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Sultans

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Ruler

Reign

Notes

Qutbuddin Aibak

(1206 – 1210)

Founder of the Slave Dynasty.

Aram Shah

(1210 – 1211)

Eldest son of Aibak

Shams ud din Iltutmish

(1211 – 1236)

Son - in - law of Aibak

Rukn ud din Fi ruz

(1236)

Son of Iltutmish.

Raziyat ud din Sultana

(1236 – 1240)

Daughter of Iltutmish.

Muiz ud din Bahram

(1240 – 1242)

Son of Iltutmish.

Ala ud din Masud

(1242 – 1246)

Son of Rukn - ud - din Firuz.

Nasir ud din Mahmud

(1246 – 1266)

Grandson of Iltutmish.

Ghiyas ud din Balban

(1266 – 1286)

Son - in - law of Iltutmish.

Muiz ud din Qaiqabad

(1286 – 1290)

Grandson (on daughter's side) of Nasir - ud - din Mahmud [1246 - 1266].

Kayumars

1290

Son of Muiz - ud - din Qaiqabad.

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The first Sultan was Qutb - ud - din Aibak , who reigned from 1206 to 1210. Making Lahore his capital, he consolidated his control over North India through an administrative hold over Delhi . He also initiated the construction of Delhi's earliest Muslim monuments, the Quwwat - ul - Islam mosque and the Qutb Minar . In 1210 he died accidentally while he was playing a game of polo in Lahore on horseback: his horse fell and he was impaled on the pommel of his saddle. He was b uried in Lahore.

The second Sultan was Aram Shah who reigned from 1210 to 1211. Iltutmish defeated Aram in the plain of Jud near Delhi in 1211. It is not quite certain what became of Aram .

The third Sultan was Shams - ud - din Iltutmish reigned from 1211 to 1236. He shifted the capital from Lahore to Delhi and trebled the exchequer. Iltutmish consolidated his hold on northern India by retaking many of the lost territories. In 1230, he built t he Hauz - i - Shamsi reservoir in Mehrauli , and in 1231 he built Sultan Ghari .

The fourth Sultan was Rukn - ud - din Feroze who reigned from April 1236 to November 1236. He ruled for only seven months and his mother, Shah Turkan , for all practical purposes was running the government. He was more interested in personal pleasure and that outraged the citizenry. On November 9, 1236, both Rukn - ud - din Feroze and his mother Shah Turkan were both assassinated .

The fifth Sultan was Razia al - Din and she reigned from 1236 to 1240. As the first female Muslim ruler in Inda, she initially managed to impress the nobles and administratively handled the Sultanate well. She was defeated by the powerful nobleman M alik Altunia whom she agreed to marry. Her brother Muiz - ud - din Bahram , however, usurped the throne with the help of the Chihalgani and defeated the combined forces of the Sultana and her husband. The couple fled and reached Kaithal , where their remaining forces abandoned them. They both fell into the hands of Jats and were robbed and killed on October 14, 1240.

There were a few more Sultans between 1240 and 1266 and then the ninth Sultan Ghiyath - ud - din Balban reigned from 1266 to 1287. Balban ruled with an iron fist

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and br oke up the Chihalgani group of noblemen. He tried to establish peace and order in India and built many outposts with garrisons of soldiers in areas where there had been disorder. Balban wanted to make sure everyone was loyal to the crown, so he established an efficient espionage system.

The tenth and final Sultan was Muiz - ud - din Muhammad Qaiqabad and reigned from 1287 to 1290. Being still young at the time, he ignored all state affairs. After four years, he suffered a paralytic stroke and was later murdered in 1290 by a Khil ji chief. Slave dynasty had ended with the rise of the Khiljis.

Source: Wikipedia

Qutubuddin Aibak , a ruler of medieval India, was the first ruler of the Delhi Sultanate and also the founder of the Slave dynasty. He was a Turk of the Aybak tribe and w as the sultan for only four years, 1206- 1210. He was captured in his childhood and sold as a slave to the chief Qazi of Nishapur, a town situated in the northeastern Iran.

He was very well treated by the Qazi and imparted good education, including training in archery and horsemanship in his childhood. However when the master died, his jealous sons, sold Qutubuddin Aibak to a slave merchant.

He was finally purchased by the ruler of Ghor in central Afghanistan, Sultan Muhammad Ghori. Qutubuddin Aibak, gradually rose to the rank of General and became one of the most trusted nobles of Sultan Ghori. The conquests of northern India were executed mainly by Qutb - ud - din Aibak, which helped Ghori to consolidate his position there. Gradually, as Sultan Ghori concentrated on Central Asia after 1192, he was given the independent c harge of the conquests in India .

Muhammad Ghori established himself as strong ruler with his empire extendi ng over Afghanistan, Pakistan, and northern India. Qutubuddin Aibak, was crowned the Sultan of Delhi in 1206. W hen Aibak came to throne he ruled over those places where he was appointed as the local receiver - general of Sultan Ghori. Despite the rebellions by nobles like Taj - ud - din Ildiz and Nasir - ud - din Qubachah,

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he strengthened the administrative system, which was established by Ghori.

Qutb - ud - din Aibak started the construction of the Quwwat - ul - Islam mosque and the Qutub Minar , which were among the earliest Muslim monuments in Delhi. This mosque was built by destroying the Hindu temple, which was built by Prithvi Raj, and certain parts of the temple were ke pt intact outside the mosque. These

were later completed

by

his

successor

Iltutmish.

In 1210, Qutb - ud - din Aibak died in an accident while he was playing polo. He fell from the horseback and was severely injured. He was buried in Lahore near the Anarkali bazaar. He was succeeded by Iltutmish, another slave who rose to the level of a Sultan, thus extending the Slave Dynasty.

Muhammad Ghori had no male successor to inherit his empire; hence his nephew Ghisauddin ascended the throne of Ghor after his death in 1206 A.D. Ghori loved his slaves very much and provided all possible opportunities to them to develop their personality.

According to Minhaj- us - Siraj when the question of succession was asked of him as he had no son, Ghori replied firmly, “Other monarch s have one son or two sons. I have so many thousand sons, namely, my Turkish Slaves who will be heirs of my dominions and who after me will take care to preserve my name in the Khubta throughout the territory”.

Therefore, after his death his empire was div ided among his ambitious and powerful governors like, Tajuddin Yaldoz, Nasiruddin Qubacha and Qutbuddin Aibak. These governors were virtually slaves of Muhammad Ghori who rose to prominience as military generals due to expert guidance of Aibak and their ow n fighting skills and organizational qualities. As Muhammad Ghori loved his slaves like his sons, they served their master with profound loyality. Aibak was one of his faithful and trusted slave officers. He inherited his Indian empire after the death of M uhammad Ghori.

Qutbuddin Aibak was born in a high family of Turkistan. Though he was ugly in appearance, he was intelligent and impressive in behaviour. He was taken as a

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prisoner and sold to the Qazi of Nishapur named Fakhruddin as slave in his childhood.

He was pro vided with proper education and military training by the kind - hearted Qazi but soon after the death of the Quzi, his sons sold Aibak to Muhammad Ghori. He was well versed in Islamic theology, horse riding and swordsmanship. Owing to his skill and qualities, he soon attracted the attention of his master and was appointed commander of a troop.

Shortly after, he was promoted to the post of Amir - i - Akhur, the master of the royal stable. The title of Aibak was besto wed upon hi m by Ghori but some historians are of the opinion that he belonged to Aibak trible of Turks which in Turkish language means ‘Lord of the Moon’.

Aibak expressed his ability and valour at the time of Ghori’s invasion on India.

When Ghori invaded India, Aibak came with his master and provided him his active support during wars. The successes of his master by and large depended on his military “skill. Ghori was immensely pleased with him and he appointed him his governor of the Indian empire. Aibak added power and prestige to the empire by his incessant labour and intelligence.

After the second battle of Tarain, Aibak was appointed viceroy of the conquered provinces of Ghori in India; He did yeoman service to the infant Muslim empire. Even during absence of his master he continued the series of victories and crushed the revolts of the Rajputs from 1192 to 1205 a.d.

He not only organized the p rovinces conqu ered by Ghori but also extended his Territory. Prominent historian Lanepoole “has written about him, “Aibak’s chief exploits were achieved during his Viceroyally.” The credit for the conquest of Ajmer, Kanauj and Kalinjar from 1193 to 1203 a.d. goes to him.

The credit of the victories achieved in the reign of Ghori goes to Aibak, therefore, afte r the death of Gh ori in 1206 , he could become Sultan in India without much opposition.

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Accession of Qutbuddin Aibak:

In 1206 A.D. on his way to Ghazni Ghori breathed his last. His empire was inherited by his slaves as he had no son to succeed him. Aibak who was a Viceroy of his Indian empire was invited by the Amirs of Lahore to assume the powers for Ghori wanted it and already bestowed the title of Malik and Subedar on Aibak.

Dr. A.L. Srivastava writes, that Ghori ’s nephew Ghiasuddin who succeeded him at Ghazni was not a competent ruler. However, Aibak did not assume the title of Sultan, nor did he issue currency in his name. It was because he had not received formal manumission from Muhammad Ghori and as a shrewd politician, he did not want to become a prey of the jealousies of Turkish nobles; rather he wanted to consolidate his position and power through diplomatic measures. To achieve his mission he adopted the policy of matrimonial alliances. He gave away his da ughter to Iltutmish and his sister to Nasiruadin Qubacha in marriage. He himself married the daughter of Yaldoz. Thus h e tried to establish sweet relations with all the powerful persons of his times so that his position could be strong.

He also requested G hiasuddin, the nephew of Ghori to recognize him as an independent ruler of India and assured him all help against the ruler of Khwarizm. Ghiasuddin accepted his request and sent him the royal insignia and standard and also bestowed on him the title of Sultan. Thus the formal manumission was granted to Aibak in 1206 A.D.

Although Aibak was confronted with various problems of intensive nature, he faced them all with courage, bravery and farsightedness. After becoming the ruler of India he passed his time i n crushing the revolts, struggling against the opponents and in solving the other problems. He ruled only for four years.

He did not make fresh invasions during his reign and tried to establish law and order and to strengthen his army. He wanted to establi sh a separate entity of the Turkish Empire free from the politics of Central Asia. First of all he consolidated his position in Delhi and Lahore and then persuaded the Turkish nobles to recognize his sovereignty. His matrimonial policy further strengthened his position.

Source : Biography of Qutbuddin Aibak by R Jain

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Iltutmish belonged to the slave dynasty and succeeded to the throne after Qutub - ud - din - Aibak. He was one of the leading rulers of the Delhi Sultanate and played a key role in extending the empire to a large part of the country. He was a Turk, who belonged to the Ilbari tribe. Qutub - ud - din - Aibak, who was at that time the Viceroy of Delhi was i mpressed by his intelligence and bravery and purchased him.

Gradually, he rose to a high position and was appointed as the Governor of Gwalior. Fascinated by his intelligence, goodness and nobleness of character Aibak married his daughter to him.

Qutub - ud - din Aibak died in 1210 A.D and the Chihalgani nominated Aram Shah as the new Sultan. As he turned out to be an inefficient ruler, he was replaced by Iltitmish within the time span of one year. Iltutmish was a shrewd ruler, who after as cending the throne, was engaged in a series of battles and thus extended his empire. In 1229 AD, he was honored with the title of Sultan - I - Azam (Great Sultan) from Ali Mastansir Billah, the Khalifah of Baghdad and considered as the absolute ruler of the la nd that he had captured. As a result his prestige and authority increased in the Muslim world, and created a separate identity for himself.

Iltutmish was a patron of arts and letters. The construction of the Qutab Minar in

Delhi was started by his predecessor Qutub - ud - din - Aibak but he added to it. He inscribed the names of his patrons, Sultan Qutub- ud - din and Sultan Mu'iz - ud - din on the column as a sense of gratitude towards them. The extremely religious Sultan also built further the magnificent Quwwatu'l Islam mosque. In 1235, he built the tomb, which is situated to the northwest of the Quwwatu'l Islam mosque. The tomb is noted for its stark exteriors and intricately ornamented interiors and the use the ancient Hindu motifs such as bell- and - chain, tassel,

wheel,

lotus

and

diamond.

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Iltumish died in 1236A.D. He was disappointed with his sons incapability, so he nominated his daughter Razia Sultana as his heiress.

Source: Maps of India

Iltutmish , also called Shams al - D ī n Iltutmish , Iltutmish also spelled Altamsh (died April 29, 1236 ), third and grea test Delhi sultan of the so - called Slave dynasty . Iltutmish was sold into slavery but married the daughter of his master, Qu b al - D ī n Aibak , whom he succeeded in 1211. He strengthened and expanded the empire in northern India and moved the capital to D elhi, where he added to the great victory tower, the Qu b M ī n ā r.

A wise and patient statesman who h ad been trained as a trusted administrator under his predecessors Mu ʿ izz al - D ī n Mu ammad ibn S ā m and Qu b al - D ī n, Iltutmish was faced upon his accession not only with the deterioration of Muslim rule but also with the cla i m of T ā j al - D ī n Yildoiz , the Ghazna ruler, to succession to all of Mu ʿ izz al - D ī n ’ s conquests and with the attempts by the Hindus to recover portions of their lost territory. Iltutmish was able to preserve his kingdom against the ravages of the Mongol invasions that coincided with his reign, and he succeeded in bui l ding an administrative machinery for the empire. He sought out 11t h - century Islamic classics on the art of government; and the Ā d ā b al - Muluk (“Conduct of the Kings”), the first Indo - Muslim classic on the art of government and warfare, was written for him. He was tolerant of the Hindus despite the urgings of his advisers, and he built up the water works, mosques, and amenities at Delhi to make it for the first time a fitting seat of governm ent. His reign and his advisers, esp ecially the vizier Junayd ī , were praised by contempora rie s.

Iltutmish’s eldest son died before he did, and his other sons were incompetent. He gave an excellent education to his daug hter Raziyya (Raziyyat al - D ī n) and desired that she should succeed him. His wishes were offensive to the administrative Council of Forty, Iltutmish ’ s personal slaves who served as his advisers. Raziyya did succeed briefly to the throne, but her appointment of an African to an important position was considered insulting to the council, which shortly brought about her downfall. This marked the beginning of the decline of the line of Iltutmish.

Source; www.britannica.com

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The Khilji

Ruler

Reign

Notes

Jalal ud din Firuz Khilji

1290

Son of Qaim Khan (Yulak Khan of Qunduz),

1296

and also the founder of the Khilji Dynasty.

 

1296

 

Alauddin Khilji

1316

 

1316

 

Qutb ud din Mubarak Shah

1320

The Khilji rulers trace their roots to Central Asia and were of Turkic origin. They had long been settled in what is now Afghanistan before proceeding to Delhi in India . The name "Khilji" refers to an Afghan village or town known as Q alat - e Khilji (Fort of Ghilza i ). The three sultans of the Khalji dynasty were noted by historians for their faithlessness and feroc it y.

Ikhtiar Uddin Muhammad bin Bakhtiar Khilji was a servant of Qutb - ud - din Aibak . From 1266 until his death in 1290, the Sultan of Delhi was called Ghiyas ud din Balban , another servant of Qutab - ud - din Aybak. Balban's immediate successors, however, were unable to manage either the administrati o n or the conflicts between the old Turkic nob ility and the new forces led by the Khaljis. After a struggle between the two factions, Jalal ud din Firuz Khilji was installed as sultan. Jalal - ud - din was old, and for a time he was so unpopular that he dared not enter the capital. During his short reign (1290– 96), some of Balban's officers revolted

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due to this assumption of power; Jalal - ud - din suppressed them, led an unsuccessful expedition against Ranthambhor and defeated a Mongol force on the banks of the Sind River in central India. Ala - u d - din Khilji hi s nephew and son - in - law, was ordered by his father to lead an expedition of between 4,000 and 7,000 men. Upon his return in 1296 (having gained status and power) he killed his uncle. Alauddin reigned for 20 years and is considered the greatest member of the dynasty .

According to the 14th century scholar Ibn Batuta , the Khilji dynasty encouraged conversion to Islam by making it cus tomary to have the convert presented to the sultan who would place a robe on him and reward him with gold bracele t s.

Source : compiled from wikipedia

Ala - u d - din Khilji , born as Juna Khan Khilji, was the second ruler of the Khilji dynasty in Northern India , reigning from 1296 to 1316.He was of Turk ethnicity but was born and raised in present - day Afghanistan . He is considered the most powerful ruler of the dynasty.

He was a strategist and military commander who commanded forces across the Indian subcontin ent. Sultan Ala - ud - din Khilji is also noted in history for being one of the few rulers in the world to have repeatedly defended his empire against Mongol in vasions . He defeated large Mongol armies and then launched punitive expeditions against them in Central Asia, around modern - day Afghanistan .

Aladuudin Khilji was the most powerful ruler of Khilji Dynasty. He killed Jalaluddin Khilji and became the sultan of Delhi in 1296 AD. He expanded his territory to a larger area including most of the India and part of Pakistan and Afghanistan. H i s childhoo d name was ‘Ali Gurshap Bam’.

As a Ruler:

Alauddin Khilji was a very good military commander and a brilliant strategist. His policies were very strict and he had the full control over his nobles. He was an extremely harsh, ruthless and c ruel ruler. He expanded the borders of his empire

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to most of the Indian territories and part of Pakistan and Afghanistan. Alauddin Khilji had multiple powerful military commanders. Alauddin Khilji inherited most of the northern Indian territories, which were occupied at the time of Slave Dynasty and his predecessor Jalal uddin Khilji. Alauddin Khilji is also known for defeating Mongols in multiple instances. Alauddin also started his military campaign in Southern India.

Administrative work of Alauddin Khilji

Alauddin Khilji was an efficient administrator and known for his strict and harsh policies. He introduced a strict Price Control measure and cut all unnecessary expenditure. He controlled the market price of the commodities. He increased the tax of agriculture and introduced a strict monitoring system to prevent bribes. He controlled the demand and suppl y by introducing godowns to store the surplus grain and make it available at the time of scarc ity.

Source : http://nandyforu.com/history/khilji_dynasty

Sho rt Essay on Khilji Dynasty (1290 AD to 1320 AD) BHARTI PREETI

Balban's death (1286) was followed by a few years of anarchy. In 1290, a group of Khilji nobles led by Jalal - ud - Din Khalji, who had fought successfully against the Mongols in the earlier period, overthrew the Turks. The Khilji rebellion ended the Turkish monopoly over high offices.

Jalal - ud - Din was the first ruler of the Delhi Sultanate who put forward the view that the State should be based on the willing support of the governed, and that since a large majority of the people in India were Hindus, the State in India could not be truly Islamic.

The next ruler in the line, Ala - ud - Din Khilji (1296 - 1314), came to the throne by treacherously murdering his father- in - law, Jalal - ud - Din. He put down rebellions with a heavy hand and framed a series of regulations to prevent nobles from conspiring against him. They were forbidden to hold banquets or festivities, or enter into marriage alliances without the permission of the Sultan.

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He also b anned the use of wines and intoxicants. He further instituted a spy service to keep himself informed on all matters. All this resulted in the breakdown of the old nobility. The new nobility learnt to accept anyone who was powerfu l enough to ascend the thro ne. Thus, after his death, Malik Kafur raised a minor to the thron e and he was followed by Khusrau, an incompetent Hindu convert.

Ala - ud - Din Khilji is well- known for conquests of Gujarat and large Parts of Rajasthan including Chittor. Under Malik Kafur, his forces went south into the Deccan - as far as Chidambaram. Ala- ud - Din is also known 'or his internal reforms and experiments. His most important experiment was market control.

The rationale behind this was to maintain a continuous and cheap supply of goods to the towns in order to gain the loyalty of the people. Besides, he paid his soldiers in cash, and he wanted them to be able to buy within their means.

Ala - ud - Din was also the first monarch to establish direct relations with the peasants. He did away wit h the iqta system, by which a noble was assigned villages in an area in lieu of his pay. Ala - ud - Din stipulated that land revenue should be paid in kind and not cash and the land revenue was raised to half the produce.

Islamic architecture in India is an interesting mingling during the period of Khiliji Dynasty. It marked developments in building techniques and the third ruler Alauddin was one of the ambitious builders of that time. The Alai Darwaza was an extension of the Qwwat - ul - Islam mosque. This was o ne of the four grand gateways. Some other structures built by Khiljis were the city wall of Siri, the tomb of Alauddin Khilji and the `Madrasa`. The economic reforms by Alaudiin Khilji were undoubtedly a remarkable contribution to the Indian economy. It can be said that the coming of Khaljis to power was more than just being a dynastic change.

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Tughlaq s

Titular Name

Personal Name

Reign

Sultan Ghiyath- ud - din Tughluq Shah

Ghazi Malik

13211325

Sultan Muhammad Adil bin Tughluq Shah

Malik Fakhr - ud - din

13251351

Sultan Feroze Shah Tughluq

Malik Feroze ibn Malik Rajab

13511388

Sultan Ghiyath- ud - din Tughluq Shah

Tughluq Khan ibn Fateh Khan ibn Feroze Shah

13881389

Sultan Abu Bakr Shah

Abu Bakr Khan ibn Zafar Khan ibn Fateh Khan ibn Feroze Shah

13891390

Sultan Muhammad Shah

Muhammad Shah ibn Feroze Shah

13901394

Sultan Ala - ud - din Sikandar Shah

Humayun Khan

1394

Sultan Nasir- ud - din Mahmud Shah Tughluq

Mahmud Shah ibn Muhammad Shah

13941412/1413

Sultan Nasir- ud - din Nusrat Shah Tughluq

Nusrat Khan ibn Fateh Khan ibn Feroze Shah

13941398

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Feroz Shah Tughlaq

Sultan Firoz Shah Tughluq was the Sultan of Delhi from 1351 to 1388. At his succession after the death of Muhammad Tughla q, he faced many rebellions. Nonetheless he work ed to improve the infrastructure, building ca n als, rest - houses and hospitals, creating and refurbishing reservoirs and digging wells. He founded several cities, including Jaunpur , Firozpur and Hissar - Firoza . In the mid 1350s he developed the city near Delhi, calling it Firozabad . Most of that c ity was destroyed as subsequent rulers dismantled its buildings and reused the building materi als.

Two storeys of Qutb Minar, were added by Sultan Feroze Shah Tughlu q, after lightning damaged previous one. Sultan Feroze Shah Tughluq instituted economic policies to increase material welfare of his people. Many rest houses ( sarai ), gardens and tombs were built. A number of Madrasas were opened to encourage literacy. He set up hospitals for the free treatment of the poor and encouraged physicians in the development of Unani medicine . He provided mon ey for the marriage of girls belonging to poor families. He commissioned many public buildings in Delhi . He built over 300 villages and dug 5 major canals for irrigation bringing more land under c ultivation for growing grain and fruit . For day to day administration, Sultan Feroze Shah Tughluq heavily depended on Malik Maqbul , previously commander of Warangal fort, who was captured and converted to Islam. When Feroz Shah was away on a Campaign to Sind and Gujarat for six months and no news was available about his whereabouts Maqbul ably protected Delhi . He was the most highly favoured among the significant number of the nobles in Sultan Feroze Shah Tughluq's court and retained the trust of the sultan. Sultan Feroze Sh ah Tughluq used to call Maqbul his 'brother'.

He had Hindu religious works translated from Sanskrit to Persian . He had a large personal library of manuscripts in Persian, Arabic and other languages. He brought 2 Ashokan Pillars from Topara in Ambala district , and Meerut , carefully

wrapped in silk, to D e lhi. He re - erected one of them in his palace at Feroz Shah

K otla .

He had about 70,000 slaves, who had been brought from all over the country, trained in various arts and crafts. They however turned out to be undependable. Transfe r of capital was the highlight of his re i gn.

Source : Wikipedia

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T his article gives you information on the personality of Firoz Shah Tug h laq.

by Puja Mondal

Firoz Tughlaq came to the throne in 1351 A.D. and ruled for about 37 years up to 1388 A.D. The Muslims regarded Firoz Shah as an ideal ruler who tried to rule strictly according to the Quran.

Firoz Shah Tughlaq tried to serve his people in the best way he could and that is why some historians like Sir Henry Elliot compare him even with Akbar.

He introduced reforms in all the branches of his administration and carried out various works of public utility. The chief aim of his administrative reforms and policy was the welfare of the people. The va r ious steps which he had taken for the welfare of his subject s entitle him to the front rank among the Muslim rulers of medieval India.

Various people had suffered great hardships due to the visionary plans and whimsical nature of muhammad Tughlaq. Soon after his accession to the throne, Firoz Shah tried to trace each and every individual who had suffered at the hands of the late Sultan.

Liberal, grants were given to such people and Declaration of Satisfaction were received from them and placed in the tomb of Muhammad Tughlaq. All t hose loans w hich were advanc ed to the public during famine day s were cancelled to relieve the burden of the people.

Reduction of Taxe s : Firoz Shah abolished all those oppressive taxes which were a great burden on poor people. The land revenue was greatly reduced to relieve the peasants. Similarly, such other taxes which told heavily on the trade and commerce of the country were reduced o r completely abolished. He levied only the four taxes allowed in the Holy law, namely, the Kharaj, Zakat, Jazia and Khams.

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The state officials were also instructed not to p ress the people for any gifts or bribes. The new policy of taxation had a beneficial effect on the development of trade and commerce.

Works of Public Utility: Firoz Tughlaq carried out various works of public utility for the welfare of his people. A special department called Diwan- a - Khairat was established to help the poor and the needy. It also helped the poor Muslims in arranging the marriages of their daughters and gave them state help. An ‘Employment Bureau’ resembling the modern ‘Employment Exchange’ was also organised to find out jobs for the unemployed. Free hospitals were also set up for the poor.

One such hospital called Dar - ul - Shafa was established in Delhi where free medicines and food were supplied to the patients. For travelers about 200 ‘Sarais’ were established on important routes and trees were planted on both sides of the roads.

Reforms in Cri minal Code: Before h im , various types of tortures were prevalent to punish the criminals. Firoz Shah Tughlaq abol i shed all torture s as they were un - Islamic.

Reforms in Agriculture: Knowing full well that India was predominantly ‘an agriculturist country. Firoz Shah paid special attention to the agriculture. The land revenue was considerably reduced, loans were granted to the poor peasants, while the previous loans forwarded to them during the reign of Muhammad Tughlaq were cancelled. Canals and wells were made on a large scale.

The state officers were warned against demanding anything more than the fixed dues and those found guilty of unjust exactions were severely dealt with. All that is said above really goes to the credit of Firoz Shah Tughlaq. But there were many defects i n his character which adversely affected his policy and administration.

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Firoz Shah Tughlaq was a very intolerant and fanatic ruler. He for the first time imposed Jazia on the Brahmans. He pulled down various Hindu temples and built mosques in their places.

He deb a rred hindus from any responsible posts. About his relations with the Hindus, the Sultan himself writes. ‘I encouraged my subjects to embrace Islam and I proclaimed that anyone, who became a Musalman should be exempted from the Jazia ” .

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TOMARS

The Tomaras ruled in Delhi from around 736CE - 1115CE and also in Gwalior and Rajasthan . They are a Rajput - Gujjar clan and claim descent fro m the mythical Chan dra v anshi dynasty .

The establishment of Delhi as a political centre during the early medieval period was the work of the Tomara ruler Anangpal Tomar (Anangap ala) . Evidence of their time in Delhi still exists; for example, a fort and dam in the village of Anangpur and the remains of Lal K ot . Other possible evidence is certainly the Iron pillar that is traditionally said to have been erected by a Tomar ruler may in fact have been moved to its present location from elsewhere.

The Tomar dynasty of Delhi lasted until the demise of Anangpal Tomar II, who was responsible for the construction of Lal Kot, a fortified wall around the city, a likely r eaction to the raids of Mahmud of Ghazni . This is one of the oldest defence structures in Delhi. Anangpal Tomar II appointed his grandson (daughter's son, and son of King of Ajmer ), Prithviraj Chauhan .

Source: Wikipedia

In about 800 CE, Anangpal Tomar, following in the footsteps of his ancestor

Vikramaditya, reestablished Indraprast h a as the seat of his power.

The Tomars renamed Indraprasta as Dhilli or Dilli. Delhi was the center of power

for the Tomar dynasty, and stayed that way even after them. In the Delhi area the

capital shifted to a number of places, the name s may have changed, but the

centre

of

power

remained

in

Dilli.

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It is believed that "Dilli was uprooted many times, and it was

re - established

many times. Delhi was given its look by the Tomars, who made it an object of

pride . Lakes and Temples were inaugurated, and they increased the splendour of

Dilli. The ruins of many of these Lakes and Temples, and buildings can still be

seen, an d g ive evidence to reality of that age, and to the legend s of the Tomars.

Anangpal Toma r I bui l t, a 289 foot long Dam. On two sides were rocky hills, and

between them a small river. The riv er was dammed, with a sturdy structure , and

that

is

testimony

to

the

Indian

engineering

skills.

Raja Anangpal Tomar built a fort on the hill on top of the Dam, and signs of that

fort

can

be

seen

today.

In 1051 CE Anangpal Tomar II became the ruler and established his capital at

Lalkot. He removed the iron victory pillar, from the Vishnudutt Hill, and re erected

it in the centre of his capital Lalkot. The pillar is now outside the Qutb Minar in

Delhi, and is testimony to the metallurgical skills of the era.

One great fort was Lalkot. The palace of the Raja sur rounded the Iron Pillar. Today

that city, those temples are no more, all destroyed, yet this K illi ( very long iron

nail/pillar) is testimony to the glory of the Tomars. When one sees this pillar one

understands what expert metallurgists the craftsmen who made it were. The

pillar of b e aten iron, looks auspicious and great. For centuries this pillar had borne

the assault of the winds and rain, yet even now not a trace of rust can be found.

There are many more such examples, which are hidden in the ruins of Delhi,

wh ich

bear

testimony

to

the

glory

of

the

Tomars.

The Tomars were, historically, the first major power to make the region around Delhi a capital. Lal Kot, the fort they built in what i s now Mehrauli, was to become one of the earliest centres of development of Delhi. However, before they ventured here, they had built fortifications and a city (using the term loosely)

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around Suraj Kund in around the 8th century. Even today, the village of Anangpur (name d after one of the kings that went by the name of Anangpal) close to the Kund is like a memorial to Delhi’s Tomar past.

The rule of this Tomar dynasty lasted till the last Tomar king ruled. It was Maharaja Anangpal Tomar – III who ruled as the last Tomar ki ng. As per the succession rule, his sons were to continue with the Tomar dynasty legacy. But, as the story goes, the king had gone for a pilgrimage after handing over the kingdom to his grandson Prithviraj Chauhan (daughter’s son). Prithiviraj Chauhan who was not the actual successor and was merely appointed as the caretaker of the kingdom later refused to retu rn the kingdom to the Tomaras. The Tomar Dynasty gifted a great style of administration.

The Tomar Dynasty emerged at Indraprastha after the Pandav as finished their rule and passed on the crown to their successors. The Tomar dynasty further spread to other areas such as:

Gwalior, which was their second major stop. Tomar rulers had spread to Gwalior after a war with the Ghori r u ler.

Hastinapur, was already a part of the Pandavas. Hence, this city went on to become a part of the Tomar dynasty automatically. The Tomar dynasty was defeated by the Ghoris, which led to their s hift from Delhi to Gwalior area . Dholpur: Dholpur was discovered by Raja D holan Deo Toma r in 1004. This country of the Tomar king was in between the Banganga and the Chambal River.

- Source: http://www.focusdelhi.com/history/tomar - dynasty

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