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Oil wastes that enter the oceans come from many
sources, Some being accidental spills or leaks, and some
the results Of chronic and careless habits in the use of oil
oil products. It is estimated the approximately 706 million
gallons of waste oil enter the ocean every year, with over
coming form land drainage and waste disposal, for
example, from the improper disposal of used motor oil.


Offshore oil spills or leaks may occur during various
stages of well drilling or work over and repair operations.
Three stages can occur while oil is being produced from
offshore wells, handled and temporarily stored or when oil
is being transported offshore; either by flow line
,underwater pipeline or tanker. The amount of oil spilled or
leaked during off shore production operations is relatively
significant. Oil wastes from offshore drilling operations
may come from disposal of oil based drilling fluid water,
deck runoff etc.


When oil is spilled in the ocean, it initially spreads in the
water , depending on its relative density and composition.
The oil slick formed may remain cohesive. Oil that
contains volatile organic compounds partially evaporates,
losing between 20 and 40 percent of its mass and
becoming denser and more flammable. A percentage of oil
may dissolve in the water. The oil residue also can
disperse almost invisibly in the water to form a thick
mouses with the water. Part of the oil waste may sink with
suspended particulate matter, and the remainder
eventually congeals into sticky tar balls. Over time,oil
waste weathers and disintegrates by means of
phospholysis and biodegradation. The rate of
biodegratation depends on the availability of nutrients,
oxygen and other certain factors.
If reaches the shoreline on coast, it interacts with
sediments such as beach sand and gravel oil waste ,rocks
and boulders, vegetations and terrestrial habitats of both
wildlife and humans causing erosion as well as
contamination. Waves, water currents and wind move the
oil in to shore with the suface and tide. Beach sand and
gravel saturated with oil, oil may be unable to protect and
nurture normal vegetation.

Off Brittany , France,
68.7 million gallons.
A tanker ran aground off the coast of Brittany after its
steering failed in a sever stom its entire cargo of 246,000
tons of light crude oil was dumped into the water of
English channel with the grim consequence of killing off
more marine life than any other oil split to date at the time.
cleanup efforts were failed by strong winds and heavy
seas and less than 3300 tons of dispersants were used.


Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies,
89.3 million gallons.
One stormy evening in July 1979, two full super tanker
collided off the coast of Tobago in the Caribbean sea,
precipitating the largest ship –sourced oil spill in history.
Cripple by the accident, both vessels began to leak their
crude oil caught fire. One of the tankers exploded 300
nautical miles offshore, killing 26 crew.


Off Saldanha Bay, South Africa,
78.5 million gallons.
The tankers caught fire about 70 miles North weat of
Capetown, South Africa, on August 6,1983. The blazing
vessel was abandoned and drifted offshore unit it even
tualy broken in half. The stern capsized and sank into the
deep ocean. The vessel was carrying nearly 79 million
gallons of crude at the time of the accident. About 1500
gannets that happened to be gathered on a near by island
gearing up for their breeding season, were oiled, but the
impact on local fish stocks was minimal.

GULF WAR(1991):
240 to 336 million gallons,
As Irqi forced retreated from Kuwait during the first Gulf
war, they opened the values of oil well and pipe lines in a
bid to slow the onslaught of American troops. The result
was the largest oil spill history had seen some 240 million
gallons of crude oil flowed into the persion Gulf. The
resulting oil slick spanned an area just larger than the size
of the island of
Hawaii. However the largest oil spill the world has seen
exacted little permanent damage on coral ecosystem and
local fisheries, according to a report by the inter
governmental Ocean or graphic commission at uneseo.


Mexican Gulf,
210 million gallons.
The BP oil split flowed for three monthes, becoming the
largest accidental marine oil spill in the history of the
petroleum industry. The spill stemmed from a sea floor oil
gusher that resulted from the April 20, 2010, explosion of
Deep water horizons, which drilled on the BP-operated
Macondo prospect. The explosion killed 11 workingmen
on the platform and injured 17 others on July 15, 2010, the
leaked was stopped by capping the gushing well head,
after it had reloded about 4.9 million barrels per day
escaped from the well just before it was capped.
The spill causing extensive damage to marine and wildlife
and tourism industry. Skimmer ships, floating containment
boom, anchored barriers, sand-filled barricades along
shore lines and dispersant were used in an attempt to
protect hundreds of miles of beaches, wet land and
estuaries from the spreading oil.
Scientists also reported immense under water plums of
dissolved oil not visible at the surface as well as an 80
square-mile ‘kill zone” surrounding the blown well.
Such as oil that seeps from the bottom of oceans which
enters the marine environment. Crude oil is formed during
long periods of time through natural process involving and
may be naturally spilled due to various factors such
natural oil spill may occur in ocean due to reacting of
sedimentary rocks from the bottom of the oceans.
It indicating accidental oil spill as well as leaks and spills
due to a larger varity of human activity related to oil
refining handling and transport, stonge and use of crude
oil and any of its distilled products.

Oil-covered birds are a universal symbol of environmental
damage wreaked by oil spills. Some species of shore birds
might escape by relocating if they sense danger in time,
but sea birds that swim and dive for their food are most
likely to be covered in oil following a spill. Oil spills also
damage nesting grounds, potentially causing serious long-
term effects on entire species. The 2010 BP Deepwater
Horizon offshore oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, for
example, occurred during prime mating and nesting
season for many bird and marine species, and long-term
environmental consequences of that spill won't be known
for years. Oil spills can disrupt migratory patterns by
contaminating areas where migrating birds normally stop.
Oil spills often take a deadly toll on fish, shellfish, and
other marine life, particularly if many fish eggs or larvae
are exposed to oil. Shrimp and oyster fisheries along the
Louisiana coast were among early casualties of the BP
Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Similarly, the Exxon Valdez
spill destroyed billions of salmon and herring eggs. Years
later those fisheries had not recovered.

Wild life than fish and the creatures,including
mammals,reptiles,amphibians and birds that live in or
near the ocean are also poisoned by oil waste.The
hazards for wildlife include basic effects of exposure for
ingestion,injuries such as smothering and detoration of
thermal insulation, and damge to their reproductive
systems and behaviours. Long term ecological effects
that contaminate or destroy the marine organic
substrate and ther by interact the food chain are also
harmful to the wildlife.

 Double-hulling - build double hulls into vessels, which

reduces the risk and severity of a spill in case of a
collision or grounding. Existing single-hull vessels can
also be rebuilt to have a double hull.

 Thick-hulled railroad transport tanks.

 A listing of appropriate protective clothing, safety

equipment, and cleanup materials required for spill

 Appropriate evacuation zones and procedures

 Availability of fire suppression equipment

 Disposal containers for spill cleanup materials and the

first aid procedures that might be required
The technique used to clean up oil spill depends on
oil characteristics and the type of environment
involved for example: open, measures include
containment and removal of limit immediate surficial
and wildlife damage to degradation and normal
weathering process individuals of large size wild life
species are sometimes rescued and cleaned but
microstyled species are basically ignored.
Oil spill conatainment measures to clean up and
reverse the oil are selected and applied on the basis
may inter factors including ecological protection,
socioeconomic effects and health effects. It is
important to have contingency plans in place in order
to deploy pollution control personal and equipment

1) https://www.thoughtco.com/environmental-
2) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oil_spill#Prevention