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RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LEVELS OF READING COMPREHENSION AND

ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE AMONG GRADE 11 HUMSS STUDENTS OF NAVAL

STATE UNIVERSITY

A Quantitative Research Presented to

NORMAE C. ECIJA

Faculty of the College of Education

Laboratory High School

Naval State University

Naval¸ Biliran

In Partial Fulfilment of the Course Requirements

In Practical Research II: Quantitative Research

Researcher
Axcell Delis Belleza

HUMSS 12 - A
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Reading comprehension is the process of constructing meaning from text. The

goal of all reading instruction is ultimately targeted at helping a reader to comprehend a

certain word that he/she is reading. Therefore, without comprehension, reading is a

frustrating, pointless exercise in word calling (Lenz, 2013). According to Texas Education

Agency (2015), a major goal of reading comprehension instruction is to help students

develop the knowledge, skills, and experiences they must have if they are to become

competent and enthusiastic readers.

The concept of reading comprehension was first introduced by Francis Pleasant

Robinson in his book “Effective Study” in year 1948. There are a lot of theories about

reading since that this is an extremely complex process that no one can explain

satisfactorily. Although reading comprehension is the foundational skill on which

academic success depends. Deficiency in reading is considered as a serious problem

since that it will hinder student’s good academic performance according to (Fuchs, 2002)

he also observed that a large number of students enter high school with significant

reading deficits, he even concluded that lack of reading skills is a hindrance to the

academic performance of the students due to its lack of comprehension. Regarding the

correlation between Reading comprehension and academic performance. Villa (2008)

found out that reading skills are correlated to the students grades in mathematics but

these correlations are not strong as one may think. Much earlier, Muola (1990), carried

out a study among standard eight pupils to determine the relationship between
performance in an English language test and a mathematics test. He obtained a

correlation of 0.43 between the pupils' performance in the English language test and their

performance in the mathematics test. Further, Delton (2009) reported that the poor

performance in class in some primary schools could be attributed to the lack of mastery

of English language skills among the pupils. Lastly,(Jayanthi and Vimala 1991)stated that

International research also suggests that there is a positive relationship between reading

comprehension and academic performance.

The gap in knowledge of the related studies shows that there is a positive

relationship between students’ levels of reading comprehension and their academic

performance particularly in Mathematics. However, the correlation between these two

variables are considered as a weak positive correlation, therefore, the relationship

between the two variables are not that really strong. It also shows that deficiency in

reading can hinder student’s good academic performance since that reading is the

foundational skill on which academic success depends. There is also a gap that the

previous researchers did not distinguish which other subject areas reading

comprehension positively or negatively correlates. Therefore, in order for the researchers

to bridge the gap in knowledge, they will focus on the Final Average Grades in the 1st

Semester of the Grade 11 Senior High Students from HUMSS of Naval State University

S.Y 2018 - 2019

And with research proving that reading is the one of most important aspect in our

educational achievement, it is no wonder that some students with low comprehension

receive low grades and students with high comprehension receive high grades. Although,

the concept is still not sure because the previous researchers did not really distinguish all
subject areas reading comprehension is positively or negatively correlated. Therefore,

through help of research regarding this certain research topic, the researchers decided

to conduct a study regarding the relationship between reading comprehension and the

academic Performance of the Grade Eleven HUMSS Students in order for them to

determine the relationship between these two variables, and also in order for the

researchers to contribute to the body of knowledge.

Objectives of the Study

Generally, this study aims to determine the Relationship between Levels Reading

Comprehension and Academic Performance among Grade 11 HUMSS Students of Naval

State University S.Y 2018 – 2019.

Specifically, the study is sought to:

1. Determine the demographics using profile of the students from HUMSS 11 in

NSU-LHS based on their:

1.1 sex;

1.2 age; and

1.3 general average in the first semester of S.Y. 2018-2019

2. Determine the reading comprehension level of the respondents in terms

of:

2.1 Characters, Time, and Events (CTE);

2.2 Events and Sequences (ES);

2.3 Syntactic Structure (SS);


2.4 Connections between parts of the text (CON); and

2.5 Inferences ( INF)

3. Determine the relationship between levels of reading comprehension

and academic performance of the HUMSS 11 Students

Framework of the Study

This section presents the Theoretical framework and Conceptual framework of the study.

Theoretical Framework. The components of reading comprehension by

Menneghetti, Carretti and De Beni’s were used as the theoretical bases for the

relationship between levels of reading and academic performance. There are 5 tasks

description. First is the Characters, Time, and Events (CTE), the purpose of this task is

to measure the students capacity to identify and understand the characters of the story,

the events and the place where the story take place as well as the period of events. The

task requires the participants to recognize the characters names and let them identify if

they are real likely are fantastic and link the relationship between them. Second

description is the Events and Sequences (ES), this aims to measure the students ability

in distinguishing the main events and the logical and sequential order, how the characters

believe in the story and their internal response to external events. This task requires the

participants to familiarize the sequence of events to reconstruct the order of the facts and

their logical flow. Third is the Syntactic Structure (SS), this tasks goal is to measure the

students capability in figuring out the texts primarily focusing on the syntactic 1elements

of the tests. For example to decode the different meaning of sentences in relation to the

punctuations position, the articles roles, the nature of hypothetical sentences, the
distinction between passive and active sentences as well as the direct and indirect

discourse. Fourth is the Connections between parts of the text (CON), the purpose of this

task is to measure the ability of students if there is a relation between different information

in the test on the basis semantic and logical criterion in order to create a consistent a

structure meaning. The respondents are ask to put in co-referential close or far elements

of the text connect similar words that are related to the same character. Lastly, the

Inferences (INF), this will measure the ability of students to make inferences from the text.

Inferences, is the idea that is drawn from evidence and reasoning and the interaction

between the readers knowledge and the information in the text. The participants in his

task will guess the meaning of unfamiliar words on the basis of the content and figure out

about the meaning of a sentence using their own knowledge.

CTE

ES Basic
SS Aspects

CON

INF

Figure 1. Theoretical Framework of the Study

Conceptual Framework. The main parameter of the study was mainly on the intention of

determining the relationship between levels of reading comprehension and academic

performance of the Grade Eleven HUMSS students of Naval State University as

highlighted and presented in the schematic diagram provided in the next page of this

paper.
Grade 11 HUMSS Students of
Naval State University S.Y 2018-
2019

 Age
 Sex

Reading Comprehension
Level Academic Performance
 CTE
 ES
 SS
 CON
 INF

Relationship Between Levels of Reading Comprehension and


Academic Performance Among Grade 11 HUMSS Students
of Naval State University S.Y 2018 – 2019.

Figure 2. Conceptual Framework of the Study


Significance of the Study

The findings obtained from this study may serve as baseline data for the

relationship of reading comprehension levels and academic performance, and also for

the improvement of the academic performance of the Students of the target strand.

Likewise, the results will give insights to the following who shall serve as primary

beneficiaries of this research.

Administrators. The result of this study are hopefully of value to school administrators

who can encourage other teachers in the school to try employing the library as a regular

part of English class so that their students can read different books during English time

and in order for them to help their students to enhance their reading skills.

Teachers. Mentors in all levels both private and public schools can be provided with

appropriate and adequate information, whether the relationship between levels of reading

comprehension and academic grades are positively correlated or negatively correlated.

Also, they will be able to do their share and perform their roles by helping their students

to be more active in reading and surpassing the Academic Grades of their students

Students. With the help of this study, they will learn if their academic performance is

correlated to their levels of reading comprehension. Therefore, they will be able to

develop direct new knowledge and be equipped with different abilities in the academic

fields.

Future Researchers. The results of this research would be very useful to teachers,

students, and to the future researchers precisely because it could provide them with the

necessary data and information that directly answers the question regarding the
relationship between the students levels of reading comprehension and academic grades.

Not just in Naval State University but in the province and the Philippines as a whole. And

also this study offers important information and data for other researchers who may also

do further studies related to this topic

Scope and Delimitation of the Study

This study is conducted in S.Y 2018 - 2019 of Naval State University. The selected

respondents of this study are the Grade 11 HUMSS, mainly focusing on their reading

comprehension level and academic performance. The study did not include students from

the other strand and also outside the campus.

Definition of Terms

To make the presentation study findings and other pertinent information of this

study understandable, the following terminologies are operationally defined.

Reading Comprehension. Ability to understand the meaning of the text to integrate with

what the reader already knows.

Academic performance. Is the extent to which a student attained their educational goals

or the percentage of marks obtained by the students.


Review of Related Literature
Research work is carried out, not in isolation, but as a part of a larger body of work.

The inspiration to conduct a particular piece of research is born out of reading and

reviewing research which has been carried out in one’s broader area of interest. This

chapter includes the ideas, finished thesis, generalization or conclusions, methodologies

and others. Those that were included in this chapter helps in familiarizing information that

are relevant and similar to the present study.

Reading Comprehension
Reading comprehension is a complex interaction among automatic and strategic

cognitive processes that enables the reader to create a mental representation of the text

(Van Den Broek & Espin, 2012). Comprehension depends not only on characteristics of

the reader, such as prior knowledge and working memory, but also on language

processes, such as basic reading skills, decoding, vocabulary, sensitivity to text structure,

inference, and motivation. Comprehension also requires effective use of strategic

processes, such as metacognition and comprehension monitoring. As readers mature in

their comprehension skills, they are able to progress efficiently from the stage of learning

to read to the ultimate goal of reading to learn (Yovanoff, Duesbery, Alonzo, & Tindal,

2005).

In addition, Brown (2004) believes that reading comprehension is a primarily a

matter of developing appropriate and efficient comprehension strategies that involves

much more than readers responses to the text. He also added that reading

comprehension is a multi component, highly complex process that involves many

interactions between readers and what they bring to the text, particularly this refers to the
previous knowledge and strategy used as well as the variables related to the text itself

regarding understanding in text types. Brassell and Rasinski (2008), also stated that

reading comprehension helps the readers to take important information from written text

and do something with it in a way that demonstrates knowledge or understanding of that

information, particularly it is the process simultaneously extracting and constructing

meaning through interaction and involvement with the written language

Reading and Academic Performance

Reading and academic performance are essential for teachers and educationists

to know that every child whether he or she is gifted, average, normal or backward etc,

should be educated in his or her own way but if he or she possesses good study habits,

he or she can perform well in academics and in every situation. It is the reading habits and

good academic performance which help the learner with learning disabilities in obtaining

meaningful and desirable knowledge (Greene, 2001). According to Palani (2012), reading

is an essential and important aspect for creating a literate society in this world. It shapes

the personality of individuals and it helps them to develop proper thinking methods, and

creates new ideas. Reading comprehension is related to academic performance of the

students and is therefore a factor to consider in seeking to elevate the academic

performance of the pupils. A pupil's intelligence may be an indicator of his reading

comprehension ability. However, data covering more detailed aspects of both reading

comprehension and intelligence should be subjected to more powerful statistical testing

to determine to what extent the pupils intelligence can be used to predict his reading

comprehension ability
Anggraini (2017) found out that the correlation analysis between student's reading

comprehension and academic performance showed that the regression level between the

two variables was (.236), therefore he concluded that reading comprehension and

academic performance are positively correlated. In similar, Gelizon (2018) also found out

that there is a negatively high correlation on the academic performance of the Grade 8

pupils of Biliran Science High School who belong in frustration level reading

comprehension with correlation coefficient of -.597. It was also found out that the

correlation is significant in 1% level of significance. It implies that reading comprehension

of the students greatly affect their academic performance. She also found out that there

is a significant relationship between the academic performance and reading

comprehension level of the grade 8 pupils who belong to the independent level of reading

comprehension at 5% level of significance with correlation coefficient of .440 as

moderately small positive correlation. The findings of the studies seem to imply that

students still need to comprehend the reading text because it influenced their academic

achievement. The findings can also have implications for students that the better their

reading comprehension, is the better their academic performance will be.

How to improve Academic Performance through Reading Comprehension

Anggraini (2017) believes that in order for the teachers to help their students

enhance their Academic Performance and Reading Comprehension, the lectures should

use suitable learning strategies because comprehension in reading text might influence

and improve the student's academic achievement. He also added that the student's

should be aware and realize that students in particular who increase their amount of

reading can improve their academic achievement. Cook (2006) also believes that a
student success program to meet the needs unique to students could be developed to

complement the university academic assistance program for students. This could be

modeled after programs currently used in education programs that have experienced high

attrition rates. The program, based on academic difficulties that stem from reading

deficiencies, could include the use of computer assisted reading comprehension

programs, study skill classes, test-taking workshops, and faculty and peer-tutoring

sessions. Such a program would enhance the persistence of high-risk students.

Enhancement of the current program for pre-nursing majors could include specific

reading comprehension skills. Admission practices for some nursing programs include

assessments, while students are completing prerequisites for enrolment in the nursing

programs. Often cited as being significant has been a higher grade point average

throughout the course of studies. Again, early identification and remediation of risk factors

for academic challenges can result in an applicant pool with improved potential for

successful completion of the nursing program and entry into professional practice (Yin &

Burger, 2003)

The aforementioned literature and studies are related to this investigation in the

sense that they identified the relationship between reading comprehension and academic

performance. However, the dimensions taken into consideration differ from those which

highlights this research. Thus, this study does not purport to duplicate the previous

investigations conducted by the other researchers.


CHAPTER II

METHODOLOGY

This chapter presents the methods of the study. It consists of research design,

research locale, research respondents, sampling procedure, research instrument, data

gathering procedure, data scoring, and the statistical treatment of data.

Research Design

This study is a quantitative-correlation research. Therefore, the study used the

correlational research design in order for the researchers to determine whether there is a

positive or negative relationship between reading comprehension level and academic

performance. To generate the data, a reading comprehension test was used to elicit the

needed information on the different variables/objectives considered in the study included

the respondents profile, reading comprehension score and their general average for the

first semester of S.Y 2018 – 2019 which yield to the presumed output.

Research Locale

The venue of the study was mainly concentrated at the Naval State University-

Laboratory High School (NSU-LHS). The School is located at the P.I Garcia Street Capital

town of Naval in the Province of Biliran with coordinates 11°35’N 124°27’E. The

researchers chose the NSU-LHS as their research locale since that this is the only Senior

High School in Naval that offers the course of Humanities and Social Sciences
Figure 3. Research Locale, (Google Map, 2019)

Research Respondents

The respondents of this study were the Senior High School Students from Grade

Eleven Humanities and Social Sciences that are officially enrolled at Naval State

University for the School Year 2018- 2019.The researchers chose HUMSS 11 students

because subjects taken in HUMSS requires the skill of reading comprehension in terms

of understanding plain, average and complicated thoughts, words and text. There are 54

students enrolled in Grade 11 HUMSS.

Research Instrument

The instrument used for this study was a researcher made reading comprehension

test to gather the needed data for this study. The RCT includes the students profile and

their levels of reading comprehension. The reading comprehension test was drawn base

on the variables of the study (the age and sex of the grade eleven HUMSS students and

also the average in the first semester of the school year 2018-2019). The researchers

consulted it’s validity to the English experts and English teachers from Naval State
University and Biliran Central School. The researchers used the split half test to determine

the internal reliability of the instrument with the correlation coefficient value of r = .88

Data Gathering Procedure

These are the procedures in gathering the needed data.

The researchers wrote a letter to the Dean to ask permission to have the master list and

to administer a reading comprehension test to the grade eleven HUMSS of Naval State

University. Second, a reading comprehension test were provided for each students to

answer. Each student were provided 45 minutes to answer the reading comprehension

test. When the time is up, the researchers takes the answered test and thanked the

students for their cooperation.

Data Scoring

The following rating scales will be used in determining the relationship between

the Levels of Reading Comprehension and Academic Performance.

1. Correlation Coefficient

The value of r ranges from +1 to -1. If the value of r is exactly +1, then the

variables has a perfect positive correlation. If it is exactly equal to -1, then the variable

has a perfect negative correlation. A value of r that is close to +1 indicates a strong

positive correlation. And a value of r that is close to -1 indicates a strong negative

correlation.
Table 1. Correlation Coefficient

Strength of Correlation Value of r

Perfect Positive Correlation 1

Strong Positive Correlation 0.71 to 0.99

Moderately Positive Correlation 0.51 to 0.70

Weak Positive Correlation 0.31 to 0.50

Negligible Positive Correlation 0.01 to 0.30

No Correlation 0

Perfect Negative Correlation -1

Strong Negative Correlation -0.71 to -0.99

Moderately Negative Correlation -0.51 to -0.70

Weak Negative Correlation -0.31 to -0.50

Negligible Negative Correlation -0.01 to -0.30

2. Reading Comprehension

The researchers used the fluency instruction levels as the bases for the verbal

interpretation of the reading comprehension scores of the respondents. The Fluency

Instruction includes the Frustration, Instructional and Independent Level. According to the

University of Utah (2018) Frustration reading levels include text for which a reader does

not have adequate background level for a topic and/or cannot meet criteria for

instructional levels of accuracy, the score percentage mean of Frustration level is 50%

below. Instructional reading level is the high level at which a reader is not independent,
but has adequate background knowledge for a topic, and can access text quickly and with

no or few errors with a score percentage mean of 51% to 89 %. Lastly Independent

reading level is the highest level at which a reader has adequate background knowledge

for the topic, and can access text very quickly and with very few errors with a score

percentage mean of 90% to 100%. Therefore

Table 2.Verbal Interpretation of Reading Comprehension Score

Levels of Reading Score Range


Comprehension

Frustration Level 1 to 38

Instructional Level 39 to 68

Independent Level 69 to 75

Statistical Treatment of Data

The following formula were used to transform the data gathered into statistical

data.

1. To describe the respondents profiles, reading comprehension test score mean


percentage, the frequency and percentage formula were used.

Formula:

% = f / N x 100
Where:

% = percentage

F = frequency

N= number of cases

100 = constant

a. biological sex of the respondents

𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑝𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑠𝑎𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑒𝑝𝑜𝑝𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛
𝑥 100 = %
𝑜𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑠𝑎𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑒𝑝𝑜𝑝𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛

Where n is the population of male or female divided by N which is the overall sample

population multiplied by 100.

b. Age of the respondents

𝑝𝑜𝑝𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛𝑜𝑓 17 𝑦𝑒𝑎𝑟𝑜𝑙𝑑𝑠
𝑥 100 = %
𝑜𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑠𝑎𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑒𝑝𝑜𝑝𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛

Where n is the population of student’s age from 16 to 18 years old divided by N which is

the overall sample population multiplied by 100.

c. 1st Semester Average of the respondents

𝑝𝑜𝑝𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑡𝑢𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑡 ′ 𝑠 𝑓𝑖𝑟𝑠𝑡 𝑠𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑎𝑐𝑎𝑑𝑒𝑚𝑖𝑐 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑑𝑒


𝑥 100 = %
𝑜𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑙𝑙 𝑠𝑎𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑒 𝑝𝑜𝑝𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛

Where n is the population of student’s first semester academic grade ranging from 85 to

95 divided by N which is the overall sample population multiplied by 100.


2. To determine the relationship between the two variables, the Pearson Correlation
Coefficient formula was used.

Formula:

r= N∑ 𝑥𝑦 – (∑ 𝑥)(∑ 𝑦) / √[𝑁 ∑ 𝑥 2 − (∑ 𝑥)^2][N∑ 𝑦 2 − (∑ 𝑦) ^2]

Where:

N = Number of pair scores


∑ 𝑥𝑦=Sum of the products of paired scores

∑ 𝑥= Sum of x scores

∑ 𝑦=Sum of y scores

∑ 𝑥^2 = Sum of squared x scores

∑ 𝑦^2= Sum of squared y scores


CHAPTER III

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

This chapter represents the analysis and interpretation of the data gathered from

the study and thorough discussion about the research problem. The results were based

on the profile and the reading comprehension test scores of the respondents. This data

were then analyzed to be presented, discussed, and interpreted to serve as the answer

to the research objectives.

Demographics

Biological Sex of the


Sample Population 30

16
1 7
33% Female
67% 24 18 17 16
Male
Age

Figure 4. (a) The biological sex of the respondents (b) The age of the respondents

In the demographic profile of the respondents, the following includes the:

biological sex, age of the respondents and the first semester average grades for S.Y

2018-2019. There are 54 HUMSS 11 Students in Naval State University. Therefore,

the results revealed that 67.5% (36) are female while 32.5% (18) are male in the

overall sample population of 54 participants only. For the ages of the respondents,

1.85% (1) of the respondent is 24 years old, 12.96% (7) of the respondents are 18
years old. 55.5% (30) of the respondents are 17 years old and the 29.6% (16) are 16

0
0

4 1 2 2
5
7

2 8

7
6
10

95% 94% 93% 92% 91% 90% 89% 88% 87% 85% 84%
years old.

Figure 5. The number of the respondents academic grades in the first semester of the
S.Y 2018 – 2019.
Lastly, the first semester average grades of the respondents of S.Y 2018– 2019

consisted of 3.7% (2) with an average grade of 95%, another 3.7% (2) with an average

grade of 94%, 9.25% (5) with an average grade of 93%, 14.81% (8) with an average

grade of 92%, 11.11%(6) with an average grade of 91%, 18.51% (10) with average

grade of 90%, 12.96% (7) with an average grade 89%, 3.70% (2) with an average

grade of 88%,another 12.96% (7) with an average grade of 87%, 7.40% (4) with an

average grade of 85% and 3.7% (1) with an average grade of 84%.
Reading Comprehension

The data collected from the (54) respondents were gathered through the reading

comprehension test. The results can be seen below.

47

FRUSTRATION LEVEL INSTRUCTIONAL LEVEL INDEPENDENT LEVEL

1 to 38 39 to 68 69 to 75

Figure 6. The levels of reading comprehension obtained by the respondents from the

reading comprehension test.

The result shows that 12.96% (7) of the respondents reading comprehension level

belongs to the Frustration Level with the score range of 1 – 38 while 87.03%(47) of the

respondents reading comprehension level belongs to the Instructional Level with the

score range of 39 to 68. Although none of the students from HUMSS 11 was able to obtain

the highest level of reading comprehension which is the Independent level with a score

range of 68 – 75. Therefore, the 12.96% of the respondents from HUMSS 11 does not

have adequate background level for a topic and/or cannot meet criteria for instructional

levels of accuracy since their reading comprehension belongs to the Frustration level
while the 87.03% of the respondents from HUMSS 11 are not independent in reading, but

has adequate background knowledge for a topic, and can access text quickly and with no

or few errors since that their reading comprehension level belongs to the Instructional

level.

Table 3. The mean percentage of the five aspects and the levels of reading

comprehension of the HUMSS 11 students of NSU-LHS

Aspects of Reading Total Scores Obtained Mean Percentage of


Comprehension by the 54 Students the Reading
(810 items each) Comprehension
Characters, Times and 660 correct answers 81.48%
Events

Events and Sequences 646 correct answers 79.75%

Syntactic Structure 372 correct answers 45.92%

Connections between 505 correct answers 62.34%


Parts of the text

Inferences 281 correct answers 34.69%

Total and Average 2,646 out of 4,050 60.836%

Table 3 shows the mean percentage of the overall sample population’s reading

comprehension test scores. The result revealed that in the aspect of Characters, Time

and Events the reading comprehension level of the respondents belongs to the

Instructional Level with a mean percentage of 81.48%, in the aspect of Events and

Sequences the reading comprehension level of the respondents also belongs to the
Instructional Level since the percentage mean of their score is 79.75%, in the aspect of

Syntactic Structure the respondents were not able to reach the Instructional Level since

that the average mean of their score is 45.92%, in the aspect of Connections between

parts of the text the respondents reading comprehension level once again belongs to the

Instructional Level for the reason they obtained the mean percentage of 62.34%, and in

the final aspect which is the Inferences, the reading comprehension level of the

respondents belongs to the Frustration level since that the percentage mean of their score

is 34.69%. And finally, the overall percentage mean average of the aspects of the reading

comprehension level of the respondents belongs to the Instructional level with an average

mean of 60.836%. Therefore, the overall reading comprehension level of the HUMSS 11

Students of NSU-LHS denotes that they have adequate background knowledge for

reading, and can access text quickly and with few errors only.
Table 4. Correlation Coefficient Between Reading Comprehension and Academic

Performance among HUMSS 11 Students of Naval State University

Reading Comprehension Results


And Academic Performance

Value of r 0.37

Interpretation Weak Positive Correlation

Note: There is a weak positive correlation between levels of reading comprehension and

academic performance among HUMSS 11 of NSU-LHS

Table 4 revealed that there is a Weak Positive Correlation between levels of

reading comprehension and academic grades among the Grade 11 HUMSS students of

Naval State University. This implies that if there is an increase or decrease in reading

comprehension level there is also an increase or decrease in academic performance of

the students, although the relationship between the two variables are weak. The findings

of this study was similar to the results obtained by Anggraini (2017) and Gelizon (2018),

since that their study also reported that there is a weak positive correlation between

reading comprehension and academic performance.


CHAPTER IV

SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This chapter presents the summary of the study, findings or interpretation of data

conclusion, and recommendations base on the results of the study.

Summary

The study was carried out to determine the relationship between levels of reading

comprehension and academic performance among Grade 11 HUMSS Students of Naval

State University. The sample population involved all of the (54) students of HUMSS 11

and were provided with a reading comprehension test comprised of (5) aspects and

passages each with 15 item questionnaire. The participants of the research were given

45 minutes to answer the reading comprehension test. Results showed that 33.5% of the

sample population are male while the 67.5% are female. Out of the (5) aspects, it is

revealed that the respondents obtained their highest score in the aspect of Characters,

Time and Events with a mean percentage of 81.48% (Instructional Level) and the

respondents obtained their lowest score in the aspect of Inferences with a mean

percentage of 34.69% (Frustration Level). The result also showed that the (5) aspects

overall mean percentage of the respondents were 60.836% (Instructional Level). Lastly,

the result revealed that there is a weak positive correlation between levels of reading

comprehension and academic performance among HUMSS 11 Students of NSU-LHS.


Conclusion

The researchers concludes that the Grade 11 HUMSS students of Naval State

University -Laboratory High School are more acquainted in the aspect of Characters,

Times and Events since that they obtained their highest score from this aspect. Therefore,

the Grade 11 HUMSS students of NSU-LHS has sufficient background knowledge for this

certain aspect and this also means that the respondents can access the text very quickly

and with very few errors and they have the capacity to identify and understand the

characters of the story, the events and the place where the story take place as well as

the period of events are. The researchers also concludes that the grade 11 HUMSS

students of NSU-LHS are impotent in the aspect of Inferences since that respondents

obtained their lowest score from this aspect. Therefore, the respondents does not have

adequate background level for this aspect and they cannot meet the criteria for the nornal

level of accuracy to guess the meaning of unfamiliar words on the basis of the content

and figure out about the meaning of a sentence using their own knowledge.

Lastly, the findings obtained from the results and discussion also showed that the

two variables which is the levels of reading comprehension and academic performance

have shown that there is a weak positive correlation between these two variables,

therefore, the researchers concludes that if there is an increase in reading comprehension

level there is also an increase in academic performance of the students.


Recommendations

Base on the findings and conclusions drawn from this study, the researchers

therefore, would recommend the following recommendations that are hereby offered for

considerations

1. This study is recommended to be used as baseline data for the relationship of

reading comprehension levels and academic performance.

2. The researchers suggest that this study can be improved by adding variables

since that the researchers did not include other factors such as the whole

strand and whole grade level of Naval State University- Laboratory High

School. Therefore, in order for the future researchers to obtain better assay and

more solid results they should conduct the study with a wider range of

respondents such as wider sample population with diverse ages and academic

levels can be included for the improvement of the future research.

3. The tool used in this study which is the reading comprehension test can be use

by future research as long as the level of the test are in-line with the student’s

scholastic status.

4. The School should conduct a program regarding English language concerns

that would help their students enhance their reading and vocabulary skills.
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performance of english education study program students of UIN Raden Fatah

Palembang".

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ordinary understanding to deep understanding

Brown, H. D. (2004). Language assessment principles and classrom practices. London,

England: Longman.

Cook, J. (2006)" The relationship between reading comprehension skill assessment

methods and academic success for first semester students"

Delton, L. (2009). “Language proficiency and reading ability in first and second language

learners”
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theoretical, empirical, and historical analysis” Scientific Studies of Reading. 5, 239-256.

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International Reference Research Journal Vol. III Issue 2(1) pp 91.

Texas Education Agency (2015). “What research tell us about reading comprehension,

and comprehension instruction”


Villa, S. M. (2008). Correlation between reading skills and mathematics performance: An

analysis of Stanford Achievement Test scores from grades 6 to 11 . ETD Collection for

University of Texas, El Paso.

Van den Broek, P., & Espin, C. A. (2012). Connecting cognitive theory and

assessment:Measuring individual differences in reading comprehension. School

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http://www.specialconnections.ku.edu/?q=instruction/reading_comprehension

http://www.readingrockets.org/article/what-research-tells-us-about-reading-

comprehension-and-comprehension-instruction
APPENDIX
Republic of the Philippines
Biliran Province State University
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION
Naval, Biliran

Name: _________________________________________________ Score: ________


1st Semester Average: _____________ Age: ________ Sex: ________

Reading Comprehension

TEST I. Characters, Times, and Events.

The Red Badge of Courage

However, he perceived now that it did not greatly matter what kind of soldiers he was going to
fight, so long as they fought, which fact no one disputed. There was a more serious problem. He
lay in his bunk pondering upon it. He tried to mathematically prove to himself that he would not
run from a battle. Previously he had never felt obliged to wrestle too seriously with this question.
In his life he had taken certain things for granted, never challenging his belief in ultimate success,
and bothering little about means and roads. But here he was confronted with a thing of moment. It
had suddenly appeared to him that perhaps in a battle he might run. He was forced to admit that as
far as war was concerned he knew nothing of himself.
A sufficient time before he would have allowed the problem to kick its heels at the outer portals
of his mind, but now he felt compelled to give serious attention to it. A little panic-fear grew in
his mind. As his imagination went forward to a fight, he saw hideous possibilities. He
contemplated the lurking menaces of the future, and fails in an effort to see himself standing
stoutly in the midst of them. He recalled his visions of broken-bladed glory, but in the shadow of
the impending tumult he suspected them to be impossible pictures.
He sprang from the bunk and began to pace matter with me?" he said aloud. He felt that
nervously to and fro. "Good Lord, what's th' in this crisis his laws of life were useless.
Whatever he had learned of himself was D. In the bus
here of no avail. He was an unknown
quantity. He saw that he would again be 5. What did the character did as he lay?
obliged to experiment as he had in early
youth. He must accumulate information of A. He’s reminiscing about his past
himself, and meanwhile he resolved to experience
remain close upon his guard lest those B. He’s sleeping
qualities of which he knew nothing should C. He’s thinking about a serious
everlastingly disgrace him. "Good Lord!" he problem
repeated in dismay. D. He’s playing games

6. What problem bothers the character?


QUESTIONS:
A. He run out of money
1. Who is the young union soldier in B. He’s trying to prove to himself
the civil war? that he’s not a coward
C. His mother died
A. Henry Fleming D. His girlfriend broke up with him
B. Isaac Newton
C. Galileo Galilei 7. What did the character shouted?
D. Jose Rizal
A. “Alas! I’m scared ”
2. When did the story take place? B. “Good heavens, help me”
C. “Good Ford, what’s the matter
A. During the Industrial Revolution with me?”
B. During the World War 2 D. “Thanks God”
C. During Halloween
D. During the Civil War 8. What did the character felt that his
laws of life are all useless?
3. What is the character’s job?
A. Happy
A. Janitor B. Nervous
B. Police C. Married
C. Soldier D. Helpless
D. Traffic enforcer
9. What happened to the character as he
leaps from the bed?

4. Where did the character lay? A. He fell


B. He shouted
A. In the backyard C. He cried
B. In the bunk D. He dance
C. In the seashore
10. What did the character recalled about D. He thinks that they are not
his past experiences in war? funny

A. His visions of true and romantic 12. What does the character’s question
love in mind?
B. His visions of his future
C. His visions about his dream A. Is the world round?
D. His visions of broken bladed B. Does forever exist?
glory C. Is he brave enough to go to
11. What does the character felt towards battle?
the other soldiers? D. What is his purpose in life?

A. He doesn’t care about them 13. -15.


B. He’s afraid of them
C. He’s worried that they would Does the character felt obliged to
not win the battle give serious attention to his
problem? In what wa

TEST II. Events & Sequences

Galileo and his Telescope


Galileo Galilei was born in the year 1564 in the town of Pisa, Italy. When he was 20 years old,
he was studying in Pisa. His father wanted him to be a doctor, but Galileo was bored with school
except for math. Because math was the one subject where he was doing well, the court
mathematician offered to tutor him privately so he could become a qualified mathematician.
Galileo’s father was disappointed, but he agreed. Because he needed to earn money, Galileo
began experimenting with different things, trying to come up with some sort of invention that he
could sell for money. He had a little bit of success with his invention that was like a compass that
could be used to measure plots of land. He had already experimented with pendulums,
thermometers, and magnets.
When he heard that a Dutch inventor had invented something called a spyglass, but was keeping
it a secret, Galileo decided to work on one of his own. Within 24 hours, he had invented a
telescope that could magnify things to make them appear ten times larger than real life.
One night, he pointed his telescope toward the sky, and made his first of many space
observations: the moon was not smooth, like everyone thought. The moon was covered in bumps
and craters. As technology has improved, first Galileo, and then many others, have made
improvements on the telescope, the wonderful device that allows us to see from a distance.
QUESTIONS:

1. Arrange the following events in


correct order. 4. Because he needed to earn money,
Galileo began experimenting with
1. Within 24 hours, he had invented different things.
a telescope that could magnify things
to make them appear ten times larger A. 3, 2, 4, 1
than real life. B. 4, 2, 1, 3
C. 3, 4, 1, 2
2. As technology has improved, D. 3, 4, 2, 1
other people have made
improvements on the telescope, the 2. How old was Galileo when he is
wonderful device that allows us to studying in Pisa, Italy?
see from a distance.
A. 20
3. Galileo Galilei was born in the in B. 19
the year 1564 in the town Pisa, Italy. C. 21
He was 20 years old when he was D. 2
studying in Pisa.
1. Galileo was bored with school
and math is the only subject
3. Galileo was born in the year ____.
where he was doing well.
2. The court mathematician offered
A. 1575
to tutor him privately so he could
B. 1789
become a qualified
C. 1564
mathematician.
D. 1774
3. Galileo’s father wanted him to
be a doctor.
4. Galileo was bored with school
4. His father was disappointed to
except for Math subject. Why?
him for being a mathematician,
but he agreed.
A. Because he is good at numbers.
a. 4, 3, 2, 1
B. Because his father was a
b. 3, 1, 2, 4
mathematician.
c. 3, 4, 2, 1
C. Because he’s interested in it.
d. 1, 3, 4, 2
e.
5. Arrange the following events in
6. What did his father wanted him to be
correct order.
in the future?
a. Astronaut
b. Doctor 10. What did Galileo discover about the
c. Engineer moon?
d. Businessman
A. The moon was shining
7. Why Galileo did begin B. The moon was not smooth like
experimenting with different things? everyone thought.
C. The moon was larger among all
a. Because he needs to earn money the planets.
b. Because he found out that he is D. All of the above
good at inventing different
things. 11. The compass that Galileo had
c. Because his father want him to invented could be used to
experiment different things. measure_____.
d. Because he wants to become a
scientist. A. Speed
B. Length
8. Where did Galileo study when he C. Distance
was 20 years old? D. Plots and Land

A. Pisa 12. Galileo heard that a Dutch inventor


B. England had invented something
C. Daegu called______.
D. New Zealand
A. Spyglass
9. Galileo’s telescope make things B. Thermometer
appear __ times bigger than real life. C. Magnifying glass
D. Pendulums
A. 6
13-15. If you want to invent something what
B. 10
would it be and why?
C. 11
D. 9

TEST III. Syntactic Structure

The Little Prince

The Little Prince went to look at the roses again. “You’re not at all like my rose. You’re nothing
at all yet,” he told them. “No one has tamed you and you haven’t tamed anyone. You’re the way
my fox was. He was just a fox like a hundred thousand others. But I’ve made him my friend, and
now he’s the only fox in all the world.” And the roses were humbled. You’re lovely, but you’re
empty,” he went on. One couldn’t die for you. Of course, an ordinary passerby would think my
rose looked just like you. But my rose, all on her own, is more important than all of you together,
since she’s the one I’ve watered. Since she’s the one I put under glass. Since she’s the one I
sheltered behind a screen. Since she’s the one for whom I killed the caterpillars (except the two
or three for butterflies). Since she’s the one I listened to when she complained, or when she
boasted, or even sometimes when she said nothing at all. Since she’s my rose.” And he went
back to the fox. “Good-bye,” he said. “Goodbye,” said the fox. Here is my secret. It’s quite
simple: One sees clearly only with the heart. Anything essential is invisible to the eyes.”
“Anything essential is invisible to the eyes,” the little prince repeated, in order to remember. “It’s
the time you spend on your rose that makes your rose so important.” “It’s the time I spent on my
rose…,” the little prince repeated, in order to remember. “People have forgotten this truth,” the
fox said. “But you mustn’t forget it. You become responsible forever for what you’ve tamed.
You’re responsible for your rose…” “I’m responsible for my rose…,” the little prince repeated,
in order to remember.

QUESTIONS: B. “It’s the time you spend on your rose


that makes your rose so important.”
1. “You’re lovely, but your empty.” C. “It’s the time you spend on your rose
What punctuation marks does the that makes your rose so important.”
author used in that phrase?
4. “People have forgotten this truth “the
A. The Author used question mark fox said. What discourse analysis
B. The Author used exclamation point
does the Author used?
and period
C. The Author used quotation, A. Direct discourse
apostrophe, and comma B. Indirect discourse
C. None of the above
2. I killed caterpillars (except the two
or three for butterflies). What 5. “Goodbye” he said. What discourse
punctuation marks are used? analysis does the Author used?
A. Exclamation point and period
B. Period and open close parenthesis A. Direct discourse
C. Quotation, apostrophe, and comma B. Indirect discourse
C. All of the above
3. Choose the correct sentence in
relation to the position of 6. Choose the correct phrase that
punctuations. corresponds to direct discourse
analysis.
A. “It’s the time you spend on your rose,
that makes your so important.” A. “Goodbye“ he said
B. “Goodbye” said the fox
C. I love you, Goodbye

7. “I ladled the Caterpillars”. What


Article does the Author used in that
phrase?

A. Indefinite Article 11-12. Do the Author used Figurative


B. Definite Article Languages in the story? If there is give
C. Article before an Adjective example then explain why Author used
Figurative Languages?
8. “People have forgotten this truth”.
What Article does the Author used in
that phase?

A. Definite Article
B. Indefinite Article 13-15. Do you easily understand the
C. Article before an Adjective structure of the sentences in there passage?
Explain your answer.
9– 10. Are the sentences of the passage in its
Passive or Active form? Explain your
answer.

TEST IV. Connections between parts of the text

Alice’s Adventures In Wonderland


by Lewis Carroll

Chapter IV: The Rabbit Sends in a Little Bill


It was the White Rabbit, trotting slowly back again and looking anxiously about as it went, as if
it had lost something; Alice heard it muttering to itself, “The Duchess! The Duchess! Oh, my
dear paws! Oh, my fur and whiskers! She’ll get me executed, as sure as ferrets are ferrets! Where
can I have dropped them, I wonder?” Alice guessed in a moment that it was looking for the fan
and the pair of white kid-gloves and she very good-naturedly began hunting about for them, but
they were nowhere to be seen—everything seemed to have changed since her swim in the pool,
and the great hall, with the glass table and the little door, had vanished completely.
Very soon the Rabbit noticed Alice, and called to her, in an angry tone, “Why, Mary Ann, what
are you doing out here? Run home this moment and fetch me a pair of gloves and a fan! Quick,
now!” He took me for his housemaid!” said Alice, as she ran off. “How surprised he’ll be when
he finds out who I am!” As she said this, she came upon a neat little house, on the door of which
was a bright brass plate with the name “W. RABBIT” engraved upon it. She went in without
knocking and hurried upstairs, in great fear lest she should meet the real Mary Ann and be turned
out of the house before she had found the fan and gloves.
By this time, Alice had found her way into a tidy little room with a table in the window, and on it
a fan and two or three pairs of tiny white kid-gloves; she took up the fan and a pair of the gloves
and was just going to leave the room, when her eyes fell upon a little bottle that stood near the
looking-glass. She uncorked it and put it to her lips, saying to herself, “I do hope it’ll make me
grow large again, for, really, I’m quite tired of being such a tiny little thing!”
Before she had drunk half the bottle, she found her head pressing against the ceiling, and had to
stoop to save her neck from being broken. She hastily put down the bottle, remarking, “That’s
quite enough—I hope I sha’n’t grow anymore.”
Alas! It was too late to wish that! She went on growing and growing and very soon she had to
kneel down on the floor. Still she went on growing, and, as a last resource, she put one arm out
of the window and one foot up the chimney, and said to herself ,“Now I can do no more,
whatever happens. What will become of me?”

QUESTIONS:
3. Alice heard the White Rabbit
1. "It was the White Rabbit, trotting
murmuring to itself, "The Duchess!
slowly back again..." How did the
The Duchess! Oh my dear paws! Oh
rabbit moved?
my fur whiskers! She'll get me
executed..." According to the rabbit,
A. Dawdling
B. Crawling what will the Duchess do to it?
C. Dashing
A. Dispatch it
2. The White Rabbit was anxious while B. Salvage it
finding the fan and the pair of kid- C. Lecture it
gloves. How does the White Rabbit
4. Alice came upon a neat little house.
feel?
A. Antsy
Which of the following describes
B. Glad how the house looks like?
C. Astonished A. Messy and large
B. Untidy and small A. Unwearied
C. Tidy and tiny B. Unconcerned
C. Bothered
5. Alice was in great fear of meeting
the real Mary Ann. Which of the
following best describes Alice's
feeling?
10. How does Alice look like before
A. Calm
B. Frightful drinking the bottle?
C. Mad
A. Dwarfish
6. When Alice was about to leave, she B. Gigantic
C. Voluminous
saw a bottle then uncorked it. What
did Alice do to the bottle?
11. She hastily put down the bottle
A. She smothered it.
remarking" That's quite enough I
B. She constrained it. hope I shan't grow anymore. What
C. She loosened it. did Alice do to the bottle?

7. Before Alice had drunk half the A. She kepting it


bottle, she found her head pressing B. She broke it
against the ceiling. What happened C. She loved it
to Alice? 12. Very soon the Rabbit noticed Alice, ang
called to her in an angry tone, "Why,
Mary Ann, what are you out here? Run
A. She's growing.
B. She's getting smaller. home this moment and fetch me a pair
C. She's hungry. of gloves and fan" how does Alice
react with it?
8. Alice said, "I'm quite tired of being
such a tiny little thing." Which of the A. She killed the rabbit
following best describes how Alice B. She answered it in the same way
C. She walked away
feels about her situation?
13. That's quite enough I hope I shan't
A. Scared
B. Exhausted grow anymore.
C. Glad How Alice does feels about it?

9. Alice is worried about what will A. Mad


happen to her next because she can't B. Disappointed
C. Happy
stop growing. How does she feel?
14. "Now I can do no more, whatever
happens, what will become on me"?
Explain. 15. Life isn't perfect. Sometimes, what
we wish for may not come true just
like how we want it to because it's
not yet the right time. Explain.

TEST V. Inferences

Christopher Columbus set sail from Palo’s, Spain, with less than a hundred crew members to
discover a new route to Asia. After spending a difficult time at sea, the party sited land early on
the morning of October 12, 1492. They set foot on an island in the Bahamas which they named
Al Salvador. Columbus presumed that the indigenous people were Native Indians as he was
under the mistaken belief that he had set foot on Indian soil. Probably some ten million
American Indians were natives to the land before the large scale in habitation by Europeans and
subsequent annihilation of Native Americans started. However, it took more than a hundred
years after Columbus discovered America for the Europeans to finally take the momentous
decision to make the New World their home. The Native American actually welcomed the pale-
skinned visitors primarily out of curiosity than anything else. They were fascinated by the steel
knives and swords, fire spewing cannons, brass and copper tensile, etc. that these visitors brought
with them. Eventually, cultural differences erupted. The native could not stomach the arrogance
of the newcomers and the scan respect they paid to nature. The Europeans settlers viewed every
resource- plants, animals and people as something to be commercially exploited. The Native
Indians were vastly outnumbered in the wars that ensued. The resistance they put up never
proved enough to stop the European settlers the nomadic lifestyle of the Indians, the relatively
unsophisticated weapons at their disposal, the unwillingness of some of their own people to
defend themselves in the diseases brought by the Europeans from their overcrowded cities that
decimated the native’s were: small pox, plague, measles, cholera, typhoid, and malaria. These
deadly diseases, to which most natives had developed no resistance, devastated many tribes
between 1775 and 1850. America was named after an Italian navigator, Amerigo Vespucci, who
explored the Northern parts of South America in 1499 and 1500 and later announced to the world
about the discovery of a new continent.

QUESTIONS:
1. Native Americans welcomed the A. Glory
pale-skinned visitors primary out B. Fascination
of something what is it? C. Glamour
D. Curiosity A. Careless about their
environment
2. The nomadic lifestyle of the B. A very unhealthy lot
Indians infers that they have less C. More respectful of nature
in weapons. What do you think D. Very ignorant when it comes to
was the result of their war against sanitation
the Spaniards? 6. What can be inferred in the third
A. They were victorious paragraph?
B. There was no war A. The Native Americans did not
C. They lost the war have any weapons with which to
D. They cherish the victory defend themselves
B. The Native Americans
3. The primary purpose of the probably attached to a lot of
importance and respect to the
passage is to.
nature
A. Disprove the notion that
C. The Native Americans did not
America was named after
know how to use natural
Columbus
resources
B. Provide a snapshot of the
D. The early settlers became
discovery of America and the
arrogant as they could
early years of settlements
commercially exploit resources
C. Explain how the Europeans
eliminated the native Americans 7. The last paragraph stresses
in their own land America Vespucci.
D. Discuss how the process of A. Italian navigator
colonization of America started B. Who explored the northern part
of the South America
C. Great person
4. The following are the reasons of D. A contributor of something
why Indians have not stopped the
European settlers except. 8. What if the Europeans have not
A. The unwillingness of some to come in America, what do you
defend themselves think the kind of life that Indians
B. Unsophisticated weapons at have nowadays?
their disposal A. Self-sufficient
C. The disease brought by white B. Dependent
man C. Prosperous
D. The ignorance of Indians D. Poor
9. Based on the information in the
5. From the passage we can infer passage, which of the following
that in comparison to the cannot be inferred?
Europeans, Native Americans I. Alien diseases wiped out a
were. large proportion of certain
Native American tribes.
II. The early settlers totally
eliminated the early A. Only I
Americans. B. Only II
III. To the early settlers, even C. I and II
people were resources to be D. Only III
exploited commercially.

11-15. Why America is multifaceted


when it comes to race and cultur
45