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A

MINOR PROJECT REPORT


ON
SOIL STABILIZATION USING COIR FIBER
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the
Requirements for the award of degree.
OF
BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
In
CIVIL ENGINEERING

Submitted By: Project Guide:


Surendra Bhadu Mr. Sagar Mittal
Prateek Meena (Asst. Professor)
Vishnu Paliwal
Rishabh Joshi
Vinod Choudhary

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING


VIVEKANANDA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY (EAST)
SISYAWAS, SECTOR-36, NRI ROAD, JAGATPURA, JAIPUR
CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the project entitled “soil stabilization using coir fiber”
has been carried out by SURENDRA BHADU, PRATEEK MEENA, VISHNU
PALIWAL, RISHABH JOSHI, VINOD CHOUDHARY under my guidance in
partial fulfilment of the degree of bachelor of technology in civil engineering from
Rajasthan Technical University, Kota during the academic year 2018-2019. To the
best of my knowledge and belief his work has not been submitted elsewhere for the
award of any other degree. The work has been found satisfactory and is approved
for submission.

Guided By:
Mr. Sagar Mittal
Asst. Professor
Civil Department, VIT EAST
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We take this opportunity to express our deep sense of gratitude and
respect towards our guide, Mr. Sagar Mittal (Asst. Professor, Department of civil,
VIT EAST) We are very much indebted to his for generosity, expertise and guidance
received from his while working on this project and throughout our studies. Without
his support and timely guidance, the completion of our seminar would have seemed
a far-fetched dream. In this respect, we find ourselves to have his as guide. He has
not only guided us with the subject matter, but also taught us the proper style and
technique of working and presentation.
CONTENTS

CHAPTER NAME PAGE NO.

Chapter 1 Introduction…………………………….………………………………………………1
Chapter 2: Literature Review…………………….......……………………………………………2
2.1 Soil Stabilization………………………….……………………………………….…2
2.1.1 Definition………………………………………………………………………2
2.1.2 Needs and Advantages…………………………………………………………3
2.1.3 Methods ………………………………………………………………………..4
2.2 Soil Properties………………………………………………………………………..5
2.2.1 Atterberg Limits………………………………………………………………...5
2.2.2 Particle Size Distribution……………………………………………………….6
2.2.3 Specific Gravity………………………………………………………………...7
2.2.4 Shear Strength…………………………………………………………………..7
Chapter 3: Test on soils …………………………………………………………………………10
3.1 Specific Gravity Test……………………………………………………………….11
3.1.1 Objective……………………………………………………………………...11
3.1.2 Need and scope……………………………………………………………….11
3.1.3 Definition……………………………………………………………………..11
3.1.4 Apparatus Required………………………………………………………..…11
3.1.5 Procedure……………………………………………………………………..11
3.1.6 Calculation……………………………………………………………………12
3.2 Liquid Limit Test…………………………………………………………………..13
3.2.1 Objective……………………………………………………………………...13
3.2.2 Need and scope……………………………………………………………….13
3.2.3 Definition……………………………………………………………………..13
3.2.4 Apparatus Required………………………………………………………..…13
3.2.5 Procedure……………………………………………………………………..13
3.2.6 Calculation……………………………………………………………………15
3.3 Plastic Limit Test……………………………………………………………………16
3.3.1 Need and scope……………………………………………………………….16
3.3.2 Apparatus Required………………………………………………………..…16
3.3.3 Procedure……………………………………………………………………..16
3.3.4 Calculation……………………………………………………………………16
3.4 Proctor Compaction Test…………………………………………………………….17
3.4.1 Need and scope……………………………………………………………….17
3.4.2 Apparatus Required………………………………………………………..…17
3.4.3 Procedure……………………………………………………………………..17
3.4.4 Calculation……………………………………………………………………18
3.5 Direct Shear Test...……………………………………………………………………19
3.5.1 Objective……………………………………………………………………...19
3.5.2 Need and scope……………………………………………………………….19
3.5.3 Definition……………………………………………………………………..19
3.5.4 Apparatus Required………………………………………………………..…19
3.5.5 Knowledge Of equipment……...……………………………………………..20
3.5.6 Procedure……………………………………………………………………..20
3.5.7 Calculation……………………………………………………………………21
3.6 Triaxial Test...………………………………………………………………………...22
3.6.1 Objective……………………………………………………………………...22
3.6.2 Need and scope……………………………………………………………….22
3.6.3 Planning And Organization…………………………………………………..22
3.6.3.1 Knowledge Of equipment ………….………………………………..…22
3.6.3.2 Apparatus for preparation of the sample……………………………......23
3.6.4 Procedure……………………………………………………………………..23
3.6.5 Calculation……………………………………………………………………24
3.7 Unconfined Compression Test.………………… ………………………………...25
3.7.1 Objective……………………………………………………………………...25
3.7.2 Need and scope……………………………………………………………….25
3.7.3 Equipment ………………..…………………………………………………..25
3.7.4 Experimental Procedure………………..……………………………………..26
3.7.5 Test Procedure………………………..………………………………………27
3.8 Grain size Distribution Test.………………… …………………………………….28
3.8.1 Objective……………………………………………………………………...28
3.8.2 Need and scope……………………………………………………………….28
3.8.3 Apparatus ………………..…………………………………………………..28
3.8.4 Knowledge Of equipment ………………..…………………………………..29
3.8.5 Test Procedure………………………..………………………………………29
Reference………………………………………………………………………………………...30
CHAPTER- 1

INTRODUCTION

For any land-based structure, the foundation is very important and has to be strong to
support the entire structure. In order for the foundation to be strong, the soil around it play a very
critical role. So, work with soil, we need to have the proper knowledge about their properties and
factors which affect their behavior. The process of soil stabilization helps to achieve the required
properties in a soil needed for the construction work.

From the beginning of construction work, the necessity of enhancing soil properties has come to
the light. Ancient civilization of the Chinese, Romans, and Incas utilized various method to
improve soil strength etc., some of these methods so effective that their buildings and roads still
exists.

In India, the modern era of soil stabilization began early in 1970’s, with a general shortage of
petroleum aggregates, forced the engineers to look for other means to reinforce soil instead of
replacing the poor soil at the site. Lack of obsolete methods and engineering techniques, soil
stabilization lost favor. In the modern era, the increase in the demand for infrastructure and
resources, soil stabilization has started to take a new shape. Various researches are carried out on
soil stabilization techniques and it is emerging as a popular and cost-effective method to improve
soil properties.

Here, in this study, soil stabilization has been done with the help of randomly distributed coir fibers
obtained from outer shell of coconut (waste material). The objective of this study is to focus on
improvement of the shear strength parameters.

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CHAPTER-2

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Soil Stabilization

2.1.1 Definition

Soil stabilization is the process of altering some soil properties by different methods
mechanical or chemical in order to produce an improved soil material which has all the desire
engineering properties. Soils are generally stabilized to increase their strength and durability or to
prevent erosion and dust formation in soils. The main is the creation of soil material or system that
will hold under the design use condition and for the designed life of engineering project. The
properties of soil vary a great deal at different places or in certain cases even at one place; the
success of soil stabilization depends on soil testing. Various methods are employed to stabilize soil
and the method should be verified in the lab with the soil material before applying it on the field.

Principles of soil stabilization:

 Evaluating the soil properties of the area under consideration.

 Deciding the property of soil which needs to be altered to get the design value and choose
the effective and economical method for stabilization.

 Designing the stabilized soil mix sample and testing it in the lab for intended stability and
durability values.

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2.1.2 Needs & Advantages

Soil properties vary a great deal and construction of structures depends a lot on
the bearing capacity of the soil, hence we need to stabilize the soil which makes it easier to predict
the load bearing capacity of the soil and even improve the load of bearing capacity the gradation
of the soil is also a very important property to keep in mind while working with soil. the soils may
be well graded which is desirable as it has less number of voids or uniformly graded which though
sounds stable but has more voids. thus, it is better to mix different types of soil together to improve
the soil strength properties. It is very expansive to replace the inferior soil entirely soil and hence,
soil stabilization is the thing to look for in these cases.

 It improves the strength of soil, thus, increasing the soil bearing capacity.

 It is more economical both in terms of cost and energy to increase the bearing capacity of
soil rather than going for deep foundation or raft foundation.
 It is also used to provide more stability to the soil in slopes or other such places.
 Sometimes soil stabilization is also used to prevent soil erosion or formation of dust, which
is very useful specially in dry and aired weather.
 Stability also done for soil water proofing; this prevents water from entering into the soil
and hence helps the soil from losing its strength.
 It helps in reducing the soil volume change due to change in temperature or moisture
content.
 Stabilization improves the workability and durability of soil.

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2.1.3 Methods

 Mechanical method of soil stabilization

The oldest types of soil stabilization are mechanical in nature. Mechanical solutions involve
physically changing the property of the soil somehow, in order to affect its gradation, solidity,
and other characteristics. Dynamic compaction is one of the major types of soil stabilization; in
this procedure a heavy weight is dropped repeatedly onto the ground at regular intervals to quite
literally pound out deformities and ensure a uniformly packed surface. Vibro compaction is
another technique that works on similar principles, though it relies on vibration rather than
deformation through kinetic force to achieve its goals.

 Chemical method of soil stabilization

Chemical solutions are another of the major types of soil stabilization. All of these
techniques rely on adding an additional material to the soil that will physically interact with it
and change its properties. There are a number of different types of soil stabilization that rely on
chemical additives of one sort or another; you will frequently encounter compounds that utilize
cement, lime, fly ash, or kiln dust. Most of the reactions sought are either cementitious or
pozzolanic in nature, depending on the nature of the soil present at the particular site you are
investigating.

 Polymer method of soil stabilization

Both of the previous types of soil stabilization have been around for hundreds of years, if not
more; only in the past several decades have technology opened up new types of soil stabilization
for companies to explore. Most of the newer discoveries and techniques developed thus far are
polymer based in nature, such as those developed by Global Road Technology. These new
polymers and substances have a number of significant advantages over traditional mechanical
and chemical solutions; they are cheaper and more effective in general than mechanical
solutions, and significantly less dangerous for the environment than many chemical solutions
tend to be.

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2.2 Soil properties

2.2.1 Atterberg Limits

1) Shrinkage Limits:

Every soil present on the earth tends to lose its moisture due to either natural or artificial
reasons. When soil starts losing moisture, it changes from liquid state to plastic to semi soil and
finally hard solid state. Along with the change in state, soil also loses volume due to a decrease
in the water content. But at a particular point, the moisture reduction does not cause any
reduction in the volume of the soil, this point is called as shrinkage limit of the soil.
Testing shrinkage limit indicates how much moisture can alter before any significant volume
change. Shrinkage limit tests are useful in areas where soil is subjected continuously to
substantial volume changes while going through dry and wet cycles.

2) Plastic Limit:

This limit lies between the plastic and semi solids state of the soil. It is determined by
rolling out a thread of the soil on a flat surface which is non-porous. It is the minimum
water Content at which the soil just begins to crumble while rolling into a thread of
approximately 3mm diameter plastic limit is denoted by wP.

3) Liquid limit:

It is the water content of the soil between liquid state and plastic state of the soil. It can be
define as the minimum water content at which the soil, though in liquid state, shows
small shearing strength against flowing. It is measured by Casagrande’s apparatus and it
is denoted by wL.

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2.2.2 Particle Size Distribution

As an analytical contract service lab, Particle Technology Labs specializes in particle size and
material testing services for clients from many different industries. Particle Size Distribution
Analyses are just one of the many services offered. A Particle Size Distribution Analysis (PSD)
is a measurement designed to determine and report information about the size and range of a set
of particles representative of a material. Particle size and distribution analysis of a sample can be
performed using a variety of techniques, each with advantages and disadvantages, depending on
the sample properties and question at hand. Knowing and controlling the particle size distribution
of the primary particles and/or agglomerates present in a material is of utmost importance for:
research, product development, processing, handling, packaging, quality control. The number of
standard organizations and regulatory agencies who have current particle size distribution
guidance documents and/or specification requirements is a clear indication of the importance of
this information. Particle Size Distribution is usually expressed from the technique by which it is
determined. Particle Technology Labs (PTL) uses a variety of different techniques in order to
produce the most accurate particle size analysis possible, based on sample characteristics and the
analytical question asked.

The soil may be of two types- well graded or poorly graded (uniformly) graded. Well graded soil
saves particles from all the size range in a good amount. On the other hand, it is said to be poorly
or uniformly graded if it has particle of some size in excess and deficiency of particles of other
size. Sometimes the curve has flat portion also which means there is an absence particle of
intermediate size, these soils are also known as gap graded or skip graded.

For analysis of the particle distribution, we sometimes use D10,D30, and D60 etc. terms which
represents a size in mm such that 10%, 30% and 60% of particles respectively are finer than that
size, the size of D10 also called the effective size or diameter is a very useful data, there is a
term called uniformly coefficient Cu which comes from the ratio D60 and D10, it gives a
measure of the range of the particles size of the soil sample.

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Specific Gravity

Specific Gravity (G) is the ratio of the weight in air of a given volume of soil solids at a stated
temperature to the weight in air of an equal volume of distilled water at that temperature.

The knowledge of specific gravity is needed in calculation of soil properties like void ratio,
degree of saturation etc. The specific gravity of soil particles lay within the range of 2.65 to 2.85.
Soils containing organic matter and porous particles may have specific gravity values below 2.0.
Soils having heavy substances may have value above 3.0.

Sand 2.63-2.67

Slit 2.65-2.7

Clay and silty clay 2.67-2.9

Organic soil <20

2.2.4 Shear Strength

Soils consist of individual particles that can slide and roll relative to one another. Shear strength
of a soil is equal to the maximum value of shear stress that can be mobilized within a soil mass
without failure taking place.

7
The shear strength of a soil is a function of the stresses applied to it as well as the manner in
which these stresses are applied. A knowledge of shear strength of soils is necessary to determine
the bearing capacity of foundations, the lateral pressure exerted on retaining walls, and the
stability of slopes.

Mohr Circle of Stresses

In soil testing, cylindrical samples are commonly used in which radial and axial stresses act on
principal planes. The vertical plane is usually the minor principal plane whereas the horizontal
plane is the major principal plane. The radial stress (sr) is the minor principal stress (s3), and the
axial stress (sa) is the major principal stress (s1).

To visualise the normal and shear stresses acting on any plane within the soil sample, a graphical
representation of stresses called the Mohr circle is obtained by plotting the principal stresses.
The sign convention in the construction is to consider compressive stresses as positive and angles
measured counter-clockwise also positive.

8
Draw a line inclined at angle with the horizontal through the pole of the Mohr circle so as to
intersect the circle. The coordinates of the point of intersection are the normal and shear stresses
acting on the plane, which is inclined at angle within the soil sample.

Normal stress

Shear stress

The plane inclined at an angle of to the horizontal has acting on it the maximum shear stress

equal to , and the normal stress on this plane is equal to .


The plane with the maximum ratio of shear stress to normal stress is inclined at an angle

of to the horizontal, where a is the slope of the line tangent to the Mohr circle and
passing through the origin.

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CHAPTER 3

TEST ON SOILS

1. specific gravity of soil

2. Liquid limit test

3. Plastic limit test

4. Proctor compaction test

5. Direct shear test

6. Triaxial test

7. Unconfined compression strength test

8. Particle size distribution test

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3.1 Specific Gravity of soil

3.1.1 OBJECTIVE
Determine the specific gravity of soil fraction passing 4.75 mm I.S sieve density bottle.

3.1.2 NEED AND SCOPE


The knowledge of specific gravity is needed in calculation of soil properties like void ratio,
degree of saturation etc.

3.1.3 DEFINITION
Specific gravity G is defined as the ratio of the weight of an equal volume of distilled water at
that temperature both weights taken in air.

3.1.4 APPARATUS REQUIRED

1. Density bottle of 50 ml with stopper having capillary hole.


2. Balance to weigh the materials (accuracy 10gm).
3. Wash bottle with distilled water.
4. Alcohol and ether.

3.1.5 PROCEDURE

1. Clean and dry the density bottle

wash the bottle with water and allow it to drain.


Wash it with alcohol and drain it to remove water.
Wash it with ether, to remove alcohol and drain ether
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2. Weigh the empty bottle with stopper (W1)

3. Take about 10 to 20 gm of oven soil sample which is cooled in a desiccator. Transfer it to the
bottle. Find the weight of the bottle and soil (W2).

4. Put 10ml of distilled water in the bottle to allow the soil to soak completely. Leave it for about
2 hours.

5. Again fill the bottle completely with distilled water put the stopper and keep the bottle

under constant temperature water baths (Tx0).

6. Take the bottle outside and wipe it clean and dry note. Now determine the weight of the bottle
and the contents (W3).

7. Now empty the bottle and thoroughly clean it. Fill the bottle with only distilled water and
weigh it. Let it be W4 at temperature (Tx0 C).

8. Repeat the same process for 2 to 3 times, to take the average reading of it

12
3.1.5 Calculation

Weight of density bottle (W1 g)

Weight of density bottle + dry soil (W2 g)

Weight of bottle + dry soil + water at temperature T x0 C (W3 g)

Weight of bottle + water (W4 g) at temperature Tx0 C

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3.2 Liquid Limit Test

3.2.1 THEORY:

The liquid limit is the moisture content at which the groove, formed by a standard tool into the
sample of soil taken in the standard cup, closes for 10 mm on being given 25 blows in a standard
manner. This is the limiting moisture content at which the cohesive soil passes from liquid state to
plastic state.

3.2.2 NEED AND SCOPE:

Liquid limit is significant to know the stress history and general properties of the soil met with
construction. From the results of liquid limit the compression index may be estimated. The
compression index value will help us in settlement analysis. If the natural moisture content of soil
is closer to liquid limit, the soil can be considered as soft if the moisture content is lesser than
liquids limit, the soil can be considered as soft if the moisture content is lesser than liquid limit.
The soil is brittle and stiffer.

3.2.3 APPARATUS REQUIRED

1. Balance, 2. Casagrande’s Liquid limit device, 3. Grooving tool,


4. Mixing dishes, 5. Spatula, 6. Electrical Oven, 7. Squeeze Bottle

3.2.3 PROCEDURE

1. Put 250 gm of air-dried soil, passed thorough 425 mm sieve, into an evaporating dish. Add
distilled water into the soil and mix it thoroughly to form uniform paste. (The paste shall have
a consistency that would require 30 to 35 drops of cup to cause closer of standard groove for
sufficient length.)
2. Place a portion of the paste in the cup of Liquid Limit device and spread it with a few strokes
of spatula.
3. Trim it to a depth of 1 cm at the point of maximum thickness and return excess of soil to the
dish.
4. Using the grooving tool, cut a groove along the center line of soil pat in the cup, so that clean
sharp groove of proper dimension (11 mm wide at top, 2 mm at bottom, and 8 mm deep) is
formed.
5. Lift and drop the cup by turning crank at the rate of two revolutions per second until the two
halves of soil cake come in contact with each other for a length of about 13 mm by flow only,
and record the number of blows, N.
6. Take a representative portion of soil from the cup for moisture content determination.
7. Repeat the test with different moisture contents at least four more times for blows between 10
and 40.

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3.2.4 COMPUTATION / CALCULATION

Plot the relationship between water content (on y-axis) and number of blows (on
x-axis) on semi-log graph. The curve obtained is called flow curve. The moisture content
corresponding to 25 drops (blows) as read from the represents liquid limit. It is usually
expressed to the nearest whole number.

Flow index If = (W2-W1)/log(N1/N2) = slope of the flow curve =

15
3.3 PLASTIC LIMIT TEST
3.3.1 NEED AND SCOPE

Soil is used for making bricks, tiles, soil cement blocks in addition to its use as foundation for
structures.

3.3.3 APPARATUS REQUIRED

1. Porcelain dish.
2. Squeeze Bottle and Spatula
3. Balance of capacity 200gm and sensitive to 0.01gm
4. Ground glass plate for rolling the specimen.
5. Containers to determine the moisture content.
6. Oven thermostatically controlled with interior of non-corroding material to maintain the
temperature
around 1050 and 1100C.

3.3.4 PROCEDURE

1. Put 20 gm of air-dried soil, passed thorough 425 mm sieve (In accordance with I.S. 2720:
part-1), into an evaporating dish. Add distilled water into the soil and mix it thoroughly to form
uniform paste (the soil paste should be plastic enough to be easily molded with fingers.)
2. Prepare several ellipsoidal shaped soil masses by squeezing the soil between your figures.
Take one of the soil masses and roll it on the glass plate using your figures. The pressure of
rolling should be just enough to make thread of uniform diameter throughout its length. The
rate of rolling shall be between 60 to 90 strokes per min.
3. Continue rolling until you get the thread diameter of 3 mm.
4. If the thread does not crumble at a diameter of 3 mm, kneed the soil together to a uniform
mass and re-roll.
5. Continue the process until the thread crumbles when the diameter is 3 mm.
6. Collect the pieces of the crumbled thread for moisture content determination.
7. Repeat the test to at least 3 times and take the average of the results calculated to the nearest
whole number.

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3.4 Proctor compaction test

3.4.1 SCOPE

This method covers the determination of the relationship between the moisture content and density
of soils compacted in a mould of a given size with a 2.5 kg rammer dropped from a height of 30
cm.

3.4.2 APPARATUS

1. Proctor mould having a capacity of 944 cc with an internal diameter of 10.2 cm and a height
of 11.6 cm. The mould shall have a detachable collar assembly and a detachable base plate.
2. Rammer: A mechanical operated metal rammer having a 5.08 cm diameter face and a
weight of 2.5 kg. The rammer shall be equipped with a suitable arrangement to control the
height of drop to a free fall of 30 cm.
3. Sample extruder.
4. A balance of 15 kg capacity.
5. Sensitive balance.
6. Straight edge.
7. Graduated cylinder.
8. Mixing tools such as mixing pan, spoon, towel, spatula etc.
9. Moisture tins.

3.4.5 PROCEDURE

1. Take a representative oven-dried sample, approximately 5 kg in the given pan.


Thoroughly mix the sample with sufficient water to dampen it to approximately four to
six percentage points below optimum moisture content.

2. Weigh the proctor mould without base plate and collar. Fix the collar and base plate.
Place the soil in the Proctor mould and compact it in 3 layers giving 25 blows per layer
with the 2.5 kg rammer falling through.
17
3. Remove the collar, trim the compacted soil even with the top of the mould by means of
the straight edge and weigh.

4. Divide the weight of the compacted specimen by 944 cc and record the result as the wet
weight get in grams per cubic centimeter of the compacted soil.

5. Remove the sample from the mould and slice vertically through and obtain a small
sample for moisture determination

6. Thoroughly break up the remainder of the material until it will pass a no.4 sieve as
judged by the eye. Add water in sufficient amounts to increase the moisture content of the
soil sample by one or two percentage points and repeat the above procedure for each
increment of water added. Continue this series of determination until there is either a
decrease or no change in the wet unit weight of the compacted soil.

3.4.5 CALCULATION

Wet density gm/cc =weight of compacted soil / 944.

Dry density = wet density/(1+w)

Where w is the moisture content of the soil.

Plot the dry density against moisture content and find out the maximum dry density and optimum
moisture for the soil.

18
3.5 DIRECT SHEAR TEST

3.5.1 Objective

To determine the shearing strength of the soil using the direct shear apparatus.

3.5.2 Need and Scope

In many engineering problems such as design of foundation, retaining walls, slab


bridges, pipes, sheet piling, the value of the angle of internal friction and cohesion
of the soil involved are required for the design. Direct shear test is used to predict
these parameters quickly. The laboratory report covers the laboratory procedures for
determining these values for cohesionless soils.

3.5.4 Apparatus

1. Direct shear box apparatus

2. Loading frame (motor attached).

3. Dial gauge.

4. Proving ring.

5. Tamper.

6. Straight edge.

7. Balance to weigh upto 200 mg.

8. Aluminum container.

9. Spatula.

19
3.5.5 KNOWLEDGE OF EQUIPMENT:

Strain controlled direct shear machine consists of shear box, soil container, loading unit, proving
ring, dial gauge to measure shear deformation and volume changes. A two-piece square shear box
is one type of soil container used. A proving ring is used to indicate the shear load taken by the
soil initiated in the shearing plane.

3.5.6 Procedure

1. Check the inner dimension of the soil container.

2. Put the parts of the soil container together.

3. Calculate the volume of the container. Weigh the container.

4. Place the soil in smooth layers (approximately 10 mm thick). If a dense sample is desired tamp
the soil.

5. Weigh the soil container, the difference of these two is the weight of the soil. Calculate the
density of the soil.

6. Make the surface of the soil plane.

7. Put the upper grating on stone and loading block on top of soil.

8. Measure the thickness of soil specimen.

9. Apply the desired normal load.

10.Remove the shear pin.

11. Attach the dial gauge which measures the change of volume.

12. Record the initial reading of the dial gauge and calibration values.

13. Before proceeding to test check all adjustments to see that there is no connection between two
parts except sand/soil.

20
14. Start the motor. Take the reading of the shear force and record the reading.

15.Take volume change readings till failure.

16. Add 5 kg normal stress 0.5 kg/cm2 and continue the experiment till failure

17. Record carefully all the readings. Set the dial gauges zero, before starting the experiment

3.5.7 DATA CALCULATION SHEET FOR DIRECT SHEAR TEST

Normal stress 0.5 kg/cm2 L.C=....... P.R.C=.........

21
3.6 Triaxial Test

3.6.1 OBJECTIVE

To find the shear of the soil by Undrained Triaxial Test.

3.6.2 NEED AND SCOPE OF THE TEST

The standard consolidated undrained test is compression test, in which the soil specimen is first
consolidated under all round pressure in the triaxial cell before failure is brought about by
increasing the major principal stress.

It may be perform with or without measurement of pore pressure although for most applications
the measurement of pore pressure is desirable.

3.6.3 PLANNING AND ORGANIZATION

3.6.3.1 Knowledge of Equipment

A constant rate of strain compression machine of which the following is a brief description of
one is in common use.

a) A loading frame in which the load is applied by a yoke acting through an elastic
dynamometer, more commonly called a proving ring which used to measure the load. The
frame is operated at a constant rate by a geared screw jack. It is preferable for the machine
to be motor driven, by a small electric motor.

b) A hydraulic pressure apparatus including an air compressor and water reservoir in which
air under pressure acting on the water raises it to the required pressure, together with the
necessary control valves and pressure dials.

A triaxial cell to take 3.8 cm diameter and 7.6 cm long samples, in which the sample can
be subjected to an all-round hydrostatic pressure, together with a vertical compression load
acting through a piston. The vertical load from the piston acts on a pressure cap. The cell is
usually designed with a non-ferrous metal top and base connected by tension rods and with walls
formed of Perspex.

22
3.6.3.2 Apparatus for preparation of the sample:

a) 3.8 cm (1.5 inch) internal diameter 12.5 cm (5 inches) long sample tubes.

b) Rubber ring.

c) An open ended cylindrical section former, 3.8 cm inside dia, fitted with a small rubber
tube in its side.

d) Stop clock.

e) Moisture content test apparatus.

f) A balance of 250 gm capacity and accurate to 0.01 gm.

3.6.4 Experimental Procedure

1. The sample is placed in the compression machine and a pressure plate is placed on
the top. Care must be taken to prevent any part of the machine or cell from jogging
the sample while it is being setup, for example, by knocking against this bottom of
the loading piston. The probable strength of the sample is estimated and a suitable
proving ring selected and fitted to the machine.

2. The cell must be properly set up and uniformly clamped down to prevent leakage
of pressure during the test, making sure first that the sample is properly sealed with
its end caps and rings (rubber) in position and that the sealing rings for the cell are
also correctly placed.

3. When the sample is setup water is admitted and the cell is fitted under water escapes
from the bead valve, at the top, which is closed. If the sample is to be tested at zero
lateral pressure water is not required.

4. The air pressure in the reservoir is then increased to raise the hydrostatic pressure
in the required amount. The pressure gauge must be watched during the test and
any necessary adjustments must be made to keep the pressure constant.

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5. The handle wheel of the screw jack is rotated until the underside of the
hemispherical seating of the proving ring, through which the loading is applied, just
touches the cell piston.

6. The piston is then removed down by handle until it is just in touch with the pressure
plate on the top of the sample, and the proving ring seating is again brought into
contact for the begging of the test

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3.7 Unconfined Compression Test

3.7.1 OBJECTIVE

determine shear parameters of cohesive soil

3.7.2 NEED AND SCOPE OF THE EXPERIMENT

It is not always possible to conduct the bearing capacity test in the field. Sometimes it is cheaper
to take the undisturbed soil sample and test its strength in the laboratory. Also, to choose the best
material for the embankment, one has to conduct strength tests on the samples selected. Under
these conditions it is easy to perform the unconfined compression test on undisturbed and
remoulded soil sample. Now we will investigate experimentally the strength of a given soil sample.

3.7.3 EQUIPMENT

1. Loading frame of capacity of 2 t, with constant rate of movement. What is the least count of the
dial gauge attached to the proving ring!

2. Proving ring of 0.01 kg sensitivity for soft soils; 0.05 kg for stiff soils.

3.Soil trimmer.

4. Frictionless end plates of 75 mm diameter (Perspex plate with silicon grease coating).

5. Evaporating dish (Aluminum container).

6. Soil sample of 75 mm length.

7. Dial gauge (0.01 mm accuracy).

8. Balance of capacity 200 g and sensitivity to weigh 0.01 g.

9. Oven, thermostatically controlled with interior of non-corroding material to maintain the


temperature at the desired level. What is the range of the temperature used for drying the soil.

8. Sample extractor and split sampler.

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9. Dial gauge (sensitivity 0.01mm).

10. Vernier calipers

3.7.4 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE (SPECIMEN)

In this test, a cylinder of soil without lateral support is tested to failure in simple compression, at
a constant rate of strain. The compressive load per unit area required to fail the specimen as called
Unconfined compressive strength of the soil.

Preparation of specimen for testing

3.7.4.1 Undisturbed specimen

1. Note down the sample number, bore hole number and the depth at which the sample was
taken.

2. Remove the protective cover (paraffin wax) from the sampling tube.

3.Place the sampling tube extractor and push the plunger till a small length of sample moves out

4.Trim the projected sample using a wire saw.

5. Again push the plunger of the extractor till a 75 mm long sample comes out.

6. Cutout this sample carefully and hold it on the split sampler so that it does not fall.

7. Take about 10 to 15 g of soil from the tube for water content determination.

Note the container number and take the net weight of the sample and the container.

8.Measure the diameter at the top, middle, and the bottom of the sample and find the average
and record the same.

9. Measure the length of the sample and record.

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10. Find the weight of the sample and record.

3.7.4.2 Moulded sample

1. For the desired water content and the dry density, calculate the weight of the dry soil Ws
required for preparing a specimen of 3.8 cm diameter and 7.5 cm long.

Add required quantity of water Ww to this soil.

Ww = WS * W/100 gm

2. Mix the soil thoroughly with water.

3. Place the wet soil in a tight thick polythene bag in a humidity chamber and place the soil in a
constant volume mould, having an internal height of 7.5 cm and internal diameter of 3.8 cm.

4. After 24 hours take the soil from the humidity chamber and place the soil in a constant volume
mould, having an internal height of 7.5 cm and internal diameter of 3.8 cm.

5. Place the lubricated moulded with plungers in position in the load frame.

6. Apply the compressive load till the specimen is compacted to a height of 7.5 cm.

7. Eject the specimen from the constant volume mould.

8. Record the correct height, weight and diameter of the specimen.

3.7.5 Test procedure

1.Take two frictionless bearing plates of 75 mm diameter.

2. Place the specimen on the base plate of the load frame (sandwiched between the end plates).

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3. Place a hardened steel ball on the bearing plate.

4. Adjust the center line of the specimen such that the proving ring and the steel ball are in the
same line.

5. Fix a dial gauge to measure the vertical compression of the specimen.

6. Adjust the gear position on the load frame to give suitable vertical displacement.

7. Start applying the load and record the readings of the proving ring dial and compression dial for
every 5 mm compression.

8. Continue loading till failure is complete.

9. Draw the sketch of the failure pattern in the specimen.

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3.8 GRAIN SIZE DISTRIBUTION

3.8.1 OBJECTIVE
(a). Select sieves as per I.S specifications and perform sieving.
(b). Obtain percentage of soil retained on each sieve.
(c). Draw graph between log grain size of soil and % finer.

3.8.2 NEED AND SCOPE OF EXPERIMEN


The grain size analysis is widely used in classification of soils. The data obtained from grain size
distribution curves is used in the design of filters for earth dams and to determine suitability of
soil for road construction, air field etc. Information obtained from grain size analysis can be used
to predict soil water movement although permeability tests are more generally used.
3.8.3 Apparatus

1. Balance

2. I.S sieves

3. Rubber pestle and mortar.

4 .mechanical Sieve Shaker

the grain size analysis is an attempt to determine the relative proportions of different grain sizes
which make up a given soil mass.

3.8.4 KNOWLEDGE OF EQUIPMENT

1.The balance to be used must be sensitive to the extent of 0.1% of total weight of sample taken.

2.I.S 460-1962 are to used. The sieves for soil tests: 4.75 mm to 75 microns.

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3.8.5 PROCEDURE

1 .For soil samples of soil retained on 75 micron I.S sieve

(a) The proportion of soil sample retained on 75 micron I.S sieve is weighed and recorded weight
of soil sample is as per I.S 2720.

(b) I.S sieves are selected and arranged in the order as shown in the table.

(c) The soil sample is separated into various fractions by sieving through above sieves placed in
the above mentioned order.

(d) The weight of soil retained on each sieve is recorded.

(e) The moisture content of soil if above 5% it is to be measured and recorded.

2. No particle of soil sample shall be pushed through the sieves.

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REFERENCE

1. S. A. Naeini ans S. M. Sadjadi, (2018) “ Effect of Waste Polymer Materials


on shear strength of unsaturated Clays”, EJGE journal, Vol 13, Bunk k, (1-
12).

2. Yetimoglu T., Inanir, M., O. E., 2005. A study on bearing capacity of


randomly distributed fiber-reinforced sand fills overlying soft clay.
Geotextiles and Geomembranes 23 (2), 174-183`

3. Mahmood R. Abdi, Ali Parsapajouh and Mohammad A. Arjomand, (2008),


“ Effect of Random Fiber Inclusion on Consolidation, Hydraulic
Conductivity, Swelling, Shrinkage Limit and Desiccation Cracking of
Clays”, International Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol. 6, No. 4, (284-292).

4. IS 2720-part (xiii) 1980-87

5. The need of soil stabilization, April 9, 2011 by Ana [online] Available at:
http://www.contracostalandscaping.com/the-need-for-soil-stabilization/

6. Methods of soil stabilization, December 24, 2010 [online] Available


at:http://www.engineeringtraining.tpub.com/14070/css/14070_424.htm

7. Prof. Krishna Reddy, UIC, 2008, engineering properties of soils based on


laboratory testing.

8. Punmia B.C. 2007, “Soil Mechanics & Foundations” Laxmi Publications.

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