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INTRODUCTION TO PUBLIC RELATION

Question Paper Solution Semester-3 University Examination November


2017
Examiners have full discretion to justify responses and do the required marking
against the questions.

Suggestive PR solution.
Q.1.a. Define Public Relations? Explain the role of public relations in contemporary times
with suitable examples.

A.

What is Public Relations?


Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing the relationship between an organization and
the public. It is the rearrangement of the truth to be liked. It is an attempt by information
persuasion and adjustment to engineer public support for a cause or activity.
Eg: Pink & White Consultancy Agency.

Role of PR

• Public Image Strategy

• Media Relations

• Community Relations/Outreach Events

• Building Reputation

• Social Media

• Handling Emergencies

Q.1.b. 'Managing uncertainty is essential for PR'. Explain the Crisis Communication Plan
with an appropriate example.

A.

What is a crisis?
An unexpected problem that will lead to chaos and disaster. Crisis may occur either by
negligence, by natural event or fatal act or any factor beyond the control of human beings.

Crisis Communication Plan


• Step 1: Plan ahead of time and create crisis communication plan
• Step 2: Put crisis communication team in place
• Step 3: Manage the message and the media
• Step 4: Communicate early and often
• Step 5: Prioritize the audience and carter the message
Suggested Examples:
• Pepsi Syringe Fiasco Campaign: In 1993, a Seattle TV channel reported that a man and
his wife in Washington had found a syringe in a can of Diet Pepsi. This was soon
followed by a spate of reports that claimed that consumers had found objects such as a
wood screw, a bullet, a cracked vial, and a broken sewing needle in the Diet Pepsi cans.
Within no time, 52 such cases were reported from 23 states in the US.
• 1982 Johnson & Johnson Tylenol Cyanide Nightmare Crisis Campaign: In 1982,
Tylenol, the leading pain-killer medicine in the United States at the time, faced a
tremendous crisis when seven people in Chicago were reported dead after taking extra-
strength Tylenol capsules. It was reported that an unknown suspect/s put 65 milligrams of
deadly cyanide into Tylenol capsules, 10,000 more than what is necessary to kill a
human. The tampering occurred once the product reached the shelves. They were
removed from the shelves, infected with cyanide and returned to the shelves. In 1982,
Tylenol controlled 37 percent of its market with revenue of about $1.2m. Immediately
after the cyanide poisonings, its market share was reduced to 7%.
Q.2.a. 'PR activities aim to earn public understanding and acceptance, to gain public
support'. Explain the statement with the functions of PR.
A.
Functions of PR
• Community Relations
• Investors Relations
• Guest Relations
• Public Relations
• Media Relations
• Employee Relations
• Government Relations
• Formulation of PR Policy
• Preparation of Corporate Statement
• Handling Publicity
• Dealing with Product Promotion
• Insititutional Promotion
Q.2.b. Difference between PR and Branding
A.
• PR: Creates identity of organization
BRANDING: Creates identity of product
• PR: Manages relationships (employees, government, investors etc)
BRANDING: Manages relationship with target audience (family branding, generic
intention, imagery, individual branding etc)
• PR: Ongoing
BRANDING: Event-specific
• PR: Hires PR opinion leaders for change
BRANDING: Appoints brand ambassadors for persuasion
• PR: Tools used are annual reports, press release, press conference etc
BRANDING: Logo, slogan, ad exhibition, sponsorship, sales promotion etc
• PR: Responsible for crisis management, media relations, investors relations etc
BRANDING: Reputation management through PR campaigns, rebranding, image
makeover etc
Q.2. Explain the concept of Dark PR at length. What are the qualities of a PR Practitioner?
A.
Dark PR
Process of destroying someone's reputation and corporate identity. Finding dirty secrets of the
target and turning them against their very own holder.
Eg: Burger King's dark PR act- 'Why dine with a Joker when you can dine with the king.'
• Honey traps: an agent seduces the target (or hires someone to do so) and later blackmails
the target
• False content
• Social media and email manipulation
• Unauthorized leaks
Qualities of PRP
• Intellectual curiosity: Check out new ways of thinking about and doing PR
• Passion
• Dedication
• Transparency
• Humility
• Generosity
• Has a desire to learn
• Ability to embrace a service mentality: A good PR practioner aims to serve both his
client and the traditional or social media person he or she is working with and share
network even when there’s no immediate or apparent payoff.
• Ability to embrace change
Q.3.a. State any 4 points of difference between In-house PR and PR agency.
A.
• PR AGENCY: Independent
IN-HOUSE PR: A unit that functions as a part of an organization; not independent.
• PR AGENCY: Serves multiple businesses
IN-HOUSE PR: Only works for a specific organization
• PR AGENCY: Tend to provide only a generalized,or non-specific understanding of the
problem because they deal with many clients at once
IN-HOUSE PR: Company-centric focus
• PR AGENCY: Costly and charge clients according to their time worked. If PR agencies
are unable to fix the problem quickly, then there is the possibility that more time is
needed, which equals more money paid.
IN-HOUSE PR: Cost efficient since having only one client typically eliminates many of
the elevated costs found with PR agencies and they have enough time to fix the problem
of PR
Q.3.b. Plan and organize an innovative press conference for a trailer launch of latest TV
series or a movie.
A.
What is a press conference?
A press conference is a meeting organized for the purposes of distributing information to the
media and answering questions from reporters. Normally the press conference is led by the
company's executive management or their appointed press liaison.
Planning and organizing the press conference
• Define the purpose of arranging a press conference
• Decide the authorities that will be involved
• Prepare a notice to be sent to media houses
• Agenda must be clearly prepared
• Time management policy to be followed
• Infrastructural arreangements
• PR officials appoint volunteers
• Preparation of media kit
• Effective coordination
• Follow-ups
Q.3. Describe media and non-media public relations tools and what are the impotant
factors to be kept in mind while implementing them?
A.
Media Tools
• Social Media
• Videos and films
• Webpages
• Press releases
• Press conference
• Media pitch
• Press kit
• House journals
Non-Media Tools
• Fairs and exhibitions
• Sponsorship programmes
• Meetings and seminars
• Open houses
Factors to be kept in mind during implementation:
• Need of the tool for the particular PR activity
• Is it an appropriate tool for the event
• Publicity factors
• Information
• Grabbing attention
• Type of target audience
Q.4.a. Discuss the need for social responsibility of organizations towards different interest
groups.
A.
What is CSR?
Corporate social responsibility is a form of corporate self-regulation integrated into a business
model. CSR refers to business practice that involves participating in initiatives that benefit
society.
Need of CSR
• CSR gives a good impression
• Good reputation
• Ethical company is appealing for clients
• Competitive advantage
Q.4.b. What are the factors to be kept in mind while choosing PR agency?
A.
What is a PR agency?
A public relations firm is a professional services organization, generally hired to conceive,
produce and manage un-paid messages to the public through the media on behalf of a client, with
the intention of changing the public’s actions by influencing their opinions.
Factors to remember while choosing a PR aagency:
• Reputated name
• Perceptive approach
• Competitiveness
• Willingness to work with others
• Expertise
• Trending Knowledge
• Connections
• Right background
• Right price point
Q.4. What is New Age Media? Illustrate the importance of new age media in the context of
PR with a support of PR campaign.
A.
What is new age media?
New media are the latest technologies like computers, laptops, smartphones, USB and the
internet age.
Importance of new media
• Interactivity
• Accessibility
• Convinience
• Community building
• Knowledge sharing
• Engagement
• Social media as an important subset
• Infinite reach
• Wider connectivity
Suggested PR campaign examples:
• Mc Donalds Canada 'Our Food. Your Questions': McDonalds Canada set up a website
which encourages consumers to ask them questions, which they genuinely and quickly
answer to keep the discussion going. It’s a way of connecting the individual with the
company and a brilliant tactic for busting some of the myths about what goes into
McDonald’s food. It quickly became a hit with the public. The site creates transparency
and makes consumers feel personally involved. McDonalds scored 21% better with focus
groups regarding the quality of their ingredients after this campaign had spread.

• Hershey's Sweet Independence: Hershey's launched its 'Simple Pleasures' line to provide
a product without compromise: good taste and less fat. The company employed Facebook
engagement activities and sampling events to launch the new line of chocolates that
promised 30% less fat than the average found in the leading milk chocolates. To share its
newest creation with consumers, the chocolate manufacturer with Ketchum launched a
campaign called 'Sweet Independence' that included exclusive contests, rewards and gifts
for the customers while they enjoy the exclusive new chocolate line. The campaign
resulted in increased media impressions and increased sales forecasts.

• Narendra Modi 2014 NaMo: Modi led the BJP in the 2014 general election, which gave
the party a majority in the Lok Sabha using social media. Modi projected himself as a
person who could bring about 'development' without focus on any specific policies. His
message found support among young Indians throught the online world and among
middle-class citizens.

Q.5. Write short notes on:

(a) PR v/s sales promotion

A.

• PR: Influences masses and appeals opinions


SP: Influences class segmented target audience

• PR: Boosts sales


SP: Shoots sales

• PR: Long term impact in branding


SP: Immediate impact in branding and sales

• PR: Image specific


SP: Product specific

• PR: JK. Cement #Every Woman Right Campaign


SP: Grocery Sale- Amazon coupons: 90% Off Offers + 70% Cashback Cash Karo

(b) Impression management techniques

A.

• Self-description

• Flattery

• Confirmity

• Accounts

• Apologies

• Acclaiming
• Favours

(c) Opinion leaders in PR communication

A.

• Opinion leadership is leadership by an active media user who interprets the meaning of
media messages or content for lower-end media users.

• Typically the opinion leader is held in high esteem by those who accept their opinions.

• Opinion leaders are mediated for promotional purposes

• Found in the two-step flow model of communication where a source transmit the
message to the media. The message is taken by the opinion leaders through the media and
then disclosed to the public.

• Opinion leaders influence the public

• Found in various social classes.

• These are representatives who have more access and understanding of the media

(d) Investors Relations and PR

A.

• Investors public constitute of stockholders, debenture holders, depositor, creditors,


financial agencies and other financial institutions

• Investor Relations (IR) is a strategic management responsibility that is capable of


integrating finance, communication, marketing and securities law compliance

• Enables the most effective two-way communication between a company, the financial
community, and other constituencies

• Contributes to a company's securities achieving fair valuation

• To maintain the financial health of the company

• The term describes the department of a company devoted to handling inquiries from
shareholders and investors, as well as others who might be interested in a company's
stock or financial stability

(e) Media pitch

A.
A media pitch is a brief letter, email or phone call offering a news story to a journalist or editor
at a newspaper, magazine, radio or television station. The aim of the pitch is to create interest in
the story and to find out if the contact is willing to use it.

• Less formal than a press release

• More creative than a press release

• Drafted in a letter to editor format

• To the point

• Encourages call to action

• Catchy headline

• 1st para: Straight to the point

• 2nd para: Addresses the 5Ws and 1H of the business

• 3rd para: Testimonial

• 4th para: The offer

• Final para: Call to action