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CEE490b

Jan. 9, 2002

Topic 1

Free Vibration of Multi-Degree-of-Freedom Systems

Free Undamped Vibration

As with Single-Degree-of-Freedom Systems, this is the basic type of response

Yields natural frequencies of the system

Step 1 is to describe the elastic (restoring) properties of the system. This can either be done in terms of stiffness or flexibility

Structural Stiffness

Described by the stiffness matrix, with elements

is defined as the force acting at node i, in order to produce a sole unit

displacement at node j

In “lumped mass” models, the stiffness constants defined above are identical to the stiffness used in static models

k ij

k ij

Multi-storey “shear” building

A shear building is one where the resistance to lateral loads is from the bending of the columns – the floors are infinitely rigid – and the columns are fixed-ended where connected to the floors. k 31 =0
k 32
k 33
m
1
3
I
l
3
3
k 21
k 22
k 23
m
1
2
I
l
2
2
k 13 =0
k 11
k 12
m
1
1
I
l
1
1

CEE490b

Jan. 9, 2002

EI

The basic stiffness constant for a column subjected to shear only is

The assembly of the stiffness matrix is performed one element at a time, with each floor of the building sequentially subjected to a unit shear displacement and the stiffnesses added as appropriate.

e.g. the stiffness element for the first floor, due to a unit displacement of the first floor is:

k = 12

l

3

k

11

=

2

12 EI

1

+

2

12

EI

2

l

1

3

l

2

3

(the ‘2’ multiplier is for 2 columns per storey) • The full stiffness matrix for the 3-storey shear building is:
12 EI
12
EI
12
EI
1
2
2
k
2
+
2
k
=
2
k
= 0
11 =
3
3
12
3
13
l
l
l
1
2
2
12
EI
12
EI
12
EI
12
EI
2
2
3
3
k
=
2
k
=
2
+
2
k
=
2
21
3
22
3
3
23
3
l
l
l
l
2
2
3
3
12
EI
12
EI
k
=
0
k
=
2
3
3
k
=
2
31
32
3
33
3
l
l
3
3
Note: - the matrix is diagonally symmetric ( k
= k
)
12
21

Static Condensation – This is the term given to the simplification of a stiffness matrix through the elimination of degrees of freedom. For example, in most buildings and structures exposed to lateral loads, there are no significant external moments or mass moment of inertia acting in the joints. Therefore the joint rotations can be eliminated from the governing equations, so the deformation of the structure can be expressed in terms of lateral displacements only.

Considering the full 4x4 stiffness matrix for the column shown below, the elements can be assembled one degree of freedom at a time. We shall see how this can be simplified using Static Condensation

CEE490b

Jan. 9, 2002

Recall the stiffness characteristics of a fixed ended beam: P
P
A
l
B
A
l
B
M A
M A
M B
M B
P
EI
P
EI
P 2
4
2
4
2
EI
2
l
2
3
3
P 1
1
1
EI
1
l
1
2 EI
θ
M
=
1 M
=
A
2
B
2
l
M
=
M
=
6 EI
/ l
A
B
6 EI
θ
2
P
l
= M
+
M
=
2
6
EI
/
l
P l =
M
+
M
=
A
B
B
A
l
3
P =
12 EI
/ l
6
EI
θ
P =
2
l
P
6
EI
=
2
P
12 EI
θ
l
=
3
∆ l
θ
4
EI
=
M
6 EI
M
l
=
B
2
∆ l
EI
M A 2
=
θ
l

Assembling the elements of the complete stiffness matrix, we obtain:

CEE490b

Jan. 9, 2002

k

k

k

k

k

k

k

k

k

k

11

12

13

14

22

23

24

33

34

44

 = 12 EI 1 + 12 EI 2 l 1 3 l 2 3 12 EI 2 = k 21 = − l 2 3 = k = 6 EI 1 − 6 EI 2 31 l 2 1 l 2 2 = k 6 EI 2 41 = − l 2 2 12 EI 2 = l 2 2 = k 6 EI 2 32 = l 2 2 = k 6 EI 2 42 = l 2 2 = 4 EI 1 + 4 EI 2 l 1 l 2 = k 43 = 2 EI l 2 2 4 EI 2 =

l

2

Now, if only static horizontal forces P 1,2 act, the matrix equation relating the input forces to the output displacements and rotations is:  P 
 k
k
k
k
  u
1 
1
11
12
13
14
 k
P
k
k
k
u
2 
2
21
22
23
24
=
0
 k
k
k
ψ
  k
31
32
33
34
1
0
k
k
k
ψ
  k
 
41
42
43
44
2

or, generally:  P
A
B   u 
=
T
0
B
ψ
C  

note that the lower part of the equation:

{ }

0

=

[B]

T

{u}

+

[C]{ψ}

yields the rotations:

CEE490b

Jan. 9, 2002

{ }

ψ

= −

1

[][]C

B

T

{u}

then substituting this expression for the unknown rotations in terms of the unknown displacements into the upper part of the equation:

{ }

{P}

P

=

=

[][] []

[

([A]

]{

A

u

}

B C

1

[B][C] [B]

B

T

1

T

{ }

u

){u}

the Condensed Stiffness Matrix is then:

[

k

]

=

([

A

]

][

[

B C

]

1

[

B

]

T

)

In this case, it is a n x n matrix, where n is the number of translational degrees of freedom (in this case a 2 x 2 matrix) involving translations only. If the rotations are desired, it is a simple matter to insert the resulting displacements into the known relationship between displacement and rotation.

Governing Equations for the Solution to the Free Vibration Problem in n Degrees-of-Freedom

Newton’s Second Law is written for each of the masses in the system:

i.e.

mass acceleration =

forces acting on the mass

m

m

.

.

m

1 u &&

2 u &&

1

2

n

u &&

n

= −

k

11

u

1

= −

k

21

u

= −

k

n

1

u

where:

1

1

k

12

u

2

k

22

u

2

k

n

2

u

2

d

2

u

i

(

t

)

2

&&

u

i =

dt then, in general:

&&

m u

i i

+

n

j = 1

k u

ij

j

= 0

or, in matrix form:

k

1

i

u

i

k

2

i

u

i

k

ni

u

i

k

1

n

u

k

2

n

k

nn

n

u

u

n

n

CEE490b

Jan. 9, 2002

[m]{u}+ && [k]{}u = {}0

where [m] is the diagonal mass matrix:

[

m

]

=

m

0

0

0

1

0 0

0

m

0

m

0

0

2

i

0

0

0

m

n

This is an ordinary differential equation of the 2 nd order.

As in the single degree of freedom case, the particular solution is:

(

u t

&&

u i

t

i

(

)

)

=

= −

u

i

sin

t

ω

u

i

ω

2

sin

t

ω

or, in matrix notation:

then:

{

{u

u t

&&

( )

( )

t

}

}

{}

=

= −

u

ω

sin

t

ω

2

{}u

sin

t

ω

[

]

m ω

2

{ u && }sin

ωt +

[ k ]{}sin u

ωt =

{}0

This is a homogeneous algebraic equation for u , where the frequency, ω is unknown. This is called the “Eigenvalue Problem”.

i

([][

k ω

2

m

]){}

u

=

{}0

The roots of this equation are non-zero only if the determinant is zero. i.e.:

[

]

k ω

2

[

m

]

= 0

if λ = 1/ ω

2

and we pre-multiply by

[

λ k

(

(

[][] [][ ]){}

[ ]

λ

k

λ I

1

k

+

k

1

m

u

{}0

+

1

[ ][

k

m

]){}

u

=

=

{}

0

] 1

, then:

where [I ] is the Identity Matrix. A non-trivial solution only exists if the determinant is equal to zero:

CEE490b

Jan. 9, 2002

[ ]

λ I

+

1

[ ][

k

m

]

= 0

To find the values of λ which satisfy this equation results in a set of unique Eigenvalues or Natural Frequencies. After the Eigenvalues have been determined, they are substituted back into the Homogeneous Equation involving {u}. For each value of λ (recall that λ = 1/ω ) or natural frequency, a complete set of dimensionless displacements are obtained, one for each degree of freedom. There are the mode shapes associated with each mode of vibration, called Eigenvectors.

2

In our two-degree of freedom “flagpole” problem, the solution of these equations results in a closed-form solution for ω , as follows:

2

Recall that we now have a 2x2 Condensed Stiffness Matrix, [k ], and the equation for the characteristic determinant:

 [ k ′ ] − ω 2 [ m ] = 0 k ′ 2 k ′ 12 − m ω 11 1 k ′ 21 k ′ 2 − m ω 22 2

becomes:

= 0 the determinant is then a quadratic equation in
ω
2 :
2
2
∆ = (
k
− m
ω
)(
k
m
ω
)
k
k
= 0
11
1
22
2
12
21
4
∆ =
ω
m m
ω
2 (
m k
+
m k
)
+
k
k
− k
1
2
1
22
2
11
11
22
12
 k ′
k ′
2 k ′
11
22
12
ω
4 − 
+
ω
= 0
m
m
m m
2 
1
1
2
the solution of which is:
1  k ′
k ′
1  k ′
k ′
k ′
2
11
22
11
22
12
ω
=
+
 ±
+
 +
1,2
2
m
m
4
m
m
m m
1
2
1
2
1
2

k

21

=

0

With each frequency, the amplitude ratios, or mode shapes can be calculated from:

CEE490b

Jan. 9, 2002

([][]){}

k′ −ω

2

m

u

=

{}0

 

k

k

 

11 k

21 k

12

22

ω

2

j

m

1 0

0 m

2

k

11

ω

2

j

m

1

k

12

k

21

k

22

ω

2

j

m

2

  u

u

 

1

2

 

= 

0

0

u

u

 

1

2

=

0

0

results in two equations and two unknowns:

(

k

11

k

21

u

1

ω

2

j

m

1

+

(

k

22

)

u

1

+

ω

2

j

k

m

12

2

u

2

)

u

2

= 0

= 0

if we define the relative displacement as

a j

a

j

=

u

2

( ω

2 m 1

j

k

11

)

k

12

u

1

k

12

2

j

m

2

k

22

=

=

(

ω

)

=

u

2

u

1

and

, then

a a

1

2

=

m

1

m 2

Both of these equations must yield the same answer, which acts as a check on the resulting mode shapes.

With more degrees-of-freedom than two, it is desirable to use a computer to solve the problem.