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A Seminar Report


ANN based PSR Submitted to

A Seminar Report on ANN based PSR Submitted to Amity University Kolkata by Vishal Soni under

Amity University Kolkata


Vishal Soni

under the guidance of

Mr.Tamoghna Mukherjee

Bachelors in Computer Applications (BCA)

Amity Institute of Information Technology Kolkata(AIITK)


Jan - April 2019

A Seminar Report


ANN based PSR Submitted to

A Seminar Report on ANN based PSR Submitted to Amity University Kolkata by Vishal Soni under

Amity University Kolkata


Vishal Soni

under the guidance of

Mr.Tamoghna Mukherjee

Bachelors in Computer Applications (BCA)

Amity Institute of Information Technology Kolkata(AIITK)


Jan - April 2019


I, Vishal Soni, student of BCA (Bachelors in Computer Applications) hereby declare that the seminar titled “ ANN based PSR ” which is submitted by me to Department of BCA, Amity Institute of Information Technology , Amity University Kolkata, has not been previously formed the basis for the award of any degree, diploma or other similar title or recognition.


Date Name and signature of Student(s)


On the basis of declaration submitted by Vishal Soni, student of BCA, I hereby certify that the seminar titled “ANN based PSR” which is submitted to Department of BCA, Amity Institute of Information Technology, Amity University kolkata in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Computer Applications, is an original contribution with existing knowledge and faithful record of work carried out by him/them under my guidance and supervision.

To the best of my knowledge this work has not been submitted in part or full for any Degree or Diploma to this University or elsewhere.



Signature of Guide

Amity Institute of Information Technology

Amity University kolkata


I would like to express my special thanks of gratitude to my Guide, Mr.Tamoghna mukherjee who gave me the golden opportunity to work on this wonderful project on the topic ANN based PSR, which also helped me in doing a lot of research which enabled me to get to know about my field of interests and the fascinating world of ANN based PSR . Due to the supervision and assistance of my guide it was possible for me to complete the project within the limited time frame.


Power System Restoration (PSR) has been a subject of study for many years. In recent years many techniques were proposed to solve the limitations of predetermined restoration guidelines and procedures used by a majority of system operators to restore a system following the occurrence of a wide area

disturbance.T h i s p a p e r d i s c u s s e s l i m i t a t i o n s e n c o u n t e r e d i n s o m e c u rre ntl y use d P SR techniques and a proposed improvement based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs). This proposed scheme has been tested on a 162- bustransmissionsystem and compared with a breadth search transmission system. The results indi cate that, this is a feasible option that should be considered for realtimeapplications.ArtificialNeuralNetworks(ANNs)are computationaltechniquesthattry

f o r m a n c e s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f h u m a n ’ s p e r f o r m a n c

e w h e n s o l v i n g problems. The building block of ANN is Artificial Neuron, whic h has gotstructural & functional similarities with biological neurons. ANN is also an efficient alternative for problem solutions where it is possible to obtain data describing the problem behavior, but a mathematical description of the process isimpossible. The proposed restoration scheme is composed of several IslandRestoration Schemes (IRS). Each IRS is responsible for the development of an Island Restoration Plan when the power system is recovering from a wide area disturbance.

too b t a i n a p e r



The importance of electricity in our day to day life has reached such a stage that it is very important to protect the power system equipments from damage and to ensure maximum continuity of supply. But there are power system blackouts by which the continuous power supply is being interrupted. What is mor eim p orta nt in t he case o f a bla c k ou t is t he ra pidi t y wi th w hi ch t he ser vi ce is restored. Now- a -days power system blackouts are rare. But whenever they occur, the effect on commerce, industry and everyday life of general population can be quite severe. In order to reduce the social and economic cost of power system blackouts, many of the electric utility companies have pre -established guidelines and operating procedures to restore the power system. They contain sequential restoration steps that an operator should follow in order to restore the power system. They are based on certain assumptions which may not be present in the actual case. This reduces the success rates of these procedures .This paper mainly focuses on:

The limitations encountered in some currently used PSR techniques.

A proposed improvement based on ANN.


Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is a system loosely model on human brain. It tries to obtain a performance similar to that o f human’s performance w hile solving problem s. As a

computational system it is made up of a large number of simple and highly interconnected processing elements which process information by its dynamic state response to external inputs. Computational elements in ANN are non-linear and so the results come out through


linearitycan be m ore accurate than other methods. These non - linear com putational elements will be working in unison to solve specific problems. ANN is configured for specific applications such as data classification or pattern recognition through a learning process. Learning involves adjustment of synaptic connections that exist between neurons. ANN can be simulated within specialized hardware or sophisticated software. ANNs are implemented as software packages in computer or being used to incorporate Artificial Intelligence in control systems


The most basic element of the human brain is a specific type of cell, which provides us with the abilities to remember, think, and apply previous experiences to our every action. These cells are known as neurons, each of these neurons canconnect with up to 200000 other neurons. The power of brain co mes from thenumbers of these basic components and the multiple connections between them. All natural neurons have four basic components, which are dendrites,soma, axon and synapses. Basically, a biological neuron receives inputs from other sources, combines them in some way, performs a generally non- linear operation on the result, and then output the final result. The figure below shows a simplified biological neuron and the rela tionship of its four components.



The basic unit of neural networks, the artificial neurons, simulates the four basic functions of natural neurons. Artificial neurons are much simpler than the biological neurons. The figure below shows the basic structure of an artificialneuron. Note that various inputs to the networ k are represented by themathematical symbol, x(n). Each of thes e inputs are multiplied by aconnection weight, these weights are r epresented by w(n). In the simplestc a se, the se p ro d uc t s a re simply summed, fed through a transfer function t o generate a result, and then output. Even though all artificial neural networks are constructed from this basic building blocks the fundamentals may vary inthese buildingblocks and there are differences


Artificial neural networks emerged from the studies of how brain performs.The human brain consists of many million of individual processing elements called neurons thatare highly interconnected.A NN s a r e m a d e u p of sim p l i f i e d i nd i v i d u a l m o d e ls of th e b io l o g ic a l neurons that are connected together to form a network. Information is stored inthe network in the form of weights or different connection strengths associatedwith the synapses in the artificial neuron models.Many different types of neural networks are available and multilayeredneural network are the most popular which are extremely successful in patternreorganization problems. An artificial neuron is shown in the figure.C h a n g in g the w e i g h ts of a n e le me n t w i l l a l te r t he behavior of the whole network. The output y is obtained summing the weightedinputs and passing the result through a non-linear activationfunction


In realistic application the design of ANNs is complex, usually an iterative and

interactive task. The developer must go through a period of trial and error in the design decisions before coming up with a satisfactory design. The

design i ss ues

c o n c e r n s o f s y s t e m developers. Designing of a neural network consists of:

Arranging neurons in various layers.

i n

neu ral

ne two rk are

c omp le x

a nd

ar e

t he

ma j or

Deciding the type of connection among neurons of different layers , as well as among the neurons



Determining the strength of connection that exists within the network by allowing

the neurons learn the appropriate values of connection weights by using a training data set.




Their ability to represent non-linear relations makes them well suited for non-linear

modeling in control systems.

Adaptation and learning in uncertain system through off line and on line weightadaptation.

Parallelprocessingarchitectureallows fastprocessingforlarge-scaledynamicsystem.

Neural network can handle large number of inputs and can have many outputs.

ANNs can store knowledge in a distributed fashion and consequently have a high faulttolerance.



This method has proven highly successful in training of multi layered neural networks. The network is not just given reinforcement for how it is doing on a task. Information about errors is also filtered back through the system and is used to adjust the connections between the layers, thus improving performance of the network results. Back-propagation algorithm is a form of supervised learning algorithm.




Automated restoration : In this restoration technique, computer programsa r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p r o g r a m d e v e l o p m e n t a n d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . T h e P S R tec hniques based on this principle acquire data from the supervisory control and data acquisition system (SCADA) and the energy management system (EMS).Under a wide area disturbance, a PSR program installed in the EMS system will use the acquired system to develop a restoration plan for the transmission system. After developing the restoration plan, a switching sequence program, which is also a part of the EMS, will be responsible for the transmission of control signals through SCADA to circuit breakers and switches to implement the plan. In this technique, the system operator plays the role of supervisor.

Computer aided restoration : In this technique, the PSR plan development and implementation is performed by the system operator. The PSR technique that uses this principle also acquire system data from the system local SCADA/EMS. Following a wide area disturbance, the system operator uses power system data provided

by the SCADA/EMS to develop a PSR plan. The system operator can use the PSR procedure and power system analysis programs as aid to develop restoration plans.


Cooperative restoration : In this technique, a computer program installed at the EMS will propose a PSR plan after the occurrence of the blackout. The system operator is responsible for the implementation of PSR plan. The PSR systems

thata p p l y t h i s t e c h n i q u e

als o f r o m

u s e

p o w e

r s y s t e m

d a t a

o b t a i n e d

l o c a l SCAD

A/EMS. When the power system is under going a wide area disturbance ,the PSR program installed in

the EMS will use the system data to develop arestoration plan. With this restoration plan

, the system operator can sendcontrolling signals

through local SCADA/EMS to circuit breakers and switches to

implement the plan.


The proposed restoration scheme is composed of several


RestorationSchemes(IRS). Each IRS is responsibl

e for the development of an islandre s to r a t i

o n pl a n w he n t he po we r s y s t e m i s re c ov e r i ng f r o m a wi de - a r e a disturbance. The number of IRSs will be defined by off-line studies and willdepend on regional load-generation balance. The division of the system intoi s l a nds i s a c o m m o n a c t i o n i n l a r g e t r

a ns m i s s i o n

ion is more efficient and desired. The parallel restoration technique iscommonly used in the restoration schemes applied to large transmission systems.This technique is also used in the proposed restoration scheme. The “all-open”switching strategy

where all circuit breakers of the system are open will be usedto create the islands. In order to restore a power system following a wide-areadisturbance, each IRS of restoration scheme will generate local


planscomposed of switching sequences of loc al circuit breakers and a forecast restoration load.Each IRS is composed of two ANNs and a switching sequence program(SSP). The first ANN of each IRS is responsible for an island restoration load forecast. The input of this ANN will be a normalized vector composed of the pre-

d i s t u r b a n c e

e a c h

nation of the final island configuration and t

he associated forecastrestoration load pick up percentage that will generate a feasible



s y s te m s

whe r e

pa r a l l e l restorat

l o a d .

T h e

s e c o n d



o f


i s

r e s p o n s i b l e

t h e determi

ANN Based Power System Restoration condition. The input of this ANN will be a normalized vector composed of theforecast island restoration load

provided by the first ANN of the respective IRS,three elements describing possible unavailabl e transmission paths(because of outages) for use in the restoration plan. The final element of each IRS is the SSP.The SSP will determine the energizing sequence of transmission paths that willlead to the final configuration chosen by the second ANN. The SSP input vector is composed of the final restoration island configuration generated by the secondANN of the IRS and an energizing sequence database. The energizing sequencedatabase of each IRS is composed of transmission path sequences connectingisland generators to island loads. The following figure illustrates the functional block diagram of an IRS.


ANN Based Power System Restoration The proposed restoration scheme will present a restoration plan to the EMSoperator following the occurrence of a wide area disturbance. The power systemoperator must apply the all open switch strategy through the EMS/SCADA or through regional control centers before the plan is implemented. The restoration plan provided by the proposed scheme will be composed of energizing sequencesand restoration load percentage pick up values for all islands. As the final step of the total restoration, the closing of the tie-lines will be the responsibility of thesystem operator. The tie-lines

should be closed when all the islands are restoredand are in steady state.

RESTORATION CONSTRAINTS In order to generate a feasible restoration plan to be used as a training pattern by the IRSs, certain

operational constraints must be considered.The various constraints considered are:

Thermal limits of transmission lines

Stability limits

Number of lines used in the restoration plan

Allowable over and under voltage

Recognition of locked out circuit breakersThe thermal rating of the normally des igned transmission lines depends mainly on the voltage level at which they operate, the line length and reactance.Power system stability is a subject of major concern in PSR. The restoredsystem generated by the PSR scheme has to be able to allow for sufficiently largel o a d a n d g e n e r a t i o n v a r i a t i o n s w i t h u t e n c o u n t e r i n g u n d e s i r a b l e a n d unco ntrollable behavior that could lead to instability and a recurrence of thesystem blackout. In order to check the stability of the restored power

system, transient stability studies must be conducted.The number of transmission lines used in the restoration plan also needssome consideration. The number of transmission lines used in the PSR plan is


ANN Based Power System Restoration very important. Transmissions play a critical role in reactive power balance andover voltage control during the restoration implementation. In order to maintain anormal voltage profile and avoid the generation of excessive reactive power, it isadvisable to energize the smallest possible number of transmission lines in a proper sequence during the restoration process.Circuit breakers have the capability to go through a certain number of open-close sequences when automatic enclosing is enabled. Once the availablenumber of open-close sequences is exhausted, the circuit breaker goes into a lock- out state. Permanent non recoverable equipment faults may also lead to circuit breaker lock- outs. A locked out circuit breaker will normally require manualresetting before it can be made available for normal operations. Clearly, thelocked-out circuit breakers cannot be used for automatic restoration and should betaken into account by the PSR scheme.


PSR has become a field of growing interest. Several techniques based on artificial intelligence have been proposed to improve power system restoration. These techniques propose the use of the computer as an operator aid instead of the use of predefined operating procedures for restoration. The stressful condition following a blackout and the pressure for achieving a restoration plan in minimum time can lead to mis judgment by system operator. This paper proposes the use of ANN for service restoration plan, since it has generalization capability and high processing speed. The large number of possible faulty conditions and the need to provide a restoration plan in minimum time are arg uments in favor of this technique.





FEEDBACK BY EXAMINERS A. Comments From Seminar Guide B. Comments From External Examiner 19 17


A. Comments From Seminar Guide

B. Comments From External Examiner