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Some typical criteria are:- a. b. c. d. e.
Some typical criteria are:-
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Objectives Of Structural Designer

Design is a process by which an optimum solution is obtained satisfying certain criteria.

minimum cost minimum weight minimum construction time minimum labour maximum efficiency of operation to owner, etc.

Prof. Dr. Zahid A. Siddiqi 01/04/2008 1
Prof. Dr. Zahid A. Siddiqi
01/04/2008
1
If a specific objective criterion can be expressed mathematically in the form of an objective

If a specific objective criterion can be expressed mathematically in the form of an objective function, then optimisation techniques may be employed to achieve the goal.

The criterion of minimum weight is almost always satisfied in all steel structures.

The structural designer must learn to arrange and proportion the parts of his structures so

The structural designer must learn to arrange and proportion the parts of his structures so that they can be practically erected and will have sufficient strength and reasonable economy.

These important items, called safety, cost and practicality, are briefly discussed in the following slides.

1. The structure must safely support the loads to which it is subjected. The deflections

1. The structure must safely support the loads to which it is subjected.

The deflections and vibrations should not be so excessive as to frighten the occupants or cause unsightly cracks.

2. The designer must keep the construction, operation, and maintenance costs at the lowest level without sacrificing the strength.

3. Designers need to understand fabrication methods and should try to fit their work to

3. Designers need to understand fabrication methods and should try to fit their work to the available fabrication facilities, available materials and the general construction practices.

Some designers lack in this very important aspect and their designs cause problems during fabrication and erection.

Designers should learn everything possible about the detailing, the fabrication, and the field erection of

Designers should learn everything possible about the detailing, the fabrication, and the field erection of steel besides the loads, mechanics, and the expected material strengths.

The designer must have information concerning the transportation of the materials to site, labour conditions, equipment for erection, problems at site, field tolerances and the required clearances at the site.

This knowledge helps to produce reasonable, practical and economical designs.

Procedure Of The Structural Design The structural framework design is the selection of the arrangement

Procedure Of The Structural Design

The structural framework design is the selection of the arrangement and sizes of structural elements so that service loads may be safely carried.

The important steps in the design of separate members are shown in the form of a flow chart in Figure 1.1.

Collect and list all the known data Select trial section based on assumed stresses/ effectiveness
Collect and list all the known data
Select trial section
based on assumed stresses/
effectiveness of cross-section.
Alternatively, selection tables may be used
Apply all stability checks
Perform strength checks
Perform serviceability checks
Accept section if all checks are
satisfied, other-wise revise
Write final selection
section if all checks are satisfied, other-wise revise Write final selection Prof. Dr. Zahid A. Siddiqi
section if all checks are satisfied, other-wise revise Write final selection Prof. Dr. Zahid A. Siddiqi
The complete design procedure for a whole structure requires iterations and the main steps are

The complete design procedure for a whole structure requires iterations and the main steps are listed below:

1. The functions to be performed by the structure and the criteria for optimum solution of the resulting design must be established. This is referred to as the planning stage.

2. The general layout of the structure is decided.

Only in very rare cases, it has to be revised later on. 3. Different arrangements

Only in very rare cases, it has to be revised later on.

3. Different arrangements of various elements to serve the functions in step 1 are considered.

The possible structural forms that can be used are studied and an arrangement appearing to be best is selected for the first trial, called preliminary structural configuration.

4. The Loading conditions are considered and the loads to be carried by the structure

4. The Loading conditions are considered and the loads to be carried by the structure are estimated.

5. Based on the decisions of earlier steps, trial selection of member sizes is carried out depending on thumb rules or assumed calculations to satisfy an objective criterion, such as least weight or cost.

6. 7.
6.
7.

The Structural analysis involving modelling the loads and the structural framework to obtain internal forces stresses and deflections is carried out.

All strength and serviceability requirements along with the predetermined criteria for optimum are checked.

If any check is not satisfied, the member sizes are revised.

This stage is called evaluation of the trial member sizes.

Prof. Dr. Zahid A. Siddiqi 01/04/2008 12
Prof. Dr. Zahid A. Siddiqi
01/04/2008
12
8. 9.
8.
9.

Repetition of any part of the above sequence found necessary or desirable as a result of evaluation is performed in this stage called redesign.

The rivets, bolts and welds along with other joining plates and elements are designed. The process is termed as the design of assembly and connections.

10.It is determined whether or not an optimum design has been achieved, and the final

10.It is determined whether or not an optimum design has been achieved, and the final decision is made.

11.Drawings are prepared to show all design details.

An estimate for the required quantities is also made.

This stage of design is called preparation of design documents.

LOAD FACTORS AND LOAD COMBINATIONS It is almost impossible that all loads like live load,

LOAD FACTORS AND LOAD COMBINATIONS

It is almost impossible that all loads like live load, snow load, wind load and earthquake all occur together with their maximum intensity.

A load combination combines different types of loads depending on the probability of occurrence of these loads acting simultaneously, considering their expected intensity in the combination compared with the maximum load intensity.

The factors of safety are also included in the LRFD load combinations and hence the

The factors of safety are also included in the LRFD load combinations and hence the output of the expressions is a design load.

The alphabets used in the combinations mean different types of nominal service loads and the numerical values with them are the load factors.

When intermediate floors have full live load, any type of roof load may be considered equal to half of its normal service load intensity.

Prof. Dr. Zahid A. Siddiqi 01/04/2008 16
Prof. Dr. Zahid A. Siddiqi
01/04/2008
16
Similarly, in case of maximum intensity wind storm, live load may be half. The last

Similarly, in case of maximum intensity wind storm, live load may be half.

The last combination, given afterwards, is very important for uplift of structure or reversal of forces.

The wind load on roof is upwards in majority of the cases and if the downward gravity load is less, the structure may be blown up or sagging bending may change into hogging bending.

A list of most commonly used combinations are as under:

LRFD Load Combinations 1. 2. 3. 4.
LRFD Load Combinations
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.

1.4 D 1.2 D + 1.6 L + 0.5 L r 1.2 D + 1.6 L r + (L or 0.8 W ) 1.2 D + 1.3 W + L + 0.5 L r 0.9 D + 1.3 W

When the loads S , R , H , F , E and T are taken equal to zero and wind loads are taken from the previous codes, the load combinations are reduced to the following form:

ASD Load Combinations 1. D 2. D + L 3. D + L r 4.
ASD Load Combinations
1.
D
2.
D + L
3.
D + L r
4.
D + 0.75L + 0.75 L r
5.
D + 0.8W
6.
D + 0.6W + 0.75 L + 0.75 L r

The simplified ASD load combinations are as follows:

7. 0.6 D + 0.8W

TYPES OF STRUCTURAL STEEL 1- Low carbon steel C < 0.15% 2- Mild carbon steel
TYPES OF STRUCTURAL STEEL
1-
Low carbon steel
C < 0.15%
2-
Mild carbon steel
C = 0.15 − 0.29%
3-
Medium carbon steel
C = 0.30 − 0.59%
4-
High carbon steel
C = 0.60 −1.70%

Steels are divided into four categories depending on the carbon percentages (C) as follows:

E-value for steel Unit weight = 7850 kg/m 3 = 77 kN/m 3
E-value for steel
Unit weight
= 7850 kg/m 3
= 77 kN/m 3

= 185 GPa to 230 GPa (Average 200 GPa)

For comparison, the unit weight of concrete is 23.6 kN/m 3

Most of the structural steel falls into the mild carbon steel or simply mild steel

Most of the structural steel falls into the mild carbon steel or simply mild steel (MS) category.

Hot rolled structural shapes may be made to conform to A36M, A529M, A572M, A588M, A709M, A913M and A992M.

Sheets are manufactured according to the standards ASTM A606, A1011MSS, HSLAS and HSLAS-F.

Bolts are made according to ASTM standards A307, A325M, A449, A40M and F1852.

= 250 MPa F y = 400 MPa F u E = 200 GPa
= 250 MPa
F y
= 400 MPa
F u
E = 200 GPa

Most commonly used structural steel is A36M having the following properties:

Weld electrodes are classified as E60, E70, E80, E100 and E110. The letter E denotes electrode. The two digits indicate the ultimate tensile strength in ksi. The corresponding SI equivalents are E425, E495, E550, E690, E690 and E760.

HOT ROLLED STRUCTURAL SHAPES These are the steel cross-sectional shapes that are hot rolled in

HOT ROLLED STRUCTURAL SHAPES

These are the steel cross-sectional shapes that are hot rolled in the mills. Some of these shapes are shown in Figure 1.2, whereas, the steel bars, plates and hollow sections are reproduced in Figure 1.3.

HSS are hollow structural sections that are prismatic square, rectangular or round products of a pipe or tubing.

Slope ≈ 0 o 16.7% Slope S-Section W Section 16.7% Slope Channel Section Tee Section
Slope ≈ 0 o
16.7% Slope
S-Section
W Section
16.7% Slope
Channel Section
Tee Section
Figure 1.2. Common Steel Structural Shapes.
Tee Section Figure 1.2. Common Steel Structural Shapes. Angle-Section Thicker than flange HP-Section Prof. Dr.

Angle-Section

Thicker than flange

Common Steel Structural Shapes. Angle-Section Thicker than flange HP-Section Prof. Dr. Zahid A. Siddiqi 01/04/2008 25

HP-Section

Bars Structural Pipe Section Tubing Figure 1.3. Hollow Steel Sections, Bars and Plates.
Bars
Structural
Pipe Section
Tubing
Figure 1.3. Hollow Steel Sections, Bars and Plates.
Section Tubing Figure 1.3. Hollow Steel Sections, Bars and Plates. Plates Prof. Dr. Zahid A. Siddiqi

Plates

1. W Shapes 1.0.
1.
W Shapes
1.0.

The letter ‘W’ stands for an I-shape with wide flange. The cross-section is doubly symmetric in the form of the letter “I” (Figure 1.4). The width / depth ratio varies from about 0.3 to

The US Customary designation W16 x 40 means that the nominal depth of the section is 16 in. and the weight per unit length of the section is 40 lbs/ft.

Flange Less or no slope Web Figure 1.4. Typical W-section.
Flange
Less or no slope
Web
Figure 1.4. Typical W-section.

The equivalent SI designation W410 x 60 means that the W-section has a nominal depth of 410 mm and a weight of 60 kgf/m.

This kilogram-force weight per unit length may be converted in kN/m by multiplying it with the factor

9.81/1000.

Prof. Dr. Zahid A. Siddiqi 01/04/2008 28
Prof. Dr. Zahid A. Siddiqi
01/04/2008
28
2. S Shapes 16.7° Figure 1.5. Typical S-section.
2.
S Shapes
16.7°
Figure 1.5. Typical S-section.

Nominal height is the rounded off height to be used for common use. Actual depth of the section may be in decimals and somewhat different from this depth.

* Doubly symmetric I-shapes. * Previously called standard I-beams or American Standard Beams. * *
*
Doubly symmetric I-shapes.
*
Previously called standard I-beams or
American Standard Beams.
*
*
*

The inner edge of the flange has a slope of approximately 16.7°.

An S510 x 112 section means that the section is S-shape having nominal depth of 510 mm and weight of 112 kgf/m.

The width / depth ratio varies from about 0.25 to 0.85.

3. M Shapes * Miscellaneous I-shapes. * * *
3.
M Shapes
*
Miscellaneous I-shapes.
*
*
*

Doubly symmetric I-shapes not classified as W or S shapes.

Relatively lightweight used for smaller spans and lesser loads.

An M310 x 17.6 means that it is M-shape section having nominal depth of 310 mm and weight of 17.6 kgf/m.

4. C Shapes The C-shapes have the following distinguishing features (Figure 1.6): 16.7° Figure 1.5.
4.
C Shapes
The C-shapes have the following
distinguishing features (Figure 1.6):
16.7°
Figure 1.5. Typical C-section.
* Channel shapes with standard proportions. * * Previously called Standard or American Standard Channels.
*
Channel shapes with standard
proportions.
*
*
Previously called Standard or
American Standard Channels.
*

Inner flange slope is the same as that for the S shapes (16.7°).

A C150 x 19.3 is a standard channel shape with a nominal depth of 150mm and a weight of 19.3 kgf/m.

5. MC Shapes * * Previously called Shipbuilding or Miscellaneous Channels. 6. L Shapes or
5.
MC Shapes
*
*
Previously called Shipbuilding or
Miscellaneous Channels.
6.
L Shapes or Angle Sections

These sections have the following properties:

Channels not classified as C-shapes.

The various types of angle sections are shown in Figure 1.6 and their salient features are given below:

a b Figure 1.6. Typical Angle-Sections. * * *
a
b
Figure 1.6. Typical Angle-Sections.
*
*
*
a b Figure 1.6. Typical Angle-Sections. * * * The single angle sections are in the

The single angle sections are in the form of letter ‘L’.

If a = b, these are called equal angle sections.

If a b, these are called unequal angle sections.

Sides of the angle are called ‘legs’ or ‘arms’. L89 x 76 x 12.7 is

Sides of the angle are called ‘legs’ or ‘arms’.

L89 x 76 x 12.7 is an unequal leg angle with longer leg dimension of 89mm and shorter leg dimension of 76mm with a leg thickness of 12.7mm.

Double angle sections are combination of two angles with longer or shorter sides close to each other.

Double angle sections are denoted by 2Ls.

7. T Shapes Figure 1.7. Typical Tee-Section.
7.
T Shapes
Figure 1.7. Typical Tee-Section.

2L89 x 76 x 12.7 means two angles 2L89 x 76 x 12.7 placed side by side in one of the ways shown in the figure.

* These are called structural tees. * M shapes, respectively. * of the W410 x
*
These are called structural tees.
*
M
shapes, respectively.
*
of
the W410 x 60 section.

These are obtained by splitting W, S or

shapes and are called WT, ST or MT

A WT205 x 30 is a structural tee with a nominal depth of 205mm and a weight

30 kgf/m and is obtained by splitting

COLD - FORMED SHAPES Some of the common shapes of these sections are drawn in
COLD - FORMED SHAPES
Some of the common shapes of these
sections are drawn in Figure 1.8.

These sections are formed from thin high strength steel alloy plates under normal temperature.

Channels Zees I-Shaped Double Channels Hat Sections Figure 1.8. Commonly Used Cold Formed Shapes.
Channels
Zees
I-Shaped Double
Channels
Hat Sections
Figure 1.8. Commonly Used Cold Formed Shapes.
Channels Hat Sections Figure 1.8. Commonly Used Cold Formed Shapes. Angle Prof. Dr. Zahid A. Siddiqi

Angle

BUILT-UP SECTIONS
BUILT-UP SECTIONS

Sections made by combining two or more standard hot rolled sections, joined together at intervals with the help of direct welding, stay plates or lacing, are called built-up sections.

Examples are four angles section, double angle section and double channel section shown in Fig. 1.9.

However, double angle section is sometimes excluded from built-up section category and is considered as a regular hot rolled member because of difference of its behaviour from other built-up sections.

4-Angle Box Section Figure 1.9. Some Examples of Built-Up Sections.
4-Angle Box
Section
Figure 1.9. Some Examples of Built-Up Sections.
CLADDING
CLADDING

The exterior covering of the structural components of a building that are made up of steel sections is called cladding.

This covering may be made up of reinforced concrete, wood, aluminium or any other architectural and lightweight material.

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