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Aim: Study the features, specification and working of cellular mobile

Apparatus Required:
Cellular Phone (GSM or CDMA)

Cellular phones

Cellular Phone

Cellular Phone:
 Cell phone is a low- powered, lightweight radio transreceiver that provides voice telephone and other
services to mobile users.
 Cellular telephones operate like completely portable or cordless telephones.
 Enhanced cell phones known as smart-phones can have many additional features and much more
applications to use.
 Cellular system accommodates a large no. of users over a large geographic area, within a limited frequency
spectrum.
 The transceiver inside a cell phone is much more complex device than a conventional phone used over wide
based network.
 A cellular telephone has circuitry that creates a unique identity code that is used to locate and track the
telephone.

If you ever take a cell phone apart you will find that it contains just a few individual parts:
 A microscopic microphone
 A speaker
 An LCD or plasma display
 A keyboard not unlike the one we saw in a TV remote control
 An antenna
 A battery
 An amazing circuit board containing the guts of the phone
Types of Phones

 CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) — A network that digitizes communication using a
specific frequency; it behaves much like GSM, but the two are not compatible. Before traveling
internationally, be sure to find out which is used to make sure your phone will work when you
reach your destination.
 GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) — A digital cellular network which
behaves much like CDMA, but the two are not compatible. GSM is commonly used in Europe.
 3G phones — "Third-generation" devices. Third generation technology makes it possible for
cell phones to accommodate broadband wireless data in addition to traditional cell phone
functionality (e.g. e-mail download and Internet access). There are other Internet technologies
that perform similarly but are not called "3G" specifically.

Features

 Accessories — Manufacturers offer a number of accessories that can make phones even more
convenient to use, such as hands-free options (headsets, ear buds, bluetooth hands free
devices), extra batteries, and portable charging adapters.

 Battery Type — NiMH (nickel-metal hydride) and Li-ion (lithium ion) are the two primary
types of mobile phone batteries. Li-ion is longer-lasting and lighter, but more expensive.
Phones use more battery life during calls than when they are turned on but not in use.

 Bluetooth — This wireless communications technology links compatible mobile phones,


personal computers, PDAs, hands free devices, and other devices across short ranges. To
ensure compatability with current devices, look for bluetooth version 2.0.
 Caller ID — A feature that displays the name and/or number of the calling party on the
phone's display when an incoming call is received. Virtually all digital phones have this
capability. While typically only the number is received, most phones will display the name, if
the number matches an entry in the phone's built-in phone book.
 Digital Camera — Allows you to take digital photos and transmit the images wirelessly. There
is often an additional cost to transmit images. Currently, the image quality is lower than what
you might find in a digital camera.
 Display — Prices increase along with display sizes. However, a larger display is a virtual
requirement for wireless Internet users. Users requiring extensive wireless Web use should
consider a smartphone, a phone/PDA hybrid, which commonly feature keyboards and larger
screens. You might prefer a color screen for viewing images or Web-surfing. These cost more,
consume more battery life and need more memory.
 GPS — Some select phones offer GPS, or global positioning and navigation functionality. This
feature can be especially useful to those who often travel.

 International Support — Travelers may want to investigate a world phone, compatible with
the respective frequencies (GSM or CDMA) most commonly used in Europe, Asia, and North
America. Users wanting international access will want to make sure to research which
networks are used in areas they will be traveling, as GSM and CDMA are not compatible.
 Multimedia — You can download digital ringtones to personalize your phone. Other devices
allow you to download and play MP3s, and stream video. If you will be using multimedia
functionality, you may want to consider purchasing extra storage space, an external memory
card which can be inserted under the phone battery.
 Organizer Applications — Even basic cell phones often have organizer applications, such as
calendaring.
 SIM Card — Some carriers provide a SIM card, which stores information such as phone book
contacts, that can be transferred from one cell phone to another. If your phone has a SIM
card, the phone will not have service unless the card is in place.

 Smartphone (Palm or Pocket PC) — Devices, with computing, Internet, and networking
features, are often referred to as smart phones. They combine cell phone and Personal Digital
Assistant (PDA) functions, eliminating the need to carry two separate devices, but are larger
and more expensive than standard mobile phones.
 Speakerphone — Commuters and drivers who want to keep their hands free can buy phones
with built-in speakerphone capability.
 Text Messaging — Text messaging allows short text messages to be received and displayed
on the phone.

 Web browsing: Many cell phones let you connect to the Internet. Most use Wireless Access
Protocol (WAP), which allows the phone to connect to pages specifically designed for cell
phones. There are many phones with full browsers, however, that allow you to view regular
Web pages.
 Memory expansion: Some phones, usually video or MP3 player phones, feature memory
card slots, so you can save pictures, music or other files on removable flash memory.

 Games: There are cell phones out there that have been designed with the gamer in mind,
allowing you to download games that would compare to those found on a personal gaming
system.
 Video Recording — In much the same way many phones can take digital photos, many
phones also have video recording capabilities.
 Voice Dialing — This feature lets users speak a name to dial a number instead of entering a
number manually or choosing it from the phone book. Most phones with this feature limit the
number of voice dial entries to a small number.
 Voice Mail — A feature that supports audio messages from callers. Users can leave spoken
messages for one another and listen to the messages by executing the appropriate command.
This is often a standard feature that comes with a mobile phone service.
 Weight — Mobile phone manufactures consistently streamline their products; however, some
phones are heavier and more awkward than others--a possible consideration for travelers.
Smartphones, combining PDA and phone features, are slightly heavier than the average
mobile phone. And smaller is not always better; for instance, most users would not want to
surf the Web on a postage-stamp sized display.

Working of cellular phone:

All cell phones have special codes associated with them. These codes are used to identify the phone,
the phone's owner and the service provider.

Let's say you have a cell phone, you turned it on, and someone tries to call you. Here is what happens
to the call:

 When you first power up the phone, it listens for an SID on the control channel. The control
channel is a special frequency that the phone and base station use to talk to one another
about things like call set-up and channel-changing. If the phone cannot find any control
channels to listen to, it knows it is out of range, and displays a "no service" message.
 When it receives the SID, the phone compares it to the SID programmed into the phone. If
the SIDs match, the phone knows that the cell it is communicating with is part of
its home system.
 Along with the SID, the phone also transmits a registration request, and the MTSO keeps track
of your phone's location in a database -- this way, the MTSO knows which cell you are in when
it wants to ring your phone.
 The MTSO gets the call, and it tries to find you. It looks in its database to see which cell you
are in.
 The MTSO picks a frequency pair that your phone will use in that cell to take the call.
 The MTSO communicates with your phone over the control channel to tell it what frequencies
to use, and once your phone and the tower switch on those frequencies, the call is connected.
You are talking by two-way radio to a friend!
 As you move toward the edge of your cell, your cell's base station will note that your signal
strength is diminishing. Meanwhile, the base station in the cell you are moving toward (which
is listening and measuring signal strength on all frequencies, not just its own one-seventh) will
be able to see your phone's signal strength increasing. The two base stations coordinate
themselves through the MTSO, and at some point, your phone gets a signal on a control
channel telling it to change frequencies. This handoff switches your phone to the new cell.

Precautions while using cellular phone:

1. Do not allow children to use a cell phone except for emergencies. The developing organs of a
fetus or child are most likely to be sensitive to any possible effects of exposure to
electromagnetic fields.
2. While communicating using your cell phone, try to keep the cell phone away from the body as
much as possible. The amplitude of the electromagnetic field is one fourth the strength at
distance of two inches and fifty times lower at three feet.
3. Avoid carrying your cell phone on your body at all times. Do not keep it near your body at
night such as under pillow or a bedside table. You can also put it on '' FLIGHT '' or
''OFFLINE '' mode, which stops electromagnetic emissions.
4. Do not use cell phone while driving the car or vehicle to avoid concentration loss while driving.

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