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4/5/2019

4/5/2019 G R O U N D IMPROVEMENT TECHNIQUE ASSIGNMENT RAMEES MAJEED (2018MCIVGT0024) SUBMITTED TO :

GROUND

IMPROVEMENT

TECHNIQUE

ASSIGNMENT

4/5/2019 G R O U N D IMPROVEMENT TECHNIQUE ASSIGNMENT RAMEES MAJEED (2018MCIVGT0024) SUBMITTED TO :

RAMEES MAJEED (2018MCIVGT0024)

SUBMITTED TO: -PROF. DR B.A. MIR / MR AASIF HUSSAIN DEPARTMENT: GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY SRINAGAR

TYPE OF SOIL COMPACTION EQUIPMENTS

The soil compaction equipments can be divided into two groups:

Light soil compacting equipments.

Heavy soil compacting equipments.

LIGHT SOIL COMPACTING EQUIPMENTS

These equipments are used for soil compacting of small areas only and where the

compacting effort needed is less. Below are light equipments for soil compaction:

I.

Rammers

II.

Vibrating Plate Compactors

III.

Vibro Tampers

RAMMERS

Rammers are used for compacting small areas by providing impact load to the soil.

Can be hand or machine operated.

Rammers are suitable for compacting cohesive soils as well as other soils.

VIBRATING PLATE COMPACTORS

Vibrating plate compactors are used for compaction of coarse soils with 4 to 8% fines.

The usual weights of this equipment vary from 100 kg to 2 tons with plate areas between 0.16 m 2 and 1.6 m 2 .

VIBRO TAMPERS

Vibro tampers are used for compaction of small areas in confined space.

Suitable for compaction of all types of soil by vibrations.

They are usually manually guided and weigh between 50 and 100 kg.

HEAVY SOIL COMPACTING EQUIPMENTS

I.

Smooth-drum Rollers

II.

Pneumatic Rubber-tyred Rollers

III.

Sheepsfoot Rollers

IV.

Vibratory Rollers

V.

Grid Roller

VI.

Vibrating smooth wheeled rollers

SMOOTH-DRUM ROLLER

This Can be used on all soil types except for rocky soils.

A speed of 3-6 kmph is considered appropriate for these rollers.

About 8 passes are adequate for compacting 20 cm layer and contact pressure is up to 380 Kpa.

100% coverage under the wheel and compactive effort is entirely by the static weight of roller.

Can be mostly used for proof-rolling subgrades and compacting asphalt pavement.

PNEUMATIC RUBBER- TYRED ROLLERS

This can be used for both coarse grained and fine grained soils.

Compactive effort is by static weight and kneading and the contact pressure is up to 700Kpa.

Can be mostly used for earth dam constructions or highway fills.

SHEEPSFOOT ROLLER

This can be used for compacting fine grained soils such as heavy clays and silty clays.

The compaction of soil is mainly due to foots penetrating and exerting pressure on the soil. The pressure is maximum when a foot is vertical.

About 8% -12% coverage and contact pressure is from 1400 to 7000 Kpa

Compactive effort is due to static weight and kneading.

TAMPING FOOT ROLLER

This is best suitable for compacting fine grained soils.

About 40% coverage and contact pressure is from 1400 to 8000 Kpa.

Compactive effort is due to static weight and kneading.

GRID ROLLER

Used for compaction of weathered rocks, well graded coarse soils.

About 50% coverage and contact pressure is from 1400 to 6200 Kpa

Compactive effort is due to static weight and vibration.

VIBRATING SMOOTH WHEELED ROLLERS

Suitable for granular soils

The drums are made to vibrate by employing rotating or reciprocating mass.

These rollers are helpful from several considerations like

i. Higher compaction level can be achieved with maximum work

ii. Compaction can be done up to greater depths

iii. Output is many times more than conventional rollers

Compactive effort is due to static weight and vibration.

COMPACTION CONTROL

Compaction Control helps to accurately control the compaction process, while reducing unnecessary passes that result in over compaction of soil:

NUMBER OF PASSES

Number of passes usually ranges from 6 to 16 depending on the type of soil.

Trial section for rolling are taken as 20m×15m in layers of 250 to 400mm with 250mm compacted thickness being common using the same equipment as proposed to compact the earth structures at different water contents and also different thicknesses or lifts.

Sufficient number of tests must be carried out to evaluate the quality work.

For large structures, one test for each lift (thickness layer) and for every 3000 m 3 of embankment is considered adequate. For small works 2 to 3 tests per lift is necessary.

DEGREE OF COMPACTION/RELATIVE COMPACTION

Degree of compaction or relative compaction is defined as the ratio of field dry density to maximum dry density achieved by standard proctor/modified compaction test in the laboratory.

DC or RC =

γ ()

γ

× 100

(%)

The

structures 100%.

value of DC or RC for building works ≥ 95% & for hydraulic

COMPACTABILITY FACTOR

Amount of compaction achieved in the field can be controlled by the well-known controlling factor “compactability factordefined as:

CF =

ranges from 0 to 1

Well graded non cohesive soils give high values of CF, and uniform soils give low values.

RELATIVE DENSITY OR DENSITY INDEX

Relative density or density index is the controlling criteria for compaction of coarse

grained soil deposits, defined as:

RD or ID =

×100 = (max)

()

() ×100 (%)

()−

Where:

= void ratio in the loosest state obtained in lab test (RD ranges from 0 to 15%).

= void ratio in the densest state obtained in lab test (RD ranges from 85 to 100%).

= void ratio in the natural state obtained in field.

(max) = maximum dry unit weight of soil.

(min) = minimum dry unit weight of soil.

= dry unit weight of soil in natural /insitu conditions.

Relative compaction or degree of compaction and relative density or density index are

approximately correlated as:

RC OR DC = 80 + 0.2×ID

MEDIAN DENSITY VALUE

During testing process, some tests may give density values greater than specified and

some give poor results. Therefore, a median density value is specified to ensure the

average quality work. A limit of deviation of 3 to 5% is usually allowed.

The lab. Moisture content (OMC) serves as a guide for placement water content (±OMC)

for soils with appreciable amount of fines (>50%). If, however the earthfill is a gravelly

soil with more than 50% of gravels, moisture content during field compaction has little or

no meaning. Strict control on water content for non-cohesive soils is not possible. High

embankment in cohesive soils should be compacted dry of OMC and impervious core of

earth dams should be compacted wet of OMC.

PRODUCTION RATE

Production rate or compaction capacity assists in the selection of the most economical

compaction equipment, and is expressed as:

=

× × ×

× 1000

3 ⁄ ℎ

Where: P = production rate, m3/hrs. T = layer thickness, in m

B = Drum width, N = number of passes

S = rolling speed Km/h

COMPACTION CRITERIA

Rolling is done in trial sections in 20m × 15m in layers of 250 to 400mm with

150mm of compacted thickness being common.

Number of passes range from 6 to 16 depending on the type of soil.

Sufficient number of tests must be carried out to evaluate the quality of work. For

large structures, one test for each lift and for every 300 m 3 of embankment is

considered adequate.

For small works 2 to 3 tests per lift are necessary.

All limits of deviation of 3 to 5% is usually allowed.

SPECIFICATION OF COMPACTION EQUIPMENT

There is a wide range of compaction equipments. The compaction achieved will depend on the thickness of lift (or layer), the type of roller, the no. of passes of the roller, and the intensity of pressure on the soil. The selection of equipment depends on the soil type as indicated.

Equipment

Most suitable soils

Least suitable soils

Smooth steel drum rollers (static or vibratory)

Well-graded sand-gravel, crushed rock, asphalt

Uniform sands, silty sands, soft clays

Pneumatic tyred rollers

Most coarse and fine soils

Very soft clays

Sheepsfoot rollers

Fine grained soils, sands and gravels with > 20% fines

Uniform gravels, very coarse soils

Grid rollers

Weathered rock, well-graded coarse soils

Uniform materials, silty clays, clays

Vibrating plates

Coarse soils with 4 to 8% fines

 

Tampers and rammers

All soil types

 

There are basically two types of compaction specifications:

1. End-result, and

2. Method.

An end result specification usually specifies a certain percent compaction, i.e., 95% standard proctor. A more detailed specification will include a range of water contents i.e., ± 20% of optimum, and or a minimum lift thickness.

A method specification may specify the weight and type of roller, lift thickness,

placement water content, and minimum number of passes, over various combinations of these. For this specification, the responsibility rest upon the owner, and often test fills are

made to establish these specification details.

CHOICE OF TECHNIQUE

As can be seen that several techniques are available for ground improvement and the choice of the appropriate one is important. The following section gives a few factors to consider.

SUITABILITY OF METHOD

Some methods lend themselves naturally to certain soils. Vibro compaction of reclaimed sand fills is a good example. In reclamation fills, the sands are relatively clean, and therefore the method is very fast and economical, even to large depths. Some methods

and soils do not suit well together. Deep soil mixing of peaty soils is one such example.

A large quantity of cement or other binder may be required to achieve the desired

strength, if at all possible.

TECHNICAL COMPLIANCE

This is usually verified by design calculations to check for sufficient bearing capacity, factor of safety against slope failure or the magnitude of settlements (total and differential) etc. are within limits such as earth embankments and storage tanks are able

to tolerate settlements in the order of decimeters during the construction stage. Therefore

“soft” techniques relying on consolidation are often suitable. Such as industrial plants require solutions which do not allow settlements more than a few centimeters. In such cases hard/rigid solutions such as DSM in clays, densification of sand or some form of

preload (to preclude long term settlements) are required.

AVAILABITY OF QA/QC METHODS

The availability of methods to ensure that quality is ensured during and after construction

is important. Pre and Post improvement testing by penetration methods (e.g. CPT),

sampling etc. are essential. In addition, real time monitoring during the improvement

process using automated data loggers to inform the operator are very helpful to ensure

quality in addition the data loggers can be used to provide a printout of the construction

process.

AVAILABITY OF MATERIAL

Ground improvement uses a range of materials. Some natural (e.g. stone) and some

manufactured (e.g. cement, geotextiles). The availability of these materials will influence

the choice of techniques. Malaysia for example has several soft deposits in the coastal

regions with nearby hilly terrain. The hilly terrain makes some stone easily available and

has led to extensive use of stone columns to treat the soft coastal soils.

TIME

Methods which require long consolidation periods will obviously not be suitable for fast

track projects. Installations/construction time is also important. Nowadays however,

modern high production machinery allows a significant reduction in construction time.

For example, the use of the “twin” configuration in vibro or DSM equipment or the use

of computerized cranes to drop the pounder in dynamic compaction have very

significantly increased production rates.

COST

Assuming that the solution satisfies technical requirements, cost often becomes the deciding factor. Methods which use less or cheaper added materials are of course cheaper. However, if the “cost” of time or the risk of non-performance are added, then other apparently expensive solutions become economical.

CONVENIENCE

Solutions which do not require other additional measures such as the placement of a large pre load, or excavations (as in excavate and replace methods) are more convenient and practical.

PROTECTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT

Methods which produce spoil are of course not desirable. In-situ treatment methods which do not remove the soil or discharge excess cement /binder are preferred. For example, stone columns installed by the “dry” method only displace the in-situ soil. In contrast, the “wet” method of column installation flushes out some of the soil. For this reason, the “dry” method is often preferable. Similarly, in-situ soil mixing would be preferable to jet grouting where possible.