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BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY switches, hubs, and repeaters and may also include hybrid
network devices such as multilayer switches, protocol
Technology keeps on improving because of our converter, bridge router.
needs and demands. It keeps on changing. Technology
Computer networks serve a number of purposes,
comes in different forms. The increasing rate of
some of which include: 1) communications such as email,
technological innovation, everyone is dying to have the instant messaging, chat rooms, etc. 2) shared hardware such
newest model or the best technology but keep in mind that as printers and input devices, 3) shared data and
attaching too much of yourself to something is not that information through the use of shared storage devices, 4)
good. Now that many technological devices are invented, it shared software, which is achieved by running applications
has several benefits to businesses, studies, society and all on remote computers.
aspects. Technology has brought advancements in
A computer network facilitates interpersonal
agriculture, due to which food produce has increased.
communications allowing users to communicate efficiently
Technology has boosted every industry. Businesses have and easily via various means: email, instant messaging,
grown, creating more employment opportunities. online chat, telephone, video telephone calls, and video
Advancements in technology have led to the evolution of conferencing. A network allows sharing of network and
newer and faster modes of transport and communication. computing resources. Users may access and use resources
The application of technology has boosted research in provided by devices on the network, such as printing a
fields ranging from genetics to extra-terrestrial space. They document on a shared network printer or use of a shared
storage device. A network allows sharing of files, data, and
have changed every sector, be it medicine, tourism, other types of information giving authorized users the
education, entertainment or any other. Technology has ability to access information stored on other computers on
touched every aspect of life, making it easier, better and the network. Distributed computing uses computing
different. Technology has changed living. resources across a network to accomplish tasks. A computer
network may be used by security hackers to deploy
According to Ong , 1982 Technologies like the computer viruses or computer worms on devices connected
Internet continue the social evolution of communications to the network, or to prevent these devices from accessing
the network via a denial-of-service attack.
and information that began withspeech, writing and
printing. The Internet and the World-wide web (Web) In order to have a good computer networking
represent the latest “disruptive” technologies (Christensen, structure, we need to consider the network topologies. The
1997) by creating new opportunities for identity formation term network topology describes the relationship of
that disturb values that have been the mainstay of connected devices in terms of a geometric graph. Devices
communication for a long period of time. In the process, are represented as vertices, and their connections are
the computer is generating new ethical challenges in many represented as edges on the graph. It describes how many
connections each device has, in what order, and it what sort
areas of modern life. All the norms of a pre-computer
of hierarchy. Typical network configurations include the
society, including those associated with education, are now bus topology, mesh topology, ring topology, star topology,
open to question (Kizza, 1998).Technology has also helped tree topology and hybrid topology.
small businesses evolve and expand quickly. The use of
social networking, video conferencing, virtual office tools  Bus Topology - Alternatively referred to as a line
and other such techniques have removed all boundaries, topology, every workstation is connected to a
main cable called the bus. Therefore, in effect,
which, in the past, prevented growth. Thanks to technology,
each workstation is directly connected to every
businesses, small and large, can reach a wider customer other workstation in the network. These are some
base and grow and expand. Technology has also helped of the advantages: 1) it works well when you
small businesses evolve and expand quickly. The use of have a small network, 2) easiest network
social networking, video conferencing, virtual office tools topology for connecting computers or peripherals
and other such techniques have removed all boundaries, in a linear design, 3) it requires less cable length
which, in the past, prevented growth. Thanks to technology, than a star topology. There are also disadvantages
of it, 1) difficult to identify the problems if the
businesses, small and large, can reach a wider customer
whole network goes down, 2) hard to
base and grow and expand. troubleshoot individual device issues, 3)
additional devices slow the network down, 4) if a
A network is a collection of computers, servers, main cable is damaged, the network fails or splits
mainframes, network devices, peripherals, or other devices into two.
connected to one another to allow the sharing of data. An
excellent example of a network is the Internet, which  Mesh Topology - A network setup where each
connects billions of people all over the world. Examples of computer and network device is interconnected
network devices are routers, network bridges, modems, with one another, allowing for most transmissions
wireless access points, networking cables, line drivers, to be distributed even if one of the connections
go down. It is a topology commonly used for have only one mutual connection, tree topologies
wireless networks. Advantages: 1) manages high form a natural parent and child hierarchy.
amounts of traffic, because multiple devices can Advantages: 1) Other hierarchical networks are
transmit data simultaneously, 2) A failure of one not affected if one of them gets damaged, 2)
device does not cause a break in the network or easier maintenance and fault finding.
transmission of data, 3) a failure of one device Disadvantage: 1) huge cabling is needed, 2) a lot
does not cause a break in the network or of maintenance is needed.
transmission of data. Disadvantages: 1) chance of
 Hybrid Topology - A hybrid topology is a type of
redundant connections is high, which adds to the
network topology that uses two or more differing
high costs and potential for reduced efficiency, 2)
network topologies. These topologies include a
difficult and time consuming, 3) The cost to
mix of bus topology, mesh topology, ring
implement is higher than other network
topology, star topology, and tree topology.
topologies, making it a less desirable option.

 Ring Topology - A ring topology is a network ISPs (Internet service providers), the companies that
configuration in which device connections create provide Internet service and connectivity, also follow these
a circular data path. Each networked device is rules. The ISP provides a bridge between your computer
connected to two others, like points on a circle. and all the other computers in the world, which are all a
Together, devices in a ring topology are referred part of the Internet. The ISP uses the TCP/IP protocols to
to as a ring network. In a ring network, packets of make computer-to-computer connections possible and
data travel from one device to the next until they transmit data between them. When connected to an ISP, you
reach their destination. Most ring topologies are assigned an IP address, which is a unique address given
allow packets to travel only in one direction, to your computer or network and allows it to be found
called a unidirectional ring network. Others while on the Internet.
permit data to move in either direction, called
bidirectional. Advantages: 1) All data flows in Using the Internet, computers connect to each other
one direction, reducing the chance of packet using these topologies. They transmit data and
collisions, 2) a network server is not needed to communicate with each other, primarily using the TCP/IP
control network connectivity between each (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol). Think
workstation, 3) data can transfer between of TCP/IP as a book of rules, a step-by-step guide that each
workstations at high speeds, 4) additional computer uses to know how to talk to another computer. If
workstations can be added without impacting the rules are not followed, the computer will not be able to
performance of the network. Disadvantages: 1) connect to another computer, nor send and receive data
all data being transferred over the network must between other computers. To connect to the Internet and
pass through each workstation on the network, other computers on a network, a computer must have a NIC
which can make it slower than a star topology, 2) (network interface card) installed. A network cable plugged
entire network will be impacted if one into the NIC on one end and plugged into a cable modem,
workstation shuts down, 3) if any individual router or switch can allow a computer to access the Internet
connection in the ring is broken, the entire and connect to other computers.
network is affected.

 Star Topology - Alternatively referred to as a star Network design is a category of systems design that
network, star topology is one of the most deals with data transport mechanisms. As with other
common network setups. In this configuration, systems' design disciplines, network design follows an
every node connects to a central network device, analysis stage, where requirements are generated, and
like a hub, switch, or computer. The central precedes implementation, where the system (or relevant
network device acts as a server and the peripheral system component) is constructed. The objective of
devices act as clients. Advantages: 1) easy to add network design is to satisfy data communication
another computer to the network, 2) if one requirements while minimizing expense. Requirement
computer on the network fails, the rest of the scope can vary widely from one network design project to
network continues to function normally. One another based on geographic particularities and the nature
disadvantage of it is if the central computer, hub, of the data requiring transport.
or switch fails, the entire network goes down and
all computers are disconnected from the network. Network analysis may be conducted at an inter-
organizational, organizational, or departmental level. The
 Tree Topology - A tree topology is a special type requirements generated during the analysis may therefore
of structure in which many connected elements define an inter-network connecting two or more
are arranged like the branches of a tree. For organizations, an enterprise network that connects the
example, tree topologies are frequently used to departments of a single organization, or a departmental
organize the computers in a corporate network, or network to be designed around specific divisional needs.
the information in a database. In a tree topology, Inter-networks and enterprise networks often span multiple
there can be only one connection between any buildings, some of which may be hundreds or thousands of
two connected nodes. Because any two nodes can
miles apart. The distance between physical connections B. Requirement specification
often dictates the type of technology that must be used to
facilitate data transmission. C. Network Protocols

Networks connect machines—which may be D. Security measures


computers, computer peripherals, digital telephones, or
other digital communication equipment— to each other for
the purpose of exchanging data. The data carried by a 2. To identify the problems in having a bad
network may represent voice, video, text, numeric values, network structure.
or computer-readable code. Regardless of its context at the
machines that send and receive the data, the data are 3. To provide all availability of software and
handled by the physical network as an uninterpreted series hardware of all users in the network.
of Boolean values or binary digits called a bitstream. At
this lowest logical level, these values of zero and one are 1.2 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
represented on the physical network as discrete electronic
pulses (baseband) or frequency modulations (broadband)
depending on the physical transmission method chosen for This study is significant to the teachers, parents,
a given network segment. and students. This study will help Senior High School ICT
students of the University of Northern Philippines to give
knowledge about networking design that involves
If network design structure has its own advantages of evaluating, understanding, and scoping the network to be
implementing it, then if there’s none of it, it can also give a implemented. The teachers and students will have a better
problems and effects for not implementing and designing a understanding on the network design for campus using
network structure. It plays a crucial role in every wired or wireless network. The knowledge of the students
individual’s and every organization’s everyday activities. will enable them to know the area of difficulty and strength
But there has to be some specific models or guidelines that by guiding them in suit their needs.
must be followed to connect one device to another. This
logical or physical layout or configuration of a network is
known as a network topology and without this structures This study will serve a s a basis of students to
our job or our work place will be be messy and we cannot further more in knowledge in networking design, for future
focus our selves because it is so messy that we can even researchers will benefit from this study and it will provide
focus on working and more and because of the filthiness of them the facts needed to compare their study during their
the room the persons who are working on that particular respective time usability.
room will be irritated. Without the network design the
cables that’s scattered around the room and may cause the
cables to twist each other and may also cause the employee
stumble their self.
1.3 SCOPE AND DELIMITATION

Network design is an ongoing effort at most


This study is focuses on the Network Design for
organizations because new applications and business
Campus Using Wired Wireless or both Network. This
growth create new requirements, which can be fulfilled
involves a survey for those who are Used Wired or Wireless
with ever improving network technology. Network
or both networks. This research is designed to have a
engineering, of which network design is a component, is a
thorough knowledge of problems of Wired or Wireless or
balance between performance and expense. So as
both Network on why happened those and how-to solve
communication technology continues to improve, resulting
their problem by being aware of the network design.
in higher data speeds and lower costs, network analysis and
redesign is continually necessary to maintain that balance
effectively. 1.4 Keywords

The following words are the keywords for this


study.
1.1 STATEMENT OF THE OBJECTIVE
Networking
This study is aimed to design and implement a
well designed network structure. Specifically, it is sought to Network design
meet the following objectives:
Network structure
1.To design a network structure a long with:
Technology
A. Network structure design
1.5 DEFINITIONS OF TERM

The following terms were defined operationally


for the common understanding.

Centralized Network System. This refers to a


type of network where all users connect to a central server,
which is the acting agent for all communications. Server
would store both the communications and the user account
information.

Management. It is the process of dealing with or


controlling things or people. It is also the strategy in
organizing and managing.

Network design. This refers to the planning of the


implementation of a computer network infrastructure.

Wired Network.It is a common type


of wired configuration. Most of it use Ethernet cables to
transfer data between connected PCs. In a small wired
network, a single router may be used to connect all the
computers. Larger network often involve multiple routers
or switches that connect to each other.

Wireless Network. This refers to the computer


network where there is no physical wired connection
between sender and receiver

Network. set of connected computers

Computer. device that performs processes,


calculations and operations based on instructions

Network structure. one in which more than one


organization combine to produce a good or provide a
service.

Topology. study of geometric properties and


spatial relations

Internet. global computer network providing a


variety of information and communication

Technology. scientific knowledge for practical


purposes