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C ommunications of the

A ssociation for
I nformation
S ystems

Panel Report DOI: 10.17705/1CAIS.043XX ISSN: 1529-3181

How do Machine Learning, Robotic Process


Automation, and Blockchains Affect the Human Factor
in Business Process Management?
Jan Mendling
Wirtschaftsuniversität Wien, Vienna
Austria
jan.mendling@wu.ac.at

Gero Decker Richard Hull


Signavio IBM Research
Germany USA

Hajo A. Reijers Ingo Weber


Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam Data61, CSIRO
The Netherlands Australia

Abstract:

This paper summarizes a panel discussion at the 15th International Conference on Business Process Management.
The panel discussed to what extent the emergence of recent technologies including machine learning, robotic process
automation, and blockchain will reduce the human factor in business process management. The panel discussion took
place on 14 September, 2017, at the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya in Barcelona, Spain. Jan Mendling served as
a chair; Gero Decker, Richard Hull, Hajo Reijers, and Ingo Weber participated as panelists. The discussions emphasized
the impact of emerging technologies at the task level and the coordination level. The major challenges that the panel
identified relate to employment, technology acceptance, ethics, customer experience, job design, social integration, and
regulation.

Keywords: Business Process Management, Process Automation, Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning, Robotic
Process Automation, Blockchain.

[Department statements, if appropriate, will be added by the editors. Teaching cases and panel reports will have a
statement, which is also added by the editors.]
[Note: this page has no footnotes.]
This manuscript underwent peer review. It was received 12/09/2017 and was with the authors for 1 month for 1 revision. Christoph
Peters served as Associate Editor.

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2 How do Machine Learning, Robotic Process Automation and Blockchains Affect the Human Factor in BPM?

1 Introduction
The business process management (BPM) discipline investigates methods and techniques to organize
business processes in an efficient and effective manner (Dumas, La Rosa, Mendling, & Reijers, 2013). A
key idea of BPM involves improving business processes by redesigning information systems to best support
the people who are working in the process. Indeed, many early office automation systems (Hirschheim,
1985), workflow systems (van der Aalst & van Hee, 2004), and various more recent process-aware
information systems (Dumas, van der Aalst, & ter Hofstede, 2005)—which researchers often subsume under
the term BPM systems (dumas et al., 2013)—all focus on this idea. Such systems hold and provide
information to workers, schedule and coordinate specific pieces of work, and support decisions on how to
best proceed.
Recent advancements in the area of artificial intelligence, machine learning, cryptography, and distributed
systems have provided the foundations for new technologies, including robotic process automation (Aguirre
& Rodriguez, 2017), chatbots (Shawar & Atwell, 2007), self-driving cars (Daily, Medasani, Behringer, &
Trivedi, 2017), smart objects (Beverungen, Müller, Matzner, Mendling, & vom Brocke, 2017), blockchains
(Nakamoto, 2008), and the Internet of things (Atzori, Iera, Morabito, 2010). Several recent papers discuss
the implications of the emergence of these technologies for BPM (e.g., Beverungen et al., 2017; Mendling
et al., 2017; Oberländer, Röglinger, Rosemann, & Kees, 2017). These technologies will likely affect how
organizations design and execute business processes in the future. However, it is not clear in which specific
way they will change BPM.
This paper summarizes the research background and the major arguments of a panel discussion at the 15th
International Conference on Business Process Management. The panel discussed to what extent the
emergence of recent technologies including machine learning, robotic process automation, and blockchain
will reduce the human factor in business process management. As Shazia Sadiq highlighted, these
technologies have a broad potential to affect BPM; however, it is not clear whether this impact will yield a
peaceful decentralization (Star Trek scenario) or of darkness and extinction (Terminator scenario). Thus,
this paper also contributes to our understanding of what impact these emerging technologies will have on
the way processes are designed.
The paper proceeds as follows. In Section 2, we overview BPM and summarize research that discusses the
impact of technology on business processes. In Section 3, we sketch some of the emerging technologies
and investigate their impact at the task level and the coordination level of business processes. In Section 4,
we discuss challenges and opportunities for research. We provide an edited transcript of the panel
discussed in Appendix A.

2 Business Process Management and Technological Impact


In this section, we overview BPM with the BPM lifecycle’s assistance. New technologies allow one to design
processes in novel ways. With reference to the redesign phase of this lifecycle, we discuss how technology
affects the way how one can improve processes.

2.1 BPM Lifecycle


The BPM lifecycle model describes how the different management activities associated with BPM relate to
one another. At the single process level, the lifecycle has five different phases: process discovery, process
analysis, process redesign, process implementation, and process monitoring (see Figure 1) (Dumas et al.,
2013). At its heart, the model illustrates how one can organize a BPM project or a BPM initiative such that
it arrives at an improved process.

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Discovery

Analysis

Monitoring

Redesign

Implementation

Figure 1. BPM Lifecycle

The BPM lifecycle starts with the process discovery phase. It focuses on one specific process. This phase
focuses on producing detailed descriptions of a business process as it currently exists (i.e., the “so-called”
or “as-is” process model). During process analysis, one applies analytical tools and techniques in order to
determine a business process’s current weaknesses. Process redesign addresses the most important
weaknesses and yields a reworked design of the process (i.e., a “to-be” process model). One subsequently
uses this model as the basis for process implementation. Process implementation refers to the various steps
to put the to-be process into operation, such as implementing information systems and measures to facilitate
organizational change. In the process-monitoring phase after one has implemented the redesigned process,
one continuously collects and analyzes execution data for their compliance with performance and
conformance objectives. Failing to meet objectives or changes of the goals and the business environment
can trigger new iterations of the BPM lifecycle.
Subjecting a business process to the management activities of the BPM lifecycle can lead to improvements
at the task and coordination levels. An organization achieves improvements at the task level when it
improves the duration, the costs, the quality, or the flexibility of a singular task. An organization achieves
improvements at the coordination level when the overall organization of handoffs between the tasks leads
to faster processing, lower costs, better quality, or more flexibility. Some indications suggest that striving for
improvements at the coordination level might have a relatively stronger impact on process performance
than improving singular tasks. Blackburn (1992) investigated the flow-time efficiency of business processes
in various industries and found that the cycle time of most business processes contains more than 95
percent of waiting time. At least for speeding up a business process, this finding means that reducing the
waiting time between the tasks (coordination level) is more likely to improve flow-time efficiency than
reducing the processing time of individual tasks (task level). One needs to keep this finding in mind when
we discuss the impact of specific technologies on a business process: the technology might have a dominant
impact at the task or the coordination level.

2.2 Technological Impact on Business Processes


New technologies affect how organizations execute and coordinate tasks in a process. Thus, one can see
a new technology’s impact most visibly in the redesign phase of the BPM lifecycle and, in particular, in
specific redesign heuristics. Reijers and Mansar (2005) present an extensive list of such heuristics. Many
of these heuristics explicitly refer to information technology as a means to achieve process improvements.
For instance, the task automation heuristic suggests that one should take an existing task and subject it to
automation. This heuristic relates to the task level. This heuristic ideally produces a faster, cheaper, and
more accurate execution of the task. The interfacing heuristic represents another example. It incorporates
the idea that organizations can use standardized interfaces to integrate their operations with partners’ and
customers’ information systems in order to make processes faster and more reliable. This heuristic impacts
the coordination level more strongly than the task level. These heuristics describe two examples of
information technology that affect business processes.
The 1990s saw a strong wave of business process reengineering (Hammer & Champy 1993) together with
major investments in information technology newly introduced to the market back then. At the same time,
researchers, including Brynjolfsson (1993), observed a productivity paradox of information technology.

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Apparently, investments in information technology did not always lead to productivity gains. Some of the
works that have tried to resolve this paradox demonstrate that productivity gains from information technology
investments require organizations to change their business processes in order to reap the potential benefits
(Mukhopadhyay, Rajiv, & Srinivasan, 1997; Grover, Teng, Segars, & Fiedler 1998). From the perspective
of new technology, Mooney, Gurbaxani, and Kraemer (1996) distinguish automational effects, informational
effects, and transformational effects. Automational effects emerge when an organization uses a new
technology to automate tasks that it previously did manually or with partial system support. Informational
effects materialize from better tracking, monitoring, and analytical insights. Transformational effects relate
to the changes in the mechanisms of coordination, which include disintermediation, outsourcing, or
offshoring.

3 Emerging Technologies
In this section, we focus on three specific technologies that might affect business processes’ potential to
automate tasks and facilitate new ways of coordination: machine learning, robotic process automation, and
blockchains. We briefly sketch their central characteristics and point to more detailed references.

3.1 Machine Learning


Machine learning is a branch of the artificial intelligence research area. One prominent category of machine-
learning applications is classification (Bishop, 2006). One can find classification tasks in various domains
that require expert judgment, such as in healthcare (e.g., determining if someone has a tumor), law (e.g.,
determining whether to sentence someone for a crime), or construction (e.g., determining whether a certain
construction would be stable). With the availability of big data in certain application domains, the potential
of applying machine learning for classification has also increased. For instance, Sim (2016) emphasizes the
importance of technologies such as IBM Watson for various diagnostic tasks in a medical context. One also
needs big data to train machine-learning techniques such that they can provide accurate classification
results. In this way, machine learning has the potential to partially automate a broader spectrum of tasks
that experts have conducted in the past. It might also help to coordinate different tasks in a business
process. In the context of BPM, these observations raise the questions for which specific application
scenarios machine learning can be effectively devised and which type of training data is required to make
it useful in a practical setting.

3.2 Robotic Process Automation


Robotic process automation (RPA) is an industrial response to the huge amount of manual work that
individuals perform on a daily, weekly, or monthly basis to support a broad array of high-volume business
processing (Aguirre & Rodriguez, 2017, Lacity & Willcocks, 2016). RPA is mostly associated with the task
level. The application areas include finance and accounting, IT infrastructure maintenance, and front-office
processing. The so-called robots are software programs that interact with systems such as enterprise
resource planning and customer relationship management systems. The robots can gather data from
systems and update them by imitating manual screen-based manipulations. From a business perspective,
RPA solutions are appealing because they automate repetitive tasks while being minimally invasive into the
overall processing that they support. An increasing number of organizations have begun to adopt RPA
solutions recently; however, this growth might diminish in the future when the next generation of enterprise
resource planning systems and IT infrastructure directly incorporates services for accessing data and
making updates. RPA raises interesting academic research questions such as how to design and program
robots and to integrate them with BPM systems, how to leverage RPA as a vehicle to support AI-enhanced
processes, and how to use artificial intelligence techniques to program RPA solutions based on goals.

3.3 Blockchain
Blockchain, the technology underlying crypto-currencies such as Bitcoin, is a distributed ledger technology
that enables organizations to engage in transactions without the need for a commonly trusted authority. It
is a promising technology at the coordination level and a potential infrastructure for facilitating inter-
organizational business processes. Its key strength is that it supports transactions between parties that do
not trust each other over a computer network in which trust emerges from a combination of peer-to-peer
technologies, consensus making, cryptography, and market mechanisms. Smart contracts are user-
definable programs that the network of computer nodes in a blockchain executes. With the addition of these
smart contracts, one can design the control logic between transactions in order to meet a diverse set of use

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cases that span the financial industry, logistics and supply chains, healthcare, sharing economy, and many
more. Proposals from the BPM research community include using smart contracts to express processes,
particularly inter-organizational ones, in an imperative form such as BPMN (Weber et al., 2016), in an
artifact-centric form (Hull et al., 2016), or in a rule form (Mery & Selman, 2017). In this way, large parts of
the business logic of inter-organizational business processes can be compiled from process models into
smart contracts to ensure that the joint process is correctly executed. Executing inter-organizational
business processes using smart contracts on a blockchain can remove several barriers (Weber et al., 2016,
Mendling et al., 2018). First, the blockchain can serve as an immutable public ledger, so that participants
can review a trustworthy history of messages. Second, smart contracts can offer independent process
monitoring from a global viewpoint. Third, encryption can ensure that data relevant for making decisions is
visible while the remaining data is only visible to the process participants that require it. Blockchain
technology raises interesting research questions such as how to devise novel execution and monitoring
systems for inter-organizational business processes, how to define appropriate mechanisms for process
evolution and adaptation, and how to identify patterns of redesigning processes using blockchain
technology.

4 Impact of Emerging Technologies on Business Process Management


In this section, we discuss the impact of the various emerging technologies on BPM. We first discuss the
impact at the task level and then at the coordination level.

4.1 Impact at the Task Level


To determine the impact of the various technologies, we follow Autor (2015) and distinguish three different
types of tasks:
1. Routine tasks are explicit and codifiable. They include the calculations involved in bookkeeping;
the retrieving, sorting, and storing of structured information in association with clerical work; and
the precise execution of repetitive physical operations in a stable environment.
2. Abstract tasks require problem-solving capabilities, intuition, creativity, and persuasion. Tasks
of this kind are typically associated with professional, technical, and managerial occupations.
They require employees with a high degree of education and analytical capabilities. They
emphasize inductive reasoning, communication, and professional expertise in open and
underspecified contexts.
3. Manual tasks require situational adaptability, visual and language skills, and personal
interactions. Manual tasks typically characterize food preparation and service jobs, cleaning and
janitorial work, grounds cleaning and maintenance, health assistance, and jobs in security and
protection services.
Emerging technologies will likely strongly impact routine tasks since they often provide the potential to
benefit from what Mooney et al. (1996) call automational effects. As such, these technologies could displace
workers in these routine tasks because they follow precise, well-understood procedures that can be either
codified or mimicked. Machine learning and RPA will likely contribute to this trend. The panel discussion
highlighted data entry and data validation as examples of routine tasks increasingly replaced by automatic
solutions that companies such as Parlamind provide. As a consequence, we might observe a substantial
decline in employment in clerical and administrative support.
Emerging technologies could also have a strong impact on abstract tasks. For these tasks, we might see
informational effects. The panel discussion emphasized that systems already yield much better results for
tasks such as diagnosing skin cancer. A serious challenge for these tasks involves the trust in the
correctness and accuracy of the solutions. The panel described one example: the process of assessing
whether to grant an asylum application or not. German authorities trialed a prototype system that could have
sped up the application processing drastically; however, the country did not end up using it because decision
makers lacked trust in its accuracy.
Emerging technologies can also have a transformational effect on manual tasks. Applications related to the
Internet of things, Industry 4.0, and the industrial Internet contribute to these developments. For example,
in a classical picking process in a warehouse, workers pick the products from their respective positions.
Companies such as Amazon have introduced picking robots that connect to the order information systems.

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In this way, the company has transformed the picking process from manual work to work that machines
perform.
One generally finds jobs intensive in either abstract or manual tasks at opposite ends of the occupational
skill spectrum: professional, managerial, and technical jobs are on the one end and service and laborer jobs
on the other. The computerization of routine tasks likely leads to the simultaneous growth of high-education,
high-wage jobs at one end and low-education, low-wage jobs at the other end. Both developments will take
place at the expense of middle-wage, middle-education jobs—a phenomenon that Goos and Manning
(2003) call “job polarization”. Various economic studies at different levels of abstraction have also confirmed
this phenomenon (Frey & Osbourne, 2017). However, the panel emphasized that jobs with routine tasks will
continue to exist because the emerging technologies still have too many limitations. Currently, they are not
profitable for tasks not highly standardized.

4.2 Impact at the Coordination Level and Work Organization


While emerging technologies may have a substantial impact on separate tasks, one needs to remember
that any job involves more than one task. Many middle-wage, middle-education jobs include routine tasks
but not exclusively so. The automation of routine tasks generally enhance the more complex tasks that such
jobs comprise and that automation cannot replace (Autor, 2015). One can see as much in particular at a
level where one needs to coordinate the tasks of many parties. Most business processes draw from a variety
of inputs: labor, capital, intellect, creativity, technical skills, intuition, rules, and so on. Typically, each of
these inputs plays an essential role. Thus, improving one task does not make another superfluous. In other
words, productivity improvements in one set of tasks will likely increase the economic value of the remaining
tasks either in a single job or a process as a whole.
One can find an iconic representation of this idea in the O-ring production function that Kremer (1993) has
studied. In the O-ring model, failure of any one step in the production chain leads the entire production
process to fail. Conversely, improvements in the reliability of any given link increase the value of
improvements in all of the others. Intuitively, if n − 1 links in the chain are reasonably likely to fail, the fact
that link n is somewhat unreliable has little consequence. If the other n − 1 links are made reliable, then the
value of making link n more reliable rises as well. Analogously, when automation or computerization makes
some steps in a work process more reliable, cheaper, or faster, the value of the remaining human links in
the production chain also increases. Benefits in this dimension might result from easier coordination of inter-
organizational business processes using blockchains. The panel discussed the case of AgriDigital that
achieves such improvements in the agricultural sector.
Kremer (1993) discusses the application of the O-ring model for the case of automatic teller machines
(ATMs). ATMs appeared in the 1970s and their number in the U.S. economy quadrupled from approximately
100,000 to 400,000 between 1995 and 2010. One might expect that such machines would have wiped out
the job of bank tellers in that period. Yet, U.S. bank teller employment actually rose, albeit modestly, from
500,000 to approximately 550,000 over the 30-year period from 1980 to 2010 (although, given the growth
in the labor force in this time interval, these numbers do imply that bank tellers declined as a share of overall
U.S. employment). Bessen (2015) explains this somewhat paradoxical development in observing that two
forces worked in opposite directions. First, by reducing the cost of operating a bank branch, ATMs indirectly
increased the demand for tellers: the number of tellers per branch fell by more than a third between 1988
and 2004, but the number of urban bank branches rose by more than 40 percent. Second, as the routine
cash-handling tasks of bank tellers receded, information technology also enabled a broader range of bank
personnel to become involved in customer service. Increasingly, banks recognized the value of tellers
supported by information technology as salespersons who forge relationships with customers and introduce
them to additional bank services such as credit cards, loans, and investment products.

5 Impact beyond Singular Business Processes


Clearly, the emerging technologies we mention in this paper impact more than singular processes. The
panel discussed the things they might impact and the challenges that this impact might bring for society.
We summarize this discussion in seven points.
1. Employment: the panelists expect that a good share of today’s job profiles will change or
disappear in the next decade. Frey and Osbourne’s (2017) model, for instance, sees a high
probability of computerization for jobs such as dishwashers, court clerks, and telemarketers,
which could imply that people have to become more flexible and change jobs more often than in

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the past. At least a share of the workforce will find having to become more flexible challenging.
However, it does not mean that our society will run out of work. The past two centuries of
automation and technological progress have not made human labor obsolete. The employment-
to-population ratio rose during the 20th century, and, although the unemployment rate fluctuates
cyclically, we have not seen any apparent long-run increase in unemployment according to Autor
(2015). Two effects compete here: technology’s destructive effect of labor substitution and a
capitalization effect of rising employment in sectors that achieve productivity gains (Frey &
Osbourne, 2017). It is difficult to foresee how these effects will balance out.
2. Technology acceptance: the panelists observed that the emerging technologies mentioned
often have low acceptance. As for why, one reason may concern the level of perceived
behavioral control (Venkatesh, Morris, Davis, & Davis, 2003). Indeed, technologies such as
machine learning, RPA, and blockchain are complex and difficult to understand, which might
explain low perceived behavioral control. Paradoxically, trust in human experts is high even
though they often do not agree or come to consistent diagnoses (Schön 1983). In particular,
solutions based on artificial intelligence need techniques that explain automatic decisions.
Otherwise, people and decision makers may not adopt fast enough even though the technology
has high factual accuracy.
3. Ethics: new technologies have effects that can be judged as good and bad from an ethical
perspective. On the downside, artificial intelligence-based solutions might simply adopt the
biases and prejudices that the training data includes. Such biases are concerns of ethical
standards in systems engineering (Spiekermann, 2015). On the bright side, technologies have
the potential to speed up processes that people find stressful due to their long duration. The
panel featured the example of a partially automated asylum application-handling process.
Beyond that, technology has also the potential to make business processes fairer and less
susceptible to corruption.
4. Customer experience: the panelists observed that organizations often use emerging
technologies mentioned to improve customer experience. New process designs increasingly use
insights from design thinking (Norman, 2013). Technologies such as chatbots offer scalable
solutions for customer communication and interaction, which were formerly too expensive with
human workers. However, in this context, one faces challenges in balancing automatic
interaction and human interaction. Customers might or might not realize that chatbots serve
them. In case they realize, one needs to question how they will act and perceive the interaction.
5. Job design: one can make similar observations about the design of the workplace and the
support of office workers. Research has established that job design has an impact not only on
performance but also on creativity and employee wellbeing (Oldham & Fried 2016). Using
emerging technologies can contribute to building an attractive workplace. In specific scenarios,
such technologies might also have the potential to protect workers from risks (e.g., sending a
remotely navigated drone instead of humans to a contaminated area). An important question
concerns how one can best integrate automated tasks and human work.
6. Social integration: the panelists observed that novel information technologies have the
potential to make people happier and more satisfied with their life. For instance, Ibarra et al.
(2016) describe how tools can help older people to make online contributions. The panel also
mentioned the case of elderly people using online tools to make appointments for knitting
together and the case of education management systems adapting to the pace of the learner.
On the downside, various actors have increasingly begun to use social media to manipulate
elections and to disintegrate society. Currently, we have no clear account on the balance of
benefits and drawbacks of these technologies from a social perspective.
7. Regulation: the panel highlighted that regulations are often discussed as a means to handle the
impact of emerging technologies such as blockchains and cryptocurrencies. Blind (2016) high-
lights that regulations have an ambivalent impact: empirical evidence shows the dampening
effect of compliance cost and stimulating effects of regulatory incentives. The panelists
mentioned the healthcare sector as an example where regulations hinder the adoption of new
technologies. On the other hand, anecdotal evidence suggests that entrepreneurs in the
blockchain space value regulatory clarity because it gives them certainty regarding the legality
and taxation of their ventures. In many cases, national legislators and regulators and
supranational organizations have or will become active in setting the rules regulating the usage
of specific new technologies.

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All these seven aspects require the research efforts of interdisciplinary teams. Insights from computer
science, psychology, business administration, economics, engineering, political sciences, law, and other
studies have to be integrated to investigate them in an adequate way. Also, curricula will have to evolve
beyond the narrow boundaries of specialized fields in order to develop a broader perspective on these
developments. Business processes will continue to be relevant research subjects in understanding the
impact of new information technology on the profitability of existing business models and the emergence of
new ones. We call for the BPM research community to reach out to these neighboring disciplines to study
the impact of emerging technologies such as RPA and blockchains and directions for further improving
them.

Acknowledgments
We thank the organizers of the 15th International Conference on Business Process Management, in
particular Josep Carmona, for the opportunity to run this panel. We also thank the Tutorial and Panel Chairs
of the conference Joaquin Ezpeleta (UZ, Zaragoza), Dirk Fahland (TU/e, Eindhoven) and Barbara Weber
(DTU, Copenhagen) for their encouragement to organize this panel. Finally, we thank the audience for their
active participation in the discussion. Unfortunately, we did not know the names of all persons who asked
questions. We refer to these individuals as “person in the audience” in the transcript. Finally, we thank Adam
LeBrocq for his great help in improving the stylistic quality of this paper.

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Appendix A: Transcript of the Panel Discussion


Occasion of the panel
15th International Conference on Business Process Management

Time and location of the panel


Thursday 14th September 2017, 10:40h - 12:10h
Auditori, Vertex, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain

Video documentation
Part 1: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6kpJDWE3sxc
Part 2: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p2z1uRKGdoo
Part 3: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EYB2ZHg7Ygo

Panelists
Jan Mendling (Chair)
Ingo Weber, Data61, CSIRO, Australia
Gero Decker, Signavio, Germany
Hajo Reijers, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, NL
Richard Hull, IBM, USA

Jan: I am very happy to welcome you here in the audience. We are heading into a panel discussion. There
are some exciting developments technology-wise that make us talk today about the human factor in BPM
and how far emerging technologies are challenging this human factor in BPM.
I am very happy that we have four experts here as panelists and I want to briefly introduce you to these
people. Next to myself, there is Hajo Reijers. He received a PhD degree from Eindhoven University of
Technology and is now a full professor at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. Welcome Hajo. Next to Hajo,
we have Gero Decker. He received a PhD degree from HPI in Potsdam, took his work into practice and
founded Signavio with others. Very happy to have you here Gero. Next to Gero, we have Ingo Weber. He
received a PhD degree from Karlsruhe and after working with SAP, he moved over to Australia to join the
University of New South Wales and then Data61, CSIRO, which some of you might know by its old name
NICTA. And we have Rick Hull with us. He received a PhD from University of California in Berkeley. He was
a professor at the University of Southern California for about a decade, and then switched to industry, first
at Bell Labs, and now with IBM Research.
Let me set the scene of what we are going to talk about. One thing that is important when we talk about
processes is that processes are inherently complicated matters, because there is division of labor in bigger
organizations. That means much of the work that needs to be done is split up in smaller pieces: there are
different persons, different parties and different companies involved with separate tasks, and we need to
coordinate them in order to integrate the fragmented results of these pieces of work. And many of the
developments that we see recently have an impact, either on the way how certain tasks are performed in
an enterprise setting or on the way how these tasks are coordinated. To mention just two examples, there
are technologies that build on artificial intelligence and machine learning, robotic process automation is one
of the terms in this context. All these refer to training techniques associated with tasks that can be
automated, such that humans are potentially replaced with IT based robots to do their work. On the other
hand, there are developments in terms of coordination – blockchain is one of the technologies that facilitates
coordination between different parties, and this also raises the question, if we will have infrastructures like
blockchain to take care of coordination.

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12 How do Machine Learning, Robotic Process Automation and Blockchains Affect the Human Factor in BPM?

One of the questions that is raised in this context is how does that generally impact work, on a smaller
process level but also on a greater scale. How does this affect society? And one of the challenging question
is: do we run out of work?
I want to briefly read out a small piece that I just recently found, and found quite interesting to reflect upon,
and I quote verbatim. It is a piece from the American documentation institute and they write the following:
There is a sizeable fraction of the workers which is unable to adapt to a new or different industry.
Recognition that this type of unemployment (personnel who cannot adapt) is a chronic effect of
scientific and technical advance, not of population growth, may lead not merely to retraining
programs in rapidly evolving fields, but a new attitude toward education. (Heilprin, 1964)
This sounds nice when you think of ourselves as being those in research and teaching promoting education.
One of the interesting things is that this quote is from the mid-1960s, so it is not very recent. I would like to
invite the panelists to make their entry statements, such as they can share with you their general
observations around these different topics and then I would invite you to bring in your comments, ideas and
questions such that we can discuss this topic in a broader audience.
So Hajo, do we run out of work?
Hajo Reijers: Well, it wouldn’t be so bad from some perspectives, but I understand that your question is of
course a question that is on the minds of many people, economists and other people. I think there is also a
genuine fear about the effects that automation has on the work that people do and indeed there have been
incredible changes over the recent past.
My position, however, is that fear for running out of jobs is heavily exaggerated and I think one of the key
elements to understand how this impact works is, that there should be a distinction actually between jobs
that people do and the tasks that these jobs are composed of. Any job is composed of multiple tasks and
what we see over the past decades is actually that automation, all kinds of algorithmic approaches - what
they do is that they target one particular type of task, which is often part of the jobs that people have. These
task are what you can refer to as routine tasks or to tasks, for which there is a certain procedure behind it,
there is a sort of repetition, sort of a structure that can be unveiled, can be discovered and that can be
translated into an algorithmic approach. These tasks clearly can be aimed at, can be targeted with automatic
approaches. By the way these kind of routine tasks are not always the cheapest tasks in the jobs that people
do. There may be other things manually that require manual skills, but these routine tasks are at an
enormous rate being automated in all kinds of areas. And if it economically pays off this will continue. Now
what I find interesting is that when you look in different areas in different studies and when you look at the
automation effects of the routine component in something that is bigger, it is not so much that the overall
system or the overall process is being reduced with specific parts of it. More than that, the overall value of
the system or the job that this task is part of is actually enhanced. So let me give you an example here. I
read an interesting study about the use of the introduction and the use of ATMs in the United States. ATMs
were introduced in the 1970s. In a study that looked at the replacement effect of ATMs on tellers - people
who would be working at banks and would actually hand over money to people who visited these banks,
you could clearly see that this element of the job of these tellers, the human tellers, was replaced and was
automated with these ATMs. These ATMs, the use, the introduction and the presence of these systems in
the 1990s approximately quadrupled. But what happened is that these people who previously did this part,
handing over money to clients, that this kind of job did not diminish, it actually increased over in the same
time period. And there were two factors behind it. One of them was that because the overall job became
more economical to hand over work in an automated way. There were also opportunities for banks to open
more branches; so there was an actually need for more personnel, and also personnel who were previously
working as tellers. But more importantly, these tellers had other tasks that they would do. They, the human
tellers, would explain to clients what the other Bank products were, for example. They would introduce their
clients to these bank products and would also do, I would say, minor sales elements. And these parts of
their job were actually enhanced through the automation of the more routine part of their work. So instead
of a decline, you would see an increase, though it was a small increase, and to be honest the number of
tellers as part of the labor population has decreased over time but in absolute numbers this went up.
And this is actually a part of a sort of a wider phenomenon, which is sometimes referred to as the O-ring
theory. If you have any type of system that is composed of different parts and the overall system would stop
working when one of these parts fails, by improving one part that actually the value of the overall system
enhances and doesn’t diminish. And you can see this also in business processes where, if you enhance a
certain task in a process, the overall process becomes more valuable and it becomes also more important

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Communications of the Association for Information Systems 13

that the other tasks in this business process are executed well or with a high quality. So, having said all this,
this explains my statement that it’s not so much that jobs will go away. Jobs will be affected, heavily affected
by automation and keep being affected, especially jobs which of course contain to a large extent routine
tasks will be heavily affected, but I think the fear that these jobs will completely disappear, those fears are
exaggerated.
Jan Mendling: Thank you very much Hajo. So, we are talking about these repetitive tasks. They seem to
be the key to understand what is going to happen with these new technologies. I want to hand over to Gero,
because he is not only the co-founder of Signavio, he has also expertise from being involved with a company
that is called Parlamind. And there are some scenarios more concretely visible that illustrate what we have
talked about. So Gero, maybe you can share some of your experiences in this context.
Gero Decker: Sure. I’m an engineer by heart, so I love technology and I love experimenting what’s possible
and push the boundaries. You know overall I’m excited about all of the things that are available now and
how it could affect things. But on the other hand, I am an entrepreneur. Having brought things to market
and having to convince people that they actually have to pay money for using that type of stuff, gives you a
reality check of what’s actually needed and what is viable in the marketplace. So talking about AI in
particular, conceptually, theoretically it can do so many things and it is an exciting thought exercise. It helps
you build self-optimizing, self-learning machines that can do all kinds of things that humans did before. The
question is when you want to bring that to market and make that work – what are the economics behind that
and when does it actually work and when doesn’t it work. Parlamind is an interesting example. It’s a
company that I’ve invested in very, very early, and what they do is, they automate customer service request
emails or customer service requests. They specialize on e-commerce only at the moment. So you order
something at Amazon; or you order something at Zalando. You have questions like “where is my package,
next Monday is the birthday of my girlfriend, I am waiting desperately, what can I do to speed this up”, or “I
ordered the wrong thing, I want to cancel it, or the thing that arrived is the wrong thing, I want to exchange
it, how does it work?” This use case is interesting because it seems to be very repeatable, a very replicable
scenario so that it is very easy to build an AI, a self-optimizing machine, that respond to these kinds of
requests. Because it’s one domain, you have a high volume of requests that you can learn from and it’s
actually something that is replicable over the companies, so it is not specific to one company but it is
replicable to let’s say, ten thousands of online shops out there. And with that type of scenario you can build
a machine that understands the sentiment of the email. So, for example, this person is angry or this person
is happy, or there is some urgency in there, or here it’s about conciliating someone. For example, “next
Monday is the birthday – I understand that it is super important to you. We will make sure we do everything
to make your girlfriend happy.” And this will be a robot saying that. I is not a human but a robot saying that.
And saying, well we can offer you, 10 Euro more for overnight shipping, to make that work and the likelihood
we have seen in the past is that, in the area that you work in – that you should be fine. In other areas,
however, I have seen a lot of attempts of applying AI and it has been super complicated and super hard,
and did not return the investment that you have to make. Why? Because it is super specific to the particular
use case, the training data that you need is specific to one company or to one’s special task at hand, and
you simply don’t get economies of scale to make that work at a reasonable price. To give you one example:
a friend of mine has a company that specializes in dynamic pricing. This is what amazon introduced, every
person at every moment in time gets a personalized price, and you optimize on certain criteria like for
example getting rid of your stock until a certain date and reaching the maximum price until then. And what
they found was that AI technology and machine learning technology works great, if you have more than a
billion in revenue with your company. If you have less than a billion in revenue for your retailer, the machine
learning is simply not powerful enough, and it’s much smarter to have people sitting there, building all kinds
of rules and decision models for pricing and campaigns and tailoring the price to the specific person,
because you simply don’t reach the scale for machine learning technology to be economically viable. Long
story short, great technology – but I think we are still early in the game to find out where is the viability of
those things and where can we make it work, not only conceptually or theoretically, but also economically
to return the investment that you want to have in business. If that investment is not returned, people will still
do things for a long time to come.
Jan Mendling: Thank you very much Gero. I want to turn to Rick with this observation you made that many
things are much more complicated. Data is versatile, and Rick has strong expertise in data management,
which he accumulated over several decades. Rick, I would like to ask you to comment on how the scene
has changed in terms of how we work with data in order to make all these scenarios work in the last couple
of years. How do you look at that?

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Richard Hull: Thank you. I want to mention three areas where data is really central to how the BPM world
is changing, both because of AI and because of Blockchain. And the first thing I want to hit on, and it’s kind
of related to what we were just listening to is, namely, data entry. So much of business process comes down
to getting data into the system, maybe at the beginning to launch a process or maybe in the middle because
more data is needed. And it’s really kind of a curse of our existence I would say – and I think it’s going to be
a curse of our existence for quite a while. Just one example in a back office processing for human resources
for hiring, terminating, promotions turns out that about 60% of the labor today is focused on data validations.
Data comes in and if it’s wrong, it has to be fixed – that can be a major pain. Now, how is AI helping in that?
It’s through the conversational front ends, as an alternative to forcing people to work with one kind of menu
based situations or putting in through forms that are handwritten. Conversational front ends, that are given
to us by natural language understanding, natural language generation and kind of machine learning to figure
out how conversations should be going, allow the data entry to be more natural, more intuitive, easier, and
faster to go in. But at the same time as just mentioned, the target for those conversational front ends is still
a very, can be a heterogeneous environment. Now, even though the conversational front end is kind of
simplifying, not only do I want to put data in, but I want to make sure that it’s consistent with the other data,
that may be in my environment. That can be a challenge because that data may be spread across multiple
silos. So, there is still this challenge of data integration.
This brings us to the second thing I want to get at, which is blockchain. What’s interesting is that in this
room, of course, everybody’s heard of blockchain, but probably half of you have kind of been reading up on
blockchain and understand where it’s going. I think for others that I have talked to it is still kind of an
unknown, you are thinking, “oh yes, maybe I should start looking at it”. The thing about blockchain is it does
represent a disruptive moment for business process or at least for some large portion of business processes.
This is because blockchain enables seamless data sharing between multiple organizations that are trying
to do business processes. To have a single shared repository of data, a single ledger, if you will. And it’s
got the encryption and consensus and this and that, so that even though it’s a single shared repository,
people are able to trust that the different organizations are able to trust it and it has privacy guarantees built
in. For example, maybe I am working with Ingo on something, but then Hajo won’t be able to see it, if I don’t
want him to see it. So, it provides this basis because of the underlying technology, it provides a new way of
enabling a shared repository. So this new approach is very different than today’s approach to having multiple
companies work together where each company has its own silo of information. This totally streamlines or
gets rid of the friction of data inconsistencies in many ways. Instead of having my copy of data and Ingo’s
copy of data, we have one copy of the data. And as the data goes in, we can be checking whether it’s
consistent with other data that’s already in there. Now, what are the implications of this shared repository?
First off, it is going to change the way a lot of business processes deal with crossing silos within an
organization or crossing boundaries between companies. That friction is going away, it is going to lead to
the development of shared data models so the companies have to get together about, what’s the data
schema of what they are representing. So suddenly, there’s economic motivation for industries to arrive at
as standardized data models. In essence this is going to bring back the whole attempt of the Semantic Web
community. Right? The Semantic Web Community was truly hoping that we would come up with
standardized ontologies for healthcare, for logistics, for finance and accounting, for HR and etc. Because of
blockchain people will want to start sharing information against a common data model and so these common
data models will arise.
Now moving to the third thing that I want to mention. Even though blockchain right now is focused on going
between organizations, the same principles will start to pervade within organizations so that if you have
different silos within an organization even those will start saying “oh I want the benefits of a shared data
model, oh I can use blockchain as that basis for the shared data model.” As the data becomes more uniform
and standardized, this actually will be an enabler for a shift in business process management from a process
centric or a data centric perspective towards a goal centric perspective. This will be an opportunity for people
instead of saying: “oh I need to put this data in and I want this task to happen etc.” They will be able to say:
“this is my goal and the goal can be expressed in the vocabulary of the shared data model.” And so now
this will enable the emergence of applying AI planning technologies against processes as we know it.
So, just to summarize, I am trying to get at three mechanisms where blockchain and AI are going to be
transforming how we do business processes. It will create a lot of employment for us, the research
community, because there’s a lot of details to be worked out. And as Hajo was saying, it will be transitioning
the kinds of jobs that people do, but it will be allowing more people to think about kind of goals and the
business values and the objectives that they are trying to reach. Thank you!

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Jan Mendling: Thank you very much. You mentioned blockchain and I am looking at Ingo now because he
is kind of the mastermind behind the blockchain activities in CSIRO. Ingo, you guys in Australia are working
on various scenarios and, as Rick said, the concept is quite abstract for many people. Maybe you can
illustrate some of the applications that you have been working on and your perceptions of what this
technology is going to bring.
Ingo Weber: Thank you Jan. Maybe that was a little bit too much honor. So, I want to do exactly that but
before I do, I just want to briefly take a step back and look at the premise of the question for the panel which
is: will machines eat the human factor in BPM? Now there are two premises in there, one is that basically
all human touch is good and, two, that people will mind if their tasks are automated. And as Hajo was
referring to these routine tasks, I think there are a lot of tasks that some of us have to do, where we wouldn’t
really mind those tasks being automated and that will lead to this transformation. Also in terms of all human
touch is good – in these routine tasks, quite often we find ourselves in a situation where the best
performance a human can achieve is not stuffing up. And so it is not necessarily a bad thing if this work is
transformed. Also of course the ethics of humans making decisions or the way they perform tasks are not
always perfect. You have things like corruption or bias. I think of things like corruption that we can probably
reduce by automating tasks. For example if we take customs processes in developing countries that in some
countries there is a lot of corruption, you have to bribe the right people to get your goods through customs
on time. Reducing that is probably a pretty good thing, at least for the general society, probably not so much
for the customs official. But when it comes to the ethics, we also have to consider the ethics of the AI,
because if you have a bias in the data from which you learn, you can learn to make unethical decisions and
can automate them such that they always be made in this unethical way. A different question also is from
this broader perspective is if people lose their jobs, then we have to also reconsider that wealth distribution
and purpose in life to a large degree for many people are associated with work. And that I think is a challenge
to society as a whole, which we probably won’t be solving in the BPM community or on this panel today.
But now coming back to your actual questions or blockchain opportunities and scenarios. Blockchain, I think,
has two primary features that are great in this regard: one is that they enable inter-organizational processes,
collaborative processes in a different way, they enable potentially more complex supply chains for one
example. They might make it easier for Fijian producers to export their goods to Australia, which can be
very positive. Topics like these we are working on. There is a startup company in Australia, AgriDigital, with
whom we interact quite a bit, and they want to reduce the cash flow issues in grain supply chains for
Australian farmers, which is a very important topic for these farmers. In Australia the suicide rate among
farmers is about twice as high as for the average population, and to some degree this is attributed to cash
flow problems, with the farmers not knowing how they are supposed to pay the salaries and for the goods
in the next month and by using blockchain to make this process smoother and make the payments faster,
that can be fantastic. I think back office automation can happen also to some degrees in the banking sector
with settlements potentially happening much quicker and needing less human routine operations to be
performed. The other thing that you can also get out of blockchain is that you have reliable data, data that’s
more reliable than previously. There is a start up from some friends of mine in Sydney, who want to bring
supply-chain financing and invoice financing to a broader share of the market. Invoice financing, meaning
that you can take an invoice, go to the bank and get a loan against this invoice or sell the invoice to
somebody. And for a lot of small companies this is currently not possible because the volume of the invoice
is not big enough and the checks that are needed by people are too costly for the banks to be interested in
doing that. So, I think when we talk about automation in this sense we also have to realize that, yes some
tasks that are currently performed by people may be automated away, but also, potentially, we can create
new business models and processes which increase the overall market dramatically and there are many
opportunities in that regard.

Jan Mendling: Thank you very much. I would like to open up the discussion for the broader audience and
I invite you to comment and challenge the different observations that our colleagues shared here.
Gregor Engels: Thank you. I have to say I work in two very huge projects. One is on work 4.0 1 asking what
the impact of digital transformation on the employees is. What I have learned there is that we as computer
scientists are not able to speak about the human factor, so we need people from other disciplines. In this
project, there are ten professors and only two computer scientists, all the others are from psychology,
sociology, from economics, from law and so on. And I think we need this discussion, this opening of our

1
See http://www.bmas.de/SharedDocs/Downloads/EN/PDF-Publikationen/a883-white-paper.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=3

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community to these areas. This morning, we saw in the talk 2 by Alan this pyramid of values. We are very
good in this functional values, but in all upper layers we have no idea how to realize systems, so that people
become happy, satisfied and so on. So, what I would like to ask you, why do you think that you are qualified
to speak about human factors, you are computer scientists, maybe business informatics people. You have
no idea about humans.
Gero Decker: How we are qualified to sit here? Because we got invited. So, we didn’t self-select ourselves.
Maybe I can speak to that a little bit. We at Signavio deal with a lot of companies out there applying process
management. What is interesting to me is, we always look at what are people trying to achieve, what are
the goals, what are their challenges. Five – ten years ago a lot of people were focusing exclusively on the
lower part of the pyramid – how can I save cost? How can I streamline things? How can I make things
faster? So, a lot about operational efficiency and making operations run smoother for the company. What
we have seen as a trend in the last two, three, four years is that a lot more companies are using process
management now. What we have seen is actually the upper right corner of Miguel’s chart of digital
transformation, 3 or both upper parts, so for customer experience and for employee experience, which is
very interesting. We have a lot of customers who optimize processes with the main goal of building in a
more attractive workplace, because it is so competitive to find people that they have to make sure that the
environment that people work in is attractive, is appealing, that it brings out the best of the people. So, this
is interesting. I haven’t seen this particular piece and research how to increase employee happiness through
designing process in one way or the other. But it’s happening out there in practice. Customer experience –
I have seen a couple of things here at the conference as well on how do you actually get back to the roots
of process management, if we remember where process comes from: it basically puts the customer at the
center and tries to work in a way that you achieve the customer’s goals or fulfil his need. That seemed to
have gotten lost a little bit in the last 10, 15, 20 years, and the focus was a lot more on the internal things
happening within one company. But in the latest survey that we did with our customers, actually 35 percent
of all initiatives are mostly driven by customer experience and improving that. I’ll give you an example:
imagine you are a car insurance company. What are your interaction points with a customer today? You
have exactly one interaction point with a customer every year and that is when you send the invoice and tell
them they just renewed their contract. Right? So, these nice letters are the only touch point that you have
with your customer. But what you actually want to provide as an experience is that you want to be there for
your customer every day when they enter their car. You want to make sure that they understand that when
they enter the car and they touch the steering wheel, that you are the safety net for them. Right? Whatever
happens to you on this particular day, I am there with you, I am working with you to keep you mobile, to
keep you safe, to lead your life in a way that you want to lead it. This has a heavy impact on how you design
your product, your service and this has a huge impact on processes and the things that you have to do to
deliver on that customer experience. So, I see good signs in there, walking up the pyramid and in practice I
see a lot of optimization towards those things already.
Richard Hull: Let me add to that. I think you are right as computer scientists we’re probably not so qualified,
but there’s some good news in some industrial settings and it started with Apple Computer and their
approach to designing products. Apple pioneered a new way of thinking about making products, putting the
user first, the consumer in their case. And so there has evolved a method that we call design thinking. And
now at least at IBM, when we endeavor to create a transformation or some technology for a client, one of
the first things we are doing is a so called “design thinking workshop”. This is a systematic method of steps
that we go through, starting with who are the stakeholders, who are going to be using whatever this
technology is. And we think in terms that there might be multiple stakeholders and for each one
systematically: what are they trying to do? What are they thinking? What are their pain points and what are
the feeling? So, there’s a strong discipline now of thinking in terms of the user as the starting point before
getting down to what are the kinds of solutions we’re going to provide and then finally underneath that, what
are the kinds pf processes that we will be setting up to support those solutions.
Person 1 in the audience: I think that what is happening when you get more computational power, is that
you start to do more unnecessary things. It was the case before when you tried to break the Enigma: People
calculates by hand and then suddenly you have a massive computer and you said: oh this computer will
solve every calculus that is needed of mankind. And with more and more, we have more graphics, and now

2
Alan W. Brown: A Leaders Guide to Understanding New Business Models in the Digital Economy. Slides and video recording of the
keynote are available at https://bpm2017.cs.upc.edu/keynotes/keynote-brown-2/
3
Miguel Valdés: Intelligent continuous improvement, when BPM meets AI. Slides and video recording of the keynote are available at
https://bpm2017.cs.upc.edu/keynotes/keynote-valdes-2/

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we have AI. So, what I actually want to say is that we’re starting to do the unnecessary things, which will
become more necessary, because of the experience. So, I totally agree with what you say. You start to do
more things and you have more possibilities, so that is what will happen. And also maybe you can start to
have new revenue streams from that.
Person 2 in the audience: Thank you very much for the questions before and your comment on the inter-
disciplinary nature of how BPM has to collaborate with our disciplines, because I see a lot in the industries
right now that BPM alone is not really surviving. We have to join with some other disciplines so that we could
give the business value. Because right now the companies are facing not only how to improve the
processes; but also how to find good people, how to really find a good profile, a fitting profile for the
qualifications, that they are looking for. And that is coming to my first question about the vision within
academia: how would you like to shape all the syllabus that you are producing right now to fit to the industry
needs, because frankly I have to speak, we are working on digital transformations, and we hardly find people
who can really do things. Most of the things people work, being specialist on some issues, but for some
certain point of view in a company and doing digital transformation, you need good affinities on the technical
side, you need an understanding of the organizational structures and people, and you need also to
understand processes. And not every studying program provides this all, and you have to be a good project
manager. So, the requirements of the industry is higher than before and they expect also that once that the
students are getting out of the university, they have to work and they have to function. So that is my first
question: How the academia has visions to change or to adjust the syllabus or to fit into the industry needs.
My second question is about the human factor in the BPM. I don’t think it is just only the questions of how
much automation and how much digitalization that we would need. Sometimes we are driven by some
factors, especially the demographical structures change. I went to Japan last year and I visited a hotel, there
is not a single person when I go to the receptions, there are robots. I got all my processes done via my
mobile phone and because Japan is one of the greatest country that has an eldering or aging society and
they don’t have much workforce to really respond to the needs of the communities. That is one of the issues
that probably we have to see how the technology could help and to what extent the technology could really
deliver. What do you think in your opinion, up to what certain level of service delivery that could be really
positive for the society? And to what extent of these kind of technologies, we are going to not be working
anymore, if we see the issues from the theme “I, Robot” [movie from 2004], for example.
Hajo Reijers: So let me indeed try to pick up on the role of the universities may have, I think on the one
hand we must be modest. I’ve been working in industry, I’ve been in touch with industry over the past 20
years, I always get request, why don’t you train people more to do this because we need this more and we
need that more. And I think what universities can accomplish in an educational program of students is in the
sense modest. You cannot prepare people for all the challenges which are multifaceted as you are pointing
out, a good project manager, somebody who knows from a technical perspective what’s going on, the
human side to it. You cannot address all these elements, but I do think that there is a fundamental change
that needs to be made and I think you can also observe this in different settings where for example in
educational programs, that I am aware of which were traditionally much more focused on a particular type
of technology, in even the state-of-the-art of that technology, that there is a shift towards helping students
assess the impact of these technologies, for example, in business process settings, where the technology
itself is of course important and is current, but where there’s a complete understanding that once the
students will graduate that there will be new technologies. So, for example, in the curriculum that I am aware
of in Amsterdam, courses relate to digital innovation where students take a particular technology and look
at existing processes or existing business models to think through, how these things could be affected by
incorporating new types of technologies. And of course the students have to understand that technology,
but it’s not so much the education on that technology, which is the essence of that part. And I myself am in
favor of having people think, train them to rethink existing structures or existing processes with knowledge,
profound knowledge, of new technologies. And I think that this is something that is very helpful to prepare
them for, I would say, a situation where we are fully aware that the technology and streams of new
technologies will be evolving all the time. So, if you have this mindset that you are trained in changing
existing structures, because new things happen, I think that is a very important strength for our future
students.
Ingo Weber: I first would like to also address the first of the two questions. So if we want to really solve
problems, quite often we have to work in an interdisciplinary way. I probably don’t need people from other
sciences to help me write a BPM paper. But if we want to, for example, apply blockchain in the food
provenance sector, that is different. Wil [van der Aalst] raised a point I think two days ago: how do you know

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that the data that’s on the blockchain, that is being fed into the blockchain, is actually correct. If you look at
food provenance, let me give you an example: a box of prime beef from Queensland in Northern Australia
makes its way to China, and somewhere along the way the prime beef in the box is being sold separately
and replaced, and so it “multiplies”. There was another example of a vitamin company, who produces I think
one million bottles per year globally, and in China three million bottles of their products are being sold every
year. So, with these issues, food provenance, medicine, etc. you have to understand that the product is
genuine. And so, the data that is being fed into a blockchain solution has to be trustworthy as well. To come
back to the beef example: we at CSIRO, we have different divisions across different sciences and sectors,
so for example we have an agricultural business unit and they are looking at things like analyzing the beef
and being able to tell from which pasture it came, on which piece of land the cow lived and fed. And if we
combine that with blockchain, then of course we can get a very valuable solution in total. But I agree [with
Gregor], we by ourselves might not be able to solve the real problems for the customer, so for the industry.
As for the second question about ethics: what I was referring to when I started talking about it, I think there
was this example of one company from the Silicon Valley adding facial recognition software to one of their
photo products, so it could recognize faces. And it turns out they trained this product only with the pictures
from their employees, which were primarily Caucasian and Asian. And that led to a case, where the picture
of somebody with an African background was then matched to a monkey. When we look at things like
machine learning, we have to consider these issues that we don’t have these kinds of racial biases in the
training data and in the algorithms that we produce.
Claudio Di Ciccio: I like the title [of the panel] a lot, and AI, machine learning, blockchain, I see them as
technologies. So the aim for which they are used might vary. I was thinking in certain cases, we like when
computer-aided systems can prove to be more effective and more efficient, because they allow us to reduce
the efforts and ultimately time, so we save costs, make more money, etc. But how about instead having
another viewpoint, which is not necessarily using these technologies to make things faster, more efficient,
quicker, whatever, but just to try to reduce the human risk. Like for instance, I remember during the
Fukushima disaster, we sent human beings to check the situation, this is high risk. Maybe in that case the
automation of this activity—I know I’m dreaming—would have been much more effective. So, instead of
thinking about these techniques as eating the human factor, we can use these techniques to protect the
human. [This is] question number one. The second question is more regarding the self-adaptation of
humans. There are certain jobs that for sure are going to decrease in appeal and eventually disappear. But
this requires people that were working in that area to re-adapt to do something different. However, we all
here are into computer science or related fields, and we are quite used to change the topics of our research
continuously, but some of us and our friends and relatives are not used to it. They can do one thing very
well and then –this is like business process reengineering tasks–it could be hard to really re-adapt again.
What I had in mind is that looking far ahead, couldn’t it rather be the risk that having these technologies we
can even increase the gap between who can actually have this at hand and who cannot. Because who
cannot and does not adapt is left behind. And isn’t this risky, in this case, for the human factor? Not directly,
but rather for the evolution and self-evolution. Like big fish eats small fish.
Gero Decker: So let me address the saving humans question. I fully agree. Everything you said is totally
correct. The one constraint is, what is actually accepted by people and where do they have reservation of
applying that technology. I give you two examples that we were involved in and where we simply couldn’t
get through, although to us it was all obvious that technology would have been the better solution. One is
recommendations for medical treatments. It is proven that if you take the knowledge that is out there and
you derive certain rules from it, you let the machine learn certain things, then machines in many cases make
better decisions than the doctors at hand. Yet doctors don’t accept that and they refuse that type of
technology. So, adoption is, at least in the cases we have been involved in, very minimal, because just of
the reservations of the different people involved and having fear of letting go of certain things. Another
example in Germany, a while ago we had a huge wave of immigrants, refugees coming to the country. And
all of the asylum applications where you basically decide whether to let that person in to grant asylum or to
reject them was completely overwhelming the authorities. More than a million people came, and the
agencies and the processes were designed to handle 50,000 cases a year. So, we brought in decision
management technology and all of the good stuff that you can do with technology, and we said: look we can
go from nine months cycle time of this process and we can nail it down to two or three days. From days of
time spent on each case we can reduce that to one or two hours. And we can make better decisions with
the technology and we can show that as a proof of concept that the technology actually delivers faster and
better results, unbiased, much better than the people involved. And they would have been able to minimize

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the backlog like immediately and solve a huge problem for those people not knowing what their future is,
whether they can stay or not and so on and so on.
But in this example, many people involved simply said they don’t trust the machines. Let’s rather hire 7,000
additional people to do the job. Did they find 7,000 people? Of course not. Did the backlogs go away? Not
at all. Is it still a problem? Yes, just reservation and people not wanting to adopt technology. So, I think this
is the biggest barrier. Maybe I am too optimistic of what technology can do and maybe I only see the good
parts of it, but I think the bigger question or the bigger problem we have right now is that people don’t adopt
it fast enough.
Richard Hull: I just want to respond to your second question which was the adaptation of the workforce
towards new kinds of jobs, and I want to make an argument for optimism. I think that there’s a new research
area that AI people could be looking at and it would be to combine two existing capabilities into a third new
partial solution to the problem of retraining the workforce. The one capability is this notion of the AI-driven
interaction with humans. We see chatbots and we see other kinds of conversational interfaces, we see
virtual reality systems. Imagine if those things were aimed towards helping workers get into a new kind of
work. So, here I have got a worker, he is doing one thing, now he is put into a new kind of position. Can we
be coaching him, almost as if you had a human coaching him in the background, but now it’s more an AI-
driven system, so we can do it at scale. The second kind of technology that may be applicable here is this
so-called education management systems and the idea of personalized education pathways. So we’re
starting to see this kind of technology of a digitized style of education, where for each student it takes into
account what are their interests, what are their skills, what do they already know, what are their learning
styles. It is an AI driven approach to cater to each individual in the best way. So, maybe in a few years we
can take these two things, AI-enabled interfaces and personalized education pathways train workers in a
much more efficient way.
Shazia Sadiq: I have a comment just for fun. So there’s two futures sometimes, particularly around AI.
There is the terminator future human of annihilation and then there is the Star Trek future of human
empowerment. We as a community push the boundaries of human knowledge. Mathias [Weske in his
keynote 4] very nicely explained it in a sense that puts us in a position of responsibility to be careful with the
narrative that we use in terms of technological advancement. So, will machines eat the human factor, why
didn’t we say machines amplify the human factor. So, I’d like to get your positions on it and it would be nice
if you disagree, just for fun.
Hajo Reijers: First of all, I almost never dared to disagree with you Shazia. So, it’s quite a challenge. So, if
I understand you correctly, you’d like me to disagree with you turning this perspective, right? You’d like me
to support the Terminator, the terminator future. I simply don’t believe in that it is true, but I agree with you
that framing and the way we talk about technology says a lot about, also may instill fear in people and how
we talk about this. In the discussion that we just had, how easily we of course talk about technology and
use of it as Rick did, which is a fantastic technology: AI, to train people for example, attain new jobs. The
pure mentioning of AI, I would say for many people is already something which it instills fear, which is alien
to elderly people, who already have a problem with working with their smartphone. How are you going to
convince them that if they would use an AI training system to get on the path again? That’s going to be a
huge challenge. So, as in many things the way we position it, the way we discussed and talked about these
things has an impact of course on how people will perceive this and how successful it may be. Even if we
are on the path, if we all aim towards this, I would say more this Star Trek scenario. That’s the best I can
do.
Ingo Weber: So, this was exactly what I was getting at, when I said I want to look at the premise of the
question, in my opening statement. To take a different stand, I am almost 100% convinced that there will be
a percentage of people who won’t be able to cope. They will be left behind. And that is what I meant with
challenges for society at large in terms of wealth distribution and in terms of finding purpose in life. If you
work, if you derive purpose from your work and of course you get a salary, that is individually of course a
challenge if you don’t have that anymore. But also for the state it is a challenge, because if some people
don’t receive a salary, then how do we raise taxes? Can we tax the work of robots or the robotic process
automation? Probably not. So, I think there are many challenges and if you want to be pessimistic, then
there is ample opportunity to follow the Terminator scenario.

4
Mathias Weske: BPM: Reflections on a Broad Discipline. Slides and video recording of the keynote are available at
https://bpm2017.cs.upc.edu/keynotes/keynote-weske-2/.

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20 How do Machine Learning, Robotic Process Automation and Blockchains Affect the Human Factor in BPM?

Gero Decker: Let me jump in on that. The question is, what the scope of what you are looking at is. If you
look at the world overall I believe in the Star Trek vision and technology amplifying what we do but that’s
often not the scope or horizon that people look at. So, for example, another scope for people, the more
relevant scope might be, what happens to one particular company. And there is simply no way around
getting the truth and what’s necessarily going to happen, that there are organizations and certain industry
verticals that are going through massive transformation. Where in five years from now, you will only see a
fourth of the people working there. And there is no hiding from that. And people try to fight an argumentation:
yeah, but we create all the jobs in other parts of the organization. No! 80% of the workforce will be gone in
five years. That’s the truth, because technology does the job better, more efficiently, with higher quality than
what the people are doing today. And that is of course a difficult discussion with people. And people reject
that thought, but these are then the kinds of people who perceive things as the Terminator scenario. So,
then the question is how do you make it work for everybody? Because, if you compare the world now versus
the world 50 years ago where people could stay with one company for the whole life, this is simply not the
case anymore. And you need to educate people about that and show them the opportunities outside of the
scope that they are currently in. But to those people technology feels like terminator.
Richard Hull: I’ll try to be short but I couldn’t resist the opportunity to be controversial. I think there are two
forces driving how AI is going to get used. The one force is economic, corporations, business. What makes
businesses run more profitably and so how are they going to want to use AI. That is one side. The other
side is going to be basically the public. Public opinion – how academics are talking, how government is
talking, etc. And that’s going to have two different impacts. One is for the workers – businesses generally
want their workers to be productive, so they will be paying attention that AI is used in ways that help those
workers be more productive and they will also be making the human factor easier for those workers, enabling
those workers. Now what about AI in terms of society at large. And this gets to all these ethical questions
and my feeling is that corporations generally are not so worried about the impacts of AI at large, they are
not so worried about, say, the influencers that AI driven recommendation engines or AI driven information
sources, kind of lead to and etc. I think this is where there is the fear of kind of a Terminator future, but
where the force of public opinion and governments and academic institutions will have to play an important
account or balance.
Hajo Reijers: Short, two nice news articles, I read recently: one feeds the terminator scenario the other
feeds the Star Trek scenario. The terminator scenario is that in 2020 it is expected that in Germany one out
of five of the elderly people above 55, will live in poverty. That’s in 2020 and its one of the richest countries
of the world, which is showing that people cannot keep up. That is the Terminator perspective. Let’s say the
Star Trek part is about a new initiative that I read about, it brings together people of 80 years and older, who
like to knit. And what they do is that they bring these people together which is fantastic for them to sit to be
together and all be knitting and selling this stuff against design prices all over the world, because they are
genuine granny wool shawls and what have you, and these people love it. There is almost no production
cost and all the money they earn is fed back to these people, which is a fantastic initiative.
Jianwen Su: So I found these questions not interesting, because the interesting question is how machines
will eat the human factor and this is a very broad question and there’s a legal aspect for sure, there’s a
political aspect, there’s a cultural aspect and now let me ignore all of these and come back to the technical
questions. Actually, I want to come to the earlier question about adoption. Rather than complaining about
politicians not adopting, let’s put ourselves in their shoes and see what’s going on out there. A month ago I
sat in a room with hospital administrator on one side, researchers on the other side. The researchers were
presenting fantastic results about thyroid cancer diagnostics, very nice results. But the hospital
administrators did not have time to actually comprehend this, because they have to make real decisions to
actually replace that particular procedure in the actual medical diagnostic process, and this is a big effort to
do. Also, a few months ago, I read about Stanford Hospital, they have discovered a very effective procedure
to detect skin cancers. And they actually got 21 licensed practitioners, the doctors, in the same place and
given them same pictures asked them to detect skin cancers and that is compared with the human, I mean
the machine and the result is comparable. So now in Stanford’s case, because in the [United] States, I know
that they had to go through FDA approval and FDA had go through, it’s a long process. Now I am thinking
in these cases the hospital treating in Shanghai or FDA approval panel and what evidence can we presented
to show them that this is really good. So now I want to get to the technical side of this, how can we assess
the quality of these machines work in replacing humans work? So, do we need another profession, called
maybe “machine humans certifier and software tester” to do this. Now getting more detail or closer to this
community. I’m inviting the entire panel to speculate what are the technical questions, research questions
that we can help to address this equality issue.

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Hajo Reijers: So, I’m not sure if I can answer that overall question, but I know a little bit about the state of
the art in skin cancer diagnosis. We are working together in the Netherlands with surgeons in this area and
as you are saying, there’s a huge increase in the accuracy of automated techniques to diagnose skin cancer
indications. There have been all kinds of tests on these accuracy in labs and the results are stunning. The
question is of course how and I think that is the way you position the question, how we can assess whether
the use of these technologies will actually be effective. So what is happening now, what I’m involved in with
a group of skin cancer surgeons in the Netherlands and a health insurance company, is that we are actually
going to do a double process, so it’s a methodological approach, that in one area in Eindhoven, where there
is a group of family doctors, who are very open to innovation, that we are going to do both paths. So, it is
incredibly expensive but we are going to follow the patients through the automated diagnosis, and the same
patients going through the traditional process to determine the differences between, if there are any
differences in their diagnosis and also the follow-up steps that are being suggested here. So, this is a really
a methodological approach, it’s not a technological solution but simply testing in real life, outside of the lab,
whether and how these things can be applied. So, in a sense it’s perhaps not the cancer, that you are
looking for from a technological perspective but I think there’s a lot of methodological side to it.
Ingo Weber: So for the blockchain side, this is something that we actually addressed in our report published
in June, which was commissioned by the Australian Treasury Department. 5 One of the things that we said
is: the legislator has to define what the rules are. Like, how can a company provide evidence that this is
sufficient for the legislation. If you look at the Australian legal system, a blockchain transaction doesn't have
any legal standing as yet, but an email, which is way easier to fake, has the same legal power as a letter
with a handwritten signature.
And so the legislators, yes, they need to progress on that. I think yes, I agree with your statement, we
basically need a profession of people who work for certification authorities who understand the machine
learning and blockchain technologies etc. well enough to be able to make assessments.
Gero Decker: Maybe just the entrepreneur’s perspective on that topic. My observation is bringing products
to market in the medical space is incredibly hard due to all the regulation, clinical trials that they might have
to go through and so on and so on. That's why my observation is that there is a lot less innovation happening,
because there's a lot less incentive for people to do so. There's a lot less money around it seems, getting
investment for these types of things is incredibly hard. I don't know if the system, like in terms of certification
is too strict, I am not an expert for that, but my observation is just that, we don't see the advances we could
see due to the nature of that and the smartest people staying out of that area.
Richard Hull: So very interesting question, how people trust a machine learning algorithm or an AI output
more generally. I think there's going to be an evolution. Part of it is there's a lot of trust for human experts
today, even though human experts will often disagree with each other. There's not a uniformity of opinion,
when you get a bunch of human experts together. Take this panel as an example. I think part of helping
people have more trust in machine learning answers will be making it more clear that human answers are
not necessarily uniformly consistent. So, there's kind of a consciousness-raising that will go on.
I think often when people are doing medical procedures, they do try to get a second opinion. That's an
illustration of people already saying: “oh, I know that humans don't have the absolute truth.” At the same
time I think there's going to be increasing trust in machine learning and AI, as it pervades our culture more
and more as it improves. So as automated conversation systems get better, people will start to say: “oh, I
see the computer is getting smarter” – this is the Star Trek version of the computer. And also I think as we
see that in the physical world like the self-driving cars, which so far have a very low accident rate.
I see an evolution. The final point I'd make is this emphasis now in explanation of AI results. I know DARPA
has put a big emphasis on that. I also start to see it around in the research community, so that putting the
more human face onto something that was just a black box. This will be another contributor in the positive
direction.
Jan Mendling: So we had various very interesting perspectives. I would now like to invite the panelists to
maybe think for a second what could be one takeaway that you want to share with the audience in terms of
what we have to do as the BPM community about this; and maybe I take the first turn. What I observe is
that, at stages, we have been talking about the perspective of design. And design is something that is not
only just technical, but it has a very strong connection with various organizational and psychological

5
http://www.data61.csiro.au/en/Our-Work/Safety-and-security/Secure-Systems-and-Platforms/Blockchain

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22 How do Machine Learning, Robotic Process Automation and Blockchains Affect the Human Factor in BPM?

questions. In that regard, I'm very happy that we have a BPM management track in the future that helps us
to reach out to other communities and bring in these perspectives. What does work in terms of processes,
in terms of what do people accept, what do people adopt? I think this is important to reflect, not only what
can be done, but also what really works. We as a community should address these questions. Maybe Hajo
you want to start: What are your conclusions from these discussions.
Hajo Reijers: So, my conclusion follows up on the first question we got from Gregor. I see the future is
bright if experts work together. I believe in, if we have been talking about a topic which of course has IT very
central in it, I think computer scientists play a very important role in thinking through what these things will
happen but they should work with other experts and I think that is something that the BPM community is
especially good at. I think this is also something that Mathias told in his keynote that we always had this
broader perspective that we welcome the expertise from other areas to look at the things we are studying.
I also know from the people I work with, for example Barbara Weber likes to work with psychologists to
address all kinds of interesting issues. So, my takeaway is experts should work together and we as BPM
discipline are very well positioned to do so.
Gero Decker: I mean technology is exciting and but to me AI, machine learning, blockchain, they are all
just part of a toolbox that you should keep in the back of your minds, don't get distracted too much by that.
I think the big leverage of BPM is actually the human factor, so that's why I am super excited about this
Track 3 to increase the importance of the people side of things and the management side of things in BPM.
And to me, being a practitioner out there, this seems to be the biggest barrier to adopting all of the great
things that we invent here. It's not so much that we tweak the algorithm from here to there but the bigger
challenge is that people out there have to really make it work in the organizations. And I think the BPM
community could help a lot more. People won't go away anytime soon, let's focus on them.
Ingo Weber: Probably allow me to challenge us as a community. Lately, whenever somebody in Australia
talks about innovation and process in the same sentence, in excess of 90% percent of the cases they refer
to robotic process automation. And I have not seen any papers, any works on this side in this year's
conference. So, I think this is a bit of a black spot that we should invest in. When it comes to blockchain, of
course, there are so many research opportunities, new business models that can be enabled by them. And
I am very excited to be a part of that journey.
Richard Hull: Similar to Hajo, I want to come back to Gregor’s first question, which was what can academia
be doing to help train the workforce for the future. And I am reminded of something that IBM was pushing
three or four years ago, maybe not as successfully as they wanted, but it was so-called Services Science
and they said, that we need to think about employees of the future as having a fairly broad knowledge of
different aspects of how companies run from maybe economics and management to different engineering
disciplines and financial considerations and sales considerations. So kind of a broad knowledge and then
also a specific area of depth. So maybe it would be depth in business process management, maybe data
management, maybe economic factors, maybe finance factors.
I think that in universities, they do attempt to give that kind of shape. Somebody has a major, maybe it is
computer science, but they are required to take a few courses outside their discipline. What's happened,
though, is that the schools of engineering, the breadth is limited, and it's often things to do with science, with
math, and other kind of technical considerations. Then the schools of Arts and Sciences, the humanities
side, they have a notion of breadth and that breadth is history and sociology and languages. I think what
could be advantageous is that if engineering schools would rethink what constitutes an appropriate breadth
factor for their graduates. They could bring in ethical issues, they could bring in design factor, they could
bring in psychology and human factors along with concentrations in technical areas
Jan Mendling: Thank you very much, and with this, I want to conclude. Please reach out to your colleagues
at your universities and to your practitioner partners who can bring in new and complementary perspectives
into these discussions. It will be great to see some of these points being raised and analyzed in next year's
BPM papers. Thank you very much for being here.

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Communications of the Association for Information Systems 23

About the Authors


Jan Mendling is a Full Professor with the Institute for Information Business at Wirtschaftsuniversität Wien,
Austria. His research interests include business process management and information systems. He has
published more than 300 research papers and articles, among others in the Journal of the Association of
Information Systems, ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology, IEEE Transaction on
Software Engineering, Information Systems, European Journal of Information Systems, and Decision
Support Systems. He is a board member of the Austrian Society for Process Management, one of the
founders of the Berliner BPM-Offensive, and member of the IEEE Task Force on Process Mining. He is a
co-author of the textbooks Fundamentals of Business Process Management and Wirtschaftsinformatik.
Gero Decker is co-founder and CEO of Signavio, a Business Process Management software company
headquartered in Berlin, Germany. He was named “Innovator of the Year” by MIT Technology Review and
received numerous awards for Signavio as one of the fastest-growing companies in Europe. Prior to
Signavio, Gero has worked for SAP and McKinsey. He holds a PhD in Business Process Management from
Hasso-Plattner-Institute and is a co-author of “The Process”.
Richard Hull is a Senior Research Scientist at the IBM T.J. Watson Research Laboratory in Yorktown
Heights. He received his Ph.D. in Mathematics from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1979 and
served as a professor of Computer Science at the University of Southern California for more than a decade.
He then spent over a decade at Bell Labs (first as part of Lucent Technologies, and then Alcatel-Lucent).
While there his research impacted two products and he became a Bell Labs Fellow and an ACM Fellow. He
joined IBM Research in 2008, working initially on data-centric business process and Business Artifacts;
these became foundational elements of the IBM Case Manager product and the OMG Case Management
Modeling and Notation (CMMN) standard. His current work is focused on infusing AI into BPM and
applications of Blockchain. Dr. Hull is co-author of the book “Foundations of Databases” (1996), holds 12
US patents, and has published over 150 articles in refereed journals and conferences.
Hajo A. Reijers is a Full Professor of Business Informatics at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, the
Netherlands. He also holds a position as part-time, full professor at Eindhoven University of Technology.
Previously, he worked as a management consultant in the BPM field for Deloitte Consulting and led an R&D
team within Lexmark. On his topics of interest, such as process innovation and conceptual modeling, he
published over 200 scientific articles, chapters in books, and professional viewpoints. He is one of the
founders of the Business Process Management Forum, a Dutch platform for the exchange of knowledge
between industry and academia.
Ingo Weber is a Principal Research Scientist & Team Leader of the Architecture & Analytics Platforms
(AAP) team at Data61, CSIRO in Sydney. In addition, he is a Conjoint Associate Professor at the University
of New South Wales (UNSW) and an Adjunct Associate Professor at Swinburne University. He has
published over 80 refereed papers and two books. Prior to Data61, CSIRO, Ingo worked for UNSW in
Sydney, Australia, and at SAP Research in Germany. While at SAP, he completed his PhD with the
University of Karlsruhe (TH). He also holds an MSc from the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, USA.

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