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Question no 11:

NIYORJYOTI SHARMA

PHI15001

Calculate the efficiency of the diesel cycle as shown in figure. The working substance is ideal gas (γ is given). Let r=V 1 /V 2 be the compression ratio and r c =V 3 /V 2 be cut off ratio.

Solution:

p

2 3 4 1

2

2 3 4 1

3

4

1

2 3 4 1

v

The efficiency of a diesel engine is given by

= 1 −

=

(

)

1 − ( ) ……………………………….a

Considering the process from 23:

=

= =

Considering the process from 12:

……………………………………1

= ………………………………2

=

………………………………………… b

Again, Considering the process 34:

=

……………………………….3

From 3 and 2 we have:

=

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=

=

=

…………………………from 1

……………………………… 4

Putting equation 1,b and 4 in equation a we have:

= 1 −

1

( − 1)

Question no 12:

One kg-mol of oxygen is at a pressure of 10 5 N/m 2 and temperatures 7C is mixed with one kmol of oxygen at same temperature but twice the pressure. The system is isolated from the environment.

(a) Calculate the final temperature and pressure.

(b) What is the change in the total entropy?

Solution:

This is an example of free expansion and in this process the internal energy of the system remains constant.

Let us consider that the initial state is consists of two parts

1. 1 kmole=N, 105 N/m 2 =P 1 ,

V 1 , T=7 0 C

2. 1 kmole=N, 2*10 5 N/m 2 =P 2 , V 2 , T=7 0 C

Since the temperature is constant therefore from ideal gas lay

V 1 =2*V 2

Now at the final state of the system

1. V = V + V = 3V =

2. N = 2N

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PHI15001

The Initial internal energy if the system remains same and we know that for an ideal gas the internal energy is a function of temperature only.

Therefore,

Again,

b)

= T = 7 C

=

= 2

 

2

4

   

=

=

3NRT

3

3

P

= 1.33 ∗ 10 /

The change in entropy at constant temperature is given by:

 =

=

ln

+ ln

ln

+ ln

=

=

(

ln[

. (

9

)]

16

ln[ (9 2

2 )]

= ln[ 9 2 . ( 9 )]

8

= 1.9879 C v

Question no 13:

NIYORJYOTI SHARMA

PHI15001

One Kg of water at 97C is cooled to the room temperature of 27C. Calculate change in the entropy of the water and of the universe.

Solution:

Given the Initial Temperature and the final temperature be T 1 = 97 0 C and T 2 = 27 0 C respectively. The change in the entropy of the surrounding will be

=

( )

=

Where m is the mass of water and s is the specific heat of water. Therefore,

∆ = 1 ∗ (4180) ∗

= 975.33 JK -1

70

300

The change of entropy of water will be

= ln

= 1(4180) ln 300

370

= −876.63 JK -1

Therefore, the change in entropy of the Universe is given by

= ℎ ℎ ℎ + ℎ ℎ ℎ

= 975.33 − 876.63 = 98.7

Question no 15:

A particular gas is enclosed in a cylinder with a movable piston. It is observed that if that the walls are adiabatic, a quasi-static increase in volume results in a decrease in pressure according to the equation

P 3 V 5 = constant

Consider the process in which the gas is heated at constant pressure (P = 10 5 Pa) until its volume increases from its initial value of 10 3 m 3 to its final value of 8 10 3

×

m 3 . The gas is then cooled at constant volume until its pressure decreases to 10 5 /32

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PHI15001

Pa. Find the quasi-static work done on the system and the net heat transfer to the system in this process.

Solution:

Given:

 

P

3 V 5 =constant

 

PV 5/3 =constant

Therefore,

=5/3

This tells us that the gas is a mon0atomic gas.

The value of Cv for a monoatomic gas is = 12.5

Given,

.

1. At state A. Pressure= 10 5 ; Volume= 10 -3 m 3 .

2. At state B. Pressure= 10 5 ; Volume= 8X10 -3 .

3. At state C. Pressure =10 5 /32

Pa; Volume=8x10- 3 m 3

W is the work done by the system. Q is the heat transferred to the system.

AB is isobaric process.

∆ = ∗ = 10 ∗ (8 − 1) ∗ 10 = 700 .

∆ = ∆ + ∆ = ∆ + ∆ = + ∆ =

=

3

2

+ ∆ =

3

2

1

 

5

+ ∆ =

2 ∆ = 1750

BC is isochoric process.

 W=0

+ ∆

∆ = ∆ + ∆ = ∆ =

∗ 8 ∗ 10 − 1 ∗ 10 =

=

=

= −11.625 ∗ 10 = −1162.5

In the process ABC

∆ = 700

Therefore, the work done on the system is -700 J.

Again,

∆ = 1750 − 1162.5 = 587.5

The heat transferred to the system is 587.5 J.

Question no 17:

Show that for an ideal gas,

=

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and isothermal compressibility =

Where =

Solution:

Using the ideal gas equation =

 

 

Now,

 

=

=

(

=

=

=

(

=

Now RHS;

 

 

=

 
 

=

 
 

 

Now LHS;

= =

Question no 20:

NIYORJYOTI SHARMA

PHI15001

A phase transition from liquid to gas at a temperature T requires latent heat L. At this temperature, the gas behaves ideally. The density of gas is very much less than that of the liquid. Show that the pressure P exp (−L/KT ) when the heat of vaporization is independent of T .

Solution:

Let V 1 be the volume of the liquid and V 2 be the volume of the gas. Now since the density of the Gas is very less than that of liquid therefore V 1 >>>>>V 2 .

Now from Clausius Clapeyron Equation:

From ideal gas equation

Question no 19:

dP

dT =

L

( )

dP

dT =

L

( )

dP

dT =

L

dP

L

P

(

=

)

=

(

) ……………. integrating both side

= −

+

NIYORJYOTI SHARMA

PHI15001

Show that for an ideal gas entropy increases with both temperature and volume. Obtain the relation as

∆ = = {

}

Discuss how entropy changes with pressure and temperature.

Solution:

Let us consider the classical ideal gas.

The Hamiltonian is

=

………………………………… 1

Let us calculate,

∑() =

1

………. . ……

h is constant introduced to make the left-hand side dimensionless.

The integration over q i can be immediately carried out, giving a factor of V N .

Let

Then

∑() =

R= √2

()

Where is the volume of an n- sphere of radius R:

=

⋯.

= …….2

Where C n is a constant. To find C n ,we must consider the identity

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….

⋯.

.

=

( =

=

(n/2)……………3

Where (x) is the gamma function.

From 2 and 3 we have:

=

log( ) → −

+ 1

2

− −

log +

=

Therefore, ∑(E) = C

(2mE)

The entropy of the ideal gas is

(, ) = { + log

+ 2 log(2)}

3

(, ) = 4 3ℎ + 2

3

Replacing E by we can write the entropy difference as

∆ = = {

}

The entropy of an ideal gad increases with temperature. However, with the increase in pressure the entropy decreases.

NIYORJYOTI SHARMA

PHI15001

Question 21:

Find the probability that a single throw of a 6-sided die will a number less than 3, and an even number of 6.

Solution:

The numbers that can be less than 3 are 1,2. so the probability of occurring a number

less than 3 in a single throw of the die is (2/6) =(1/3)

In a single throw there will be no even number of occurrences. So, the probability of

occurrence of even number of 6 is 0.

NIYORJYOTI SHARMA

PHI15001

NIYORJYOTI SHARMA

PHI15001