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A

New theory in the analysis of


musical scales
Author: Qusai al Sa'di
Translated from Arabic by: Salma Nassif
Dedicated to
- Every person who believes that arts, with music topping the list, when used as
a graceful expression of human consciousness, results in the ascension and
refinement of people’s morals and civilizations; and when it is degrading it
results in the degradation of peoples’ morals and civilizations, for civilization is
morals, as is humanity.

- Every person who believes that no evolution is possible without science and
the scientific context.

understanding of things in their


- Every person who seeks the means to develop his country, laborer or scientist.

- Every person who believes that immortality is the destiny of creative people
and to every person working towards becoming a creative person himself in the
hope of joining the community of creative people.

- Professor and researcher Hassan Skaf, who has given freely, taking nothing in
return.
The Author
Introduction
Since I have studied the Art of music my goal was to understand music and what
music is, in essence. my goal was not to become a distinguished player nor was
it to only have fun with music for my own pleasure... I had a deeper yearning.

When my professor the Expert Master Nadeem Darwish the son of the Master al
shaykh Ali Darwish started to tutor me in the subject of the analysis of eastern
and western scales I was not convinced by the analysis of the eastern scales, for I
have found that it is based on imprecise literary clauses that have not been
backed up by scientific laws, so I have started in the year 1987 to study many of
the opinions which have been formulated by the Greatest musical experts, but
alas, I still did not find the study that would convince me .

What I am aiming at now, is that there be a methodic scientific research with


which we can come out with scientific regulations that help in the process of
creative musical development, and we know beforehand that we will be facing
objection by those who will bring up the saying that “creativity cannot be
subjected to laws and regulations” but we say to that: “it is true... but it is
creativity itself which produces its own regulations which in turn contributes in
creating a new creativity which creates new laws and regulations, and maybe
ones that are more evolved. Art and science are two inseparable and closely
related twins, the first cannot be correct without the second, and vice versa.

My certified qualification in the field of science and engineering and specifically


in the field of electrical engineering has led me to trust my mental and scientific
abilities with which I can discuss the topic scientifically and logically. It is also
worth noting that electrical engineering is different from all other fields of
engineering in that it cannot be seen but its results can be seen, just like music
which cannot be seen but its results can be seen and heard.

I dreaded to do this tiresome and arduous job which requires thoughtful


deliberation each time, so I was reading about this topic Since 1987 until 2002
but without writing a word about it for fear of being wrong. I waited for
someone else to take this step but unfortunately every time the Music
Conference was held in Cairo or in the Arab League’s meeting, the researchers
and the meeting members would speak of and request offering studies about the
Arabic Scale and the Eastern scale and to abbreviate these scales which are
many in number... but to no avail... so the conferences after the year of 1993
began ignoring this subject, and I wonder was it because of the inability of the
lecturers to study this or was it so that the ones who keep up with the results of
these conferences would not get bored? Each year they would request
abbreviating these scales and offering studies about them, and after 1993 these
conferences became useless formalities whose goal was to honor the musicians
and to discuss Simple causes that were not worthy of holding entire conferences
just to discuss them.

the criticism of certain lecturers in the conferences’ reports drew my attention


and was really interesting to me, for example: Dr. Mahfouz AlTaweel – Extra
university, England:

He has emphasized the principle of actual and practical application instead of the
state of stagnate recession and has reviewed the previous trials aimed at holding
previous conferences, like the conferences held by Doctor Henry Farmer and
Doctor Mahmoud AL Hanafi, and has called upon the endorsement of the final
shape of the Arabic musical scale and the abbreviation of the musical Arabic
modes (or scales), he has also called out for the designing of harmonic
regulations specifically made for Arabic music, based on the polyphonic
foundation.

Professor Hassan Oreibi – The president of the Arabic assembly for music-
Libya: He has suggested discussing the vocal intervals of the scales.

Doctor Fathi Saleh – The president of the department of computer engineering in


the faculty of engineering at the University of Cairo Egypt: His suggestion was
to found a scientific research for the Arabic musical Theories especially when
taking into consideration that Arabic music contains more integral and more
abundant elements than western music .

And it is through these opinions and recommendations that the questions and
premonitions already in my mind were growing stronger. Questions and
premonitions like, how the regulations developed and how these regulations will
develop music (which is not only a sensual matter, but a scientific one as well),
and what are the periods in time that contributed to this? And what we mean by
music is not the Song or the musical clause, what is meant is the development of
dimension and
music scientifically speaking through the musical

interval and composition. These were my premonitions, as for my questions,


here are a few of these questions; Questions I ask and wish to have answered:

Why is the music scale composed of eight vocal intervals?


?
Why has it been named “natural scale” and is this naming appropriate for this
scale?
appropriate for this scale?
Why was the naming “natural scale” given to more than one scale? Like (Do –
Re- Mi- Fa –Sol – La – SI - Do) and was also given to) Do – Re - Mi

- Fa – Sol - La - Si

- Do) And also) Do – Re - Mi


- Fa – Sol - La – Si - Do) and which one is correctly named so?


named so?
Why is the interval between mi-Fa and Si-Do half an interval? Why is the
interval between mi-Fa and Si-Do half an interval? Why is Mi

in Egypt different than in Syria, as in the Rast scale

for example ?
?
Why is the Saba Scale half an interval less than the overtone
(octave)?
(octave)?
Why is the eastern scale different than the western scale by one
comma? And is this correct?
comma? And is this correct?
Why are there so many different scales in the world in spite of
the fact that tonality is the one and same thing around the
world?
world?
Why in the west only two scales have been named (modern
scales) and why were the ecclesiastical scales canceled and old
scales abbreviated, while others have gone extinct, and why
have the two modern scales ruled?

10 - Why is the tonic interval that exists between two categories in the analysis
of certain scales called tonic interval interlude? 11 -Why are the eastern scales
analyzed in categories and by ear without the use of any scientific law?

12-Why is it that we find in some Iraqi scales a special trait that distinguishes
them, although in the end, they are Arabic eastern scales?

13-Why was the fifth note called the dominant note?


14-Are there scales whose tonic intervals are more than eight?

15-Why has the west defined the music scale as a gradation of the musical
sequence in an octave?
16-Is the eastern music not included in the science of the harmonic?

17- Why are there scales that are Similar to one another and that have only been
known at the tonic?
And why...? and why?
So many questions that deserve one’s thoughtful pondering, and so we start by
saying.
What is music

Preface
Many things could come to mind when looking for an answer to this question,
but at first and last, music is sound containing a harmonious accord (that which
is called chord in frequencies (vocal vibrations). It may instrument or a non-
musical instrument, or from a human being or from an animal or from nature.
We therefore have, through this very Simple definition, two important elements
that appear before us:

the first is sound and the second is chord. Chord is that which is familiarly
coherent, and that which is familiar to us has affinity to our senses or to our
perception, and affinity comes through connection and established contact.

When we therefore hear a certain type of music (i.e. a certain type of sounds) for
the first time, we don’t feel an affinity for it, but when the track is repeated
(hearing the sound) a connection is created and our ears become familiar with
this sound. We therefore conclude that such music is for some a musical tonality,
and for others nothing but noise and dissonance. And this sound remains no-
musical until the ear resonates with it as a result of repetition and an established
connection, otherwise said, the ear will have to get used to the intervals between
the tonal intervals of which this sound is composed.

Music is therefore the sound which contains a harmonious connection between


its tonal frequencies and this connection is harmonious to the ear .
music) between its vocal emanate from a musical
How was the music scale formed?
Music is as old as the human being who used it to bring comfort to himself by
listening to the sounds in nature like (the rustle of tree leaves, the sound of
running water, the sound of the wind, the voices of animals...) then he started
imitating them, then he went on to create new ways through which he can
comfort himself, so he used hammering, and the knocking of two pebbles
together etc.

But what matters is how we have finally arrived to the forming of the music
scale that we currently use, and why were the intervals in the scale divided as
follows: (interval – interval – half an interval – interval – interval – interval –
half an interval).I definitely think that the music scale was formed progressively,
one phase at a time... these phases have lasted for many centuries, not as the
west portrays, and we shall explain this in the chapter called (point of view). As
for now, i will briefly put forth the following experiment which i think is the
door that will lead to envision the truth:

Let’s say we have a tube of a certain length and we blew with force in it, what
will result is a sound. Let’s refer to this sound by a symbol for now, and let that
symbol be (DO). If we blow stronger in that same tube, we will get another
sound more intense than the previous sound and three intervals and half apart
from it, approximately. let’s call it (Sol). So what we have is (Do – Sol). if we
blow with even more strength than the previous blow we get (Do Octave). Do
Octave is Six intervals apart without any excess nor decrease, and its frequency
is equal to double that of the first (Do),therefore if (Do Tonic)’s frequency is 256
hertz the frequency of (Do Octave) is 512 hertz and the octave to this octave is
(1024) hertz and so on....

And if we increase the blow again, a sound will result which is approximately
two intervals apart from (Do Octave), and this sound is (Mi)... therefore, when
we increase the strength of the blow in one tube one phase at a time what will
result is four sounds. They are as follow: (Do – Sol – DO – Mi) i.e. (first interval
– fifth interval – octave interval – tenth interval) as in the current scale.

If we bring another tube and blow in it the first sound emanating from the
second tube will be the same as the second sound in the first tube (Sol), and if
we blow with more strength again (in the second tube) a sound will emanate that
is also approximately three intervals and half apart from Sol, and is called (Re).
If we blow with more force again, we will have (Sol Octave) that is Six intervals
apart. If we blow with more force again, a sound will result that is approximately
two intervals apart from (Sol Octave), and that is (Si). So, by blowing stronger in
the second tube one blow at a time, we get four sounds which are (Sol – Re – Sol
– Si). If we repeat the experiment, i.e. if we bring another tube and the sound in
the third tube is the same as the second blow in the second tube, and if we blow
stronger, we will also have a sound that is three intervals and a half
approximately away from the previous sound, and it is (La). If we collect the
previous sounds as they appeared, we get: (Do–Sol – Do – Mi – Sol – Re – Sol –
Si – Re – La) and by reorganizing these sounds in one octave we reach the
following order: (Do- Re - Mi – Sol – LA – Si – Do).

We notice that the interval between (Do octave) and (Sol) is approximately three
intervals and a half and the interval between (Re) and (La) is also approximately
three intervals and a half, and so is the interval between (Mi) and (Si)
(approximately three intervals and a half) which is why the (Fa) note was put, a
note which is approximately half a tonic interval away from the (Mi) note, so
that there be between it and between the (Do octave) approximately Three
intervals and a half. We therefore get a harmonic connection between each note
and its fifth, and this fifth comma is equalized unto itself.

We can say that all the notes of the natural scale are made by nature except (Fa)
Note which is made by humans who put it to achieve stability in the scale
discarding nature’s savagery.

These tonic intervals that have resulted from the act of blowing stronger several
times and that has come up with these sounds are natural sounds that exist in
nature. For example, the tightened-up chords in piano: we notice that if we play
(Do) on the piano we will see that the (Sol) Chord vibrates on its own, the chord
(MI) does that too, on its own. Therefore, we realize that every sound has at least
two hidden sounds behind it. the first is approximately two intervals apart, and
the second sound is approximately three intervals and a half apart.

The west has defined the music scale as a degradation of the tonic sequence in
an octave, but I have defined the music scale as follows: (it is the degradation of
all the harmonic tonic vibrations that are connected by a certain sense of affinity
to one another in an octave). And the tonic sequence is but a part of the whole,
for the music scale includes all the parts of the harmonic tonic vibrations (tonic
frequencies) in an octave and the rest of the sounds are either an octave Sign to
this interval that is cornered in an octave or a key note to this cornered interval,
for an octave is but an octave Sign to a key note, and an octave Sign appears
only in one point, it is therefore wrong to say that there is an eastern scale (53)
comma and a western scale (54) comma. This contradicts science, for any sound
whose octave is in one point not in two points, i.e. for each frequency which has
an octave its value is double the previous value without any decrease nor
increase. We conclude that one of the octave Signs in the eastern or western
scale is wrong, which cannot be because it does not happen in science and
nature, therefore the comma principle upon which the division of intervals is
based on is a false principle, but we can use it to divide the interval to get
acquainted with the eastern notes that are used in each eastern country whose
people’s ears have become acquainted with this interval in this or that country,
for this is a tell-Sign of the psychological, social, and environmental status of
this area or that.

Since we have considered –in spite of the inaccuracy of doing sothat the music
notes (Do – Re – Mi – Fa - Sol – La – Si – Do) are the natural notes in the scale
and not the scale itself, we can say that these notes form a certain key( nature)
and by doing so we would be particularizing the whole into smaller parts.
Otherwise said, the key (nature) is part of a bigger more wholesome picture.
What we want is to study the whole and to analyze the parts. To make the
process of this study easier we shall (although it is inaccurate to do so) name (Do
– RE – Mi – Fa – Sol – La – Si – Do) “the musical scale.”

We notice that the higher tetra cord processes (Sol – La – Si – Do) are naturally
in harmony with the lower tetra cord notes (Do – Re – Mi
– Fa) and vice versa. That’s on one hand, and on the other hand if we study the
music scale in a calculative mode (acoustically) we shall find that the octave is
composed of Six full intervals without any increase nor decrease, as for the
whole fifth (exact fifth), it is not formed by three and a half intervals –i.e. (seven
halves only) but of (7,019550008654) half an interval (half tone) what results of
this slight excess to the exact number seven is the presence of an infinite long
chain of new tones separated each (from its neighboring one) by seven plus this
finitely small number composed of twelve numbers after the decimal comma,
which creates a real problem for using the piano instrument and the cordial
instruments which has divisions, and the need for a great number of chords that
would each need to be toned to the fifth full interval which is bigger than the
previous one by seven halves plus this decimal i.e. (Do – Sol – Re – La – Mi –
Si – Fa # – Do # – Sol # – Re # – La # - Mi #-Si # - ....) and so on, as many in
number as the Hepta chords, and the only practical solution is the use of one
chord for each of the two very closely neighbored sounds, for example (Do –
Si#) ...

And the practical and intermediate solution is to divide the intervals into 12
equal half tones. This is a practical and intermediate solution even if its tones do
not match the tones that result from the study of acoustics in a scientific manner
and it is easier to apply and use.

Some think that Johan Sebastian Bach is the one who came up with this division
and the truth is that it was used in many European countries Since the fifteenth
century, but Bach’s effect became huge across the centuries when he wrote –in
year /1722/- two books that contain /24/preface s and claviers for the piano using
this scale, and this symphony became an eternal argument that would Since
vouch for the equal temperament scale.
How music evolved in the west
The western Christian church has played an important role in developing the
ecclesiastical scales and in solidifying its rules and in basing its foundations in
spite of the fact that it consisted a part of the scales that were used in the
European folk music and in the compositions of its musicians for more than
twelve centuries.

The western Christian church has adopted some of these scales as foundations
Since the fourth century A.D in the reign of the emperor Costantin, for he is
considered to be the first Emperor to take on Christianity as a religion by formal
declaration. Some of the Emperors that Reigned before him would take on the
Christian religion in secrecy, but Costantin did not only take on this religion, he
also defended it and was martyred for it and had supported the church and
handed it control and power, which had resulted in the formation of small and
Simple choirs that would chant the Simple prayers that were most prevalent back
then. Until the harmonic started emerging(the tone’s harmony and contouring(
from the eleventh century until the fourteenth century, and these scales' effect
continued prevailing until Palestrina’s epoch.(c. 1525 – 2 February 1594)and its
effect was still apparent until Bach’s Epoch. /1685 -1750/ Bach who had founded
the basics of the new modified scale.

These musical scales were affected by Greek music. Greeks had seven musical
scales. The western church had been influenced by them and when Ambrose
bishop Milano decided near the year /397 – 340/ A.D when he had decided to
organize and regulate ecclesiastical music, he took four scales only which were
later adopted by Pope Gregory the Grand, Rome’s pope, around the year /604 –
540/ A.D He also added four other scales and it became eight scales. At a later
time in history Henrico Glariano Milano’s bishop put a new system in place.

Of course, these were not the only ecclesiastical scales, as there also were many
folkloric scales used in the western society. The western scales in the old epoch
were many in number, as is the case with the eastern scales in our country today.
There also are Similar scales with different names and the same intervals but has
more than one name, and so on. It is not strange to say that the interval of quart a
tone was used Since the Grecian epoch and was called (Diesis) and the meaning
for this word in the modern musical system is the theoretical sensual tiny space
that is found between for example the

note (Si #) and (Do) or between the two notes (Do #) and (Re ) which

is a clue to the fact that the west has divided the tonal interval into small parts of
tonal intervals called the Comma, and the Comma in eastern music is part of
nine parts of the tonal interval, as for the Comma in the western music, it is a
small tonal space or division that is equal to a part of eight parts of the tonal
interval, and the Comma’s use in the west has subsided after the changes done to
it, and after it had been divided into twelve halves of interval exactly equal to
one another.

For example, (Si # is a match to (Do) in the equal temperament, as for the
natural musical scale it is one comma more than it, i.e. 1/8 a tone in the western
music and 1/9 of a tone in the eastern music.

The differences between the scales are related to the differences that are found in
the intervals between the notes; in the modern scale (Do) Major scale is not any
different than (Re) Major scale when it comes to any of these intervals, it is
different only in tonality, and if each was played separately the listener may not
notice a difference between them except if he has the acute hearing ability to
identify the layer of tonality. As for the differences between the ecclesiastical
scales, it is a difference found in nature, just like the difference today between
the modern Major scale and the Minor scale, i.e. it is a difference in taste.

The first Ambrosian (original) scales which consist of four scales each, which
consists of eight notes; the first and fifth being of major importance; for the fifth
is the one that controls the ambient of the scale and it is the note upon which
ecclesiastical chants are recited. And when the priest wants to conclude his
ceremonial recitation he lowers the chant to the first note which is why it was
named the basic note or (key note) and in Arabic (alamat al istikrar) which
means “the note of stable final destination.”

The first Ambrosian scale is of the (Re) note, even the (Re) note above it and the
dominant note in the melody is the (La) note and is called the Dorian scale.

As for the second scale, it is from the (Mi) note to the (Mi) note above it, and its
dominant note is the (Si) note; later on the dominant note became (Do) and it is
called the Phrygian scale.

As for the third scale, it is from (Fa) note to the (Fa) note above it and the
dominant note in it is the (Do) and it is called the Lydian Scale. As for the fourth
scale, it is from (Sol) note to the (Sol) note above it and the dominant note in it is
(Re) and it is called the Mixolydian scale.

As for the Gregorian scales: the pope Grand Gregory had rearranged the original
scales and reorganized them so that the dominant note would become the key
note (base), and based on this foundation four new scales were born and were
named Plagal scales, which means “Sideleaning” and it is from the note (La) to
the note (La) and from the note (Si) to the note (Si) and from the note (Do) to the
note (Do) and from the note (Re) to the note (Re). The four scales were named –
by order- as follows:

Hypodorian mode – Hypophrygian mode – Hypolydian mode– Hypomixolydian


mode.

Then some Simple recitations surpassed the limits of a certain scale onto the
inclined one opposing it, and that’s how mixed scales appeared; and that is after
the epoch of the pope Gregory. As for the Glariano System, which was found
after approximately nine hundred and fifty years from pope Gregory’s Epoch –
i.e. in the Sixteenth century A.D a Swiss priest named Henrico Glariano had
studied the state of ecclesiastical music and had derived of it two scales the first
from the note (LA) to the note (LA) and named it the Aeolian scale and the
second from the note (DO) To the note (DO) and named it the Ionian scale, and
he refused the principle of the existence and the use of a scale from the (Si) note
because it had been accused of consisting of instable vibrations..

From the previous facts we can briefly conclude that the final formation of the
scales happened gradually passing by three phases. the first phase was Milano’s
Bishop Ambrose’s contribution in the fourth century A.D, the second was
Gregory’s (or Gregoire’s) in the

the third by Henrico Glariano in the Sixteenth Century A.D and Sixteenth
Century A.D .

As for the evolution of ancestors back then avoided to Sing the fourth increasing
interval like (Fa) – (Si), for the interval between them is three tonal intervals and
was later caller (Triton) and it was forbidden to use this interval (Triton) in the
old ecclesiastical recitations, as it was considered to be diabolic in music.

This interval remained unwanted until Bach’s Epoch ; he gave the permission to
musicians in that epoch to use this interval on the condition that it not be used
more than once or twice at most in the musical symphony.

And in the nineteenth century musicians started acquiring taste for this tritone
interval; it became familiar and its use was permitted without hindrances, which
is why the last note (Si) was lowered half a

tone which resulted in the emergence of a new musical note (Si ), which in turn
has allowed the Singing of the same scale highered a quart interval or lowered a
quintet without any change happening to the tonic intervals. For example, in the
modern scale the possibility of transforming the (Do) major scale into a (Fa)
major scale appeared. the system of scale dissembling, our The ancestors of old
times have then also started avoiding the surplus quart interval by raising the
(Fa) note as in the same example half a tone which has led to the appearance of a
new note (Fa #), which in turn has also led to the possibility of Singing the same
scale raised a quint or lowered a quart interval without any change occurring to
the tonic intervals. For example, in the modern scale the possibility of
transforming the (Do) Major scale into the (Sol) Major scale has appeared. And
in the beginning a lowering or raising Sign did not exist, for this was up to the
person leading the recitation.

Then a lowering Sign appeared and it was the Bemol for the sake of avoiding

mistakes or confusion. The first Sign that would be written on

the scale guide was (Si ) and then the raising Sign: the diez appeared, first of
which was the (Fa #) note; and this is how the lowering and raising Signs were
gradually introduced; which in turn had led to the dissembling of the core of the
scales and had pushed the Aeonic (Major) and Aeolic (Minor) scales to the front
row. It seems that the most important reason why these two scales became most
prominent while the other scales retreated is that both of these scales include
within themselves all the Ambrosian and Gregorian scales, add to this the fact
that they both were more convenient for the harmonic tonality back then. This is
how all scales gradually merged and melted into these two scales, and the key
Signature scale appeared; the one that points to the musical scale that belongs to
one of the Aeonic Major scale and Aeolic Minor scale; to each of these two
scales twelve layers depending on the twelve half tones that emerged after the
adjustment done to the musical scale by making the intervals between its tones
equal; half a tone or one tone .

It is amusing to note that the Major Aeonic scale had secretly sneaked into the
folkloric music before Glariano’s epoch, and ballad poets used it in their
Singing, which is why it was given the name of (Modus Lascivus) – Which
means the infidel whore scale. it is without doubt that we think that western
music has lost some of its beauty by losing these scales but it also really did gain
a lot by introducing the harmonic (the harmonic tonality) and the Counterpoint
and other polyphony acoustic artistry to its music , all in accordance and
convenience with the psyche of the human of the era and his intellect and his
social status; that is, more in accordance than the melodic monophonic music
like eastern music, and we hope that we will not be misunderstood nor accused
of undermining eastern music,nor of giving more credit to western music, for
this is only a Sincere acknowledgement of the truthful reality; because it is not
possible for people to evolve and move forward by ignoring and avoiding
difficulties; it is on the other hand by facing them and conquering them that we
evolve.

Modern international music forms one of the many great challenges that only
great hearts and minds can hear calling; it is calling and urging that it be
conquered, and this is what we wish shall happen in the near future.

Old scales were not in any one day limited to the church only: all the melodies of
different people of different nations were composed from these same scales and
from other scales and this does not mean that we won’t acknowledge the
Christian church’s role in classifying and organizing the scales.

Vocabulary:

Let’s use these Signs as symbols to some of the intervals: : quart an interval

: half an interval

: three quarters of an interval

: an interval

: an interval + one quart of an interval

: an interval + one half of an interval

: an interval and three quarters of an interval

: two intervals

Note 1: we shall use the word (natural co-relation) to name the

three intervals and a half, and we will name every other interval (mechanic-co-
relation) on the condition that the correlation in both words be made of a certain
Sign and its third and its fifth.

We shall also call the correlation that is dependent on the tonic (basic co-
relation) .
General analysis
First:
Ambrosian scales:

It is the scales that the priest Ambrose the bishop of Milano introduced. Bishop
Ambrose was born in the fourth century A.D (397 – 340), and he has adopted
four scales of the seven Greek scales. the origins for the names of these scales is
taken from the tribes that used to live in these areas like Dorians and Lydians
and... etc. Or from the name of the locations.

1. Dorian scale:

Was named after the Dorians who conquered the southern part of Peloponnese
peninsula and settled in Rhodes and Kos and Crete and other islands.

2. Phrygian scale:

3. Lydian scale:

Was named so after the city of Lydia which is an old city in the west of Eurasia
(turkey today)

4.
Mixolydian scale:

Second: Gregorian Scales:

These are the scales that were introduced by Grand Pope Gregoire pope of
Rome, who was born in the Sixth CenturyA.D (604 – 540) and who has adopted
the way of inclining the Ambrosian scales, so the quint interval became, in the
Ambrosian scale, the key note in the Gregorian scales as follows:

1. The Hypodorian scale :


2.
The Hypophrygian scale:

3.
Hypolydian scale:

4. The Hypomixolydian scale :
Note :

We notice that the intervals of the Hypomixolydian scale are the same as the
Dorian scale’s intervals, and we also note that the Hypolydian scale resembles
the current major scale, and that Similarly the Hypodorian scale resembles the
Minor Scale.

Thirdly:
Glariano’s system :

These are the scales introduced by the swiss priest Henrico Glariano who was
born nine hundred and fifty years after the epoch of Grand pope Gregoire, so
that was in the Sixteenth CenturyA.D and these two scales were called
Glariano’s system because they have taken new intervals for the musical scale as
a base. This how the equal temperament scale was formed, although it was
referred to as Bach’s, in spite of the fact that the priest Henrico Glariano is the
one who brought forth the equal temperament and has given it the following
names:

1. Aeolian mode:

And by inclining this scale on the fifth interval the fifth interval became a key
note to the following new scale which was called Hypoaeolian mode and
emerged to take on the following form:

2.
Ionian mode:
e called it “Ionian” in reference to Ionia which is the southwestern coast of
H
Eurasia, which is Greece today.

And by inclining this scale on the fifth interval the fifth interval became the key
note to the new following scale and this is how the HypoIonian mode emerged
and took on the following form:

Fourthly : The western scales :

These are the gypsy scales that were used in the folkloric songs of Balkan,
Hungary, Slovakia and some areas of Greece and was called western because
there was one interval and a half between two tonic intervals that came next to
each other; these are

1. The Gypsy Major mode:


In the eastern scales, it is met by the HIJAZ KAR mode :

1. The
Gypsy Minor mode:
In the eastern scales, it is met by the Maqam Nawa Athar scale

Many other scales were also used, many other scales with many other names
Similar to one another, called differently depending on the area that would give
the name to the scale. when the musician Bach came and that was in the late
seventeenth century-, he founded the basic rules of the Major and Minor scales,
which are the same as the Aeonic .

and the Aeolic scales which were brought forth by the priest Glariano. He
therefore only changed the names of the previous two scales from Aeonic and
Aeolic (which are Greek names) to European names (Major and Minor). The
reason why the Major scale was called Major is because it was written in capital
letters and the reason the Minor scale is called Minor is because it was written in
small letters. He abbreviated the previous scales so that only these two scales
remain; it is worth noting that he has done so for the sake of music’s
development not because he aimed at the destruction of music, and the church
did not object to that although the church held all power back then. The church
did not say that he has savagely ruined the musical heritage nor did it call him a
traitor nor a conspirer, in contrary it allowed him to offer a substitute which has
in turn led to the development of musical science in the west and the
sinstablecience of Harmonic emerged and evolved, so did the science of
polyphony and Counterpoint...etc.

The truth is that if we look at the ecclesiastical scales that were in place before
Glariano we would find that the (Lydian – Mixolydian – Hypolydian) scales are
Major scales and the Major Harmonic works through it, while the (Dorian –
Phrygian – Hypodorian – Hypophrygian
– Hypomixolydian) scales are Minor scales and the Minoric harmony works
through it.

In a broader perspective, we shall say :


1. The Hypolydian scale:
Is the same as the Aeonic mode and is a Major Scale by excellence.

1. The Lydian
scale:
Is a Major Scale with the raising of the quart interval half an interval.

2. The
Mixolydian scale:
is a Major scale with the lowering of the seventh interval half an interval.

It is also true that :


1. The Hypodorian scale:

Is the same as the Aeolic scale and is a Minor scale by excellence.


2. The Dorian
scale:
Is a Minor scale with the raising of the Sixth interval half an interval.

3. The Phrygian
scale
Is a minor scale with the lowering of the second interval half an interval

4. The
Hypophrygian scale:
is a minor scale in accordance to the rule of the triple interval. But reality is
different

If we also look at the Gypsy scales we would find that there is : : .the Major
Gypsy scale:

In our music, it is called Maqam Hijaz Kar and is a major scale after having its
second interval lowered half an interval.

the Minor
Gypsy mode:
In our music, it is called the Nawa Athar scale and is a Minor scale after the
lowering of the quart interval half an interval
It is from this that the science of musical scales’ evolution has emerged, and so
four scales were derived of the Major and Minor scales, and they are:

1. Harmonic Major scale:


Is a Major scale with the lowering of the Sixth interval half an interval.

2. The
Melodic Major scale:
Is a Major scale with the lowering of the Sixth and the seventh half an interval.

3.
Harmonic Minor Scale:
Is a Minor scale with the raising of the seventh half an interval.

4.Melodic Minor scale:


Is a minor scale with the raising of the Sixth and the seventh half an interval.

And in spite of this development the name “third” was not given to any of the
four derived scales; they resemble in this matter the Minor and Major scales in
the way they were named because what distinguishes the Major and the Minor is
the third interval.

Has the western world accepted Bac h’s theory by default or was there a
convincing science that the whole world found convincing, and we mean by “the
world” here the music world...

Actually it is naive to think that they were easily convinced without any
scientific arguments but i think that these arguments were enough at the time
because the only logical reason back then was the third distinguished interval
that determines whether the scale is Minor or Major: so if the third interval was
big then the scale is Major and if the third interval is small then the scale is
Minor and each other change in the other notes is nothing but a passing change
that does not affect the final stability according to Bach’s perspective, and that is
because it will pass through this third, so he has relied in his analysis on the
Tonic and on the Mediant, i.e. in the middle of the interval between the Tonic
and the Dominant, otherwise said; between the Tonic interval and the Dominant
Central interval, i.e. between the first and the quint, which is why the third was
named “the interval that distinguishes the scale”, and it is through this
distinguishing interval that Bach abbreviated and resumed all the scales into two
scales only that are the Minor and the Major. And every small Simple casual or
essential detail that either affects or does not affect the other tonic intervals in the
scale does not put the scale off of these two scales but gives the scale a special
flavor and in the end, it shall conclude with one of two flavors: either the Minor
or Major scales .

A point of view:

The historic and logical sequence of the musical development systems-starting


with the systems of Greek music and ending with the systems of western modern
musicproves that the Ambrosian Ecclesiastical and Gregorian scales were not
complete scales as the west had analyzed and concluded them to be in the
modern era;they were only made of five notes because the musical scales like
Pythagoras’s scale and the Hexatonic scale and the other scales have appeared
after the use of the two Tetrachords definition which has appeared in the seventh
or eighth century A.D because there is no accurate date that records the
appearance of Pythagorean scale and a lot of people think that Pythagorean scale
was found thanks to the Greek Mathematician Pythagoras Di Samos who was
born in the middle of the Sixth century BC it is also worth noting that the theory
of Pythagoras which we have studied in math class is not his, and was
formulated much later, after the ending of his era, but to honor the Greek
Pythagoras the theory was named after him, as there was no scale but there was a
Tetrachord back then; which is the group of four musical notes that were known
to Greeks back then (from Do to Fa) and these weren’t named (Do – Re – MI –
Fa) they were named after the alphabet (Alpha – Beta -...) . the names of the four
notes would also not change with the change that happens in the vocal layer, the
names remained the same until they evolved and the layer was taken into
consideration. So seven scales appeared in Greek musicology, and we don’t
know if they are seven because there are seven intervals and we also do not
know if these seven intervals are the same as the seven current musical notes or
if it has nothing to do with it but has on the other hand something to do with the
fact that number 7 was sacred to the Greeks, who also took into consideration
that the quart was used in the Greek musical systems, but one thing is for sure
and that is that we don’t know what this quart is in essence. But at least we can
say that these intervals were in general in harmony with their environment.

I think that this analysis of mine is probably correct, for the interval between the
notes of any Tetrachord in the old musical scale formed – in my opinion- two
full intervals and a half and this was enough to express the needs and aspirations
of that era. What we mean by the “full interval” is that the melodic rhythm
settles untroubled with ease, and this is what we can take note of in many of the
folkloric songs; they are achieved by the use of four sequential notes - Add to
this the fact that people back in the old times did not have a taste for the Tritone
Interval because it is an unsettled interval, which has led to the raising of the first
interval in the Tetrachord or the lowering of the quart in the Tetrachord half an
interval in a spontaneous intuitive manner back then, without having to put the
Signs of transition because these were not used in these ancient times for the
sake of achieving stability in the melody, and they have done this through the
full two and a half interval. I’ve called it a small full interval to distinguish it
from the full interval which is usually three intervals and a half and which i have
called the big full interval to differentiate between the two.

In the fourth century BC the Christian western church founded the bases of the
new scale which was used in that era and which i think is made of five musical
notes and not a full octave as they claim, because these five notes were enough
to express the needs and aspirations of people of that era. The interval between
the notes of the scale also forms a full interval but this time it forms a big full
interval and is also an interval in which the melody settles untroubled, that’s why
when the interval in the Hypophrygian mode was a Tritone interval musicians of
that era relied on stabilizing the melody by raising the next note which is half an
interval apart from it so that the big full interval becomes complete and so that
stability is achieved, either that or they would lower the fifth half an interval so
that the small full interval becomes complete and so that stability is achieved
too..

these scales remained in use until the Sixth century A.D, and in the seventh
century BC –far from ecclesiastical musicsome musicians who were of the
general public relied on the addition of two Tetrachords together without a
dividing interval in between and this is how the scale was formed, then one
made of seven musical notes and the middle note between two groups was
considered a conjoint note shared between the two Tetrachords. Then Pythagoras
came, and we have no information about the date in history in which Pythagoras
lived, we also don’t know whether Pythagoras was a real person or whether it is
a person who named the scale the Pythagorean scale in honor and respect to
Pythagoras the Greek mathematician, and by doing so has completed the two
Tetrachords without a conjoint Sign. This is how the musical scale was then
completed, i.e. a tonic interval was put between the first Tetrachord and the
second Tetrachord and this is how the complete music scale was formed of eight
musical notes- and this also allowed to make use of all the tonic frequencies that
exist in this octave; the rest of the tonic frequencies are nothing but either an
octave Sign to this scale or a key note to it.

In the beginning of the eleventh century A.D the Hexachord was introduced,
which is a group made of Six sequential musical notes, this group is considered a
whole unit used in the Simple recitations which have been said to have been
introduced or at least developed by the Italian and famous teacher and priest
Guido of Arezzo (1050 – 995) A.D which proves that before then there formally
was no complete scale in use in Europe.
This scale relies on the principle of the moving Do (i.e. there is no stable vocal
layer to Do), the notes of these scales were named depending on the location of
the half a tonic interval, and the two notes which bordered this half an interval
on both Sides were called (Mi –fa) not taking into consideration their tonic layer
and this is because back then there was no lowering nor raisingtransitionalSigns.
this is how Guido of Arezzo has defined three types of this Hexachord, and these
are:

1. The natural Hexachord


2. The soft Hexachord
3.The dry or rough Hexachord

It is obvious to us in these three types that the half a tonic interval in the first
scale is between (Mi – Fa) as we call them today, and in this second scale it was
between the two notes (La – Si♭) as we call it today,i.e. the layer of the note (Do)
became located on the layer of the note (Fa) and back in Guido’s days, it was
called (Mi – Fa) . we conclude that the names of the notes were interchangeable
so that the half a tonic interval remains by the same name. But in the dry or
rough scales on the other hand the half a tonic interval was located between the
two notes currently named (Si – Do), so this means that the layer of the note
(Do) is the same layer of the note (Sol). the name of notes currently named (Si –
Do) was called back then (Mi – Fa) and that’s because this is how they knew that
the interval between (Mi – FA) Is half a tonic interval; and that is so that there
would be no confusion between the tonic intervals, because the transitional
lowering and raisingSigns back then did not yet exist.

Readers who have not been informed about the history of music and its
development in the west could find it strange how this mixing and interchanging
of names took place, and in the end, it is nothing but a proof to the many phases
that music had to pass through until the modern musical scale was finally
formed, the scale which allows the freedom of movement between all modes (on
the scale).

The musical notes before Guido’s era were also pronounced using the Latin
letters of the alphabet as follows:

(A – B – C – D – E - F- G)
(Sol – Fa – MI – Re – DO – Mi – La)
the note (La) was the first note, not (Do) as in our modern days and these Latin
letters were commonly used prevailingly in all of the European Continent, but in
Germany, which prides itself Since old times by its own nationalism and all that
distinguish it, natural (Si) was called (H) and (Si♭) was called (b),and these
letters remained in used even after the emergence of the names of the musical
notes , but only to differentiate between the minor scale and Major scale, of
course after the “major” and “minor” appeared in the seventeenth century A.D;
they key note in the Major scale was symbolized by a capital Latin letter and the
keynote in the Minor scale was symbolized by a small Latin letter, and it is for
this reason that the “Major” scale was given this name (capital letters = major
letters) and the “Minor” scale was named “minor” (minor = small)
Guido of Arezzo derived the names of the notes of his Hexachord from his Latin
recitations which were recited in the feast of Johan the Baptist, and this is the
text of the recitation:

UT QUEANT LAXIS, RESONARE FIBRIS MIRA GESTORUM


FAMULITUORUN, SOLFEBOLLUTI LABILIREATUM SANETE
IOHANINES

It is obvious to us that the recitations were extremely Simple in that era, and it
did not surpass the Hexachord, whose notes later on became (UT – Re – Mi – Fa
– Sol – La) instead of (A – G – F – E -D -C)

As for when the reciting men had to surpass this limit, they often adjusted this
additional note (Si) by lowering it half an interval,and the letter which
symbolizes this note is (b), so this is how the note (♭) became a Sign that
symbolizes the act of lowering the tone, and it was named (bemol).

All music scales used in the beginning of the period of musical registration had
fixed names and these were (UT – Re – Mi - Fa – Sol – La – Si) named by
Guido of Arezzo, and this is so the names of the two notes (MI – Fa) always
takes on a half tonic interval. He then replaced the name of the first note (UT) to
(Do) so it can be more easily recited.

This system was canceled when the transitioning lowering and raising Signs
appeared, and they were used instead.

This is on the one hand, on the other hand we note that the Gregorian scales are
derived of the Ambrosian scales and this is done by inclining the Ambrosian
scales so that the fifth becomes the base of the Gregorian scales for the sake of
raising the tonic layer. What clearly proves that the scales were made of five
notes only is first: The Simple recitations of that era and the folkloric songs. And
When the principle of mixed scales appeared after the epoch of Gregoire, it
appeared when it sometimes happened that the ecclesiastical recitation took on
more than five notes – up to Six or seven notes sometimesit was then called
mixed scales i.e. a mix of the Ambrosian and Gregorian scales.

Example :
Gregorian scale (Hypodorian)
– Ambrosian scale (Dorian)

It becomes obvious to us then that the modal scale was part of the current
modern scale and the proof to this also is that all the folkloric songs, and the old
ecclesiastical recitations did not surpass five notes, and when it started
surpassing the limit of five notes the mixed scales appeared; then the two
Tetrachord interlock appeared, then the detailed character of the music scale
started forming until we reached the equal temperament which emerged in the
Sixteenth century and introduced by the priest Glariano, which is why it is
named “Glarianosystem” and not “Glariano scales”: because it fundamentally
differs from the Ambrosian scales and the Gregorian scales and is even different
from priest Guido ofArezzo’s scale (the Hexachord) in that it has different
number of scales. It is also Pythagorean scale in that the intervals between
different from the notes are

different, because ecclesiastical music has gone from one form to another thanks
to this priest’ contribution. Of course this didn’t happen suddenly or overnight,
but this priest could, thanks to his high sensitivity and this illuminated mind and
his recognition of the developments that happened in the eras that preceded him
Since the beginning of the emergence of the Harmonic and all the obstacles that
stood in its path, and with his high awareness and daring soul, he could revolt
against the old moldy heritage that stood as an obstacle in the face of the
harmonic development, all thanks to his belief in development as an
indispensable tool to meet the psychological and intellectual and environmental
needs that are in accordance with his aspirations and the aspirations of the
people of his era.

And at the end of the seventeenth century came the musician Johan Sebastian
Bach and has founded the rules to this new equal temperament and by doing so
had therefore given the final fixed form of the western musical scale: As a result,
the rules of the harmonic developed and many other sciences like the polyphonic
and counterpoint and tonality sciences etc. developed.

The French author Paul Landormy says in his book (the history of music): “the
seventh tone had neither been known nor expanded across the European nations
before the Sixteenth century” ... he continues to say: “by the Side of the equal
temperament were the natural Pythagorean and Zarlino’s scales and other natural
scales, but the westerners went for the Gregorian scale because their ears were
not sensitive enough to be able to recognize the natural scale”. And here we
must definitely make it clear that the author (Paul Landormy) considered
(Thought) that the Gregorian scale consisted of Six musical notes.

This is on the Side of music development, as for the Side of biological and
physiological and psychological and social development and the development of
achievements – development of musical instruments etc... - all this shows that
the old human and the form of his environment must have been in accordance
with the tone of his voice, for the old human had a huge the human being and of
what resulted of his

in terms of architectural civilization and the body with wide larynges and his
figure was generally characterized by rough big features and a slightly
protruding jaw which indicates that his voice was of a rough, hoarse and low
tone so he could not Sing on large tonic spaces. this is what the calm of nature
had produced because noise did not exist back then, so his String instruments
were not made of more than two or three chords and this is what the
archeological monuments have showed; for example the Oud made of four
chords was not known before the Abbasid era (750 – 1258) A.D in the times of
Al-Kindi and Al-Farabi and Avicenna and The Brethren of Purity (Arabic:
Ikhwan al Safa), then the instruments gradually developed in accordance with
the rising needs of the times, add to this the type of Singing that was used back
then –which was mostly funeral-related and was called Hidi, and the “Hidi” i.e.
the folkloric song was composed of one musical phrase which notes did not
surpass four or five in notes in number.

Finally what is left to say is that the story of all humans ( the evolution of
civilizations) took form as a result of continual change, for people did not
Simply wake up one day to find themselves in a new era, but their ways of doing
things gradually and slowly changed. He who does remember that the airplane
did not exist in year 1900 A.D and that the atomic energy is not more than
seventy years old, and that the AIDS disease was not known until the eighties of
the past century, he who does remember these things will be excused if he felt
that for many long centuries in the medieval times nothing changed. For
example: a large part of Europe used the same method of agriculture in the
fifteenth century A.D, the same method that they used in the eighth century A.D,
so can u imagine the pace of evolution in the medieval times.. this is why i think
that my point of view is closer to the truth and to the logical principle of
evolution.

We therefore must develop our awareness of the musical scale on one Side, and
our awareness of the eastern scales on the other hand, so that we can progress
and walk Side by Side along the train of evolution.

As for the musical scale, we must accept the principle of dividing it into twenty-
four equal tonic intervals, whether we like it or not, especially after the Organ
instrument took over our musical bands and this is a positive take-over. So, we
must refuse the principle of scale analysis on the base of the comma just like the
west has done, and we must rely on the principle of the quart interval, and this is
what shall distinguish us and distinguish our music from western music..

for example:
The note of (Mi

) in the Rast scale or (Maqam Rast) was one comma higher than (Mi

) in the Bayat scale or (Maqam Bayat) in Syria, whereas it is the same in
Egypt, but with the introduction of the Organ instrument both notes in both
scales are now the same .

A final solution must also be found for the analysis of the scales because many
of the scales are Similar in melody but different in name, and some sub-scales
(of a subdivision) have different naming in accordance with the difference that is
found in the keynote interval, we also notice that some sub-scales like the
Panjgah scale and the Sazgar scale and the Nikriz and Nawa-Athar scales and
many of the sub-scales remain of the same type in spite of the difference that lies
in the tonic intervals within the fundamental Pentachord.

For example: the Panjgah scale is of the Rast type in spite of the fact that the
quart is a surplus interval in the Panjgah while it is a full interval in the Rast
scale.

Many other facts worth taking note of that cannot be counted or named have led
to the fact that musicians in general are complaining about the lack of scientific
fixed regulations that could otherwise govern the eastern musical scales.

Criticizing the principle of adopting the triple interval in the west

There is no doubt that this principle is the main door from which the analysis of
the scales is introduced in the west, and it is a correct principle but it is not
enough because it is lacking in many points, the most important of which:

- first: the interval between the tonic and the dominant is three intervals and a
half, i.e. natural temperament only, and the question about whether or not it is
possible that the interval between the tonic and the dominant can be bigger or
smaller than this natural temperament has been ignored.. in other words, the
issue of whether the interval is third or quart has been ignored and this is what
we can take note of in the Hypophrygian scale where the interval between the
Dominant and the key note is three intervals and this harmony has been called
the Tritonic harmonic and its use was forbidden in that epoch. Priest Glariano
had emphasized that it not be used, because it is an unnatural harmonic in spite
of the fact that it is a musical harmony that the ear has gotten used to later on and
it became in use. Priest Glariano had forbidden the use of this scale not because
he was aware that the relationship between the key note and the dominant is a
tritonic interval, but because he thought that (Si) is an unstable note (its
frequency is unstable), for it is always trying to fall in the lap of (Do). They
therefore had to at least analyze as follows:

1.the hypophrygian mode:


Tritonic harmonic
As for the rest of the scales, they really did form between the first and fifth
interval a natural harmonic as follows:
:
Dorian mode:
Minor harmonic

Phrygian
Mode:
Minor Harmonic

Lydian mode
Major harmonic
Major harmonic
Mixolydian Mode Major harmonic

Hypodorian Mode:
inor harmonic
M

Hypolydian
Mode:
Major harmonic
Gypsy Major scale:
Major harmonic

Gypsy Minor
scale:
Minor harmonic

Second:

The rest of the notes of the scale were not analyzed i.e. the tonic intervals after
the third interval did not mean anything or were secondary in importance and
this is not right.

Third :

The rule of scale analysis was not used in a “Tetrachord s” manner (in
accordance with the way of the tetrachords) and this is a positive thing, because
the principle of scale analysis using the Tetrachord way is wrong and results in a
wrong analysis. But the Tetrachord s can be used only to logically come up with
the transition Signs (Bemols and Dies’).

Fourth:
It has not been cleared whether the scale arrives to the octave tonic interval or
not, in other words is the scale a full Octave or not? Fifth:

It has not been cleared whether the scale is composed of eight notes or more or
less, taking into consideration arriving to the octave interval.

Sixth:

It has not been cleared whether the tone interval that divides the two Tetrachord
s of the scale is a separating tone interval or a connecting one.

Seventh:
The Dominant note was not given importance although it is tied to the tonic
interval in a very organic connection.
For this it was necessary that these points be taken into consideration at least.

The analysis of the eastern scales using the classical method

We will present the analysis of some eastern scales that have been endorsed by
Cairo’s conference year 1932 from its own point of view, so this is what the
master musicians have approved of back then, with the professor and master al
Shaykh Ali Darwish topping the list, that is apart from other analysis’ for the
same scales from other musicians’ points of view, musicians who have their own
different view about the subject, but is nevertheless of the same style and of the
same methodology.

I always bring the following example when i want to define the process of
scientific research, saying that:

The process of scientific research is like one who is looking to find a needle in a
pile of straw, if he sees the needle then he has arrived to the beginning of the
research, but if he takes one straw and says that this is the needle then he has
found a mirage , and what would be stranger is if the rest of the professors
approve and admit that this certain professor has found a needle, which is in
truth but a straw, they would then write their whole research about this straw and
this is what happened in the process of eastern scale analysis, because all
professors relied on the same type of analysis, a type of analysis that does not
rely on neither logic nor science. Here are some scales that have been endorsed
by Cairo’s conference year 1932:

1. Yegah scale (of the Rast family)


Four Rasttetrachord on the interval of the Yegah.
Four Bayati tetrachord or Rast on the interval of Dogah.

Four Bayati
tetrachord on the Dogah interval. Four Rast tetrachord on the interval of the Yegah.

Acoustics: acoustic Yegah Azeez


The personality of the melody: the personality of this melody is based on
emphasizing the Bayati scale on the Dogah

The circle of work: the work starts by emphasizing the third tetrachord (Five
Rast on the interval of Nawa) entering to it through Al Hijaz and Chahargah.

2. Shad Arban Scale or Shat Arban (of the Hijaz family)


Four Hijaz Five Nawa Athar tetrachord on the tetrachord or Nekriz interval of the Yegah on the interval of
Rast.
Five Nahawand tetrachord on the interval of Rast. Four Hijaz tetrachord on the interval of the Yegah.

Acoustics: Acoustic Shat Arban Jameel Bek

The personality of the melody : the personality of the melody is based on the
emphasis of the Nawa Athar scale on the interval of Rast in an upward
movement and the Nahawand on the Rast downward.

The circle of work : work starts from the third tetrachord (Four Hijaz on the
Nawa) and the introduction is definitely and solely from the Nawa interval but
Al Hijaz can be used as a back bone to the Nawa. 3. Farahfaza scale (of the
Buselikfamily)
Four
Nahawandtetrac hord on the
Yegah interval. Five
Ajamtetrachord on the AsheeranAjam interval.
Chahargahtetrac hord on the
Chahargah.
Five Nahawandtetrachord or Nawa Athar on the interval of the Rast.
Four
Nahawandtetrac hord on the
Yegah interval.

Acoustics:Acoustic FarahfazaJameel Bek

The personality of the Melody : the personality of this melody is based on


emphasizing the Chahargah on the Chahargah and Al Ajam Scale on the interval
of the Ajam Asheeran.

The circle of work: the circle starts by emphasizing the third tetrachord (Four
Chahargah on the Chahargah) and it introducing it from the Nawa is a must with
no other way.

4. Sultani Yegah Scale (of the Buselikfamily)


Four Nahawandtetrachord on the interval of the
Yegah.
Four Hijaz tetrachord on the interval of the Dogah.
Acoustics: Acoustic Sultaniyegah Haj Aref Bek.

The personality of the melody : the personality of this melody is based on


emphasizing the Hijaz pentachord on the interval of the Dogah and the emphasis
of the Dogah interval.

The circle of work: work starts by emphasizing the third tetrachord


(fourBuselik on the Nawa) and the second by introducing it definitely (and as a
must) from the Nawa with no other way to do it, and the Hijaz as a backbone to
it, relying on the Dogah which is the tuning fork of the melody.
5. ShokAfza scale (of the Ajamfamily)
Three
Ajamtetrachord on the interval of the Asheeran.
Five Saba
tetrachord on the interval of the Dogah.
Four Hijaz
tetrachord on the interval of the Chahargah
Four Ajamtetrachord on the interval of the Chahargah.
Four Ajamtetrachord on the interval of al AjamAsheeran.

Acoustics: acoustic ShokAfza Ibrahim and Fa Afandi Turki.

The personality of the melody : the personality of this melody is based on


emphasizing the Saba scale on the Dogahinterval and the Ajam on the Ajam and
the Chahargah on the Chahargah.

Circle of work: it is a must to start from the Chahargah and works in the circle
of the second tetrachord on the term that it touches the Dogah interval then goes
upward to the third tetrachord (five Ajam on Ajam or five Saba on the al
Husayni) and after emphasizing the Kurdan intervalworksAjam on Ajam or Saba
on al Husayni then comes the upward movement to the fourth chord (four Ajam
on the Major) and in the downward movement the Saba interval is replaces by
the Nawa and it is better to touch the Zirkolah instead of the Dogah before
settling to show the Nahawand pentachord on the Rast

6. SowqAvar scale(of the Ajamfamily)


Three Ajamtetrachord on the interval of the AjamAsheeran.
Five
Buseliktetrachord on the intervalDogah.
Four Buseliktetrachord on the interval of the Chahargah.
Five Ajamtetrachord on the interval of the AjamAsheeran.

Acoustics : acoustic SowqAvar Noman Agha turkey. The personality of the


melody: the personality of the melody is based on the emphasizing or the
Nahawand scale or Buselik scale on the interval of the Chahargah before it
settles.

Circle of work: for this melody, there are two practical ways:

1. That for a start is a brief picture of the Arzbar melody that was shown and that
is done by introducing the Kurdan interval to the Ajam and from there to the
Husayni then to the Nawa (it is possible to go upward to the al Muhayar passing
by al Sunbulah) then instead of settling on the center of the Arzbar which is the
Dogah it goes upward to the al Ajam and then downwards as a al AjamAsheeran
melodic tone and before it settles on the interval of al AsheeranAjam it touches
the Yegah and Asheeran al Husayni.

2. Work starts from the sharp zone in the Arzbar melody and the introduction is
from the Kurdan then upwards to the Nawa’ octave passing by al Muhayar and al
Sunbulah and the Chahargah octave then it lands on the interval of the Ajam and
from it to the Husayni and then some of them touch the interval of Nawa and
then Shura interval and moves downward to the Chahargah and some of them
touch the Azal interval and then the Kurd Nahawand after it and it could come
down to the Dogah then to the Rast and to Asheeran Ajam and some of them
also could touch the ZirKolah degree before the al Ajam then comes down to the
octave which is Asheeran Ajam after touching the Yegah and the Shahurinterval
(i.e. the Chahargah octave)

7. Rast scale:
Four Rasttetrachord on the interval of Rast.
Four Rasttetrachord on the interval of Nawa.

Four

Buseliktetrachord on the interval of Nawa. Four Rasttetrachord on the interval of Rast.

Acoustics: acoustic Rast Tatyos – Acoustic Mahur Saz Semai (Nikolaki)–


Acoustic Big Rast al sheikh Ali Darwish.

Circle of work : work starts by touching the Rast interval then going upward
from the Yegah with the Rast type on the Yegah (i.e.passing by the Asheeran Al
Husayni and al Iraq intervals) then works in the circle of the first tetrachord then
the going upwards to the second tetrachord (Rast on the Nawa) then to the third
tetrachord (Mahur scale) and from it going to the fourth (Four Rast on the Nawa
octave) and when going downwards it is better to touch the Ajam interval
instead of the Auj and before setting on the Rast interval the going down to the
interval of the Yegah with the Rast pentachord.

8. Rahawi scale(of the Rast family)


Four Rasttetrachord or Sazgar on the interval of Rast.
Four Rasttetrachord on the interval of Nawa.

Four tetrachord o Four Rast scale on


the interval of the interval of Rast.
Nawa.

Acoustics: None available.

The personality of the melody : the personality of this melody is based on


emphasizing and showing the melody of Sazgar on the Rast. Circle of Work:
work starts by emphasizing the first tetrachord by introducing it from the Rast
While touching the Yegah as a backbone mostly relying on the Chahargah
interval and touches the Nawa before Kurdan and Yegah before Rast and this is
from the base of this melody which goes against the Rast melody. The Upward
moving scale is like the downward moving one except that when going
downwards we must replace Auj with Ajam.

9. Pasandida scale (Of the Rast family)


Five Nekriztetrachord or Nawa Athar on the interval of Rast.
Four
Buseliktetrachord on the interval of Nawa.

Four

Buseliktetrachord on the interval of Nawa Four Rast interval on the interval of Rast

The personality of the melody : the personality of this melody is based on the
emphasis of the Nekrizscale going upwards and the Rast scale going downwards.

Circle of Work : it is formed by the Sultan Saleem the third, the start of it is by
emphasizing the first tetrachord, i.e. by forming a melody of Nekriz or Zaweel
introducing it from the Rast interval or the Nawa, then comes the moving
upwards to the second interval and working with the Buselikpentachord then
going from it to the third tetrachord (five Nekriztetrachord on the Kurdan) then
to the fourth as in the first and second.

10.DelNeshin Scale (of the Rast family)


Five Rasttetrachord on the interval of Rast
Saba tetrachord on the interval of AlHuseynior Bayati tetrachord on the interval of Al Huseyni.

Buseliktetrachord Four Rast on the on the interval of interval of Rast. Nawa.

Acoustics: the musical composition: “Rakset Sitti”

The personality of the Melody : the personality of this melody is based on


emphasizing the Saba musical rhythm or Bayati on the interval of AlHusayni.

Circle of work : starts in the circle of the second tetrachord of the Kurdan then
comes the downward movement to the third then it comes back to the first and
from there to the fourth in upward movement and in the settling stage the
interval of Shahnaz is replaced with Muhayar and the octave of the Buselik is
replaced with the octave of the Sigah. It is done with the Rast kind on the
Kurdan (Mahur) then the Auj interval is replaced with al Ajam and the
Buselikkind works on the Nawa and before it settles on the Rast it touches the
interval of Iraq.
11.Nawa Athar Scale (of the Nahawand family)
Five Nawa Athar
tetrachord or Nekriz on the interval of Rast. Four Hijaz
tetrachord on the interval of Nawa.

Four Hijaz
tetrachord on the interval of Nawa. Five Nawa Athar
tetrachord or Nekrizchord on the interval of Rast.

Acoustics: acoustic Nawa Athar Jameel Awees – acoustic Nawa Athar Ibrahim
Al Darwish.

The personality of the melody: the personality of this melody is based on


emphasizing Al-Hijaz melody on the Nawa and the Nawa Athar or the Nekriz on
the interval of Rast.

Circle of work : introduction starts by emphasizing the two intervals of the


Hijaz and the Nawa then it works in the circle of the second kind then upwards
to the third (five Nawa Athar on the Kurdan) and the fourth (Hijaz on the Nawa
octave).
12.Nekriz Scale (of the Nahawand family)
Five Nawa Athar Four
tetrachord or Nekriz Buseliktetrachord on on the interval of Rast. the interval of Nawa.
Four Rasttetrachord or Buselikon the interval of Nawa. Five Nawa Athar
tetrachord or Nekriz on the interval of Rast.

Acoustics : Acoustic Nekriz Al-Shaykh Ali Darwish – the musical composition


“Naqsh al Zrafat” in its beginning and end. - Nadeem AlDarwish.

The personality of the melody: the personality of the melody is based on the
emphasis of the Buselik melody on the interval of Nawa.

Circle of work : work starts from the first kind introducing it from The Rast
interval while touching the Iraq interval and it can be started in the circle of the
second chord but the first method is more correct. Then comes the upward
raising movement to second kind then to the third (Five Nekriz on the Kurdan)
and the fourth (Buselik on the Nawa Octave) and in the settling the interval of
Ajam is replaced by al Auj and is worked by the kind of Rast on the Nawa then
comes down to the first chord and before settling on the interval of Rast it
touches the interval of Iraq.

13.Hisar Scale (of the Nahawand Type)


Five Bayatitetrachordon the interval of the Dogah or Hisar on the interval o the Dogah.
Four Hijaz tetrachord on the interval of AlHusayni.
Four Hijaz tetrachord on the interval of al Husayni.
Five Bayati or
Hisartetrachord on the interval of the Dogah.

The personality of the melody : the personality of the melody is based on


emphasizing the interval of Hisar and the type of Bayati on the interval of
Dogah.

Circle of work: the point of beginning in this melody is from the Husayni
interval while touching the interval of Hisar then works through Hijaz on the
Husayni.

Briefly: The analysis of the rest of the scales:

For the sake of being brief, not to consummate too much time nor waste too
many papers, we will show here another part of the eastern scales without
mentioning the circle of work which is useless, neither will we show the
personality of the melody which is also useless and we will not show examples
for the scales. The intervals will be in comma and we will solely write the notes
of the scale in the state of upward movement only, and there will be no scale in
the downward movement state, but we will show the intervals that these scales
are made of.
1. AlHusayni Asheeran Scale (of the Bayatifamily) :

1-Four Bayati chord on


the interval of Asheeran. 2-Five Bayati chord on the interval of the Dogah.
2. Bayati Asheeran scale (of the Bayatifamily)

1-Four Bayati chord on


the interval of Asheeran . 2-Five Bayati chord on the Dogah interval .
3. HusayniBuselik Asheeran scale (of the Bayati family)

1-Four Bayati chord on the interval of Asheeran . 2-Five Buselik chord on the
Dogah interval.
4. Nahoft Scale (of the Bayatifamily)

1-Four Bayati scale on


the Asheeran interval.
2-Five Hijaz chord on the interval of the Dogah. 5. Sozdel scale (of the Hijaz
family)

1-Four Hijaz chord on the


interval of Asheeran
-Five Hisar or Nekriz on the Dogah interval
2
6. Sozdel scale (of the Hijaz family)

1-Four Kurd chord on the interval of al Asheeran .


2-Five Saba chord on the Dogah interval
3-Hijaz chord on the Chahargah interval
7. Ajam Asheeran scale (of the al Ajamfamily)

1-Four Ajam chord on


the interval of Al Asheeran . 2-Four Ajam chord on the interval of Chahargah .
8. Iraq scale (of the Iraqfamily)

1-Three Iraq chord on the interval of Iraq .


2-Four Bayati chord on the interval of Dogah .
3-Three Rast chord on the Nawa interval .

9. Rahat al-Arwah scale (of the Iraqfamily)


1. Three Rast scale on the Nawa


2. Four Hijaz chord on the interval of Dogah
3. Three Iraq chord on the Iraq.

10.Farahnak scale (of the Iraqfamily)


1-Three Sigah chord on the interval of Iraq


2-Four Rast Chord on the Dogah interval
3-Three Rast chord on the interval of Nawa
11.Baste Esfahan scale (of the Iraqfamily)

1-Three Sigah chord on the interval of Al Iraq .


2-Four Rast chord or Chahargah on the interval of al Dogah
3-Three Rast chord on the interval of Nawa

12.Delkesh Horan scale (of the Iraqfamily)


1-Three Sigah chord on the Iraq .


2-Four Bayati chord on the interval of Dogah
3-Bayati chord on the interval of Husayni
13.Auj scale (of the Iraqfamily)
1-Three Sigah chord on the Iraq .
2-Four Bayati chord on the interval of Dogah
3-Rast chord on Nawa interval

14.BastaNikar scale (of the Iraqfamily)


1-Three Sigah chord on the Iraq


2-Four Saba chord on the interval of Dogah
3-Kurd chord on the Husayni interval.
15.Auj Ara scale(of the Iraqfamily)

1-Four Auj Ara chord


on the interval of Iraq
2-Five Shakl Moustaar chord on the interval of Sigah
16.Rawnaq Nama scale(of the Iraqfamily) :

1-Four Auj Ara chord on


the interval of Iraq .
2-Five Shakl Moustaar chord on the interval of Sigah . 17.Sozdel Ara scale (of
the Rast family)

1-Four Chahargah chord on the interval of Rast
2-Five Chahargah chord on the Chahargah interval where Si♭
3-Bayati chord on the interval of Husayni

18.Soznak scale (of the Rast family)


1-Four Rast chord on


the interval of Rast
19.Mahur scale (of the Rast family)

1-Four Rast or Chahargah


chord on the Rast interval 2-Four Chahargah chord on the Nawa interval
20.Zaweel scale (of the Rast family)

1-Four Rast chord on the interval of Rast


2-Four Hijaz chord on the Nawa interval
21.Hayyan scale (of the Rast family)

1-Five Nekriz chord on


the Rast interval
22.NowRuz scale (of the Rast family)

2-Four Rast chord on the


interval of Rast
3-Four Bayati chord on the Nawa interval
23.Sazgar scale (of the Rast type or of the Sazgarfamily)

1-Four Sazgar chord on


the interval of Rast
2-Four Rast chord on the Nawa interval
24.Nahawand scale (of the Buselikfamily)

Five Nahawand chord on


the Chahargah interval Four Nahawand chord on the Rast interval
25.Nahawand Kabir scale (of the Rast family)

1-Four Nahawand chord


on the Rast interval
2-Four Hijaz chord on the Nawa interval
26.Zangolah scale (of the al Hijaz family)

1-Four Hijaz chord on the


Rast interval
-Five Ajam chord on the Chahargah interval
2
27.Sunbulah scale (Nahawand Mourassa) (of the Nahawand family)

1-Four Buselik chord on


the interval of Rast
2-Five Hijaz chord on the Chahargah interval
28.Hijaz Kar scale (of the Hijaz family)

1-Four Hijaz chord on the


Rast interval
2-Four Hijaz chord on the Nawa interval
29.HijazKar Kurdi scale (of the Kurdi family)

1-Four Kurdi chord on


the interval of Rast
2-Five Buselik chord on the interval of Chahargah
30.Tarznavin scale (of the Kurdi family)

1-Four Kurd chord on the


interval of Rast
2-Five Ajam chord on the interval of Chahargah 31.Athar Kurdi scale (of the
Kurdi family)

1-Five Athar Kurdi chord


on the interval of Rast. 2-Four Kurdi chord on the interval of Nawa
32.Bayati scale

1-Four Bayati chord on


the Dogah interval
2-Four Bayati chord on the Husayni interval
33.AlHusayni scale (of the Bayatifamily)

1-Five Bayati chord on


the interval of Dogah
2-Four Bayati chord on the interval of AlHusayni 34.Muhayar scale (of the
Bayati family)

1-Five Bayati chord on


the interval of Dogah
2-Four Bayati chord on the AlHusayni interval
35.BayatiArban scale (of the Bayatifamily)

1-Four Bayati chord on the


interval of Dogah
2-Five Hijaz chord on the Nawa interval
36.Qarjafar scale “Shouri” (of the Bayatifamily)

1-Four Bayati chord on


the Dogah interval.
-Five Hijaz chord on the Nawa interval
2
37.Klazar scale (of the Bayatifamily)

1-Four Bayati chord on


the Dogah interval
2-Four Bayati chord on the interval of Husayni
38.Esfahan scale (of the Bayatifamily)

1-Four Rast chord i.e. Nishaburk on the Dogah


2-Five Buselik chord on the Nawa interval
39.Hijaz scale (of the Hijaz family)

1-Four Hijaz chord on the


Dogah interval
2-Five Rast chord on the Nawa interval
40.Shahnaz scale (of the Hijaz family)

1-Four Hijaz chord on the


Dogah interval
2-Four Hijaz chord on the Husayni interval
41.Saba scale (of the Saba family)

1-Three Bayati chord on the interval of Dogah
2-Four Hijaz chord on the interval of Husayni
3-Hijaz chord on the interval of Kurdan

42.Saba ZamZama scale (of the Saba family)


1-Three Kurd chord on the Dogah


2-Four Hijaz chord on the Chahargah
3-Ajam chord on Ajam
43.Chahargah scale (of the Chahargahfamily)

1-Four Ajam chord on


the interval of Chahargah 2-Four Ajam (Mahur) chord on the Kurdan interval
44.Hazam scale (of the Sigahfamily)

1-Sigah chord on the


Sigah interval
2-Hijaz chord on the Nawa interval
45.Sigah scale

1-Sigah chord on the Sigah interval
2-Rast chord on the interval of Nawa
3-Rast Chord on the Kurdan interval

46.Al Moustaar scale (of the Sigah family)


1-Sigah chord on the


Sigah interval
2-Nahawand chord on the Nawa interval

Criticism of the principle of eastern scales analysis

We notice when studying the regulations of eastern scales analysis (that is if


there are scientific fixed regulations in eastern scale analysis and what we mean
by scientific regulation is that there exists a scientific and logical general fixed
form that applies in analysis to all scales whether they be eastern or western.) we
notice that there were never any fixed scientific regulations that the eastern
researchers relied on to analyze the eastern scales; their explanations of it took a
literary form without the existence of rules that can be relied on as is the case in
western scales’ analysis which relied on the principle of the triple interval at
least.

It is true that the western analysis is not enough, whereas there are no scientific
regulations that govern the eastern analysis, we can notice for example:

1. It didn’t rely on the principle of the triple interval at least, as is the case in the
western scales analysis.

2. It didn’t rely on the principle of the Tetrachord only, we notice on the other
hand that there either are three chords or there are four, and in another instance,
there are five chords, and so on.

3. It was not defined whether the scale is made of two chords or more, for once
we notice that the scale is made of two chords and in another instance, we notice
it is made of three chords.

4. We notice that most of the scales in the eastern analysis are different in the
upward moving state than when they are in the downward moving state.

5. It was not defined whether the tonic interval that exists between two
Tetrachord s is a connecting tonic interval or a dividing tonic interval; once we
notice that it is a connecting tonic interval and in other instances we can notice
that it is a dividing one, and in other instances we notice there are no tonic
intervals at all between the two chords; it exists either in the basic chord or in the
second chord in the scale.

6. We notice there is a circle of work for the scale, it is as if the musicians must
make a certain Similar artistic gesture so the scale can be apparently shown. i.e.
the scale will differ if the work is different than that of the circle of work.

7. There is a personality for the melody, which indicates that the work in the
scale is not a scale if the personality of the melody was not made apparent.

8. There are possibilities in the second chord in some of the scales’ analysis;
because the musician can choose to work with either this or that in the second
chord.

9. The musician must memorize in an automatic, machine-like manner, the


analysis of the scales because there are no scientific regulations common to the
scales, and this contradicts both art and science.

10. There is a huge number of names for the scales although many of them are
Similar in the analysis but different in the tone.

11. The basic chord of the three following scales is as follows : )Do- Re – Mi –
Fa) Ajam chord on the interval of Rast (Do) (Do – Re – Mi♭– Fa) Nahawand
chord on the Rast interval (Do)
(Do – Re – Mi – Fa) Rast interval chord on Rast interval (Do)

We notice that the note (Do) is the setting interval in these three scales and that
the Double two-fold interval (Re) and the Four –fold interval Fa is also the same
in these three previous scales. The triple interval is the one that differs when
comparing the three scales; in the Ajam scale the triple interval (Mi), and in the
Nahawand scale it is (Mi

♭), and in the Rast scale it is (Mi



). We conclude that the two- fold

interval does not change the scale’s nature, nor does the four-fold interval;
because the two-fold interval is always seeking to drag the melody to the basic
note especially if the interval between them is half an interval. The four-fold
interval is also not important in the base of the scale (of course we have named
the first chord of the scale in the eastern scale “the base chord of the scale”) the
four-fold interval also does not change out of its structure either and the proof to
this is that the two scales of Nawa Athar and the Nekriz are of the Nahawand
type, so is the Panjgah scale which is of the Rast type; in these scales, we see
that the four-fold interval is (Fa#) as follows:

(Do – Re – Mi♭– Fa#) Nawa Athar chord


(Do – Re – Mi♭– Fa#) Nekriz chord

(Do – Re – Mi – Fa#) Panjgah chord

Although the four-fold interval is a surplus interval, the older ancestors did not
consider it to be an outer scale, i.e.outside of the Nahawand in the Nawa Athar
or the Nekriz, nor was it considered outside of the Rast in the Panjgah. And we
do not know, just as they did not know, why they considered it of the Nahawand
and the Rast type (Nahawand then Rast: in this order).

12. We notice that in some scales, where the base chord is in the upward moving
motion, it is different than when in the downward moving one, as is the case in
many of the scales. We know not why or what the reason for this may be.
13. We notice that in some scales the analyzer does not stop at one full scale, for
the notes are more than eight and could reach ten or more notes... we also do not
know why and what is the reason for that.

we will not say that these analysis ’ are incorrect but we can say at least that they
are folkloric analysis’, and folkloric scales that indicates the nature and the
environment and the psychological and social status of each zone that used these
scales because these scales were taken from many eastern zones before they
finally reached us. If the eastern music keeps relying on this principle of analysis
the eastern music will remain closed upon itself as if in an enclosure, and it will
never become international nor will it evolve harmonically.

And because most musicians if we do not say all of them, complain and are
upset about the method of eastern scales analysis and are not convinced by this
principle then therefore there must be a scientific correct and Simple principle
that leads to an understanding of the analysis of these scales and a new vision
through which we can look at these scales so that the eastern music can stand up
and reach international borders, and so that the possibility of using the harmonic
and polyphonic and counterpoint (etc.) becomes an option.

From what was written i would like to introduce my humble view and put it in
the hands of you dear readers, and I would like that you; dear reader, that you
would think of this vision in an objective manner, and discuss it; do not be
convinced by it easily... except after giving it sufficient scientific thought. Then
if u do not see any contradictions in my view and if u can consider it a scientific
correct method then I hope that u apply it and work by it, not that u takes a
neutral negative standpoint as a reader, because it serves nobody not to want to
change a thing of the incorrect heritage even when you aren’t convinced by it.
Because such is the case in our society, where so many people are not convinced
by so many of the habits and views and old ways of doing things, and yet they
are not able to accept anything else although they don’t accept these old habits
and heritage...I therefore put, with all humbleness, my efforts in research that I
have come to as a conclusion, after many abundant studies...I put these between
your hands, dear readers.
A new vision in musical scales’ analysis
When analyzing the general musical scale that we have known in the beginning
of this book in the paragraph entitled: “how was the musical scale formed –page
13” we have said that the musical scale is the degradation of all vocal
frequencies that are harmonious and that are connected by a certain sense of
affinity and familiarity to one another in an octave. This definition is true for
both the eastern and the western musical scale for it makes no difference in that
matter: in both cases they will be measured in Hertz, that is apart from the fact
that the western scales are part of the eastern scales: can we then say that the
speed of a car in Germany is different than it in turkey, or that the weight of
metal in Germany is different than the weight of Metal in Turkey. It is wrong to
differentiate between the two, because the speed is measured by Meter per
second, and weight is measured by Kilogram -or the quantum thickness for
metal- Similarly in all parts of the world where It is (708) Gr./cm3. The
difference is then a matter of different driver and a different baggage loader
loading metal.

Similarly, when studying the musical scale in general we should adopt the same
principle in the analysis of the scales for both the eastern and the western scales
because laws and regulations in nature apply to the subject in matter no matter
where it is located; it does not differentiate between east and west, because in the
end it exists in nature, and music is voice and this voice is a matter that exists in
all parts of the populated earth but the difference is a difference of taste and of
vision. The vision will determine how the musical phrase is composed and how
the scale is formed..

A scientist or a researcher or an intellectual person always directs his science in


one of the two following roads:
The first: where there be scientific regulations that leads us to practical
applications in which we must engage ourselves.

The second: where a scientists engages in practical applications that leads to the
deriving of scientific regulations, and these practical applications are either the
result of scientific regulations that leads us to finding new more advanced
regulations; Which also leads to new practical applications that are also more
evolved, or practical applications that result from a sense of sensual intuition or
hunch that exists in the sub-conscious, the subconscious that is the product of a
build-up of science and knowledge.. one that the researcher or scientist dives
into, which results in deriving regulations, these regulations will lead to
developing the applications... and so on, as in the principle of the hen and the
egg (the known saying; “which comes first, the hen or the egg?”)

Just as science and application are intimately connected to one another, the first
cannot be right without the second and vice versa, Similarly science and art are
intimately connected; the first cannot be right without the second and vice versa.
and just as science and application help one another to evolve, similarly art and
science lead to the development of one another, for art is nothing but one of the
many applications of this general science.

We will begin in our view from application to conclude to the laws (regulations).
I have defined the scale to be: “the connection between two fivefold accords
through a connecting tonic interval that connects these two accords”.
Of course, that is in the case the scale is made of eight notes, and i have called
the first accord “base accord” and we will explain the reasons why after we put
the form on the Ambrosian and Gregorian scales and Glariano system and we
will explain the eastern scales.

1. Dorian scale:

It is made of two accords the first is a Minor accord and the second is a Major
accord;we shall name the scale according to the accord of the tonic interval. And
this scale is the scale of Minor Melody

2. Phrygian
scale: (or Hypoaeolian mode in Glariano system) It is made of two Minor
accords

3. Lydian scale:
is made of two accords the first is Major and the second is a tretonic accord .

4. Mixolydian
scale (or Hypoionian scale in Glariano system) Is made of two major accords

5. Hypodorian scale
(or Aeolian scale according to Glarianosystem)
Is made of two minor accords.

6. Hypophrygian
scale:
is made of two accords the first is tretonic and the second is Minor accord.

7. Hypolydian
scale (or Ionian mode according to Glarianosystem) Is made of two major
accords

8. Major gypsy
scale

Is made of two accords the first Major and the second Minor and we notice that
it includes an interval of a measurement and a half between the twofold and
threefold interval.

9. Minor Gypsy
scale:

Is made of two accords the first is Minor and the second is Tretonic and we
notice that it includes between the threefold the fourfold interval a measurement
of one interval and a half .
10.Harmonic
Major scale :
is made of two accords, the first is a Major accord on the second is a Minor
accord .

11.Major
melodic scale
Is made of tow accords, the first is a Major accord and the second is a Minor
accord

12.Minor
Harmonic scale
Is made of two Minor accords

13.Minor
melodic scale
I s made of two accords the first is a Minor accord and the second is Major
accord.

Important notes:

1. The following scales (Mixolydian – Hypolydian – Ionian – HypoIonian) are


exclusively Major scales that all Major regulations apply to. We notice that
inclining the Ionian scale a fivefold full interval has not changed a thing of its
composition and has only affected the tonic layer by raising it.

2. The following scales (Lydian – Major Gypsy – Major Melodic – Major


Harmonic) are Major scales; although not exclusively Major but in the end, will
settle to the Major, for the basic accord is a Major accord, while the second
accord is either a Minor accord or Tretonic accord.

3. The following scales (Phrygian – Hypodorian – AeoliansubAeolian – Minor


Harmonic) are exclusively Minor scale that all Minoric regulations apply to. We
notice that inclining the Aeolian scale a fivefold full interval has changed
nothing of its composition, and has only affected the tonic layer.

4. The following scales (Dorian – Minor Gypsy – Melodic Minor) are Minor
scales, although not exclusively Minor but settle to the Minor; for the base
accord is a Minor accord while the second accord is either a Major accord or
Tretonic accord. All these scales are therefore sub-classified into the Major and
Minor scales, and i think that they only named these Minor and Major scales
because the definition of “scale” is wider than the definition of “mode” because
a scale includes within it more than one mode so all these modes have melted
into these two scales except the Hypophrygian which is why its use was
forbidden and it was described as diabolic.

5. We notice that when the scale is made of a tretonic accord and a natural
accord and vice versa the connecting interval that connects them is half an
interval and this is what we find applies to the Hypophrygian scale and the
Gypsy Minor scale. The west has adopted the triple distinguishing interval only,
and their fault was at least in the analysis: because they did not give an important
value to the fivefold interval that is organically tied to the tonic. I think they
have paid attention to this interval and to its relationship to the tonic but they
have taken it for granted and that is because the tretonic accord was forbidden
back then (in the Sixteenth and seventeenth century) so it just did not occur to
them back then, that is on the one hand, and on the other hand, i think that the
universal space at that epoch was purer and clearer. The ear couldn’t have
accepted what the ear accepts today. The speedy technological development has
created noise in the universal space, which has led to the possibility of accepting
tonic accords that aren’t of nature’s creation, that’s why we can create unnatural
mechanical accords, and if they had paid attention to this, other scales would
have emerged, scales where the base accord is either Tretonic or fourfold of an
interval measurement. But their forbidding the Tretonic interval and the fact that
they have found it enough to stick to the natural accord only back then has not
permitted the emergence of new scales, although the Tretonic interval was no
more considered a dissonant accord later on. This is in the end of the nineteenth
century and we see this clearly in the Lami scale which is a scale of Iraqi origin.
This scale does not include a quarter tonic interval and it becomes the same
Hypophrygian scale in case the current equal temperament scale is worked on,
and, after the Introduction of the organ instrument, this is what we have been
working with in our current era whether we like this fact or not...

It is through this vision and this scales’ analytical form that we can derive the
following regulations (rules):
1. When the scale is made of two natural accords (three and a half intervals) the
connecting interval that connects between two accords measures of one full
interval.

2. When the scale is made of two accords one of them is natural and the second
is Tretonic the connecting interval between the two accords is half an interval

3. The change in the location of the sub-mediant does not lead to any change in
the scale for it always tries to drag the melody to the settling interval, especially
if the interval between them measures of a half interval.

4. Change in the location of the Ton sensible does not lead to a change in the
scale because it always tries to drag the melody to the octave tonic interval
especially if the interval between them is half an interval.
5. We have adopted the second accord starting from the fourfold interval because
it is organically tied with the octave tonic and by doing so we would have
defined the basic intervals of the scales, and the key scale.

6. change in the second accord’s intervals does not lead to any change in the
name of the mode or of the musical scale.
7. The fivefold interval in the scale defines the form of the accord; whether it is a
natural or a mechanical accord.
8. The triple interval when connected to the fivefold interval defines the name of
the scale.

Through this analytical vision of the scales we realize...! why there is a scale that
lacks half an interval, which is the Saba scale. Has u asked yourself this question
and found an answer to it? The Saba scale is half an interval away from the
octave so it can form between the octave absent tonic interval and the absent
fourfold interval a natural accord that the ear likes and finds familiar. If the scale
did not lack half an interval it would have formed between the fourfold
incomplete interval and the tonic octave four tonic intervals. The ear is not yet
accustomed to this interval and was not accustomed to it back then. If u try to
play the eightfold full interval you would sense a wild strange tune that is not
dissonant, but the ear has not yet been accustomed to it. You would then feel that
u must play the whole full fourfold interval also, instead of the incomplete
fourfold interval, so that the natural accord that your ear likes and is accustomed
to, can be achieved while in the upward raising motion.

And when we apply the regulations of this new analytic vision to the eastern
scale after we rely on dividing the eastern scale to twenty-four tonic quarts the
following will result:

First:
That the basic eastern scales, the ones that are grouped in the word “SONAA
BESHREK (in Arabic)” are:

1. Rast scale: the basic eastern scale and is composed of two natural accords, the
first is basic Rast accord and the second is Ajam accord.
2. Sigah interval: is the Rast scale and is made of basic Rast accord and the
second accord is made of three and intervals and a quart, we therefore see that
the connecting interval between the two accords is equal to three quarts of an
interval.

3. Nahawand scale: is made of two Nahawand accords.


4. Bayat scale: is of the Nahawand scale and is made of two accords the first is
Nahawand accord and the second is Rast

accord in the case of (Si



) whereas in the case of (Si♭) it is made of two Nahawand accords.

5. Kurd scale: of the Nahawand scale and is made of two Nahawand accords

6. Saba scale: of the Nahawand scale and is made of two accords; the first
Nahawand and the second is Ajam accord.
7. Ajam scale: is of the Ajamscale and is made of two Ajam accords.

8. Al-Hijaz scale: is of the Ajam scale and is made of two accords the first is
Ajam accord and the second is Rast accord in case (Si) is (Si

). Whereas in the case Si is (Si♭) the second accord is Nahawand accord

It becomes clear to us that the eight basic modes are made of three scales only
which are the Rast scale, the Ajamscale, and the Nahawand scale, the scale
therefore includes two modes, the first is the mode of the scale and the second is
another mode (i.e. another accord) but it does not affect the naming of the scale.
We notice that in case the basic accord is a natural accord we will have the
following possibilities:
1. Ajam scale which is also Major scale
2. Nahawand scale which is also Minor scale

3. Rast scale: in which the triple interval is neither big nor small and is called the
intermediate interval.

Which means we have three types of triple intervals :


1. One big triple interval; its scale is of the Ajam mode
2. One small triple interval; its scale is of the Nahawand mode.
3. Intermediate triple interval its scale is of the Rast mode. Therefore, the natural
accords are made of the following intervals:

1. Natural accord made of (two intervals + an interval and a half) = three interval
and a half; this is the (Ajam accord) Ajam mode.

2. Natural accord made of (one and a half interval + two intervals) = three
intervals and a half; this is the (Nahawand accord) Nahawand mode.

3. Natural accord made of:

(one interval and three quarts of an interval + one interval and three quarts of an
interval) = three intervals and a half; this is the (Rast accord) Rast mode.

And no matter what type of accord it is in the scale, it does not go beyond the
name of these scales. (it is always these same names) Secondly: in case the basic
accord is a tretonic accord and i have called it the mechanical accord because it
is non-existent in nature, and what proves this is the experiment of the tube that
we have explained and the chords of the piano instruments too. Therefore, the
note (Fa) in the music scale is not of nature’s input, it is of man’s creation; he has
created it to achieve stability in the scale’s lock, so that this (Fa) note forms with
the lock of the scale a complete full interval, i.e. a natural accord so that the
scale settles from all the turbulences that nature creates. If nature is left to bring
forth its own regulations to music and to the musical scale a geometric sequence
would have formed, made of the multiplications of number seven which matches
the number of the notes until it reaches the scale’s lock, and i mean by the scale’s
lock the octave Sign, and we reach the scale’s lock not by the intermediate of the
fourfold surplus interval, but by the intermediate of the triple surplus interval,
after an infinite number of sevenfolds. i.e. the scale would then form an infinite
geometric chain. That’s why I called the tretonic accord a “mechanical accord”.
And I shall name the scale in which the base has formed a tretonic accord “Lami
Scale”, of course that is in the case of the triple small interval, i.e. where the
basic accord is made of:

(an interval and a half + an interval and a half) = three interval and this is a basic
Lami accord.

The Lami scale is made of two accords, basic tretonic accord (Lami) and the
second accord is Nahawand accord.
Thirdly: in case the basic accord is a mechanical accord made of three intervals
and three quarts of an interval we call this scale (Huzam scale) of course in case
the triple interval is an intermediate triple interval, the basic accord would be
made of (an interval and three quarts + two intervals) = three intervals and three
quarts of an interval; this is basic Huzam accord, whereas the second accord we
will call it the inverted Huzam accord, for now, or any other name that will be
agreed upon.

Through this vision and through this analysis we can create new accords and
new scales, ones that may or may not serve in the composition of music, but
rather could be more appropriate for the composition of a Scenographic music
that is more honestly expressive and that carries more sensible emotions with it
about a certain scene, that is on the one hand, on the other hand it becomes clear
now that the world has not known or heard but a small part of music. The next
generations, maybe after dozens of years or hundreds of years, could see that
these new accords are more convenient for them than the old accords. it is
through what we have shown in this vision that we notice that the eastern scales
have been five scales so far (Rast scale – Ajam Scale – Nahawand scale –
Huzam scale – Lami scale) and the last scale is used a lot in Iraq; We notice that
it is tinted with a very sad character which clearly indicates and expresses the
huge woes and troubles that have come to pass on Iraqi land throughout history.

Someone once asked me: “is the Saba scale a sad scale?”

I answered: “a scale has nothing to do with sadness or joy for this depends on the
musical phrase and the tune of this phrase. But in the Lami scale you cannot
compose a joyful musical phrase no matter what its rhythm is and the reason for
this is that the tretonic accord expresses sadness. you cannot use it to express joy.
The Lami scale is of Iraqi origin because historically the Iraqi people have
witnessed great woes and distress.

Of these new accords:


-an accord made of (an interval and a quart interval + two intervals and a quart
interval) = three intervals and a half
-an accord made of (two intervals and a quart + an interval and a quart) = three
intervals and a half.
-an accord made of (an interval and a quart + an interval and three quarts) =
three intervals
-an accord made of (an interval and three quarts + an interval and a quart) =
three intervals

- an accord made of (2 + 1,75) = 3,75


-an accord made of (2 + 2) = 4
And so, on in accordance with the numerical sequence

We can also create scales that are made of nine notes, and this is when the
interval that connects between two accords equals zero, the scale would then be
made of two tretonic accords.
The following scale is an example that demonstrates this:
We can also create a scale that is made of ten notes and that is when there is no
connecting tonic interval between the two accords but a dividing tonic interval
instead. in this case at least one of the two accords are less than the tretonic
accord or both accords are less than the tretonic accord depending on the
quantity of the dividing interval. As an example, to this:

And you can, dear reader, create other scales made of nine or ten notes as suits
your liking, painting the picture in your imagination in differing ways.

This could be, according to some people, a whimsical suggestion of mere


imagination, but don’t you see that if we historically travel back a quart century
we would realize that many types of music and many musical intervals and
many of the rhythmic percussions were neither to the liking of the musician nor
of the listener back then. But after they familiarized themselves with it, they got
used to it and developed an affinity for it. Can u then imagine what was the case
for music in very old times throughout history?

It is through what has been mentioned that we shall classify some of the eastern
scales that have been admitted by 1932’s conference. 1. Husayni mode: of the
Nahawand scale and is made of two Nahawand accords

2. Sozdel Mode: is of the Ajam scale and is made of two accords; basicAjam
accord and the second is Nahawand accord
3. Soznak mode: is a Rast scale and is made of two accords the first is a Rast
accord and the second is a Nahawand accord.

4. Mahur mode: is a Rast scale and is made of two accords the first is a Rast
accord and the second is Ajam accord

5. NowRuz mode: is of the Rast scale and is made of two Rast accords.
6. Sazgar mode: is a Rast scale and is made of two accords the first Rast and the
second Ajam.
7. Great Nahawand mode: is a Nahawand scale and is made of two Nahawand
accords.

8. Zangolah mode: is an Ajam scale and is made of two Ajam accords.


9. Sunbulah mode: is a Lami scale and is made of Lami accord and the second
is Ajam accord.

10.HijazKar mode: is of the Ajam scale and is made of two accords the first
Ajam accord and the second Nahawand accord.

11. HijazKarKurd mode: is of the Nahawand scale and is made of two
Nahawand accords/
12. TarzNavin mode: is a Lami scale and is made of a Lami accord and an
Ajam accord.

13.Athar Kurdi mode: is a Nahawand scale and is made of Nahawand accord


and Tretonic accord.

14. Husayni mode: is a Nahawand scale and is made of Nahawand accord and
Rast accord.
15. Qarjaghar mode (Shouri): is a Lami scale and is made of Lami accord and
Ajam accord.

16. Kalazar mode: is a Nahawand scale and is made of a Nahawand accord and
a Rast accord.

17. Shahnaz mode: is a Ajam scale and is made of Ajam accord and Nahawand
accord.
18. Saba Zamzama mode: is of the Nahawand scale and is made of Nahawand
accord and Ajam accord

19.Yegah mode: is a Rast scale and is made of two Rast accords


20. Shad Arban mode: is anAjam scale and is made of an Ajam accord and
Nahawand accord.
21. FarahFaza mode: is a Nahawand scale and is made of two Nahawand
accords
22.Sultani Yegah mode: Is a Nahawand scale and is made of two Nahawand
accords

23. Shawq Afza mode: is anAjam scale and is made of an Ajam accord and an
accord that is made of three intervals and a quart.

24.Shawq Avar mode: is anAjam scale and is made of an Ajam accord and a
Lami accord

25.Hisar mode: is a Nahawand scale and is made of a Nahawand accord and a


Tretonic accord.

26. Nekriz mode: is a Nahawand scale and is made of a Nahawand accord and a
Lami accord.

27. Nawa Athar Mode: is a Nahawand scale and is made of a Nahawand accord
and a Tretonic accord.

28.Panjgah mode (Pasandida): is a Rast scale and is made of a Rast accord and
a Lami accord

29.Sazgar mode: is a Rast scale and is made of a Rast accord and an Ajam
accord.

30.Rahat Al-Arwah mode: is a full Huzam scale


31.Auj Ara mode: is a new scale with an independent personality and is made
of Tonic Auj Ara accord and a Rast accord.

32.Rawnaq Nama mode: is an Auj Ara scale in full because the sevenfold
interval does not change of the scale’s path.

Iraqi scales

We notice that the Iraqi modes are distinguished by their own special character,
and the reason behind this is that they have their own scales, one of them is the
Lami scale which we have previously explained, and is distinguished by a
tretonic accord. There also is another scale that is distinguished by three interval
accords and a quart, and these western accords were first used by Iraqis which is
why they were called Iraqi scales. These scales are still very often used in Iraq,
and the reason behind why it was used in Iraq back then is that it expressed their
social and psychological Situations, and the circumstances that surrounded their
living at the time. Iraq has always, since eternity, suffered unbearable woes and
distress and intolerable wars, so these scales were brought forth to express such
states of mind.

1. iraq mode: is an Iraq scale and is made of an Iraq tonic accord and a Rast
accord, and is of an independent personality
2. BastaNikar mode: is an Iraq scale and is made of an Iraq accord and a new
Tretonic accord.

3. Sunbulah accord: is a Lami scale and is made of a Lami accord and an Ajam
accord.

4. TarzNavin mode: is a Lami scale made of a Lami accord and an Ajam


accord.
5. Qarjaghar mode (Shouri): is a Lami scale and is made of a Lami accord and
an Ajam accord.

6. Moustaar mode: is an Iraq scale and is made of an Iraq accord and another
accord which i have called inverted Iraq accord (Maqloub AlIraq accord) (or as
will be agreed upon in the future)

7. Raml Al Maya mode: is an Iraq scale and is made of an Iraq accord and an
inverted Huzam accord (Maqloub AlHuzam)
8. Muhammadimode: is a scale with an independent personality which is why
we will call it Muhammadi scale, and is made of Muhammadi accord and
another accord made of three intervals and a quart.
The Iraqi scales we have studied are then as follows: (Iraq scale – Lami scale –
Muhammadi scale) and we don’t know if there are other scales used in Iraq.

Conclusion

In the end i can say that development does not stop at this limit because of
course after our generation other generations will come, people who see that this
vision is lacking. But without pride i say that this will be the base and what will
come afterwards will be nothing but conclusions brought forth by advanced eras.
It will be a completion to this vision in which I believe. And i hope that if the
reader hasn’t been convinced by it, that he criticizes it in a scientific manner, not
because he does not accept innovation even when it is based on right principles.
And if the reader has been convinced by it i hope that he will not take a neutral
negative stand but that he supports this view by adding his own opinion and that
he spreads it with integrity so that an effort of research that has lasted for more
than twenty years does not go to waste.

Finally,I hope I have presented to you a beneficial and entertaining work...for


these rising new generations and the ones that will come next.
About the author: (Qusai al Saadi)

1. Born in Hama, Syria, 1963. He acquired a degree in electrical engineering, and is currently a consultant
engineer.
2. Came in first place on the scale of Arab nations in the competition of artistic creativity in year 2005 and
was honoured in the United Arab Emirates for founding a new theory in music.
3. has three written works in musicology; this book is one of them
4. has written works about other subjects in different fields of sciences like the book: “the philosophy of the
brain” printed by the Syrian ministry of culture and is currently being translated to English, and the book: “a
new theory exploring the brain’s function” in which he compares his theory with three other theories for
three other scientists and philosophers.
5. Reading is one of his hobbies and he has read more than three thousand books about different subjects.
6. Has been interviewed numerous times on Radio and T.V and has given many lectures in numerous
cultural centers.
7. Has founded numerous institutes and music bands, a children’s music band being the most important of
them.
8. Has filled the position of president of ground power networks in the Syrian electricity company.
9. Has filled the position of assistant manager for the Syrian Artists’ union through the years 1998 – 2002
10. Is an inventor and has claimed the silver medal in the “AlBassel” exposition year 2009 where 20 nations
took part in the event.
About the translator (Salma Nassif)

Salma is an empath and has always known she wants to take part in bringing out vaster awareness to the
world about the mysteries of music and its healing wonders. She hopes that by translating this book she has
fulfilled some of that life purpose.
She has a website in which she writes about her insights and experiences exploring different subjects. She is
currently writing a book that will include her simple colourful art works. It will be titled: “an inner quest
beyond east and west”. She knows that spirituality is the wonder you experience in everyday life... she
currently lives in Syria with her husky dog.
Her website: salmasings.com
salmanassif@hotmail.com

note: (by buying this book you are helping support my vision and my work. Thank you.)
Disclaimer: Qusay AlSaadi, the author of this book has agreed to give Salma Nassif, the translator of this
book, 30 percent of the revenues that shall be earned from the selling of this book..

and since Salma has Canadian citizenship rights she therefore has the right to sue any party that does not
pay the author (and therefore her) the full amount of revenues due from the selling of this book.

Index

Dedication ............:
Introduction...........:
Preface..............:
How the musical scale was formed.......... :
How music developed in the west.......... :
Vocabulary.................. :
General analysis................ :
Point of view..............
Criticizing the principle of the tretonic interval in the west................. : The
classical method of eastern scales’ analysis..................... Yegah
scale.....................
Shad Arban scale..................:
FarahFaza scale........... :
Sultani Yegah scale.............................:
Shawq Afza scale..................... :
Shawq Awar scale.......................:
Rast Scale.....................:
Rahawi scale.......................... :
Basnadeedah scale.............................. :
Dalansheen scale..............:
Nawa Athar scale...........:
Nekriz scale................... :
Hissar scale...................... :
The brief analysis of the rest of the scales........:
Criticizing the principle of eastern scales analysis............... A new vision for the
analysis of musical scales.........................: Iraqi scales............. :
Conclusion......................:
Index...........................: