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Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach

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You are on page 1of 8

CLOSED BOOK

(one page of notes allowed)

Write your answers on these pages and show your work. If you feel that a question is not fully

specified, state any assumptions you need to make in order to solve the problem. You may use

the backs of these sheets for scratch work.

Write your name on this and all other pages of this exam. Make sure your exam contains seven

problems on eight pages.

Name ________________________________________________

Student ID ________________________________________________

1 _____ 25

2 _____ 10

3 _____ 15

4 _____ 10

5 _____ 15

6 _____ 15

7 _____ 10

(over)

CS 540-1 2 Name ____________________

Convert the following English sentences to first-order predicate calculus. Be sure to use

reasonable predicates and functions.

hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh

hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh

hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh

hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh

hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh

hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh

Currently, apples cost more per pound than any other fruit.

hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh

[You must use situation calculus here, where the action is gotTrafficTicket(?ticketType, ?person).]

(over)

CS 540-1 3 Name ____________________

Assume that working memory contains the following facts:

sensor(Mineral, Dir1, 5) sensor(Wall, Dir2, 9) sensor(Food, Dir3, 7)

sensor(Nothing, Dir4, 8) sensor(Mineral, Dir5, 3) sensor(Mineral, Dir6, 5)

sensor(Mineral, Dir7, 7) sensor(Mineral, Dir8, 2) sensor(Food, Dir9, 8)

findSomeObject

{

NOT (foundSomething())

sensor(?object, ?direction, ?distance)

⇒

assert(foundSomething())

assert(closestObject(?object, ?direction, ?distance))

}

findClosestObject

{

closestObject(?object1, ?direction1, ?distance1)

sensor(?object2, ?direction2, ?distance2)

lessThan(?distance2, ?distance1)

⇒

retract(closestObject(?object1, ?direction1, ?distance1))

assert( closestObject(?object2, ?direction2, ?distance2))

}

The conflict resolution strategy is to execute the matching rule that has the most preconditions.

Also assume that a rule will never be executed more than once with the same variable bindings.

Negation-by-failure is used, and lessThan is a procedurally defined predicate.

List below, in order, the changes to working memory that this production system will make.

(When there are multiple ways to match sensor(), break ties by choosing the lowest

numbered direction.)

(over)

CS 540-1 4 Name ____________________

Consider the Prolog program below.

a(1, 3).

a(2, 2).

a(3, 1).

b(2, 4).

b(3, 6).

b(4, 8).

r(X, Y) :- a(X, Z), b(Z, Y).

r(X, Y) :- a(X, X).

What would Prolog return if given the following queries? (Report all the answers returned, in

the order Prolog would return them.)

h hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh

?- r(2, 2).

h hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh

?- r(V, W).

hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh

Show below the search tree that Prolog explores when given the r(2, 2) query. Number the

nodes to indicate the order they were visited.

(over)

CS 540-1 5 Name ____________________

Draw a semantic network that captures the following (hypothetical) world knowledge.

There are three kinds of computers: mainframe, mini, and personal (PCs).

All computers run Unix.

Windows95 only runs on personal computers.

The price of mainframes is high, of minicomputers is moderate, and of PCs is low.

The XYZ brand of personal computers has a very low price, but does not run Windows95.

(over)

CS 540-1 6 Name ____________________

hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh

hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh

If a logical reasoning system never produces anything that does not logically following from

its axioms ("givens"), then we say that system is _______________.

hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh

hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh

hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh

P(?x, F(?x, G(?y)), ?y) P(A, ?z, G(C, C))

(over)

CS 540-1 7 Name ____________________

(A) Starting with the following givens, formally prove (for simplicity, the predicate state()

and some additional frame axioms are not used here):

∃ s color(Box1, Red, s)

WFF Justification

hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh

location(Loc1) ∧ location(Loc2) ∧ (Loc1 != Loc2)

2 at(Box1, Loc1, S0) ∧ at(Box2, Loc2, S0) ∧ given

color(Box1, Blue, S0) ∧ color(Box2, Red, S0)

3 ∀ b,p,s box(b) ∧ paint(p) ∧ at(b, Loc2, s) given

⇒ color(b, p, result(Paint(b, p), s))

4 ∀ b1,b2,p1,p2,s box(b1) ∧ (b1 != b2) ∧ color(b1, p1, s) given

⇒ color(b1, p1, result(Paint(b2, p2), s))

5 ∀ b,x,y,s location(y) ∧ at(b, x, s) ∧ (x != y) given

⇒ at(b, y, result(Move(b, y), s))

6 ∀ b1,b2,x,y,s at(b1, x, s) ∧ (b1 != b2) given

⇒ at(b1, x, result(Move(b2, y), s))

7 ∀ x,y (x != y) ⇒ (y != x) given

(B) Circle one (1) frame axiom in the above (just circle its identifying number).

(over)

CS 540-1 8 Name ____________________

Devise an interpretation that shows that the following predicate calculus does not capture the

accompanying English sentence. Justify your answer by calculating the truth value of the logical

sentence in the interpretation you devised.

∀ x { ∃ y [ person(x) ∧ person(y) ⇒ sees(x, y) ] }

(over)

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