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Construction Materials and Testing 2017

FINAL EXPERIMENT
TITLE: “The effect of metal screens to the compressive strength of concrete mixture”
Objectives:

This study generally aims to analyze the structural performance of compressive strength and
concrete in terms of compressive strength.
.
1. To determine the compressive strength of concrete by adding metal screens as
medium by means of compressive strength test at 7, 14, and 28 curing days.
2. To determine the compressive strength performance of concrete cylinder compared
to concrete cylinder with metal screens in terms of compressive strength.
3. To determine the additives that would give the highest compressive strength or obtain
the highest compressive strength
Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs):
The students shall be able to:
 Articulate concrete mix design considerations that reflect to the field.
 Understand all principles governs under construction materials and testing especially in
the field of concrete
 Have detailed knowledge about compressive strength in concrete.
 Add material together to form a new whole production of unique concrete.
 Apply all standards set by ASTM.
 Produce a sample product using compressive strength as additives to concrete.
Discussion:
Chapter One:

The Problem and its Background

Introduction:

Concrete has unlimited opportunities for innovative applications, design and construction
techniques. Its great versatility and relative economy in filling wide range of needs has made it
is very competitive building material. With the advancement of technology and increased field of
applications of concrete, the strength workability, durability and other characters of the ordinary
concrete need modifications to make it more suitable for a by situations.

In the light of these, it has become essential to develop beneficial uses of metal screen
to solve the problems associated with their disposal. Previous studies have shown that steel
fiber reinforced shotcrete, at fiber addition rates now commonly used, can provide equivalent or
even superior performance than that provided by standard wire mesh reinforcement, when
properties such as residual load-carrying capacity after first crack are compared.

Adding a wire mesh to ordinary reinforcement increases significantly the punching


resistance at column stub. Moreover, as the loaded area size increases both ductility and
stiffness increases and the bridging effect due to the difference in the reinforcement ratio in

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Construction Materials and Testing 2017
orthogonal directions was clearly noticed. More research was needed to identify the volume
fraction ratio at which the mode of failure alter from flexure to punching. Test results indicate that
the strength, failure mode, crack initiation, and propagation, and load–deflection behavior are
not greatly influenced by the type of secondary reinforcement in the composite slab.

Statement of the Problem:

In this study, a concrete cylinder with metal screen as concrete medium is tested for
its mechanical properties in terms of compressive strength. Will the added metal screen
contribute to improve the compressive strength of the concrete cylinder? Is it possible for the
metal screen for additional compressive strength to concrete?

The following questions would be answered according from the metal screen data and results
of the tests;

 What is the compressive strength of concrete cylinder with metal screen by adding screen
on 50% part of the concrete specimen and on the 25% and 75% part of another concrete
cylinder in 7, 14 and 28 curing days?

 What is the comparative compressive strength of pure concrete cylinder compared to


concrete cylinder with metal screen?

 What adding (50% for a single specimen, 25% and 75% in one specimen) would give a
significant increase in the compressive strength?

 What adding of metal screen attains the highest compressive strength?

Significance of the Study:

This study will give a highest compressive strength of concrete:

 Economy – it will benefit the economy, by using screen metal as a additives to concrete
as addition to its compressive strength without affecting the quality of the concrete.

 Profession – this study will help civil engineering profession advancement by utilizing new
formed products to be added to other research’s

 Research – to acquire broader and additional knowledge in the field of engineering


materials and reinforced concrete design as a part of BS Civil Engineering curriculum.

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Construction Materials and Testing 2017
 Society – it will serve as an informative study that will help in continuing search for new
products in engineering materials and eventually in the field of civil engineering

Conceptual Framework:

INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT


Portland Cement Mixing
Test results of
Sand Molding the cylindrical
Gravel Curing concrete of their
Water Testing compressive
Metal screens strength in 7, 14
and 28 days

Scope and Delimitation

This study would focus on the compressive strength of concrete cylinder having a metal
screen as medium, there will be three different type of procedures in this study. The test would
be done using Universal Testing Machine (UTM). The metal screen as median will be place on
the 50% of one concrete sample, on the other hand the another concrete sample we will pour
25% of cement and place a metal screen as a medium and then pour another cement to reach
the 75% then place another metal screen then pour cement make it 100%.

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Construction Materials and Testing 2017
Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

Literature and Studies

Fiber reinforcement: For additional insurance against cracking, some countertop


fabricators add tiny synthetic fibers to the countertop mix. These fibers, alone, will not provide
structural reinforcement for concrete countertops, but they are effective at controlling shrinkage
cracking. Contractors usually use them in combination with steel rebar or wire mesh.

(Reinforcing Materials for Concrete Countertops

https://www.concretenetwork.com/products-concrete-countertops/reinforcement.html)

Since the early 1970s, steel fiber reinforced shotcrete has been increasingly used for
such applications as support in tunnels, mines, excavations, and rock slopes. Previous studies
have shown that steel fiber reinforced shotcrete, at fiber addition rates now commonly used,
can provide equivalent or even superior performance than that provided by standard wire
mesh reinforcement, when properties such as residual load-carrying capacity after first crack
are compared. This paper presents the results of recent studies comparing the performance of
common wire mesh reinforced shotcretes with that of shotcretes reinforced with high-volume
concentrations of a collated fibrillated polypropylene (CFP) fiber. The tests were conducted
using wet-mix shotcrete applied to large panels, which were anchored and loaded to
destruction with continuous monitoring of the crack formation and load vs. deflection
characteristics of the panels. The panels were tested in the same manner as tests previously
conducted on plain, wire mesh, and steel fiber reinforced shotcretes. Thus, the performance
characteristics of the various shotcrete mixtures can be compared. It is shown that at certain
addition rates of CFP fiber, similar residual load-carrying capacity after first crack can be
obtained compared with shotcrete reinforced with wire mesh and shotcrete reinforced with
steel fiber. Testing of standard flexural test beams to ASTM C1018 provided further verification
of the equivalence of performance between shotcretes with these levels of addition of steel
and CFP fiber with respect to parameters such as toughness index. The incorporation of high-
volume concentrations of CFP fiber in wet-mix shotcrete presents opportunities for a wide
range of applications where a tough, ductile, corrosion-resistant material is required.

(POLYPROPYLENE FIBER, STEEL FIBER, AND WIRE MESH REINFORCED SHOTCRETES

https://trid.trb.org/view.aspx?id=308745)

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Experimental tests conducted on 27 square cementitious slabs of 490 × 490 mm simply
supported on four edges and subjected to patch load are presented. The slabs had a clear
span of 400 × 400 mm and provided with a 445 × 445 mm closed frame of 8 mm diameter
steel bar to hold the reinforcement in place and to act as a line support. The test variables
were the wire mesh volume fraction: four expanded and two square types; slab thickness: 40,
45, 50 and 60 mm; and the patch load pattern: square and rectangular. The test results
showed that as the volume fraction increased the punching strength of the slabs was also
increased. Adding a wire mesh to ordinary reinforcement increases significantly the punching
resistance at column stub. Moreover, as the loaded area size increases both ductility and
stiffness increases and the bridging effect due to the difference in the reinforcement ratio in
orthogonal directions was clearly noticed. More research was needed to identify the volume
fraction ratio at which the mode of failure alter from flexure to punching.

(Experimental investigation of ultimate capacity of wired mesh-reinforced cementitious slabs

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0950061810002813)

The research presented in this paper was performed to evaluate and compare the
influence of four types of secondary reinforcement for temperature and shrinkage on the
strength and behavior of composite slabs with a variety of loading conditions and span
configurations. The four types of secondary reinforcement were welded wire fabric (WWF), and
three types of fibers. The tests included three-span composite slabs, with the steel deck
continuous over the three spans but with no negative moment reinforcement used, subjected
to a uniformly distributed load, and simple span slabs subjected to point and line loads. In
conjunction with the slab tests, the flexural toughness and first-crack strength of the fiber-
reinforced concrete mixes were determined using the ASTM C1018 standard test. The
performance of the specimens reinforced with fibers is compared with that of the specimens
reinforced with WWF. Test results indicate that the strength, failure mode, crack initiation, and
propagation, and load–deflection behavior are not greatly influenced by the type of secondary
reinforcement in the composite slab.

(Strength and Performance of Fiber-Reinforced Concrete Composite Slabs

http://ascelibrary.org/doi/abs/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(2004)130:3(520))

In this work we discuss the finite element model using the embedded discontinuity of
the strain and displacement field, for dealing with a problem of localized failure in
heterogeneous materials by using a structured finite element mesh. On the chosen 1D model
problem we develop all the pertinent details of such a finite element approximation. We
demonstrate the presented model capabilities for representing not only failure states typical of
a slender structure, with crack-induced failure in an elastic structure, but also the failure state

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Construction Materials and Testing 2017
of a massive structure, with combined diffuse (process zone) and localized cracking. A robust
operator split solution procedure is developed for the present model taking into account the
subtle difference between the types of discontinuities, where the strain discontinuity iteration is
handled within global loop for computing the nodal displacement, while the displacement
discontinuity iteration is carried out within a local, element-wise computation, carried out in
parallel with the Gauss-point computations of the plastic strains and hardening variables. The
robust performance of the proposed solution procedure is illustrated by a couple of numerical
examples. Concluding remarks are stated regarding the class of problems where embedded
discontinuity finite element method (ED-FEM) can be used as a favorite choice with respect to
extended FEM (X-FEM).

(Embedded discontinuity finite element method for modeling of localized failure in heterogeneous materials with structured
mesh: an alternative to extended finite element method

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00466-006-0091-4?LI=true)

The use of geosynthetic erosion and sediment materials continues to expand at a rapid
pace. From their early beginnings in the late 1950s, geosynthetic materials today are the
backbone of the erosion and sediment control industry. Geosynthetic components are an
integral part of erosion and sediment materials ranging from temporary products such as
hydraulic mulch geofibers, plastic erosion control meshes and nettings, erosion control
blankets and silt fences to high performance turf reinforcement mats, geocellular confinement
systems, erosion control geotextiles and fabric formed revetments. This paper provides a brief
overview of these materials and concepts.

(The role of geosynthetics in erosion and sediment control: An overview

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0266114492900315)

The methods and materials for corrosion control of steel-reinforced concrete are
reviewed. The methods are steel surface treatment, the use of admixtures in concrete, surface
coating on concrete, and cathodic protection.

(Corrosion control of steel-reinforced concrete

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1361/105994900770345737)

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Definition of Terms:

 Aggregate - is a broad category of coarse particulate material used in construction,


including sand, gravel, crushed stone, slag, recycled concrete and geosynthetic
aggregates.
 Arrowroot - is comprised of starches extracted from various tropical tubers, such as the
arrowroot plant and cassava.
 Coarse Aggregate - any particles greater than .187 inch (4.75mm) but generally range
between 3.8 and 1.5 inches (i)5mm to 37.5 in diameter.
 Concrete – is a mixture of paste and aggregates, or rocks. The paste, composed of
portland cement and water, coats the surface of the fine (small) and coarse (larger)
aggregates.
 Curing – is the process in which the concrete is protected from loss of moisture and kept
within a reasonable temperature range. The period in which the concrete mixed is allowed
to reach design strength. The usual curing period is 7, 14, 28 day period.
 Fine Aggregate – is a natural sand but in some area crushing stone or gravel
manufacturing it.
 Natural Aggregates – consist of crushed stone and sand and gravel, are among the
most abundant natural re- sources and a major basic raw material used by construction
 Portland cement – is the most common type of cement - 'basic cement', if you like. In
particular, ordinary Portland cement is the normal, grey, cement with which most people
are familiar.
 Slump – a measure of consistency of concrete.
 Specific Gravity – ratio of mass (or the weight in air 0 of a unit volume of materials to the
mass of the same volume of water.
 Starch - a white, tasteless, solid carbohydrate, (C 6 H 1 0 O 5) n, occurring in the form of
minute granules in the seeds, tubers, and other parts of plants, and forming an important
constituent of rice, corn, wheat, beans, potatoes, and many other vegetable foods.
 Sorptivity- defined it as a measure of the capacity of the medium to absorb or desorb
liquid by capillarity.
 Universal testing machine (UTM) -also known as a universal tester, materials testing
machine or materials test frame, is used to test the tensile strength and compressive
strength of materials.
 Water Cement Ratio – is the ratio of the weight of water to the weight of cement used
in a concrete mix

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Chapter Three:

Methodology

In this chapter the experimental design, materials and methods, treatment of data, and
the decision criteria were discussed. The main objective is to present the methodology and
research design

Technical/Experimental

The experimental research is concerned primarily on determining the structural


performance (compressive strength) of the metal screen as additives of cement in concrete
mixture. Different amount of metal screen would be prepared for the concrete cylinder.

Materials and Methods

This study would be using the experimental procedure. All concrete cylinders should be
set at a time. Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) will be used in the concrete mixture. The
aggregates used were crushed coarse aggregates and the sand. The main source of the Metal
screen came from China.

Material Sampling

Sand (g) Gravel (g) Water (g)


Cement Metal Screen
100% 0% 1649.84 4950.25 297

100% 50% 1649.84 4950.25 297

100% 25 & 75% 1649.84 4950.25 297

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Table A. Sizes of Cylinders

Mix Length (inch) Diameter (inch)

1 8 4

2 8 4

3 8 4

The concrete proportion will use in this study is mixture class A with 1:2:4 with water-
cement ratio 0.5.

Procedure:

1. Prepare the sand, gravel, and cement.


2. Compute the water, sand, gravel, and cement to be added to obtain optimum moisture
content for all the concrete sample.
3. Mix thoroughly

Mixing and Curing:

Step 1: After the mixing, pour the cement in the cylinder to mold. Set this as a standard
concrete to compare.

Step 2: Repeat the step 1 three times for curing in 7 days, 14days, and 28 days.

Step 3: Redo the step 1 and step 2. In middle, the halves of the cylinder is the metal
screen.

Step 4: Repeat the step 1 and step 2 then put the metal screen in the part of 25%, 50%
and 75% of the cylinder.

Step 5: Use tamping rod to elude voids.

Step 6: After one day, remove the concrete mixture from the molder.

Step 7: Sprinkle water to the concrete every day.

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Step 8: Conduct test every 7, 14, and 28 days of curing.

Step 9: Calibrate the UTM for set up.

Step 10: Set up the UTM in compression and put the specimen on the machine and
start to test.

Step 11: Record the resulting data of all the tests.

Specimens:

A total of 27 specimens at dimension of 4x8 inches, 9 of these are controlled set-up, were
prepared for the laboratory testing and investigation. The rest of the specimens will be use to
other trials.

Compressive Strength

The Compressive Strength of the concrete mixture specimen was determined using the
Universal Testing Machine (UTM). The compressive strength is measured maximum resistance
to axial loading express as force per unit of cross sectional area in pounds per square inch (psi)

The maximum compressive strength is given by equation.

𝑃
𝐶𝐿𝐶 =
𝐴
Where:
Clc = Compressive stress
P= load in pounds
A= area in sq.inch

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