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Computer Aided Design

Course Breakup
Chapter # Final Exam Chapter Headings
Q. No
1 1 Fundamentals of CAD
2 2 Computer Systems
3 3 Use of Computers in CAD/CAM System
4 4 CAD System Hardware
5 5 CAD System Software
6 6 Principles of Interactive Computer
Graphics (ICG)
7 7 Transformation Systems
8 8 Wire Frame Modeling
9 9 Surface Modeling
10 9 Solid Modeling

Final 11
Exam Question11
Paper: 5 Review Questions out of 9
Recommended Text Book
Course Outline
 Chapter 1 – 10
 Marks Distribution
 Assignments – 10%
 Project – 15%
 Mid Term – 25%
 Final – 50%
Chapter 1
Fundamentals of CAD
Introduction
 Use of Computer Systems to assist in the
 Creation
 Modification
 Analysis or
 Optimization of a Design
 CAD Hardware
 Computer
 Graphic Display Terminals
 Keyboards
 Other Equipment
Introduction
 CAD Software
 Computer programs to implement Computer Graphics on the
Systems
 Application Programs to Facilitate the Engineering Functions of the
Use Company
 Stress-Strain Analysis of Components
 Dynamic Response of Mechanisms
 Heat Transfer Calculations
 Numerical Control Part Programing
The CAD System
 Involves any type of Design activity, which makes use of
the Computer to
 Develop
 Analyze
 Or Modify an Engineering Design
 ICG (Interactive Computer Graphics)
 Use oriented system in which the computer is employed to Create,
Transform and Display data in the form of Pictures or Graphics.
 Combination of Hardware and Software
Reasons for Implementing CAD
 To Increase the Productivity of the Designer
 Visualize
 Reduces time to Synthesize, Analyze and Document
 To Improve the Quality of Design
 Reduced Design Errors by accuracy built into the system by means
of Calculations and Checks
 To Improve Communication through Documentation
 Standardized designs
 Better Documentation
 Fewer Errors
 To Create a Database for Manufacturing
 Databases automatically created
 Can be used in CIM (Computer Integrated Manufacturing)
Design Process
 An act of Devising an Original Solution to a Problem by a
Combination of Principles, Resources and Products in
Design.
 Design process is a Pattern of Activities
 Iterative
 Preliminary design based on available information
 Can be Improved with more information is generated
 Process
 Statement of Need
 Identification of Problem
 Search of Solutions
 Development of Solution to trail production
 Use
Iterative Design Procedure
Start Analyze

Is the
Design Results
Usable?
Design
Parameters
Evaluate

Idea Amend

Design Stop
Parameters
Shigley Model
Shigley Model
1. Recognition of Need
 Realization by someone that a problem exists for which some
feasible solution is to be found.
 Identification of defect in a current machine design activity
2. Definition of Problem
 A Thorough Specification of the Item to be Designed
 Functional & Physical Characteristics
 Cost, Quality, Performance etc.
3. Synthesis
 Various preliminary ideas are developed through research of similar
products or designs in use
4. Analysis and Optimization
 To determine their suitability for the specific design constraints
 If Fail to satisfy the constraints → Redesigned or Modified
Shigley Model
5. Evaluation
 Against the specifications established during the problem
definition phase is then carried out
 Often requires the Fabrication and Testing of a Prototype model
to Evaluate Operating Performance, Quality, Reliability etc.
6. Presentation
 Documentation of design through
 Drawings
 Material Specifications
 Assembly Lists and so on
Pahl and Beitz Model
1. Clarification of the Task
 Collection of Information about the Requirements to be embodied in
the solution and also about the Constraints on the design and
describing these in a Specification
2. Conceptual Design
 The Establishment of the Functions to be included in the design and
identification and development of suitable solutions.
3. Embodiment Design
 Conceptual Solution is Developed in Detail
 Problems are resolved and weak aspects are eliminated.
4. Detail Design
 Dimensions, Tolerances, Material and Form of Individual Components
of the Design are specified in detail for subsequent manufacture.
Pahl and Beitz Model
Ohsuga Model
Ohsuga Model
 Stages
 Requirements ,Conceptual Design, Preliminary Design, Detailed
Design
 Models of the design are developed through a process of
analysis and evaluation leading to modification and
refinement of the model
 Early Stages → Designer Proposed a Tentative Solution
evaluated from a number of viewpoints to establish the
fitness of the proposed design in relation to the given
requirements → if proposal is unsuitable → modification
 Process is repeated until the design is at a point where it
can be developed in more depth and the preliminary
design stage will start.
Earle Model
1. Problem Identification
2. Preliminary Ideas
3. Design Refinement
4. Analysis
5. Decision
6. Implementation
Problem Identification
 Need to gather data of various Types
 Fixed data, Opinion Surveys, Historical Records, Personal
Observations, Experimental Data and Physical Measurements and
Characteristics

 Types
 Identification of Need
 Identification of Design Criteria
Problem Identification
Problem Identification
 Steps
a) Problem Statement
b) Problem Requirements
c) Problem Limitations
d) Sketches
e) Gather Data
Preliminary Ideas
 Generation of as many ideas for solution as possible.
 Should be sufficiently broad to allow for unique solutions
that could revolutionize present methods.
 Should be recorded in written form with sketches.
 Systematic approach should be used to gather preliminary
ideas for the design problems
 Suggested Steps
 Hold brainstorming Session
 Prepare Sketches and Notes
 Research Existing Design
 Conduct Surveys
Preliminary Ideas
 Brainstorming
 Practice of a conference technique by which a group attempts to
find a solution for a specific problem by amassing all the ideas
spontaneously contributed by its members.
 Brainstorming Rules
 No Criticism
 Think Wild
 Quantify Ideas
 Seek Combination and Improvement
Preliminary Ideas
 Organization Steps
 Select a Panel of about 12 members with and without knowledge
of the subject.
 Prepare a one page note pertaining to the session and should be
distributed to the members about two days in advance.
 The problem should be concisely defined
 A Moderator and recorder should be appointed for e session.
 Hold the Session by initiating the problem
 The recorder should reproduce the list of ideas gathered during
the session for distribution to the participants.
Design Refinement
 Several of the better preliminary ideas are selected for
further refinement to determine their true merits
 Rough sketches are converted to scale drawings that will
include space analysis, critical measurements and the
calculation of ideas and volumes affecting the design
4. Analysis
 Evaluation of the best designs to determine the
comparative merits of each with respect to cost.
Strength, function and market appeal.
 General Areas
 Functional Analysis
 Human Engineering
 Market and Product analysis
 Specification Analysis
 Strength Analysis
 Economic Analysis
 Model Analysis
4. Analysis
 Product Analysis Areas
 Potential Market Evaluation
 Market Outlets
 Advertising Methods
 Sales Features
 Models to analyze design in Final Stages of its
Development
 Conceptual Models
 Mock-up Models
 Prototype models
 System Layout Models
5. Decision
 Single model is accepted as the solution
 Graphs must compare Costs of Manufacturing, Weights,
Operational Characteristics and other data that would be
considered in arriving at the final decision
6. Implementation
 Presentation of final design concept in a workable form
preliminary as working drawings and specifications that
are used as the actual instruments for fabrication of a
product implementation phase of the design process
Application of Computers in Designs
 Design related tasks performed by CAD
 Geometric Modeling
 Engineering Analysis
 Design Review and Evaluation
 Automated Drafting
Benefits of CAD
 Productivity Improvement in Design
 Shorter Lead Times
 Design Analysis
 Fewer Design Errors
 Flexibility in Design
 Standardization of Design, Drafting and Documentation
 Drawings are mode understandable
 Improved Procedures for Engineering Changes
 Benefits in Manufacturing
 Tools and Fixture Design for manufacturing
 Computer Aided Process Planning
 Computer Aided Inspection
 Coding and Classification of Components
 Production Planning and Control
 Assembly Sequence Planning etc.
Creating the Manufacturing Database
Assignment # 1 (Due Date 22-05-2016)
 What is the Design Process? Explain Briefly the FOUR
models for the Design Process.
 Take any real world example/project and apply Earle
model on it.
 What are the various Mass Storage Devices used for
Computer Storage Technology?
 What is difference between:
 ROM and RAM
 Direct Access and Random Access
 Low Level and High Level Programing Language
 Write a details note on Input/output devices.
Chapter 2
Computer Systems
Digital Computer
 An electronic computing machine that can perform
mathematical and logical computations and data
processing functions according to a predetermined series
of instructions known as Programs.
 Essential Components ➔ Hardware
 Programs ➔ Software
Hardware Components
 Central Processing Unit (CPU)
 Memory
 Input / Output Devices

CPU
Peripheral Devices
Input / (Readers, Printers, etc.)
Control Unit Output or mass Memory (Tape,
Disk, etc.)

Arithmetic-
Logic Unit
Memory
Central Processing Unit
 Center of Digital Computer
 Coordinates and Controls activities of other units
 Subsections
 Control Unit
 Acts as Administrator
 Coordinates operations of all the other components
 Controls input and output of the information between computer and
outside world
 Synchronize the transfer of signals between the various sections of
computer
 Regulates the other sections to perform their individual functions
 Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)
 Memory
Central Processing Unit
 Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)
 Performs arithmetic operations
 Performs logical operations
 Memory
 Registers
 Instruction register
 Holds instruction currently being executed
 Data register
 Holds data waiting to be processed
 Holds results from processing
 Special-purpose
 High-speed
 Temporary storage
 Located inside CPU
Central Processing Unit
1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0

Bit

Byte
Registers
 Program Counter
 contains the address of the next instruction to be executed by the
program
 As each instruction gets fetched, the program counter increases its
stored value by 1
 Memory Address Register (MAR)
 a CPU register that either stores the memory address from which data
will be fetched to the CPU or the address to which data will be sent
and stored
 It holds the memory location of data that needs to be accessed.
 Instruction Register
 Part of a CPU's control unit that stores the instruction currently being
executed or decoded
 Accumulator
 a register in which intermediate arithmetic and logic results are
stored
Registers
 Status Register
 a hardware register that contains information about the state of
the processor
 Individual bits are implicitly or explicitly read and/or written by
the machine code instructions executing on the processor
 Arithmetic Logic Unit
 digital circuit used to perform arithmetic and logic operations
 It represents the fundamental building block of the central
processing unit (CPU) of a computer
Memory
 millions/billions of on/off charges
 Divided into:
 Bits 0 or 1
 Bytes (Groups of 8 bits)
 A byte is the smallest unit of storage. ( Can hold one text character)
 Words (Groups of bits/bytes (8, 16, 32, 64-bits))
 Two Types
 Main Memory (Primary Storage)
 Auxiliary Memory (Secondary Storage)
Main Memory
 Very closely connected to the CPU.
 Contents are quickly and easily changed.
 Holds the programs and data that the processor is actively
working with.
 Interacts with the processor millions of times per second.
 Nothing permanent is kept in main memory
 Categories
 Main Data Storage
 Close Proximity to the CPU, Fast access rate, Low Storage Capacity, Costly
 Control Storage
 Contains Microprograms that assist the CPU circuitry in performing its
functions
 Local Storage
 High speed working registers
Main Memory

Each memory cell 5248 Each memory cell stores a


has a numeric 5249 10011010 set number of bits (some
address, which 5250 computers use 8 bits/one
uniquely identifies 5251 byte, others use words)
its location 5252
5253 A word is stored in
5254 consecutive
5255 memory bytes.
5256
Secondary Storage
 Connected to main memory through a bus and a device
controller.
 Contents are easily changed, but access is very slow
compared to main memory.
 Only occasionally interacts with CPU.
 Used for long-term storage of programs and data.
 Much larger than main memory (GBs vs. MBs).
 Types
 Sequential Access Storage (Serial Access Storage)
 Direct Access Storage (Random Access Storage)
Memories (ROM & RAM)
 Read Only Memory (ROM)
 non-volatile memory used in computers and other electronic
devices
 Data stored in ROM can only be modified slowly, with difficulty, or
not at all, so it is mainly used to store firmware (software that is
closely tied to specific hardware and unlikely to need frequent
updates) or application software in plug-in cartridges
 Random Access Memory (RAM)
 The place in a computer where the operating system, application
programs, and data in current use are kept so that they can be
quickly reached by the computer's processor.
 RAM is much faster to read from and write to than the other kinds
of storage in a computer, the hard disk, floppy disk, and CD-ROM.
 Volatile
Memories (ROM & RAM)
 Types of Memory Chips
 Dynamic RAM (DRAM)
 is a type of memory that is typically used for data or program code that a
computer processor needs to function. DRAM is a common type of random
access memory (RAM) used in personal computers (PCs), workstations and
servers.
 Fast Page Mode (FPM)
 Extended Data out (EDO)
 Synchronized DRAM (SDRAM)
 Rambus DRAM (RDRAM)
 Static RAM (SRAM)
 Video RAM (VRAM)
 Memory Modules
 SIMMs (Single In-Line Memory Module)
 DIMMs (Dual In-Line Memory Module)
 Virtual Memory
Memories (ROM & RAM)
 SIMMs (Single In-Line Memory Module)
 a module containing one or several random access memory (RAM)
chips on a small circuit board with pins that connect to the computer
motherboard.
 Since the more RAM your computer has, the less frequently it will
need to access your secondary storage (for example, hard disk or CD-
ROM), PC owners sometimes expand RAM by installing additional
SIMMs.
 The memory chips on a SIMM are typically dynamic RAM (DRAM) chips.
An improved form of RAM called Synchronous DRAM (SDRAM) can also
be used.
 DIMMs (Dual In-Line Memory Module)
 Since SDRAM provides a 64 data bit path, it requires at least two
SIMMs or a dual in-line memory module (DIMM).

 Virtual Memory
Memories (ROM & RAM)
 Virtual Memory
 Virtual memory is a feature of an operating system (OS) that
allows a computer to compensate for shortages of physical
memory by temporarily transferring pages of data from random
access memory (RAM) to disk storage.
Memories (ROM & RAM)
 Caches
 Level 1 Cache
 A level 1 cache (L1 cache) is a memory cache that is directly built
into the microprocessor, which is used for storing the microprocessor's
recently accessed information, thus it is also called the
primary cache.
 Level 2 Cache
 A level 2 cache (L2 cache) is a CPU cache memory that is located
outside and separate from the microprocessor chip core, although, it
is found on the same processor chip package.
 Earlier L2 cache designs placed them on the motherboard which
made them quite slow.
 Buffers
 Some Programs allocate a Small Portion of the Computer’s
Random-Access-Memory as a Buffer.
 Buffers have Several applications.
Mass Storage Devices
 Magnetic Tape Storage
 Sequential access Storage
 Data stored on magnetic tapes
 Cheap
 Can hold large number of information
 Slow Retrieval
 Magnetic Disk Storage
 Magnetic storage or magnetic recording is the storage of data on
a magnetized medium.
 Magnetic storage uses different patterns of magnetization in a
magnet sable material to store data and is a form of non-volatile
memory.
 The information is accessed using one or more read/write heads.
Mass Storage Devices
 Magnetic Drum Storage
 A magnetic drum, also referred to as drum, is a metal cylinder
coated with magnetic iron-oxide material on which data and
programs can be stored.
 Magnetic drums were once used as a primary storage device but
have since been implemented as auxiliary storage devices.
 Compact Disk (CD)
 A Compact Disc (CD) is a type of optical disc. It is flat and round,
and is used to store digital data. It was first used to store music
and other sounds (and is sometimes called an "audio CD"). The
sound on a CD is played using a compact disc player.
Mass Storage Devices
 Digital Video/Versatile Disk (DVD)
 DVD-ROM
 A DVD-ROM permanently stores data files which cannot be changed, written
over or erased.
 A personal computer (PC) with a DVD-ROM or a DVD-RAM drive is designed to
read a DVD-ROM disc.
 DVD-R
 DVD-RAM
 a disc specification presented in 1996 by the DVD Forum, which specifies
rewritable DVD-RAM media and the appropriate DVD writers.
 DVD-RAM media have been used in computers as well as camcorders and
personal video recorders since 1998.
 DVD+RW
 A DVD-RW disc is a rewritable optical disc with equal storage capacity to a DVD-
R, typically 4.7 GB (4,700,000,000 bytes).
 DVD-R/W
 Short for DVD-Re-Writable, a re-recordable DVD format similar to CD-RW or
DVD+RW. The data on a DVD-RW disc can be erased and recorded over numerous
times without damaging the medium.
Input / Output Devices
 Card Readers
 The brush Reader
 The Photoelectric Reader

 Card Punches
 Paper Tape Readers
 Paper Tape Punctures
 Keyboard Input Devices
 The Keypunch
 Key-to-type Unit
 Alphanumeric Display
 Tele printers
 Visual Display Units (VDU)
 Printers
 Line, Serial, InkJet, Laser Printers
Input / Output Devices
 Magnetic Ink Character Recognition (MICR)
 a technology used to verify the legitimacy or originality of paper
documents, especially checks. Special ink, which is sensitive to
magnetic fields, is used in the printing of certain characters on the
original documents.
 Optical Character Recognition (OCR)
 a technology that enables you to convert different types of
documents, such as scanned paper documents, PDF files or images
captured by a digital camera into editable and searchable data.
 Optical Barcode Reader (OBR)
 an electronic device that can read and output printed barcodes to a
computer. Like a flatbed scanner, it consists of a light source, a lens
and a light sensor translating optical impulses into electrical ones.
 Optical Mark Reader (OMR)
 is the process of capturing human-marked data from document forms
such as surveys and tests.
Programing Languages
 Machine Languages
 Machine code or machine language is a set of instructions
executed directly by a computer's central processing unit (CPU).
 Each instruction performs a very specific task, such as a load, a
jump, or an ALU operation on a unit of data in a CPU register or
memory.
 Every program directly executed by a CPU is made up of a series of
such instructions.
Programing Languages
 Assembly Languages
 An assembly (or assembler) language, often abbreviated asm, is a
low-level programming language for a computer, or other
programmable device, in which there is a very strong (generally
one-to-one) correspondence between the language and the
architecture's machine code instructions.
 Each assembly language is specific to a particular computer
architecture, in contrast to most high-level programming
languages, which are generally portable across multiple
architectures, but require interpreting or compiling.
 Assembly language may also be called symbolic machine code.
Programing Languages
 High-Level Languages
 A programming language such as C, FORTRAN, or Pascal that
enables a programmer to write programs that are more or less
independent of a particular type of computer.
 Such languages are considered high-level because they are closer
to human languages and further from machine languages.
Operating System
 Batch Processing
 Programs to be run are collected several at a time and are entered
into the computer as batch of programs.
 Programs are read in and placed on disk storage to form an
execution queue.
 When one program is completed, the next one in the queue is
loaded for processing.
 On-line Processing
 Use communicates directly with the computer through its terminal
devices.
 Information and instructions entered via a terminal are executed
virtually immediately and a response is received as soon as
possible, often within seconds.
Operating System
 Multiple Programming
 In the early days of computing, CPU time was expensive, and
peripherals were very slow.
 When the computer ran a program that needed access to a
peripheral, the central processing unit (CPU) would have to stop
executing program instructions while the peripheral processed the
data.
 This was deemed very inefficient.
 It enabled individual programs to make use of memory and
operating system resources as if other concurrently running
programs were, for all practical purposes, non-existent and
invisible to them
Operating System
 Time-Sharing
 Time sharing is a technique which enables many people, located at
various terminals, to use a particular computer system at the
same time.
 Time-sharing or multitasking is a logical extension of
multiprogramming.
 Processor's time which is shared among multiple users simultaneously
is termed as time-sharing.
 Real-Time
 In computer science, real-time computing (RTC), or reactive
computing describes hardware and software systems subject to a
"real-time constraint", for example from event to system response.
 Real-time programs must guarantee response within
specified time constraints, often referred to as "deadlines".
System Configuration
 Simple Configuration

CPU
Paper Tape or
Disks or Tapes Console Printer
Card
System Configuration
 Network Configuration
 Centralized Network

Centralized Computer
Complex

Communication
User User
System

User
System Configuration
 Network Configuration
 Distributed Network
System Configuration
 Network Configuration
 Ring Network
User User

Computer Complex
User User

Computer Complex Computer Complex

User

Computer Complex

User User
Chapter 3
Use of Computers in CAD/CAM System
Classification of Computers
 Microcomputer
 Minicomputer
 Large Mainframes
 Supercomputer
Microcomputer
 a small, relatively inexpensive computer with a
microprocessor as its central processing unit (CPU).
 It includes a microprocessor, memory, and input/output
(I/O) facilities.
 Microcomputers became popular in the 1970s and 1980s
with the advent of increasingly powerful microprocessors.
Minicomputer
 Computer that is smaller, less expensive, and less
powerful than a mainframe or supercomputer, but more
expensive and more powerful than a personal computer.
 Minicomputers are used for scientific and engineering
computations, business-transaction processing, file
handling, and database management, and are often now
referred to as small or midsize servers.
Large Mainframe
 A data processing system employed mainly in large
organizations for various applications, including bulk data
processing, process control, industry and consumer
statistics, enterprise resource planning, and financial
transaction processing.
 Mainframes use proprietary operating systems, most of
which are based on Unix, and a growing number on Linux.
 Over the years they have evolved from being room-sized
to networked configurations of workstations and servers
that are an extremely competitive and cost effective
platforms for e-commerce development and hosting.
Super Computers
 A supercomputer is a computer that performs at or near
the currently highest operational rate for computers.
 A supercomputer is typically used for scientific and
engineering applications that must handle very large
databases or do a great amount of computation (or both).
Microcomputer Based Systems
 Microcomputer (C) = microprocessor-based computer
 Microprocessor (P) = single-chip or chipset CPU
 Chipset - few closely-interacting chips
 All computers today have single-chip CPU
 2 levels of memory cache on chip
 “chipset” is interface chip for CPU
 Memory interface, Mouse, Keyboard, Graphics, USB, ...
Types of Microcomputers
 Single board computer (SBC)
 usually an embedded computer - buried inside a product
 Features
 dedicated to a single fixed task
 minimum hardware to support the task
 minimize cost, power, weight, size
 Examples
 PostScript printer, ATM, microwave oven, cell phone
Types of Microcomputers
 Modular microcomputer
 modules connected by a bus
 usually a general-purpose computer
 Features
 used for wide range of applications
 flexible hardware to support application range
 can mix and match modules as needed
 example - add more memory modules
 Examples
 personal computer, factory controller
Modular Microcomputer
 System = modules linked by system bus
 system bus - data transfer between modules
 local bus - data transfer within module
 Advantages
 standard modules assembled to form computer
 large number of module types available
 can easily customize computer to application needs
Modular Microcomputer
Architecture (Hardware)
Architecture (Hardware)
 Bus Conductors
 Data Lines
 Address Lines
 Control Lines
Architecture (Software)
Microcomputer Instructions
 Data Transfer and Input/output Instructions
 Arithmetic Operations
 Logical Operations
 Branching Operations
Mainframe Based Systems
Mainframe Based Systems
Super Computers
 Definition
 A supercomputer is a computer that performs at or near the
currently highest operational rate for computers.
 A supercomputer is typically used for scientific and engineering
applications that must handle very large databases or do a great
amount of computation (or both).
 At any given time, there are usually a few well-publicized
supercomputers that operate at extremely high speeds.
 The term is also sometimes applied to far slower (but still
impressively fast) computers.
 Most supercomputers are really multiple computers that perform
parallel processing.
Characteristics of Super Computers
 High Computing Speed
 In Mega FLOPS (Floating Point Operations per Second)
 0.185686547 x 103 ➔ (0.185686547, 3) ➔(Mantissa, Exponent)
 In Supercomputers # of digits in Mantissa are 15
 Range of exponent is also high around 500
 High Precession of Stored Numbers
 Real number stored in supercomputers memory as a 64 bit word
(49 bits for mantissa and 15 to store exponent and sign)
 Exponent range 105000
 Large, Fast Main Memory
 Provides 256 Million words
 Time to access data from main memory is also high
 Large, Fast Secondary Memory
Speed Comparison
Need
 Cheaper than setting up big experiments or building
prototypes of physical systems
 Possible in numerical model to change many parameters
and observe their effect

Experimental

• Suggest Theory • Generate Data


• Test Theory

• Suggest • Model Processes


Experiments • Suggest Experiments
• Internet • Analyze Data
Experiments • Control Apparatus
• Suggest Theory
• Provide Equations • Large Scale
• Interpret Results Calculation
Theoretical Computational
Problem Complexity Formula
 PC = G x V x T x A
 PC → Problem Complexity
 G → Geometry of the Grid System
 V → Variables per Grid Point
 T → Number of Steps per Simulation for Solving a Problem
 A → Number of Floating Point Operations per Variable
How Supercomputers Achieve Speed?
 Faster Semiconductor Components
 Architectural Method
 Different units work Simultaneously
 CPU is Computing + Data Fetch from Memory + I/Os
 Data Parallelism
 Data parallelism is a form of parallelization of computing across
multiple processors in parallel computing environments.
 Data parallelism focuses on distributing the data across
different parallel computing nodes.
 It contrasts to task parallelism as another form of parallelism.
Supercomputer Applications
 Simulation
 Duplicating an environment. It is done for many reasons like;
 Training of the users
 Predict/forecast the result
 If physical experimentation is impossible
 If physical experimentation is expensive
 Movies
 Weather forecasting and earth’s atmosphere research
 Oil Exploration and Production companies
 Genetics engineering
 Space exploration
 Aerodynamic designing of airplanes
 Aerospace and structural designing
 Nuclear weapons
Programmable Logic Controller (PLCs)
PLCS
 Programmable Logic Controllers
 Were introduced in 1968
 Were primarily intended to replace relay devices , so it
is appropriate to be familiar with the components used
in relay devices
Definition
A PLC is a digital operating electronic apparatus which uses
a programmable memory for internal storage of instruction
for implementing specific function such as logic,
sequencing, timing, counting and arithmetic to control
through analog or digital input/output modules various
types of machines or process.
PLC Background
 PLC Development factors
 needs for low-cost
 Flexible
 Easily commissioned/ smart usage
Historical Background
 In 1968, a group of engineers from General Motors
developed the concept of PLC with an initial
specification. The PLC must be:
 Easy to program.
 Not need rewiring the control system if change the
program.
 Smaller in size, cheaper and high reliability.
 Simple construction and low maintenance
 Cost- competitive
PLC Elements
Processor
 The Processor is a computer that Executes a Program to
Perform the Operations specified in a Ladder diagram or a set
of Boolean Equations.
 The processor performs arithmetic and logic operations an
input variable data and determines the proper state of the
output variables.
 The Processor functions under a permanent Supervisory
Operating System that directs the overall operations from
data Input and Output to Execution of user Programs.
 Processor is a Serial Machine
 Sample Each Input → Perform Operation → Provide Each Output →
Repeat the Process
Input Modules
 The Input modules examine the state of physical switches
and other input devices and put their state into a form
suitable for the processor.
 The processor is usually able to accommodate a number of
Inputs, called channels.
Output Modules
 The Output modules supply power to external devices such as
motors, lights, solenoids, and so on, just as required in the
ladder diagram.
Advantages of Using PLCs
 Shorter Project implementation time
 Easier modification
 Project cost can be accurately calculated
 Shorter training time required
 Design easily changed using software
 A wide range of control application
 Easy maintenance
 High Reliability
 Standardization of Controller hardware
 Able to withstand Harsh plant/process environments
(Operate normally under severe conditions of
temperature, humidity, voltage fluctuations and
noises)
Chapter 4
CAD System Hardware
Introduction
 Hardware Components
 Graphical Terminal
 Operator Input Devices
 Central Processing Unit
 One or more Plotter and Other Devices
 Secondary Storage
Introduction
Secondary
Storage Device

Graphics
CPU Input Devices
Terminal

Output
(Plotter etc.)
The Design Workstation
 System interface with the outside world
 Functions
 Must interface with CPU
 Must generate a Steady Graphic Image for the User
 Must provide Digital Descriptions of the Digital Image
 Must Translate Computer Commands into Operating Functions
 Must Facilitate Communication between User and the System
 Components
 Graphic Terminals
 Operator Input Devices
Programmable Logic Controller (PLCs)
PLCS
 Programmable Logic Controllers
 Were introduced in 1968
 Were primarily intended to replace relay devices , so it
is appropriate to be familiar with the components used
in relay devices
Definition
A PLC is a digital operating electronic apparatus which uses
a programmable memory for internal storage of instruction
for implementing specific function such as logic,
sequencing, timing, counting and arithmetic to control
through analog or digital input/output modules various
types of machines or process.
PLC Background
 PLC Development factors
 needs for low-cost
 Flexible
 Easily commissioned/ smart usage
Historical Background
 In 1968, a group of engineers from General Motors
developed the concept of PLC with an initial
specification. The PLC must be:
 Easy to program.
 Not need rewiring the control system if change the
program.
 Smaller in size, cheaper and high reliability.
 Simple construction and low maintenance
 Cost- competitive
PLC Elements
Processor
 The Processor is a computer that Executes a Program to
Perform the Operations specified in a Ladder diagram or a set
of Boolean Equations.
 The processor performs arithmetic and logic operations an
input variable data and determines the proper state of the
output variables.
 The Processor functions under a permanent Supervisory
Operating System that directs the overall operations from
data Input and Output to Execution of user Programs.
 Processor is a Serial Machine
 Sample Each Input → Perform Operation → Provide Each Output →
Repeat the Process
Input Modules
 The Input modules examine the state of physical switches
and other input devices and put their state into a form
suitable for the processor.
 The processor is usually able to accommodate a number of
Inputs, called channels.
Output Modules
 The Output modules supply power to external devices such as
motors, lights, solenoids, and so on, just as required in the
ladder diagram.
Advantages of Using PLCs
 Shorter Project implementation time
 Easier modification
 Project cost can be accurately calculated
 Shorter training time required
 Design easily changed using software
 A wide range of control application
 Easy maintenance
 High Reliability
 Standardization of Controller hardware
 Able to withstand Harsh plant/process environments
(Operate normally under severe conditions of
temperature, humidity, voltage fluctuations and
noises)
Chapter 4
CAD System Hardware
Introduction
 Hardware Components
 Graphical Terminal
 Operator Input Devices
 Central Processing Unit
 One or more Plotter and Other Devices
 Secondary Storage
Introduction
Secondary
Storage Device

Graphics
CPU Input Devices
Terminal

Output
(Plotter etc.)
The Design Workstation
 System interface with the outside world
 Functions
 Must interface with CPU
 Must generate a Steady Graphic Image for the User
 Must provide Digital Descriptions of the Digital Image
 Must Translate Computer Commands into Operating Functions
 Must Facilitate Communication between User and the System
 Components
 Graphic Terminals
 Operator Input Devices
Graphics Output Devices
 Pen Plotters
 Hardcopy Units
 Electrostatic Plotters
 Computer output to Microfilm Units (COM Units)
Pen Plotters
Pen Plotters
 Pen plotters print by moving a pen or other instrument
across the surface of a piece of paper.
 This means that plotters are vector graphics devices,
rather than raster graphics as with other printers.
 Pen plotters can draw complex line art, including text,
but do so slowly because of the mechanical movement of
the pens.
 They are often incapable of efficiently creating a solid
region of color, but can hatch an area by drawing a
number of close, regular lines.
 Plotters offered the fastest way to efficiently produce
very large drawings or color high-resolution vector-based
artwork when computer memory was very expensive and
processor power was very limited, and other types of
printers had limited graphic output capabilities.
Electrostatic plotters
 Electrostatic plotters used a dry toner transfer process
similar to that in many photocopiers.
 They were faster than pen plotters and were available in
large formats, suitable for reproducing engineering
drawings.
 The quality of image was often not as good as
contemporary pen plotters.
 Electrostatic plotters were made in both flat-bed and
drum types.
Computer output to Microfilm Unit (COM)
 A COM system usually consists of a recorder/developer
and a reader.
 The recorder/developer equipment may be in a single unit
or each unit may be separate.
 The recorder reads computer magnetic tape, reduces the
physical size of the data, and transforms it onto film,
which is then developed.
 The reader, the main vehicle for retrieving information on
microfilm, magnifies the reduced data on the film so a
report user can read it.
CAD Mode of Operation
 Hard Copy Module

CRT

CRT Multiplexer Plotter

CRT
CAD Mode of Operation
 Online Module

CRT Controller Plotter


CAD Mode of Operation
 Offline Modulea

Computer Tape Drive Tape Tape Drive Plotter


CAD Mode of Operation
 Remote Module

Remote Plotter
Computer Telephone Telephone
Computer
Chapter 5
CAD System Software
Graphics Software
 Collection of programs written to make it convenient for a
user to operate the computer graphics system
 It include programs
 To generate images on the CRT screen
 To manipulate the images and to accomplish various types of
interaction between the user and the system
 Additional programs
 Design analysis programs
 Manufacturing planning programs
Computer Graphics Programs
 Classified according to types of images created
 Vector objects
 Created in CAD drawings
 Made up of lines and arcs
 Defined with point coordinates in space
 Hard copy images may be converted to raster format with a scanner
 Raster objects
 Also called bitmap graphics
 Number of pixels defines resolution
 Modified using an image editing program
Computer Graphics Programs
Ground Rules in designing Graphics
Software
 Simplicity
 Consistency (Operate in Consistent and Predictable way)
 Completeness (No inconvenient omissions)
 Robustness (Tolerant of minor instances of misuse by
operator)
 Performance (Efficient and Speed of Response should be
fast and Consistent)
 Economy
Software Configuration of a Graphic System
 In operation of the graphics system by the user, a variety
of activities takes place which can be divided into three
categories
 Interact with the graphics terminal to create and alter images on
the screen
 Construct a model of something physical out of the images on the
screen (Application Models)
 Enter the model into Computer memory and/or Secondary storage
 Graphics Software
 Graphics Package
 Application Program
 Application Database
Software Configuration of a Graphic System

Design
Workstation

Graphics
Terminal

Application Application Graphics


Database Program Package
User
Input
Devices
Software Configuration of a Graphic System
 Application Program
 Controls the Storage of Data into and Retrieves data out of the
application Database
 Driven by the user through the graphics package (Graphics System)
 Implemented by user to Construct a model of a Physical Entity
whose image is to be viewed on the graphics screen
 Graphics Package
 Software support between the user and the Graphics Terminal
 Manages graphical interaction between the user and the system
 Serves as interface between the user and the application software
 Input Subroutines
 Accept Input Commands/Data from User → Application Program
 Output Subroutines
 Controls the Display Terminal & and Converts the application modules
into 2D or 3D graphical pictures
Software Configuration of a Graphic System
 Application Database
 Contains Mathematical, Logical and Numerical definitions of the
application modules
 Electronic circuits
 Mechanical components
 Automobile bodies
 Includes information like
 Bill of Materials
 Mass properties etc.
Functions of a Graphics Package
 Generation of Graphic Elements
 Transformations
 Display Control & Windowing Functions
 Segmenting Functions
 User Input Functions
Generation of Graphics Elements
 Graphic Element ➔ Basic Image Entity like Dot or Point,
Line, Circle etc.
 Alphanumeric characters
 Special Symbols
 Term Primitive is used
 A 3D graphic element such Sphere, Cube or Cylinder
Transformations
 Used to change the image o the display screen and to
reposition the item in the database
 Applied to graphic elements in order to aid the user in
constructing an application model
 Include Enlargement & Reduction of an image by a process
called Scaling, Repositioning the image, Translation and
Rotation.
Display Control & Windowing Functions
 Provides the user with the ability to view the image from
the desired angle and at the desired magnification.
 In effect it makes use of various transformations to
display the application model the way the user wants it
shown
 Windowing → graphic screen acts like a window being
used to observe the graphics model
 Hidden Line Removal
 Procedure by which the image is divided into its visible and
invisible lines
 Hidden lines can be removed manually or automatically
Segmenting Functions
 Provide users with the capability to selectively replace,
delete or otherwise modify the portions of the image.
 Segment ➔ a particular portion of the image which has
been identified for purposes of modifying it
 Segment can be a single element or logical grouping of
elements that can be modified as a unit
User input Functions
 Constitute a critical set of functions in the graphics
package because they permit the operator to enter
commands or data to the system
 The entry is accomplished by means of operator input
devices
 Input functions must maximize the benefits of ICG
Chapter 6
Principles of Interactive Computer Graphics
Graphic Primitives
 A Picture can be described in several ways
 Raster Display
 By a set of intensities for the picel position in the display
 Picture
 Set of complex objects such as trees and terrain or furniture and
walls, positioned as specific coordinate locations within the scene
shapes and colors of the objects can be described internally with
pixel arrays or with sets of basic geometric structures such as
straight line segments and polygon color areas.
 The scene is then displayed either by loading the pixel arrays into
the frame buffer or by scan converting the basic geometric
structure specifications into pixel patterns.
Graphic Primitives
 Output Primitive is Specified with Input Coordinate data
and other Information about the way the information is to
be displayed
 Point, Line ➔ Simplest Components of Picture
 Circles, Conic Sections, Quadratic Surfaces, Spline Curves and
Surfaces, Polygon Contour areas and Character Strings ➔
Additional Output Primitives
 Drawing
 Created by an assembly of points, lines, arcs and circles.
 Entities
 Point, Line, Arc, Ellipse Polygon and Polyline
Point Plotting
 A Random-scan system stores the position of the electron
beam at the screen locations to be plotted during each
refresh cycle.
 For a black & white raster system a point is plotted by
setting the bit value corresponding to a specific screen
position within a frame buffer to 1.
 Electron beam emits a burst of electrons where it find 1 in
the line.
Drawing of Lines
 Accomplished by calculating intermediate positions along
the line path between two specified end point positions.
 Output device is then directed to fill in these positions
between the end points.
 Salient points for line drawing displays,
 Lines should appear straight
 Lines should have constant density
 Line density should be independent of length and angle
 Lines should terminated accurately
 Lines should be drawn rapidly
 Vector Generation
 Process of turning on the pixels for a line segment.
Line Drawing Algorithms
 y = mx + b
 m ➔slope and b ➔ y-intercept
 m = y2 – y1 / x2 – x1
 b = y1 – mx1
 ∆y = m ∆x
 ∆x = ∆y / m
Stepping in X direction

CS5500 Computer Graphics


© Chun-Fa Chang, Spring 2007
CS5500 Computer Graphics
© Chun-Fa Chang, Spring 2007
Bresenham’s Algorithm
 Improve upon DDA algorithm to use integer arithmetic only.
 Applicable to circle drawing too. We discuss only the line
drawing here.

CS5500 Computer Graphics


© Chun-Fa Chang, Spring 2007
Bresenham’s Algorithm
1. Input the two line end points and store the left end point
in (x0, y0)
2. Load (x0, y0) into the frame buffer that is plot the first
point
3. Calculate constants ∆x, ∆y, 2∆y - 2∆x and obtain the
starting value for the decision parameter as p0 = 2∆y - ∆x
4. At each xk along the line starting at k -= 0, perform the
following test:
 If pk < 0, the next point to plot is (xk+1, yk + 1) and pk + 1 = pk +
2∆y – 2∆x
5. Repeat step 4 ∆x times

CS5500 Computer Graphics


© Chun-Fa Chang, Spring 2007
Bresenham’s Algorithm
❑ Select x1, y1 and x2, y2
❑ dx = |x1 – x2| & dy = |y1 – y2| & p = 2 * dy – dx
❑ If (x1 > x2)
▪ x = x2 & y = y2 & end = x1
❑ else
▪ x = x1 & y = y1 & end = x2
❑ Plot Pixel
❑ While (x < end)
▪ x = x + 1,
▪ If p < 0
▪ p = p + 2 * dy
▪ Else
▪ y = y + 1 & p = p + 2 * (dy – dx)
❑ Plot Pixel
Decision Variables

 Variables a and b
record the distances
to the pixel centers
of (i+1, j) and (i+1,
j+1)
 If a > b, then y=j
 If a < b, then y= j+1

CS5500 Computer Graphics


© Chun-Fa Chang, Spring 2007
Integer Only
 If (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) are integer points, then x * a and
x * b may be stored as integers as well.
 Because a and b increase or decrease by m = y / x

CS5500 Computer Graphics


© Chun-Fa Chang, Spring 2007
Using the Symmetry
 The above works when x  0, y  0, and x  y.
 If x < y, then step in Y direction instead.
 It is easy to extend it to handle x < 0 or y < 0.

CS5500 Computer Graphics


© Chun-Fa Chang, Spring 2007
Rendering
 The process of generating an image from a 2D or 3D model
(or models in what collectively could be called a scene
file) by means of computer programs.
 The results of such a model can be called rendering.
 Processes Involved
 Generation ofa data structure for Polygon Models that will contain
the information required for the Shading Process
 Applying Transformations
 Scan Converting Polygons
 Hidden Surface Removal
 Shading Individual Pixels
Antialiasing
 A software technique for diminishing jaggies - stairstep-
like lines that should be smooth.
 Jaggies occur because the output device, the monitor or
printer, doesn't have a high enough resolution to represent
a smooth line.
Reflection
 When we see an opaque non-luminous object, we see
reflected light from the surfaces of the object.
 The total reflected light is the sum of the contributions
from light sources and other reflecting surfaces in the
scene.
Chapter 7
Transformation System
Transformations
 What is transformations?
 The geometrical changes of an object from a current state to
modified state.
 Why the transformations is needed?
 To manipulate the initially created object and to display the
modified object without having to redraw it.
 Types
 Object Transformation
 Alter the coordinates descriptions an object
 Translation, rotation, scaling etc.
 Coordinate system unchanged
 Coordinate transformation
 Produce a different coordinate system
Transformation
 Scaling, Translation, Rotation etc.
 A single mathematical Entity and as such can be denoted
by a single name of symbol
 Two transformations can be combined or concatenated to
yield a single transformation with the same effect as the
sequential application of the original two.
 Transformation A ➔ Scaling
 Transformation B ➔ Translation
 C = AB ➔ Translate then Scale
Matrix Math
 Why do we use matrix?
 More convenient organization of data.
 More efficient processing
 Enable the combination of various concatenations
 Matrix addition and subtraction
c a c
a
 = b d
b d
Matrix Math
 Matrix Multiplication
 Dot product

a b e f a.e + b.g a.f + b.h


c d . g h =
c.e + d.g c.f + d.h
Matrix Math
 Type of matrix

a b

Row-vector

a
b

Column-vector
Matrix Math
 We’ll use the column-vector representation for a
point.
 Which implies that we use pre-multiplication of the
transformation – it appears before the point to be
transformed in the equation.

 A B   x   Ax + By 
C D •  y  = Cx + Dy 
     
Translation
 A translation moves all points in an ?
object along the same straight-line path
to new positions.
 The path is represented by a vector, ty=4
called the translation or shift vector.
 We can write the components: (2, 2) tx = 6
p'x = px + tx
p'y = py + ty
 or in matrix form:
P' = P + T

x’ x tx
y’ = y +
ty
Translation
Rotation P’

 A rotation repositions all


points in an object along a 
circular path in the plane
P
centered at the pivot point.
 First, we’ll assume the pivot is
at the origin.
Rotation
• We can write the components:
p'x = px cos  – py sin 
p'y = px sin  + py cos 
P’(x’, y’)
• or in matrix form:
P' = R • P

•  can be clockwise (-ve) or
counterclockwise (+ve as our y’
example). P(x,y)
• Rotation matrix  r
y
cos − sin  
R= 
 sin cos  x’ x
Rotation

 Example
 Find the transformed point, P’, caused by rotating P= (5, 1)
about the origin through an angle of 90.

cos − sin   x   x  cos − y  sin 


 sin • =
 cos   y   x  sin + y  cos 

5  cos90 − 1 sin 90


= 
5  sin 90 + 1 cos90

5  0 − 1 1
= 
5 1 + 1  0
− 1
= 
5
Scaling
• Scaling changes the size of an
object and involves two scale
factors, Sx and Sy for the x- and
P’
y- coordinates respectively.
• Scales are about the origin.
• We can write the components:
p'x = sx • px
p'y = sy • py P
or in matrix form:
P' = S • P
Scale matrix as:
sx 0
S=
0 s y 
Scaling
• If the scale factors are in between 0
and 1 ➔ the points will be moved
closer to the origin ➔ the object will
be smaller.
• Example :
•P(2, 5), Sx = 0.5, Sy = 0.5 P(2, 5)
•Find P’ ?

P’
Scaling
• If the scale factors are in between 0
and 1 ➔ the points will be moved P’
closer to the origin ➔ the object will
be smaller.
• Example :
•P(2, 5), Sx = 0.5, Sy = 0.5
•Find P’ ? P(2, 5)
•If the scale factors are larger than 1 ➔ the
points will be moved away from the origin ➔
the object will be larger. P’

• Example :
•P(2, 5), Sx = 2, Sy = 2
•Find P’ ?
Scaling
Combining transformations

We have a general transformation of a point:


P' = M • P + A

When we scale or rotate, we set M, and A is the additive identity.

When we translate, we set A, and M is the multiplicative identity.

To combine multiple transformations, we must explicitly compute


each transformed point.

It’d be nicer if we could use the same matrix operation all the time.
But we’d have to combine multiplication and addition into a
single operation.
Chapter 8
Wire Frame Modelling
CAD Modelling types - Wireframe
 These types of drawings only show the
structure of the object drawn.
 No other details are shown.
CAD Modelling types - Surface Rendered
 These types of drawings show the objects as solid
shapes.
CAD Modelling types - Surface Rendered
 You can view surface detail as a rendered block.
 It looks realistic due to the highlights and shading
generated by the package.
 This allows high quality drawings to be produced very
quickly.
 This allows high quality drawings to be produced very
quickly.
 It also means that very realistic models of a design can
be produced without having to manufacture them,
saving design firms time and money.
CAD Modelling Types – Solid
 3D model is built up using simple geometric forms such
as cones, cylinders, prisms and cuboids.
 These can be added or subtracted to produce complex
3D models.
CAD Drawings
 There are certain things common to all 3D
packages and this is how the shapes are produced.
 You can:
 combine shapes
 subtract them from each other
 add them together
 obtainthe orthographic views of the 3D object using
one command.
CAD Drawings - Combining Shapes
 Shapes can be combined.
CAD Drawings - Subtracting Shapes
 Shapes can be subtracted from each other.
CAD Drawings - Adding Shapes
 You can add shapes to each other.
CAD Drawings - Orthographic Views
 You can use one command to obtain the 3
orthographic views of the object.

Plan

End Elevation
Elevation
Geometric Modeling
 Geometric modelling refers to a set of techniques
concerned mainly with developing efficient
representations of geometric aspects of a design.
 Therefore, geometric modelling is a fundamental part of
all CAD tools.
 Geometric modeling is the basic of many applications such
as:
 Mass property calculations
 Mechanism analysis
 Finite-element modelling.
 NC programming
Geometric Modeling
 Requirements of geometric modelling include:
 Completeness of the part representation.
 The modelling method should be easy to use by designers.
 Rendering capabilities (which means how fast the entities can be
accessed and displayed by the computer).
 Basic geometric modelling approaches
 Wire-frame modeling
 Surface modeling
 Solid modeling
Wire-frame Modeling
 Wire-frame modelling uses points and curves (i.e. lines,
circles, arcs), and so forth to define objects.
 The user uses edges and vertices of the part to form a 3-D
object

Wire-frame part Part


Advantages of Wire-Frame
 Easy to construct
 Most economical in term of time and memory
requirement.
 Used to model solid object.
 Often used for previewing objects in an interactive
scenario.

disediakan oleh Suriati bte Sadimon GMM, FSKSM, UTM


Disadvantages of Wire-Frame
 Does not allow for use of photo realistic rendering
tools.
 No ability to determine computationally
information on mass properties (e.g. volume,
mass, moment etc.) and line of intersect between
two faces of intersecting models.
 No guarantee that the model definition is correct,
complete or manufacturable.

disediakan oleh Suriati bte Sadimon GMM, FSKSM, UTM


Disadvantages of Wire-Frame
 Tend to be not realistic
 Ambiguity
 Complex model difficult to interpret.
Limitations of Wire Frame Modeling
 It is not Possible to Calculate Volume and Mass Properties
of a Design.
 Representation of Virtual Edges (Profile or Silhouette)
 Involves more user effort to Input Necessary Information
than that of Solid models, especially for large and
complex parts.
Curve Fitting Techniques
 Displaying
 Blending
 Segmentation
 Trimming
 Intersection
 Transformation
Surface Modeling
 Surface modeling is more sophisticated than wireframe
modeling in that it defines not only the edges of a 3D
object, but also its surfaces.
 In surface modeling, objects are defined by their bounding
faces.
Surface model
 Surface may be:
 Planar
 Cylindrical/conic
 Sculptured or freeform in shape
 To overcome ambiguity in wire-frame model
 used for the generation of visually
 realistic images through techniques such as
 rendering
 hidden edge removal
 Does not represent internal features of the model, no
sense of volume.
 Models of limited value for volumetric and mass property
analysis.
Solid model
 Most complex
 Complete representation
 unambiguous description
 Appropriate for the world of engineering objects
 Solid models give designers a complete descriptions of
constructs, shape, surface, volume, and density.
Solid Modeling
 In CAD systems there are a number of representation
schemes for solid modeling include:
 Primitive creation functions.
 Constructive Solid Geometry (CSG)
 Sweeping
 Boundary Representation (BREP)
Chapter 9
Surface Modeling
Type of Surfaces
Type of Surfaces
Type of Surfaces
Type of Surfaces
Type of Surfaces
Chapter 10
Solid Modeling
Why Solid modeling?
 Recall weakness of wireframe and surface modeling
 Ambiguous geometric description
 Incomplete geometric description
 Lack topological information
 Tedious modeling process
 Awkward user interface

disediakan oleh Suriati bte Sadimon GMM, FSKSM, UTM, 2004


Solid model
 Solid modeling is based on complete, valid and
unambiguous geometric representation of physical object.
 Complete → points in space can be classified.(inside/ outside)
 Valid →vertices, edges, faces are connected properly.
 Unambiguous → there can only be one interpretation of object

disediakan oleh Suriati bte Sadimon GMM, FSKSM, UTM, 2004


Solid model
 Analysis automation and integration is possible
only with solid models→ has properties such as
weight, moment of inertia, mass.
 Solid model consist of geometric and topological
data
 Geometry → shape, size, location of geometric
elements
 Topology →connectivity and associativity of geometric
elements →non graphical, relational information

disediakan oleh Suriati bte Sadimon GMM, FSKSM, UTM, 2004


Solid Entities
 Block
 Cylinder
 Cone
 Sphere
 Wedge
 Torus
Solid model representation schemes
1. Constructive solid geometry (CSG)
2. Boundary representation (B-rep)
3. Spatial enumeration
4. Instantiation.

disediakan oleh Suriati bte Sadimon GMM, FSKSM, UTM, 2004