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# VELAMMAL ENGINEERING COLLEGE, CHENNAI – 66

MODEL EXAM
Set-1

## Subject : Design of Electrical apparatus VET/EVLP/EEE/QP

Sub Code: EE 1403 Max. Marks: 100
Time: 3 Hours

## PART – A (10x2=20 Marks)

1. Define specific electric loading.
2. What is leakage coefficient?
3. Write the expression for output coefficient of dc machine.
4. Mention ant four parameters that influences the specific magnetic loading.
5. Mention any four methods of cooling transformers.
6. Write the output equation of 3 phase transformer.
7. What are the merits of slip ring induction motor over squirrel cage induction motor?
8. What is the function of end rings in squirrel cage induction motor.
9. State the merits of CAD in electrical machines.
10. Why the field structure is a rotating member in 3 phase synchronous machine?
11. What is real and apparent flux density?
12. Define field form factor.
13. Define gap contraction factor for slots.
14. What is fringing flux?
15. Compare Core and Shell type transformers.
16. Mention any four methods of cooling transformers.
17. What are the materials used for slip rings and brushes in induction motor?
18. How the induction motor can be designed for best power factor?
19. What is short circuit ratio (SCR)?
20. Mention the factors that govern the design of field system of alternator.

## PART-B (5x16=80 Marks)

21. (a) (i) A stator of machine has a smooth surface, but irs rotor has open type of slots
with slot width equal to tooth width= 12 mm. and the length of airgap = 2 mm. Find
the effective length of airgap, if its Carter’s coefficient =1/(1+5(lg /Ws)). (8)

(ii) Calculate the apparent flux density at a particular section of tooth from the following
data: Tooth width = 12 mm, slot width = 10 mm, gross core length = 0.32 m, No. of
ventilating ducts = 4 with each 10 mm wide, real flux density = 2.2 wb/m2.. Permeability of
teeth corresponding to real flux density = 31.4 x 10- 6 H/m. Stacking factor = 0.9. (8)

(b) (i) State and explain the advantages of hydrogen cooling as applied to turbo
alternator.
(8)
(ii) Calculate the mmf required for the airgap of a machine having core length 0.32 m
including 4 ducts of 10 mm each. Pole arc=0.19 m, slot pitch = 65.4 mm, slot opening = 5
mm, airgap length = 5 mm, flux per pole = 52 mWb. Given Carter’s coefficient is 0.18
for opening/gap = 1 and is 0.28 opening per gap = 2. (8)

12. (a) Explain the procedure for the selection of number of poles in dc machine
(b) For a preliminary design of a 50 HP, 230V, 1400 rpm, dc shunt motor. Calculate the armature
diameter and core length, the number of poles and peripheral speed. Take Bav=0.5 wb/sq.m,
ac/m=25000, Efficiency=0.9 (16)

13. (a) Estimate the main dimensions including winding conductor area of a 3-phase
delta-star core type transformer rated at 300 KVA, 6600/440 V, 50 Hz. A suitable
core with 3 – steps having a circumscribing circle of 0.25m diameter and leg spacing
of 0.4m is available. Emf per turn = 8.5V, Current density = 2.5 A/mm sq, Kw = 0.28,
Sf = 0.9 (stacking factor) (16)

(b) The tank of 1250 KVA natural oil cooled transformer has the dimensions length,
width and height as 0.65 x 1.55 x 1.85 m respectively. The load loss = 13.1 KW, loss
dissipation due to radiations = 6 W/m.sq-0 C, loss dissipation due to convection = 6.5
W/m.sq-0 C, improvement in convection due to provision of tubes = 40%, temperature
rise is 40 deg C, length of each tube is 1 m, dia of each tube is 50 mm. Find the number
of tubes for this transformer. Neglect the top and bottom surface of the tank as regards
the cooling. (16)

14. (a) (i)Derive the expression for output equation of induction motor.
(ii) Derive the expressions for design of rotor and end rings of squirrel cage
(b) Calculate the magnetizing current of a 450 V, 4 piole, 3 phase, 50 Hz, induction motor
having the following data. No of stator slots = 36, No. of stator conductors/slot = 30, stator
bore diameter = 13 cm, Axial length of stator = 13 cm, effective airgap length = 0.1 cm,
winding is full pitched , phase spread angle is 60o , gap contraction factor = 1, Assume that
the iron loss has infinite permeability. (16)

15. (a) (i) Explain the construction of synchronous machine with neat diagrams. (8)
(ii) Discuss the choice of specific magnetic loadings of synchronous machines in detail. (8)

(b) A 100 KVA, 3300V, 50 Hz, 300 rpm, 3 phase alternator has 180 slots with 5
conductors per slot. Single layer winding with full pitched coil is used. The winding is star
connected with one circuit per phase. Determine the specific electric and magnetic loading, if
the stator bore is 2.0 m and the core length is 0.4 m.Using the same loading, determine
corresponding data for a 1250 KVA, 3300 V, 50 Hz, 250 rpm, 3 phase star connected
alternator having 2 circuits per phase. The machines have 60o phase spread. (16)
16. (a) (i) State and explain the advantages of hydrogen cooling as applied to turbo
alternator. (8)
(ii) Explain the methods by which mmf for teeth is calculated (8)

(b) (i) Calculate the apparent flux density at a section of the teeth of an armature of a
D.C machine from the following data at that section. Slot pitch=24mm, slot width=tooth
width =12mm, length of armature core including five ducts of 10mm each =0.38m,iron
stacking factor=0.92. True flux density in the teeth at that section is 2.2T for which the
mmf is 70000AT/m. (8)
(ii) Determine the air gap length of a D.C machine from the following data. Gross
core length =0.12m,no.of ducts =one of 10mm width, slot pitchy =25mm, Carters
coefficient for slots and ducts =0.32, gap density at pole center =0.7 T. Field mmf per
pole = 3900AT, mmf require for iron parts of magnetic circuit =800AT.
(8)

17. (a) Find the main dimensions and the number of poles of a 37 KW, 230 V, 1400 rpm
shunt motor, so thet a square pole face is obtained. The average gap density is 0.5 Wb/m2 and
the ampere conductors per meter are 22000. The ratio of pole arc to pole pitch is 0.7 and the
full load efficiency is 90%. (16)

(b) (i) Derive the output equation of a dc machine and point out the salient features. (8)
(ii)State and explain the factors which govern the choice of specific magnetic loading in a
DC machine. (8)

18. (a) (i) Derive the output equation of three phase transformer. (8)
(ii) State and explain the different methods of cooling the transformer (8)

(b) (b) A 250 KVA, 6600/400 V, 3 phase core type transformer has a total loss of
4800 Watts on full load. The transformer tank is 1.25 m in height and 1 mx0.5 m in plan.
Design a suitable scheme for cooling tubes if the average temperature rise is to be limited
to 35 degree C. The diameter of the tube is 50 mm and are spaced 75 mm from each
other. The average height of the tube is 1.05 m. (16)

19. (a) Determine the approximate diameter and length of stator core, the number of stator
slots and the number of stator conductors for a 11 KW, 400 V, 3 phase, 4-pole, 1425 rpm,
delta connected induction motor. Bav = 0.45 Wb/sq.m, ac= 23000 amp.cond/m, full load
efficiency = 0.85, pf = 0.88, pole arc to pole pitch is 1 . The stator employs a double layer
winding. (16)
(b) Design a cage rotor for a 40 HP, 3 – phase, 400v, 50 Hz, 6 pole delta connected
induction motor having a full load efficiency of 87% and a full load pf of 0.85. Take D = 33
cm and L = 17 cm. Stator slots = 54, Conductors per slot = 14. assume suitably the missing
data if any. (16)

20 (i) Stae and explain the main factors which influence the choice of specific magnetic
loading and specific electric loading in a synchronous machine. (8)
(ii) Deriv output equation of synchronous machine (8)

(b) For a 250 KVA ,1100 V, 12 pole 500 rpm 3 – phase3 alternator. Determine the air
gap diameter, core length, Number of stator conductors, number of stator slots and cross
section of stator conductors. Assuming average gap density as 0.6 Wb/sq.m and specific
electric loading of 30000 amp.cond/m. pole arc to pole pitch is 1.5. (16)