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Sy, Princess Fabelle A.

"Restoration" to denote the literature


Engl 10 that began and flourished under Charles
June 27, 2018 II, whether that literature was the
laudatory ode that gained a new life with
1. What are the literatures of English? restored aristocracy.
 Old English literature: c. 450–1066
 Middle English literature: 1066–1500  18th century
 English Renaissance: 1500–1660 o European literature of the 18th century
 Restoration Age: 1660–1700 refers to literature (poetry, drama, satire,
 18th century and novels) produced in Europe during
 Romanticism (1798–1837) this period. The 18th century saw the
 Victorian literature (1837–1901) development of the modern novel as
 20th century literary genre. Daniel Defoe's 1719
Robinson Crusoe is probably the best
2. Give descriptions and significant event/facts for each known.
 Old English literature: c. 450–1066
o Also known as Anglo-Saxon literature.
These works include genres such as epic  Romanticism (1798–1837)
poetry, hagiography, sermons, Bible o (also known as the Romantic era) was an
translations, legal works, chronicles and artistic, literary, musical and intellectual
riddles. Oral tradition was very strong in movement that originated in Europe
early English culture and most literary toward the end of the 18th century, and
works were written to be performed. in most areas was at its peak in the
Beowulf is the most famous work in Old approximate period from 1800 to 1850.
English. Romanticism was characterized by its
emphasis on emotion and individualism
 Middle English literature: 1066–1500 as well as glorification of all the past and
o In this period religious literature nature, preferring the medieval rather
continued to enjoy popularity and than the classical. It had a significant and
Hagiographies were written, adapted complex effect on politics, with romantic
and translated. Example works are the thinkers influencing liberalism,
legends of King Arthur and the Knights of radicalism, conservatism and
the Round Table. nationalism.

 English Renaissance: 1500–1660  Victorian literature (1837–1901)


o The English Renaissance was a cultural o Victorian literature is literature, mainly
and artistic movement in England dating written in English, during the reign of
from the late 15th to the 17th century. It Queen Victoria (1837–1901) (the
is associated with the pan-European Victorian era). It was preceded by
Renaissance that is usually regarded as Romanticism and followed by the
beginning in Italy in the late 14th century. Edwardian Era (1901-1910). Novel that
William Shakespeare (1564–1616) stands was most important in the Victorian
out in this period as a poet and period. Charles Dickens (1812–1870)
playwright as yet unsurpassed. dominated the first part of Victoria's
reign: his first novel, Pickwick Papers, was
 Restoration Age: 1660–1700 published in 1836, and his last Our
o Written during the historical period Mutual Friend between 1864–5. Robert
commonly referred to as the English Browning (1812–89) and Alfred
Restoration (1660–1689), which Tennyson (1809–92) were Victorian
corresponds to the last years of the direct England's most famous poets.
Stuart reign in England, Scotland, Wales,
and Ireland. It is a literature that includes  20th century
extremes, for it encompasses both o Modernism is a major literary movement
Paradise Lost and the Earl of Rochester's of the first part of the twentieth-century.
Sodom, the high-spirited sexual comedy The term Postmodern literature is used
of The Country Wife and the moral to describe certain tendencies in post-
wisdom of The Pilgrim's Progress. In World War II literature. Irish writers were
general, scholars use the term especially important in the twentieth-
century, including James Joyce and later Nearly all Anglo-Saxon authors are anonymous, with some
Samuel Beckett, both central figures in exceptions.
the Modernist movement. Americans,
like poets T. S. Eliot and Ezra Pound and Research in the 20th century has focused on dating the
novelist William Faulkner, were other manuscripts (19th-century scholars tended to date them older
important modernists. than modern scholarship has found); locating where the
manuscripts were created—there were seven major scriptoria
from which they originate: Winchester, Exeter, Worcester,
3. How important is literature? Abingdon, Durham, and two Canterbury houses Christ Church
Literature is important for the following reasons: and St. Augustine; and identifying the regional dialects used:
 Literature improves your command of language Northumbrian, Mercian, Kentish, West Saxon (the latter being
 It teaches about life, cultures and experiences of the main dialect).
people in other parts of the world
 It gives you information about other parts of the Old English literature did not disappear in 1066 with the
world which you may never be able to visit Norman Conquest. Many sermons and works continued to be
in your lifetime read and used in part or whole up through the 14th century,
 Makes you wiser by making you sympathize or and were further catalogued and organised. During the
criticize the characters Reformation, when monastic libraries were dispersed, the
 Improve your command of the English language manuscripts were collected by antiquarians and scholars. These
 It deals with universal themes and values that help included Laurence Nowell, Matthew Parker, Robert Bruce
us grow Cotton and Humfrey Wanley. In the 17th century begun a
 tradition of Old English literature dictionaries and references.
The first was William Somner's Dictionarium Saxonico-Latino-
4. History of Anglo-literature Anglicum (1659). Lexicographer Joseph Bosworth began a
dictionary in the 19th century which was completed by Thomas
A large number of manuscripts remain from the 600 year Anglo- Northcote Toller in 1898 called An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary,
Saxon period, with most written during the last 300 years (9th– which was updated by Alistair Campbell in 1972.
11th century), in both Latin and the vernacular. Old English
literature is among the oldest vernacular languages to be Because Old English was one of the first vernacular languages
written down. Old English began, in written form, as a practical to be written down, nineteenth century scholars searching for
necessity in the aftermath of the Danish invasions—church the roots of European "national culture" (see Romantic
officials were concerned that because of the drop in Latin Nationalism) took special interest in studying Anglo-Saxon
literacy no one could read their work. Likewise King Alfred the literature, and Old English became a regular part of university
Great ( 849– 899), wanting to restore English culture, lamented curriculum. Since WWII there has been increasing interest in the
the poor state of Latin education: manuscripts themselves— Neil Ker, a paleographer, published
the groundbreaking Catalogue of Manuscripts Containing
King Alfred noted that while very few could read Latin, many Anglo-Saxon in 1957, and by 1980 nearly all Anglo-Saxon
could still read Old English. He thus proposed that students be manuscript texts were in print. J.R.R. Tolkien is credited with
educated in Old English, and those who excelled would go on to creating a movement to look at Old English as a subject of
learn Latin. In this way many of the texts that have survived are literary theory in his seminal lecture Beowulf: The Monsters and
typical teaching and student-oriented texts. the Critics (1936).

In total there are about 400 surviving manuscripts containing Old English literature has had an influence on modern
Old English text, 189 of them considered major. These literature. Some of the best-known translations include William
manuscripts have been highly prized by collectors since the Morris' translation of Beowulf and Ezra Pound's translation of
16th century, both for their historic value and for their aesthetic The Seafarer. The influence of the poetry can be seen in modern
beauty of uniformly spaced letters and decorative elements. poets T. S. Eliot, Ezra Pound and W. H. Auden. Much of the
subject matter and terminology of the heroic poetry can be
Not all of the texts can be fairly called literature, such as lists of seen in The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings and many others.
names or aborted pen trials. However those that can present a
sizable body of work, listed here in descending order of
quantity: sermons and saints' lives (the most numerous),
biblical translations; translated Latin works of the early Church
Fathers; Anglo-Saxon chronicles and narrative history works;
laws, wills and other legal works; practical works on grammar,
medicine, geography; lastly, but not least important, poetry.