDY:-

 To study the types of welfare measures taken.


 To be familiar with the working of HR in an organization.
 To give suggestive measures regarding welfare.
 To study about these welfare measures are of economic welfare for employees & organisation.

SOURCES OF DATA COLLECTION:-


The data used in the project is collected both by primary and secondary sources. The following are the
sources of collection of data:

 Primary sources of data collection:-

Primary data is collected through questionnaires and also to the employees of fertilizer industry.

 Secondary sources of data collection:-

Secondary data is collected through company’s records, books related to the topic, and data from Internet
through the websites and from the intranet of the fertilizer industry.

35
SAMPLING TECHNIQUE:-

Random sampling is used as the sampling technique because I hardly know anybody from the organization.
But at times, the sample was also collected as per the choices and targets of my knowledgeable corporate
seniors.

SAMPLE SIZE:-

The sample size of the employees would be around 100.


Actual number of population covered: 60.
Due to unavoidable circumstances and irrevocable constraints, the actual number of population covered is
quite less than the sample size targeted.
ACTUAL SAMPLE SIZE: 60

ANALYSIS PATTERN:-
Questionnaires for the employees are analyzed in Excel software. The statistics used in excel is frequency.
The analysis is shown graphically i.e. through pie chart and the evaluation is done in terms of percentage.

LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY:-

Even though fertilizer industry is doing a great work in today’s competitive world in the public sector and
holding its position in companies ranking than also I personally found some of the limitations while
completing my training and project report from this organization .

1. The busy schedule of concerned executives who were guiding us in the making of the project.
2. While distributing the questionnaire, people were not ready to accept one more extra burden of work,
which was not a part of their office job.
3. Catching hold of the executives and getting the questionnaire filled by them was the greatest problem I
had to face.
4. The subject was too big but time available was too less. The survey was not conducted among all the
employees of fertilizer industry but on a sample of randomly selected executives.
5. Some of the executives were not interested in the subject matter.

36
CHAPTER-5
DATA ANALYSIS &
INTERPRETATION

37
Q 1) Are you satisfied with the fertilizer facilities & sanitation ?

Sr.no. Particular No. of respondents

National Percentage Chambal Percentage


fertilizer fertilizer

1 Satisfied 15 25% 10 16%

2 Neutral 35 58% 15 25%

3 Dissatisfied 10 16% 35 58%

60 100 60 100

Chart Title
40

30

20

10

0
Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied

INTERPRETATION:

The above table represent that out of 60 respondent, 25% of the respondent are satisfied with the national
fertilizer facilities and 16% of the respondent are satisfied with the Chambal fertilizer facilities, 58% of the
respondent are neutral with the national fertilizer facilities & 25% of the respondent are neutral with the
Chambal fertilizer facilities, while the 16% of the respondent are dissatisfied with the natural fertilizer
fertilizer & 58% of the respondents are dissatisfied with the Chambal fertilizer.

38
Q2) Are you satisfied with the recreational benefits & restroom facilities?

Sr.no. Particular No. of respondents

National Percentage Chambal Percentage


fertilizer fertilizer

1 Satisfied 20 33% 30 50%

2 Neutral 30 50% 10 17%

3 Dissatisfied 10 17% 20 33%

60 100 60 100

recreational benefits & restroom facilities


40
35
30
25
20 national fertilizer
15 chambal fertilizer
10
5
0
satisfied neutral dissatisfied

INTERPRETATION

The above table represent that out of 60 respondent, 33% of the respondent are satisfied with recreational
benefits and rest room facilities the national fertilizer facilities and 50% of the respondent are satisfied with
recreational benefits and rest room facilities the Chambal fertilizer facilities, 50 % of the respondent are
neutral with recreational benefits and rest room facilities the national fertilizer facilities & 17% of the
respondent are neutral with recreational benefits and rest room facilities the Chambal fertilizer facilities,
while the 17% of the respondent are dissatisfied with recreational benefits and rest room facilities the natural
fertilizer & 33% of the respondents are dissatisfied with recreational benefits and rest room facilities the
Chambal fertilizer.

39
Q3) Are you satisfied with the trade union activitieswith the company?

Sr.no. Particular No. of respondents

National Percentage Chambal Percentage


fertilizer fertilizer

1 Satisfied 15 25% 10 16%

2 Neutral 35 58% 15 25%

3 Dissatisfied 10 16% 35 58%

60 100 60 100

health check up
40
35
30
25
20 national fertilizer

15 chambal fertilizer

10
5
0
satisfied neutral dissatisfied

INTERPRETATION:

The above table represent that out of 60 respondent, 25% of the respondent are satisfied with health check-up
facilities the national fertilizer facilities and 16% of the respondent are satisfied with health check-up
facilities the Chambal fertilizer facilities, 58 % of the respondent are neutral with health check-up facilities
the national fertilizer facilities & 25% of the respondent are neutral with health check-up facilities the
Chambal fertilizer facilities, while the 16% of the respondent are dissatisfied with health check-up facilities
the natural fertilizer & 58% of the respondents are dissatisfied with health check-up facilities the Chambal
fertilizer.

40
Q4) Are you satisfied with the first aid facilities?

Sr.no. Particular No. of respondents

National Percentage Chambal Percentage


fertilizer fertilizer

1 Satisfied 18 30% 22 37%

2 Neutral 22 37% 20 33%

3 Dissatisfied 20 33% 18 30%

60 100 60 100

first aid facilities


40
35
30
25
20 national fertilizer

15 chambal fertilizer

10
5
0
satisfied neutral dissatisfied

INTERPRETATION:

The above table represent that out of 60 respondent, 30% of the respondent are satisfied with
first aid facilities the national fertilizer facilities and 37% of the respondent are satisfied with
first aid facilities the Chambal fertilizer facilities, 37% of the respondent are neutral with first
aid facilities the national fertilizer facilities & 33% of the respondent are neutral with first aid
facilities the Chambal fertilizer facilities, while the 33% of the respondent are dissatisfied
with first aid facilities the natural fertilizer & 30% of the respondents are dissatisfied with
first aid facilities the Chambal fertilizer

41
Q5) Are you satisfied with the canteen facilities provided by them?

Sr.no. Particular No. of respondents

National Percentage Chambal Percentage


fertilizer fertilizer

1 Satisfied 20 33% 30 50%

2 Neutral 30 50% 10 17%

3 Dissatisfied 10 17% 20 33%

60 100 60 100

canteen facilities
40
35
30
25
20 national fertilizer

15 chambal fertilizer

10
5
0
satisfied neutral dissatisfied

INTERPRETATION:

The above table represent that out of 60 respondent, 33% of the respondent are satisfied with
canteen facilities the national fertilizer facilities and 50% of the respondent are satisfied with
canteen facilities the Chambal fertilizer facilities, 50% of the respondent are neutral with
canteen facilities the national fertilizer facilities & 17% of the respondent are neutral with
canteen facilities the Chambal fertilizer facilities, while the 17% of the respondent are
dissatisfied with canteen facilities the natural fertilizer & 33% of the respondents are
dissatisfied with canteen facilities the Chambal fertilizer

42
Q6) How effective is the presence of welfare officers?

Sr.no. Particular No. of respondents

National Percentage Chambal Percentage


fertilizer fertilizer

1 Satisfied 18 30% 22 37%

2 Neutral 22 37% 20 33%

3 Dissatisfied 20 33% 18 30%

60 100 60 100

welfare officers
40
35
30
25
20 national fertilizer

15 chambal fertilizer

10
5
0
satisfied neutral dissatisfied

INTERPRETATION:
The above table represent that out of 60 respondent, 30% of the respondent are satisfied with
welfare officers the national fertilizer facilities and 37% of the respondent are satisfied with
welfare officers the Chambal fertilizer facilities, 37% of the respondent are neutral with
welfare officers the national fertilizer facilities & 33% of the respondent are neutral with
welfare officers the Chambal fertilizer facilities, while the 33% of the respondent are
dissatisfied with welfare officers the natural fertilizer & 30% of the respondents are
dissatisfied with welfare officers the Chambal fertilizer

43
Q7) Are you happy with the trade union activity?

Sr.no. Particular No. of respondents

National Percentage Chambal Percentage


fertilizer fertilizer

1 Satisfied 15 25% 10 16%

2 Neutral 35 58% 15 25%

3 Dissatisfied 10 16% 35 58%

60 100 60 100

trade union activities


40
35
30
25
20 national fertilizer

15 chambal fertilizer

10
5
0
satisfied neutral dissatisfied

INTERPRETATION:
The above table represent that out of 60 respondent, 25% of the respondent are satisfied with
trade union activities the national fertilizer facilities and 16% of the respondent are satisfied
with trade union activities the Chambal fertilizer facilities, 58 % of the respondent are neutral
with trade union activities the national fertilizer facilities & 25% of the respondent are neutral
with trade union activities the Chambal fertilizer facilities, while the 16% of the respondent
are dissatisfied with trade union activities the natural fertilizer & 58% of the respondents are
dissatisfied with trade union activities the Chambal fertilizer.

44
Q8) Whether the workers are happy with the overall welfare facilities provided by the
company?

Sr.no. Particular No. of respondents

National Percentage Chambal Percentage


fertilizer fertilizer

1 Satisfied 18 30% 22 37%

2 Neutral 22 37% 20 33%

3 Dissatisfied 20 33% 18 30%

60 100 60 100

the overall welfare facilities


of the company
40
35
30
25
20 national fertilizer
15 chambal fertilizer
10
5
0
satisfied neutral dissatisfied

INTERPRETATION:
The above table represent that out of 60 respondent, 30% of the respondent are satisfied with
overall welfare facilities the national fertilizer company and 37% of the respondent are
satisfied with overall welfare facilities the Chambal fertilizer company, 37% of the
respondent are neutral with overall welfare facilities the national fertilizer company & 33%
of the respondent are neutral with overall welfare facilities the Chambal fertilizer company,
while the 33% of the respondent are dissatisfied with overall welfare facilities the natural
fertilizer company & 30% of the respondents are dissatisfied with overall welfare facilities
the Chambal fertilizer company.

45
CHAPTER-6

CONCLUSION & SUGGESTION

46
Conclusion:-

Employee welfare measures increase the productivity of organization and promote healthy
industrial relations thereby maintaining industrial peace. Organizations provide welfare
facilities to their employees to keep their motivation levels high. Business houses provide
many such statutory and non statutory policies to maintain satisfactory level of their
employee. When they get better canteen facilities, good water to drink, clean restrooms, clean
and hygiene washrooms and bathrooms, regular medical checkups, health insurances,
Employee assistance programme, grievance handling department, better facilities to sit or
good work place gives employee a high level of satisfactory level. This gives an organization
to grow much faster. 70%of the employees working in the fertilizer industry are aware of the
benefits to the fertilizer is providing.

 15 employees are satisfied with the fertilizer facilities and sanitation while 20 are
dissatisfied.
 Majority of the employees are satisfied with the recreational benefits and restroom
facilities provided.
 Out of 60 employees 15 are satisfied with the health check-up facilities while 10 are
dissatisfied.
 Among the total employees surfed majority are satisfied with the first aid facilities.
(i.e.) 60 out of 60 employees are satisfied.
 It is seen that 20 employees are satisfied with the canteen facilities, 30 employees are
neutral while the 10 are dissatisfied.
 Out of 60 employees 22 are neutral with the presence of welfare officer while 12 are in
effective.
 30 employees out of 60 are highly satisfied with the trade union activity; 26 are neutral
8 are completely dissatisfied with the trade union activity.
 26 of the employees are completely happy with the overall welfare facilities provided
by fertilizer industry.

47
Suggestion:-

 Improvement or modifications are required in the field of recreation facilities: leave fair,
safety equipment, overtime payments, compensatory arrangements on medical
grounds, promotion etc.,
 Modification shall be initiated in the field of grievance handling, rest room facilities,
uniform and footwear, service awards and other motivation etc.,
 Betterment is required in the work of welfare inspector, placement of
dependentsexpiring during services, transfer policies and disciplinary and appeal rural
proceeding.
 The trade union and the employee’s co-operative societies, which are run by the trade
union, have to change their work as more transparent and easily viable to the
employees.
 Administration can think of formulation of a problem solving committee including
theemployees and administration for the better solution of the welfare problems of the
employees. This committee can conduct hearings from the employees or then can
conduct surprise visits to the different work spot, etc for understanding and by that
solving the problems also.

48
CHAPTER-7
BIBLIOGRAPHY

49
BIBLOGRAPHY

 Human Resource Management – Ashwathapa


 Management Competing in the Era- Bateman Snell
 Research Methodology - C. R. Kothari
 Employee welfare management P.S Gupta
 Human resources and personal management
 Human resources management P.K singha

WEBSITES

 www.ntpc.co.in
 www.google.com
 www.wikipedia.com
 www.ntpcindia.com
 www.moneycontrol.com
 www.cnbc.co.in

50
CHAPTER-8
ANNEXURE

51
QUESTIONNAIRES

Q 1) Are you satisfied with the fertilizer facilities & sanitation?

a) Satisfied b) Neutral c) Dissatisfied

Q2) Are you satisfied with the recreational benefits & restroom facilities?

a) Satisfied b) Neutral c) Dissatisfied

Q3) Are you satisfied with the trade union activities with the company?

a) Satisfied b) Neutral c) Dissatisfied

Q4) Are you satisfied with the first aid facilities?

a) Satisfied b) Neutral c) Dissatisfied

Q5) Are you satisfied with the canteen facilities provided by them?

a) Satisfied b) Neutral c) Dissatisfied

Q6) How effective is the presence of welfare officers?

a) Satisfied b) Neutral c) Dissatisfied

Q7) Are you happy with the trade union activity?

a) Satisfied b) Neutral c) Dissatisfied

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