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VALIDATION GUIDE

2019

Advance Design

Validation Guide

Version: 2019 Tests passed on: 24 July 2019 Number of tests: 610

Advance Design Validation Guide Version: 2019 Tests passed on: 24 July 2019 Number of tests: 610
INTRODUCTION Each year, before its official release, each version of GRAITEC software - Advance Design

INTRODUCTION

Each year, before its official release, each version of GRAITEC software - Advance Design included - undergoes a series of validation tests. This complex validation process is carried out along with and in addition to manual testing and beta testing, in order to attain the "operational version" status. Its final outcome is the present guide, which contains a thorough description of the automatic tests, highlighting both the theoretical background and the results that our validation experts have obtained by using the current software release.

Such tests are generally made of a reference (independent of the specific software version tested), a transformation (a calculation or a data-processing scenario), a result (given by the specific software version tested) and a difference, usually measured in percentage as a drift from a specific set of reference values. Depending on the cases, the used reference can be a theoretical calculation performed manually, a sample taken from the technical literature, or the result of a previous version considered as accurate by experience.

Starting with version 2012, Graitec Advance has made significant steps ahead in terms of quality management by extending the scope and automating the testing process. While in previous versions the tests had always been centered on the calculation results, which were compared to a reference set, in the 2012 version, tests were extended to user interface behavior, import/export procedures, etc. The capacity to pass the tests automatically is another major improvement. The current tests have obviously been passed on the “operational version”, but they are actually passed on a daily basis during the development process as well. This ensures the improvement of the daily quality by solving potential issues immediately after they have been introduced in the code.

In the field of structural analysis and design, software users must always keep in mind that the results depend, to a great extent, on the modeling (especially when dealing with finite elements) and on the settings of the numerous assumptions and options available in the software. A software package cannot entirely replace engineersexperience and analysis. Despite all the efforts we have made in terms of quality management, we cannot guaranty the correct behavior and the validity of the results issued by Advance Design in any given situation. In this validation guide, we are providing a vast set of concrete test cases showing the behavior of Advance Design in various areas and various conditions. The tests cover a wide field of expertise: modeling, climatic load generation according to Eurocode 1, combinations management, meshing, finite element calculation, reinforced concrete design according to Eurocode 2, steel member design according to Eurocode 3, steel connection design according to Eurocode 3, timber member design according to Eurocode 5, seismic analysis according to Eurocode 8, report generation, import / export procedures and user interface behavior. We hope that this guide will highly contribute to the knowledge and the confidence you keep placing in Advance Design.

contribute to the knowledge and the confidence you keep placing in Advance Design. Ionel DRAGU Graitec

Ionel DRAGU Graitec Innovation CTO

ADVANCE VALIDATION GUIDE

ADVANCE VALIDATION GUIDE

Table of Contents

1 FINITE ELEMENT METHOD

21

1.1 Thin lozenge-shaped plate fixed on one side (alpha = 15 °) (01-0008SDLSB_FEM)

22

1.2 Thin lozenge-shaped plate fixed on one side (alpha = 30 °) (01-0009SDLSB_FEM)

25

1.3 Circular plate under

uniform load (01-0003SSLSB_FEM)

28

1.4 Vibration mode of a thin piping elbow in plane (case 2) (01-0012SDLLB_FEM)

31

1.5 Vibration mode of a thin piping elbow in plane (case 3) (01-0013SDLLB_FEM)

34

1.6 Thin lozenge-shaped plate fixed on one side (alpha = 0 °) (01-0007SDLSB_FEM)

37

1.7 Vibration mode of a thin piping elbow in plane (case 1) (01-0011SDLLB_FEM)

40

1.8 System of two bars with three hinges (01-0002SSLLB_FEM)

43

1.9 Thin circular ring fixed in two points (01-0006SDLLB_FEM)

46

1.10 Thin lozenge-shaped plate fixed on one side (alpha = 45 °) (01-0010SDLSB_FEM)

50

1.11 Double fixed beam (01-0016SDLLB_FEM)

53

1.12 Short beam on simple supports (on the neutral axis) (01-0017SDLLB_FEM)

57

1.13 Rectangular thin plate simply supported on its perimeter (01-0020SDLSB_FEM)

61

1.14 Cantilever beam in Eulerian buckling (01-0021SFLLB_FEM)

64

1.15 Double fixed beam with a spring at mid span (01-0015SSLLB_FEM)

66

1.16 Thin square plate fixed on one side (01-0019SDLSB_FEM)

69

1.17 Bending effects of a symmetrical portal frame (01-0023SDLLB_FEM)

73

1.18 Slender beam on two fixed supports (01-0024SSLLB_FEM)

76

1.19 Slender

beam

on

three supports (01-0025SSLLB_FEM)

82

1.20 Thin circular ring hanged on an elastic element (01-0014SDLLB_FEM)

86

1.21 Short beam on simple supports (eccentric) (01-0018SDLLB_FEM)

89

1.22 Annular thin plate fixed on a hub (repetitive circular structure) (01-0022SDLSB_FEM)

94

1.23 Fixed thin arc in out of plane bending (01-0028SSLLB_FEM)

97

1.24 Double hinged thin arc in planar bending (01-0029SSLLB_FEM)

99

1.25 Beam on elastic soil, free ends (01-0032SSLLB_FEM)

102

1.26 EDF Pylon (01-0033SFLLA_FEM)

106

1.27 Fixed thin arc in planar bending (01-0027SSLLB_FEM)

110

1.28 Truss with hinged bars under a punctual load (01-0031SSLLB_FEM)

113

1.29 Simply supported square plate (01-0036SSLSB_FEM)

116

1.30 Caisson beam in torsion (01-0037SSLSB_FEM)

119

1.31 Thin cylinder under a uniform radial pressure (01-0038SSLSB_FEM)

122

1.32 Bimetallic: Fixed beams connected to a stiff element (01-0026SSLLB_FEM)

124

1.33 Portal frame with lateral connections (01-0030SSLLB_FEM)

127

1.34 Beam on elastic soil, hinged ends (01-0034SSLLB_FEM)

131

1.35 Beam on two supports considering the shear force (01-0041SSLLB_FEM)

135

1.36

Thin cylinder under a uniform axial load (01-0042SSLSB_FEM)

138

1.37 Torus with uniform internal pressure (01-0045SSLSB_FEM)

141

1.38 Spherical shell under internal pressure (01-0046SSLSB_FEM)

144

1.39 Stiffen membrane (01-0040SSLSB_FEM)

147

1.40 Thin cylinder under its self weight (01-0044SSLSB_MEF)

150

1.41 Spherical shell with holes (01-0049SSLSB_FEM)

152

1.42 Spherical dome under a uniform external pressure (01-0050SSLSB_FEM)

155

1.43 Simply supported square plate under a uniform load (01-0051SSLSB_FEM)

158

1.44 Square plate under planar stresses (01-0039SSLSB_FEM)

160

1.45 Thin cylinder under a hydrostatic pressure (01-0043SSLSB_FEM)

163

1.46 Pinch cylindrical shell (01-0048SSLSB_FEM)

166

1.47 Simply supported rectangular plate loaded with punctual force and moments (01-0054SSLSB_FEM)

168

1.48 Shear plate perpendicular to the medium surface (01-0055SSLSB_FEM)

170

1.49 A plate (0.01333 m thick), fixed on its perimeter, loaded with a uniform pressure (01-0058SSLSB_FEM)172

1.50 A plate (0.02 m thick), fixed on its perimeter, loaded with a uniform pressure (01-0059SSLSB_FEM)

174

1.51 Simply supported rectangular plate under a uniform load (01-0053SSLSB_FEM)

176

1.52 A plate (0.01 m thick), fixed on its perimeter, loaded with a uniform pressure (01-0057SSLSB_FEM)

178

1.53 A plate (0.1 m thick), fixed on its perimeter, loaded with a uniform pressure (01-0061SSLSB_FEM)

180

1.54 A plate (0.01 m thick), fixed on its perimeter, loaded with a punctual force (01-0062SSLSB_FEM)

182

1.55 A plate (0.01333 m thick), fixed on its perimeter, loaded with a punctual force (01-0063SSLSB_FEM)

185

1.56 Simply supported rectangular plate under a uniform load (01-0052SSLSB_FEM)

188

1.57 Triangulated system with hinged bars (01-0056SSLLB_FEM)

190

1.58 A plate (0.05 m thick), fixed on its perimeter, loaded with a uniform pressure (01-0060SSLSB_FEM)

193

1.59 A plate (0.1 m thick), fixed on its perimeter, loaded with a punctual force (01-0066SSLSB_FEM)

195

1.60 Vibration mode of a thin piping elbow in space (case 1) (01-0067SDLLB_FEM)

197

1.61 Reactions on supports and bending moments on a 2D portal frame (Rafters) (01-0077SSLPB_FEM)

200

1.62 Reactions on supports and bending moments on a 2D portal frame (Columns) (01-0078SSLPB_FEM) . 202

1.63 A plate (0.05 m thick), fixed on its perimeter, loaded with a punctual force (01-0065SSLSB_FEM)

204

1.64 Vibration mode of a thin piping elbow in space (case 3) (01-0069SDLLB_FEM)

206

1.65 Slender beam of variable rectangular section with fixed-free ends (ß=5) (01-0085SDLLB_FEM)

209

1.66 Slender beam of variable rectangular section (fixed-fixed) (01-0086SDLLB_FEM)

214

1.67 Plane portal frame with hinged supports (01-0089SSLLB_FEM)

217

1.68 A plate (0.02 m thick), fixed on its perimeter, loaded with a punctual force (01-0064SSLSB_FEM)

219

1.69 Vibration mode of a thin piping elbow in space (case 2) (01-0068SDLLB_FEM)

222

1.70 Short beam on two hinged supports (01-0084SSLLB_FEM)

225

1.71 A 3D bar structure with elastic support (01-0094SSLLB_FEM)

227

1.72 Fixed/free slender beam with centered mass (01-0095SDLLB_FEM)

234

1.73 Simple supported beam in free vibration (01-0098SDLLB_FEM)

239

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1.74 Membrane with hot point (01-0099HSLSB_FEM)

242

1.75 Cantilever beam in Eulerian buckling with thermal load (01-0092HFLLB_FEM)

245

1.76 Double cross with hinged ends (01-0097SDLLB_FEM)

247

1.77 Beam on 3 supports with T/C (k -> infinite) (01-0101SSNLB_FEM)

251

1.78 Beam on 3 supports with T/C (k = -10000 N/m) (01-0102SSNLB_FEM)

254

1.79 Linear system of truss beams (01-0103SSLLB_FEM)

257

1.80 Double fixed beam in Eulerian buckling with a thermal load (01-0091HFLLB_FEM)

260

1.81 Fixed/free slender beam with eccentric mass or inertia (01-0096SDLLB_FEM)

263

1.82 Beam on 3 supports with T/C (k = 0) (01-0100SSNLB_FEM)

267

1.83 BAEL 91 (concrete design) - France: Linear element in combined bending/tension - without compressed

reinforcements - Partially tensioned section (02-0158SSLLB_B91)

 

270

1.84

BAEL

91

(concrete

design)

-

France:

Linear

element

 

in

simple

bending

-

without

compressed

reinforcement (02-0162SSLLB_B91)

 

275

1.85

BAEL

91

(concrete

design)

-

France:

Design

of

a

concrete

floor

with

an

opening

(03-

0208SSLLG_BAEL91)

 

279

1.86 PS92 - France: Study of a mast subjected to an earthquake (02-0112SMLLB_P92)

 

287

1.87 CM66 (steel design) - France: Design of a 2D portal frame (03-0207SSLLG_CM66)

292

1.88 Non linear system of truss beams (01-0104SSNLB_FEM)

 

299

1.89 CM66 (steel design) - France: Design of a Steel Structure (03-0206SSLLG_CM66)

 

303

1.90 Cantilever rectangular plate (01-0001SSLSB_FEM)

 

312

1.91 Tied (sub-tensioned) beam (01-0005SSLLB_FEM)

315

1.92 Slender beam with variable section (fixed-free) (01-0004SDLLB_FEM)

 

320

1.93 Verifying the internal forces results for a simple supported steel beam

323

1.94 Verifying forces on a linear elastic support which is defined in a user workplane (TTAD #11929)

324

1.95 Calculating torsors using different mesh sizes for a concrete wall subjected to a horizontal force (TTAD

#13175)

324

1.96

Verifying the display of the forces results on planar supports (TTAD #11728)

324

1.97

Verifying a simply supported concrete slab subjected to temperature variation between top and bottom

fibers

324

1.98

Verifying tension/compression supports on nonlinear analysis (TTAD #11518)

324

1.99

Verifying tension/compression supports on nonlinear analysis (TTAD #11518)

325

1.100

Verifying the main axes results on a planar element (TTAD #11725)

325

1.101

Generating a report with torsors per level (TTAD #11421)

325

1.102

Verifying nonlinear analysis results for frames with semi-rigid joints and rigid joints (TTAD #11495)

325

1.103

Verifying results on punctual supports (TTAD #11489)

325

1.104

Verifying diagrams after changing the view from standard (top, left,

)

to user view (TTAD #11854)

326

1.105

Generating planar efforts before and after selecting a saved view (TTAD #11849)

326

1.106

Verifying stresses in beam with "extend into wall" property (TTAD #11680)

326

1.107

Verifying forces for triangular meshing on planar element (TTAD #11723)

 

326

1.108

Verifying the displacement results on linear elements for vertical seism (TTAD #11756)

326

1.109

Verifying constraints for triangular mesh on planar elements (TTAD #11447)

327

1.110 EC8 / NF EN 1998-1 - France: Verifying the level mass center (TTAD #11573, TTAD #12315)

327

1.111 Verifying Sxx results on beams (TTAD #11599)

327

1.112 Verifying forces results on concrete linear elements (TTAD #11647)

327

1.113 Generating results for Torsors NZ/Group (TTAD #11633)

328

1.114 Verifying diagrams for Mf Torsors on divided walls (TTAD #11557)

328

1.115 Correct use of symetric steel cross-sections (eg. IPE300S)

328

1.116 Verifying torsors on a single story coupled walls subjected to horizontal forces

328

1.117 Verifying displacements of a prestressed cable structure with results presented in Tibert, 1999

329

1.118 Temperature load: SD frame with elements under tempertature gradient, applied on separate systems329

1.119 Checks the bending moments in the central node of a steel frame with two beams having a rotational

330

1.120 FEM Results - United Kingdom: Simply supported laterally restrained (from P364 Open Sections

stiffness of 42590 kN/m

Example 2)

331

1.121

Verifying results of a steel beam subjected to dynamic temporal loadings (TTAD #14586)

333

2 CAD, RENDERING AND VISUALIZATION

337

338

2.2 Verifying the dimensions and position of annotations on selection when new analysis is made (TTAD

2.1 Verifying the annotation of a variable surface load (TTAD #13618)

#12807)

338

2.3 Verifying the annotations dimensions when new analysis is made (TTAD #14825)

338

2.4 Verifying the default view (TTAD #13248)

338

2.5 Verifying annotation on selection (TTAD #12700)

338

2.6 Verifying hide/show elements command (TTAD #11753)

339

2.7 Verifying the grid text position (TTAD #11657)

339

2.8 System stability during section cut results verification (TTAD #11752)

339

2.9 Verifying the grid text position (TTAD #11704)

339

2.10 Generating combinations (TTAD #11721)

339

2.11 Verifying the coordinates system symbol (TTAD #11611)

340

2.12 Verifying descriptive actors after creating analysis (TTAD #11589)

340

2.13 Creating a camera (TTAD #11526)

340

2.14 Verifying the snap points behavior during modeling (TTAD #11458)

340

2.15 Verifying the representation of elements with HEA cross section (TTAD #11328)

340

2.16 Creating a circle (TTAD #11525)

341

2.17 Verifying the local axes of a section cut (TTAD #11681)

341

2.18 Verifying the display of elements with compound cross sections (TTAD #11486)

341

2.19 Verifying holes in horizontal planar elements after changing the level height (TTAD #11490)

341

2.20 Modeling using the tracking snap mode (TTAD #10979)

341

2.21 Verifying the descriptive model display after post processing results in analysis mode (TTAD #11475)

342

2.22 Moving a linear element along with the support (TTAD #12110)

342

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2.23 Verifying the "ghost display on selection" function for saved views (TTAD #12054)

342

2.24 Verifying the dividing of planar elements which contain openings (TTAD #12229)

342

2.25 Verifying the display of punctual loads after changing the load case number (TTAD #11958)

342

2.26 Verifying the display of a beam with haunches (TTAD #12299)

343

2.27 Verifying the program behavior when trying to create lintel (TTAD #12062)

343

2.28 Verifying the program behavior when launching the analysis on a model with overlapped loads (TTAD

3

#11837)

343

2.29 Verifying the "ghost" display after changing the display colors (TTAD #12064)

343

2.30 Turning on/off the "ghost" rendering mode (TTAD #11999)

343

2.31 Verifying the fixed load scale function (TTAD #12183)

344

2.32 Creating base plate connections for non-vertical columns (TTAD #12170)

344

2.33 Verifying the steel connections modeling (TTAD #11698)

344

2.34 Verifying drawing of joints in y-z plan (TTAD #12453)

344

2.35 Verifying rotation for steel beam with joint (TTAD #12592)

344

2.36 Verifying the saved view of elements by cross-section (TTAD #13197)

345

2.37 Verifying the saved view of elements with annotations. (TTAD #13033)

345

2.38 Verifying the visualisation of supports with rotational or moving DoFs (TTAD #13891)

345

2.39 Verifying the annotations of a wind generated load (TTAD #13190)

345

CLIMATIC GENERATOR

347

3.1 EC1 / NF EN 1991-1-4/NA - France: Generating 2D wind loads on a 2 slope isolated roof (TTAD #14985)348

3.2 EC1 / NF EN 1991-1-4/NA - France: Generating 2D wind loads on a multiple roof portal (TTAD #15140) 348

3.3 EC1 / NF EN 1991-1-4/NA - France: Generating wind loads on a 2 horizontal slopes building one higher

348

that the other (TTAD #13320)

3.4 EC1 / NF EN 1991-1-3/NA - France: Generating 2D snow loads on a one horizontal slope portal (TTAD

#14975)

348

3.5 EC1 / NF EN 1991-1-4/NA - France: Generating wind loads on a double slope with 5 degrees (TTAD

#15307)

348

3.6 EC1 / NF EN 1991-1-4/NA - France: Generating wind loads on a 3 compound building (TTAD #12883)

349

3.7 C1 / NF EN 1991-1-4/NA - France: Generating 2D wind loads on a double slope roof with an opening

(TTAD #15328)

349

3.8 EC1 / NF EN 1991-1-3/NA - France: Generating snow loads on 2 side by side single roof compounds with

349

different height (TTAD 13159)

3.9 EC1 / NF EN 1991-1-3/NA - France: Generating snow loads on 2 side by side single roof compounds with

349

different height (TTAD 13158)

3.10 EC1 / NF EN 1991-1-3/NA - France: Generating snow loads on a 4 slopes shed with parapets. (TTAD

#14578)

349

3.11 EC1 / CSN EN 1991-1-3/NA - Czech Republic: Snow load generation on building with 2 slopes > 60

350

degrees (TTAD #14235)

3.12 EC1 / NF EN 1991-1-4/NA - France: Generating wind loads on a 2 almost horizontal slope building (TTAD

#13663)

350

3.13 EC1 / NF EN 1991-1-3/NA - France: Generating snow loads on a custom multiple slope building (TTAD

#14285)

350

3.14

EC1 / NF EN 1991-1-3/NA - France: Generating 2D snow loads on a 2 slope portal with one lateral

350

3.15 EC1 / NF EN 1991-1-4/NA - France: Generating wind loads on a 4 slopes shed with parapets (TTAD

parapet (TTAD #14530)

#14179)

350

3.16 EC1 / NF EN 1991-1-4/NA - France: Generating 2D wind loads on a 2 slope portal (TTAD #14531)

351

3.17 EC1 / NF EN 1991-1-4/NA - France: Generating Cf and Cp,net wind loads on an multibay canopy roof

(DEV2013#4.3)

3.18 EC1 / NF EN 1991-1-4/NA - France: Generating Cf and Cp,net wind loads on an isolated roof with double

slope (DEV2013#4.3)

3.19 EC1 / NF EN 1991-1-4/NA - France: Generating Cf and Cp,net wind loads on an isolated roof with one

351

351

slope (DEV2013#4.3)

351

3.20 EC1 / NF EN 1991-1-4/NA - France: Wind load generation on multibay canopies (TTAD #11668)

352

3.21 EC1 / NF EN 1991-1-3/NA - France: Generating snow loads on a 2 slope building with parapets. (TTAD

#13671)

3.22 EC1 / NF EN 1991-1-3/NA - France: Snow load generation on compound with a double-roof volume close

to a single-roof volume (TTAD #13559)

3.23 EC1 / NF EN 1991-1-4/NA - France: Wind load generation on portal with CsCd set to auto (TTAD #12823)352

352

3.25 EC1 / NF EN 1991-1-4/NA - France: Generating wind loads on a 35m high structure with CsCd min set to

0.7 and Delta to 0.15. (TTAD #11196)

3.26 EC1 / NF EN 1991-1-4/NA - France: Generating wind loads on a single-roof volume compound with

353

3.24 EC1 / NF EN 1991-1-4/NA - France: Generating wind loads on a canopy. (TTAD #13855)

352

352

parapets. (TTAD #13672)

353

3.27 EC1 / NF EN 1991-1-3/NA - France: Generating snow loads on a shed with parapets. (TTAD #12494)

353

3.28 EC1 / NF EN 1991-1-3/NA - France: Generating snow loads on a shed with gutters building. (TTAD

#13856)

353

3.29 NV2009 - France: Verifying wind on a protruding canopy. (TTAD #13880)

353

3.30 EC1 / NF EN 1991-1-3/NA - France: Generating snow loads on 2 side by side single roof compounds with

354

3.31 EC1 / NF EN 1991-1-3/NA - France: Generating snow loads on a 3 slopes 3D portal frame. (TTAD

#13169)

3.32 EC1 / NF EN 1991-1-3/NA - France: Generating snow loads on 2 side by side single roof compounds

(TTAD #13286)

3.33 EC1 / NF EN 1991-1-4/NA - France: Generating wind loads on a 2 slope building with parapets. (TTAD

#13669)

3.34 EC1 / NF EN 1991-1-4/NA - France: Generating wind loads on a 2 slope building with increased height.

354

354

354

parapets (TTAD #13992)

(TTAD #13759)

354

3.35 EC1 / CR 1-1-3/2012 - Romania: Snow load generation on a 3 compound building (TTAD #13930s)

355

3.36 EC1 / CR 1-1-4/2012 - Romania: Wind load generation on portal with CsCd set to auto (TTAD #13930w)355

3.37 EC1 / NF EN 1991-1-3/NA - France: Generating snow loads on a 2 slope building with custom pressure

values. (TTAD #14004)

3.38 EC1 / NF EN 1991-1-3/NA - France: Generating snow loads on a 2 slope building with gutters and lateral

parapets (TTAD #14005)

3.39 NV2009 - France: Generating wind loads on a 2 slopes 3D portal frame at 15m height (TTAD #12604) . 355

355

355

3.40 EC1 / NF EN 1991-1-4/NA - France: Verifying the geometry of wind loads on an irregular shed (TTAD

355

#12233)

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3.41 EC1 / NF EN 1991-1-3/NA - France: Generating snow loads on a 3 slopes 3D portal frame with parapets

(TTAD #11111)

3.42 EC1 / NF EN 1991-1-3/NA - France: Generating snow loads on a 4 slopes shed with gutters (TTAD

#12528)

3.43 EC1 / NF EN 1991-1-3/NA - France: Generating snow loads on a 4 slopes with gutters building (TTAD

#12716)

3.44 EC1 / NF EN 1991-1-4/NA - France: Generating wind loads on a square based lattice structure with

356

3.45 EC1 / BS EN 1991-1-4 - United Kingdom: Generating wind loads on a square based structure (TTAD

#12608)

3.46 EC1 / NF EN 1991-1-3/NA - France: Generating snow loads on a 4 slopes shed with gutters (TTAD

#12528)

3.47 EC1 / NF EN 1991-1-3/NA - France: Generating snow loads on 2 closed building with gutters. (TTAD

#12808)

3.48 EC1 / NF EN 1991-1-3/NA - France: Generating snow loads on two side by side buildings with gutters

(TTAD #12806)

3.49 EC1 / NF EN 1991-1-3/NA - France: Generating snow loads on 2 closed building with gutters. (TTAD

#12835)

3.50 EC1 / NF EN 1991-1-3/NA - France: Generating snow loads on a 4 slopes with gutters building. (TTAD

#12719)

3.51 EC1 / NF EN 1991-1-3/NA - France: Generating snow loads on 2 closed building with gutters. (TTAD

358

3.52 EC1 / NF EN 1991-1-3/NA - France: Generating snow loads on a 2 slope building with gutters and

358

3.53 EC1 / NF EN 1991-1-4/NA - France: Wind load generation on a high building with double slope roof using

358

3.54 EC1 / NF EN 1991-1-4/NA - France: Wind load generation on a high building with a horizontal roof using

358

3.55 EC1 / BS EN 1991-1-4 - United Kingdom: Wind load generation on a high building with horizontal roof

359

3.56 EC1 / NF EN 1991-1-4/NA - France: Generating wind loads on a 3D portal frame with one slope roof (VT :

3.2 - Wind - Example B)

3.57 EC1 / NF EN 1991-1-4/NA - France: Wind loads on a triangular based lattice structure with compound

359

359

#12841)

357

357

357

357

357

356

356

356

356

compound profiles and automatic calculation of "n" (TTAD #12744)

parapets. (TTAD #12878)

different parameters defined per directions (DEV2013#4.2)

different CsCd values for each direction (DEV2013#4.4)

(DEV2013#4.1) (TTAD #12608)

profiles and user defined "n" (TTAD #12276)

3.58 EC1 / NF EN 1991-1-4/NA - France: Generating wind loads on a 2 slopes 3D portal frame (VT : 3.1 - Wind

359

- Example A)

3.59 EC1 / NF EN 1991-1-4/NA - France: Generating wind loads on a triangular based lattice structure with

compound profiles and automatic calculation of "n" (TTAD #12276)

359

3.60 NV2009 - France: Verifying wind and snow reports for a protruding roof (TTAD #11318)

360

3.61 EC1 / NF EN 1991-1-4/NA - France: Verifying the wind loads generated on a building with protruding roof

(TTAD #12071, #12278)

3.62 EC1 / NF EN 1991-1-3/NA - France: Generating snow loads on a 2 slopes 3D portal frame (VT : 3.4 -

360

Snow - Example A)

3.63 EC1 / NF EN 1991-1-4/NA - France: Generating wind loads on a 2 slopes 3D portal frame (VT : 3.3 - Wind

- Example C)

3.64 EC1 / CR 1-1-3/2012 - Romania: Generating snow loads on a 2 slopes 3D portal frame (TTAD #11570)360

3.65 EC1 / SR EN 1991-1-4/NB - Romania: Generating the description of climatic loads report (TTAD #11688)361

3.66 EC1 / CR 1-1-4/2012 - Romania: Generating wind loads on a 2 slopes 3D portal frame (TTAD #11687) 361

360

360

3.67

EC1 / CR 1-1-3/2012 - Romania: Generating snow loads on a 2 slopes 3D portal frame (TTAD #11569)361

3.68 EC1 / NF EN 1991-1-4/NA - France: Generating wind loads on a 2 slopes 3D portal frame (TTAD #11699)361

3.69 EC1 / NF EN 1991-1-4/NA - France: Generating wind loads on a 2 slopes 3D portal frame (TTAD #11531)362

3.70 NV2009 - France: Generating wind loads and snow loads on a simple structure with planar support (TTAD

#11380)

3.71 EC1 / NF EN 1991-1-3/NA - France: Generating snow loads on a 2 slopes 3D portal frame with roof

thickness greater than the parapet height (TTAD #11943)

3.72 EC1 / DIN EN 1991-1-3/NA - Germany: Generating wind loads on a 55m high structure (DEV2012 #3.12)362

3.73 EC1 / NF EN 1991-1-3/NA - France: Verifying the snow loads generated on a monopitch frame (TTAD

#11302)

3.74 EC1 / NF EN 1991-1-4/NA - France: Generating wind loads on a 2 slopes 3D portal frame with 2 fully

opened windwalls (TTAD #11937)

3.75

#3.13)

3.76

(DEV2012 #3.18)

3.77 EC1 / CSN EN 1991-1-3/NA - Czech Republic: Generating snow loads on two close roofs with different

heights (DEV2012 #3.18)

3.78

#3.13)

3.79

(TTAD #11113)

3.80 EC1 / NF EN 1991-1-4/NA - France: Generating wind loads on duopitch multispan roofs with pitch < 5

degrees (TTAD #11852)

3.81 EC1 / DIN EN 1991-1-3/NA - Germany: Generating snow loads on two side by side roofs with different

heights (DEV2012 #3.13)

3.82 EC1 / NF EN 1991-1-3/NA - France: Snow on a 3D portal frame with horizontal roof and parapet with

height reduction (TTAD #11191)

3.83 EC1 / NF EN 1991-1-3/NA - France: Generating snow loads on a 3D portal frame with a roof which has a

small span (< 5m) and a parapet (TTAD #11735)

3.84 EC1 / EN 1991-1-4 - General: Wind load generation on simple 3D portal frame with 4 slopes roof (TTAD

#11604)

3.85 EC1 / NF EN 1991-1-4/NA - France: Generating wind loads on double slope 3D portal frame with a fully

opened face (DEV2012 #1.6)

3.86 EC1 / NF EN 1991-1-4/NA - France: Generating wind loads on a 3D portal frame with 2 slopes roof (TTAD

362

362

363

363

EC1 / DIN EN 1991-1-3/NA - Germany: Generating snow loads on duopitch multispan roofs (DEV2012

363

EC1 / CSN EN 1991-1-4/NA - Czech Republic: Generating wind loads on double slope 3D portal frame

363

363

EC1 / DIN EN 1991-1-3/NA - Germany: Generating snow loads on monopitch multispan roofs (DEV2012

364

EC1 / NF EN 1991-1-3/NA - France: Generating snow loads on a 2 slopes 3D portal frame with gutter

364

364

364

365

365

365

365

#11932)

365

3.87 EC1 / EN 1991-1-4 - General: Wind load generation on a high building with horizontal roof

366

3.88 EC1 / EN 1991-1-4 - General: Wind load generation on a building with multispan roofs

366

3.89 EC1 / EN 1991-1-4 - General: Wind load generation on a simple 3D structure with horizontal roof

366

3.90 EC1 / EN 1991-1-4 - General: Wind load generation on a signboard

366

3.91 EC1 / NF EN 1991-1-3/NA - France: Generating snow loads on a single slope with lateral parapets (TTAD

#12606)

3.92 EC1 / NF EN 1991-1-4/NA + NF EN 1991-1-3/NA - France: Generating 2D wind and snow loads on a 2

opposite slopes portal with Z down axis (TTAD #15094)

3.93 EC1 / NF EN 1991-1-4/NA + NF EN 1991-1-3/NA - France: Generating 2D wind and snow loads on a 4

367

366

slope shed next to a higher one slope compound (TTAD #15047)

367

ADVANCE VALIDATION GUIDE

ADVANCE VALIDATION GUIDE

3.94 CR1-1-3/2012 - Romania: Snow loads values generated on a symetrical duo-pitch roof

367

3.95 CR1-1-4/2012 - Romania - The wind load position for cannopy roofs, one slope (TTAD #16230)

367

3.96 CR1-1-3/2012 - Romania - Snow accumulation on multiple roofs

367

3.97 CR1-1-4/2012 - Romania - Wind on signboards

368

3.98 NTC 2008: Wind and snow load generation on a one slope compound next to a higher single slope

compound (DEV2015#6) (TTAD #15425)

368

3.99 CR1-1-3/2012 - Romania - Snow with adjacent roof, big slope

368

3.100 EC1 / DIN EN 1991-1-3/NA - Germany: Generating wind loads on an antenna tower (TTAD #15493)

368

3.101 NF EN 1991-1-3/NA: Snow generation on a slope compound next to a higher single slope compound

(TTAD #15923)

369

3.102

CR1-1-3/2012 - Romania - 2D Climatic generator on a portal frame with big slopes

369

3.103

NTC 2008: Wind load generation on a higher double slope 3D portal frame (DEV2015#6) (TTAD #15698)369

3.104

EC1 / NF EN 1991-1-4/NA - France: Generating wind loads on an isolated roof with two slopes (TTAD

#11695)

369

3.105

NTC 2008: Wind load generation on a double slope 3D portal frame (DEV2015#6) (TTAD #15660)

369

3.106

EC1 / EN 1991-1-4 - General: Wind load generation on a simple 3D portal frame with 2 slopes roof

(TTAD #11602)

370

3.107 NF EN 1991-1-4/NA: Wind generation on a 2 slope building with one awning (TTAD #13999)

370

3.108 EC1 / NF EN 1991-1-3/NA - France: Snow load generation on double compound with gutters and

370

3.109 EC1 / NF EN 1991-1-3/NA - France: Generating snow loads on a 3D portal frame with horizontal roof and

parapets on all sides (TTAD #13717)

 

gutter (TTAD #11113)

370

3.110

EC1 / NF EN 1991-1-3/NA - France: Generating snow loads on a flat roof

371

4

COMBINATIONS

375

4.1 EC0 / NF EN 1990 - France: Generating the concomitance matrix after adding a new dead load case

(TTAD #11361)

4.2 NF EN 1990/NA - France: Generating a set of combinations with seismic group of loads (TTAD #11889) 376

4.3 NF EN 1990/NA - France: Performing the combinations concomitance standard test no.10 (DEV2012 #1.7)376

4.4 EC0 / EN 1990 - General: Generating load combinations with unfavorable and favorable/unfavorable

376

predominant action (TTAD #11357)

376

4.5 Verifying the combinations description report (TTAD #11632)

377

4.6 NF EN 1990/NA - France: Performing the combinations concomitance standard test no.8 (DEV2012 #1.7)377

4.7 EC0 / EN 1990 - General: Defining concomitance rules for two case families (TTAD #11355)

377

4.8 CR 0-2012 - Romania - Automatic combinations check according with the romanian code

378

4.9 EC0 / EN 1990 - General: Generating combinations (TTAD #11673)

379

4.10 EC0 / EN 1990 - General: Generating load combinations after changing the load case number (TTAD

#11359)

380

4.11 EC0 / EN 1990 - General: Generating combinations for NEWEC8.cbn (TTAD #11431)

380

4.12 NF EN 1990/NA - France: Generating the concomitance matrix after switching back the effect for live load

(TTAD #11806)

4.13 NF EN 1990/NA - France: Performing the combinations concomitance standard test no.3 (DEV2012 #1.7)380

4.14 NF EN 1990/NA - France: Performing the combinations concomitance standard test no. 5 (DEV2012 #1.7)381

380

4.15

NF EN 1990/NA - France: Generating a set of combinations with different Q "Base" types (TTAD #11806)381

4.16 NF EN 1990/NA - France: Performing the combinations concomitance standard test no.6 (DEV2012 #1.7)381

4.17 NF EN 1990/NA - France: Performing the combinations concomitance standard test no.2 (DEV2012 #1.7)382

4.18 NF EN 1990/NA - France: Performing the combinations concomitance standard test no.4 (DEV2012 #1.7)382

4.19 NF EN 1990/NA - France: Generating a set of combinations with Q group of loads (TTAD #11960)

4.20 NF EN 1990/NA - France: Performing the combinations concomitance standard test no.1 (DEV2010#1.7)383

4.21 NF EN 1990/NA - France: Performing the combinations concomitance standard test no.9 (DEV2012 #1.7)383

4.22 NF EN 1990/NA - France: Performing the combinations concomitance standard test no.7 (DEV2012 #1.7)384

4.23 CSN EN 1990/NA - Czech Republic: Verifying combinations for CZ localization (TTAD #12542)

383

384

5 CONCRETE

DESIGN

385

5.1 Verifying the reinforced concrete results on a structure with 375 load cases combinations (TTAD #11683)386

5.2 EC2 / NF EN 1992-1-1/NA - France: Calculation of a square column in traction (TTAD #11892)

386

5.3 Verifying Aty and Atz for a fixed concrete beam (TTAD #11812)

386

5.4 Verifying the longitudinal reinforcement for linear elements (TTAD #11636)

387

5.5 EC2 / NF EN 1992-1-1/NA - France: Verifying concrete results for linear elements (TTAD #11556)

388

5.6 Verifying the longitudinal reinforcement bars for a filled circular column (TTAD #11678)

389

5.7 Verifying the reinforced concrete results on a fixed beam (TTAD #11836)

390

5.8 Verifying the longitudinal reinforcement for a fixed linear element (TTAD #11700)

390

5.9 Verifying the reinforcement of concrete columns (TTAD #11635)

390

5.10 EC2 / NF EN 1992-1-1/NA - France: Verifying concrete results for planar elements (TTAD #11583)

390

5.11 EC2 / NF EN 1992-1-1/NA: Verifying the minimum transverse reinforcement area results for articulated

beams (TTAD #11342)

391

5.12 Verifying the minimum transverse reinforcement area results for an articulated beam (TTAD #11342)

392

5.13 EC2 / NF EN 1992-1-1/NA - France: Verifying the longitudinal reinforcement for a horizontal concrete bar

with rectangular cross section

393

5.14

EC2 / NF EN 1992-1-1/NA - France: Verifying the longitudinal reinforcement area of a beam under a linear

load

394

5.15

EC2 / NF EN 1992-1-1/NA - France: Verifying the minimum reinforcement area for a simply supported

beam 394

5.16 EC2 / NF EN 1992-1-1/NA - France: Verifying the longitudinal reinforcement area of a beam under a linear

load - inclined stress strain behavior law

5.17 EC2 / NF EN 1992-1-1/NA - France: Verifying the longitudinal reinforcement area for a beam subjected to

point loads

5.18 EC2 / NF EN 1992-1-1/NA - France: Verifying the longitudinal reinforcement area of a beam under a linear

load - bilinear stress-strain diagram

394

394

394

5.19 EC2 / NF EN 1992-1-1/NA - France: Verifying the longitudinal reinforcement area of a beam under a linear

395

5.20 EC2 / NF EN 1992-1-1/NA - France: Verifying the transverse reinforcement area for a beam subjected to

linear loads

5.21 Testing the punching verification and punching reinforcement results on loaded analysis model (TTAD

#14332)

5.22 Verifying the peak smoothing influence over mesh, the punching verification and punching reinforcement

results when Z down axis is selected (TTAD #14963)

395

395

395

load - horizontal level behavior law

XVI

reinforcement results when Z down axis is selected (TTAD #14963) 395 395 395 load - horizontal
ADVANCE VALIDATION GUIDE

ADVANCE VALIDATION GUIDE

5.23 EC2 / NF EN 1992-1-1/NA - France: Comparing deflection of a slab hinged supported on 2 edges with the

deflection of the equivalent beam approach

396

5.24 EC2 / EN 1992-1-1 - Germany: Single beam with a plate crosssection

397

5.25 EC2 / EN 1992-1-1 - Germany: Single beam with rectangular cross section

398

5.26 EC2 / EN 1992-1-1 - Germany: Two field planar system with two span direction calculation based on the

Baumann Method

5.27 EC2 / EN 1992-1-1 - Germany: Two field planar system with two span direction calculation based on the

Capra Method

5.28 NTC 2008 - Italy: Verifying the stresses result for a rectangular concrete beam subjected to a uniformly

distributed load

5.29

402

Verifying a square concrete column of a multi-storey structure subjected to axial

403

5.31 NTC 2008 - Italy: Verifying the crack openings for a rectangular concrete beam subjected to a uniformly

compression

5.30

plate

400

399

401

EC2 / EN 1992-1-1 - Germany: Two field beam with rectangular cross section, calculated as a one span

NTC 2008 - Italy:

distributed load

5.32 Verifying the bending moments about X and Y axis on a single story concrete core subjected to horizontal

404

forces and seismic action

405

5.33 EC2 / EN 1992-1-1 - Punching verification with imposed reinfrocement on slab

405

5.34 EC2 / NF EN 1992-1-1/NA - France: Column design with “Nominal Stiffness method” square section

(TTAD #11625)

405

5.35 EC2,EC8 / NF EN 1992-1-1/NA - France: Verifying the capacity design results (DEV2013 #8.3)

405

5.36 EC2 / NF EN 1992-1-1/NA - France: Verifying a rectangular cross section beam made from concrete

C25/30 to resist simple bending - Bilinear stress-strain diagram (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 1) 406

5.37 EC2 / NF EN 1992-1-1/NA - France: Verifying a T concrete section, without compressed reinforcement -

Bilinear stress-strain diagram (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 5)

5.38 EC2 / NF EN 1992-1-1/NA - France: Verifying a T concrete section, without compressed reinforcement -

415

5.39 EC2 / NF EN 1992-1-1/NA - France: Verifying a rectangular concrete beam subjected to uniformly

distributed load, without compressed reinforcement- Bilinear stress-strain diagram (Class XD3) (evaluated by

SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 12)

420

5.40 EC2 / NF EN 1992-1-1/NA - France: Verifying a T concrete section, without compressed reinforcement-

Bilinear stress-strain diagram (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 15)

426

5.41 EC2 / NF EN 1992-1-1/NA - France: Verifying a T concrete section, without compressed reinforcement-

432

5.42 EC2 / NF EN 1992-1-1/NA - France: Verifying a rectangular concrete beam subjected to a uniformly

distributed load, without compressed reinforcement- Bilinear stress-strain diagram (Class XD1) (evaluated by

SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 11)

438

5.43 EC2 / NF EN 1992-1-1/NA - France: Verifying a rectangular concrete beam subjected to a uniformly

distributed load, with compressed reinforcement- Bilinear stress-strain diagram (Class XD1) (evaluated by

SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 14)

444

5.44 C2 / NF EN 1992-1-1/NA - France: Verifying a rectangular concrete beam subjected to a uniformly

distributed load, with compressed reinforcement - Bilinear stress-strain diagram (Class XD1) (evaluated by

SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 18)

450

5.45 EC2/NF EN 1992-1-1/NA - France: Verifying the crack openings for a rectangular concrete beam

subjected to a uniformly distributed load, without compressed reinforcement - Bilinear stress-strain diagram(Class

455

XD1)(evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref Test19)

Bilinear stress-strain diagram (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 16)

Inclined stress-strain diagram (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 10)

411

5.46

EC2/NF EN 1992-1-1/NA - France: Verifying the crack openings for a rectangular concrete beam

subjected to a uniformly distributed load without compressed reinforcement - Bilinear stress-strain diagram(Class

XD1)(evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref.Test 20)

5.47 EC2 / NF EN 1992-1-1/NA - France: Verifying a rectangular concrete beam with compressed

reinforcement Inclined stress-strain diagram (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 9)

5.48 EC2 / NF EN 1992-1-1/NA - France: Verifying a rectangular concrete beam subjected to a uniformly

distributed load, with compressed reinforcement - Bilinear stress-strain diagram (Class XD1) (evaluated by

SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 13)

5.49 EC2 / NF EN 1992-1-1/NA - France: Verifying a rectangular concrete beam subjected to a uniformly

distributed load, without compressed reinforcement - Inclined stress-strain diagram (Class XD1) (evaluated by

SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 17)

5.50 EC2 / NF EN 1992-1-1/NA - France: Verifying the shear resistance for a rectangular concrete beam with

vertical transversal reinforcement - Bilinear stress-strain diagram (Class XC1) (evaluated by SOCOTEC France -

ref. Test 24)

5.51 EC2 / NF EN 1992-1-1/NA - France: Verifying the shear resistance for a rectangular concrete beam with

inclined transversal reinforcement - Bilinear stress-strain diagram (Class XC1) (evaluated by SOCOTEC France -

ref. Test 25)

5.52 EC2 / NF EN 1992-1-1/NA - France: Verifying the shear resistance for a T concrete beam - Bilinear stress-

strain diagram (Class X0) (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 28)

5.53 EC2 / NF EN 1992-1-1/NA - France: Verifying the shear resistance for a T concrete beam with inclined

transversal reinforcement - Inclined stress-strain diagram (Class XC1) (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test

497

493

489

484

478

468

461

29)

501

5.54

EC2 / NF EN 1992-1-1/NA - France: Verifying the shear resistance for a rectangular concrete section -

Bilinear stress-strain diagram (Class XC1) (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 23)

5.55 EC2 / NF EN 1992-1-1/NA - France: Verifying the shear resistance for a rectangular concrete beam with

505

vertical transversal reinforcement - Bilinear stress-strain diagram (Class XC1) (evaluated by SOCOTEC France -

ref. Test 27)

5.56 EC2 / NF EN 1992-1-1/NA - France: Verifying a square concrete column subjected to compression and

rotation moment to the top - Bilinear stress-strain diagram (Class XC1) (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref.

Test 31)

514

510

5.57 EC2 / NF EN 1992-1-1/NA - France: Verifying a square concrete column subjected to compression and

rotation moment to the top Method based on nominal curvature- Bilinear stress-strain diagram (Class XC1)

(evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 32)

528

5.58 EC2 / NF EN 1992-1-1/NA - France: Verifying a square concrete column subjected to compression by

nominal rigidity method- Bilinear stress-strain diagram (Class XC1) (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test

33)

538

5.59

EC2 / NF EN 1992-1-1/NA - France: Verifying the shear resistance for a rectangular concrete beam with

vertical transversal reinforcement - Bilinear stress-strain diagram (Class XC1) (evaluated by SOCOTEC France -

ref. Test 26)

5.60 EC2 / NF EN 1992-1-1/NA - France: Verifying the shear resistance for a T concrete beam with inclined

546

transversal reinforcement - Bilinear stress-strain diagram (Class XC1) (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test

30)

550

5.61

EC2 / NF EN 1992-1-1/NA - France: Verifying a rectangular concrete column using the method based on

nominal curvature- Bilinear stress-strain diagram (Class XC1) (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 36) 554

5.62 EC2 / NF EN 1992-1-1/NA - France: Verifying a square concrete column using the simplified method

Professional rules - Bilinear stress-strain diagram (Class XC1) (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 37)561

5.63 EC2 / NF EN 1992-1-1/NA - France: Verifying a square concrete column subjected to a small compression

force and significant rotation moment to the top - Bilinear stress-strain diagram (Class XC1) (evaluated by

SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 40)

5.64 EC2 / NF EN 1992-1-1/NA - France: Verifying a square concrete column subjected to a significant

compression force and small rotation moment to the top - Bilinear stress-strain diagram (Class XC1) (evaluated

by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 41)

571

564

ADVANCE VALIDATION GUIDE

ADVANCE VALIDATION GUIDE

5.65 EC2 / NF EN 1992-1-1/NA - France: Verifying a rectangular concrete column subjected to compression to

top Based on nominal rigidity method - Bilinear stress-strain diagram (Class XC1) (evaluated by SOCOTEC

France - ref. Test 35)

5.66 EC2 / NF EN 1992-1-1/NA - France: Verifying a circular concrete column using the simplified method

Professional rules - Bilinear stress-strain diagram (Class XC1) (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 39)594

5.67 EC2/NF EN 1992-1-1/NA - France: Verifying a square concrete column subjected to a small rotation

moment and significant compression force to the top with Nominal Curvature Method-Bilinear stress-strain

diagram(Class XC1)(SOCOTEC France-Test 43)

5.68 EC2 / NF EN 1992-1-1/NA - France: Verifying a rectangular concrete beam subjected to eccentric loading

- Bilinear stress-strain diagram (Class X0) (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 44)

5.69 EC2 / NF EN 1992-1-1/NA - France: Verifying a rectangular concrete beam supporting a balcony - Bilinear

stress-strain diagram (Class XC1) (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 45)

5.70 EC2 / NF EN 1992-1-1/NA - France: Verifying a rectangular concrete column subjected to compression on

the top Method based on nominal stiffness - Bilinear stress-strain diagram (Class XC1) (evaluated by

SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 34)

5.71 EC2 / NF EN 1992-1-1/NA - France: Verifying a rectangular concrete column using the simplified method

Professional rules - Bilinear stress-strain diagram (Class XC1) (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 38)628

5.72 EC2/NF EN 1992-1-1/NA-France: Verifying a square concrete column subjected to a significant rotation

moment and small compression force to the top with Nominal Curvature Method-Bilinear stress-strain

diagram(Class XC1)(SOCOTEC France-Test 42)

5.73 EC2 / NF EN 1992-1-1/NA - France: Verifying a square concrete beam subjected to a normal force of

traction - Bilinear stress-strain diagram (Class X0) (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 46 II)

640

620

613

607

598

583

631

5.74

EC2/NF EN 1992-1-1/NA - France: Stresses and cracks verification for a planar element hinged on all

edges

644

5.75

EC2 / NF EN 1992-1-1/NA - France: Verifying a rectangular concrete beam subjected to a uniformly

distributed load, without compressed reinforcement - Bilinear stress-strain diagram (evaluated by SOCOTEC

France - ref. Test 2)

5.76 EC2 / NF EN 1992-1-1/NA - France: Verifying a T concrete section, without compressed reinforcement-

Bilinear stress-strain diagram (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 6)

5.77 EC2 / NF EN 1992-1-1/NA - France: Verifying a T concrete section, without compressed reinforcement-

Bilinear stress-strain diagram (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 7)

5.78 EC2 / NF EN 1992-1-1/NA - France: Verifying a rectangular concrete beam without compressed

reinforcement Inclined stress-strain diagram (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 8)

5.79 EC2 / NF EN 1992-1-1/NA - France: Verifying a square concrete beam subjected to a normal force of

traction - Inclined stress-strain diagram (Class X0) (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 46 I)

5.80 EC2 / NF EN 1992-1-1/NA - France: Verifying a rectangular concrete beam subjected to Pivot B efforts

Inclined stress-strain diagram (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 4 II)

5.81 EC2 / NF EN 1992-1-1/NA - France: Verifying a rectangular concrete beam subjected to tension load -

Bilinear stress-strain diagram (Class XD2) (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 47I)

5.82 EC2 / NF EN 1992-1-1/NA - France: Verifying a rectangular concrete beam subjected to a tension

distributed load - Bilinear stress-strain diagram (Class XD2) (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 47 II) .680

5.83 EC2 / NF EN 1992-1-1 - France: Reinforcement calculation for a simple bending beam

5.84 A23.3-04 - Canada: Verifying the longitudinal reinforcement value on a one-way reinforced concrete slab687

5.85 EC2 / NF EN 1992-1-1/NA - France: Verifying a rectangular concrete beam subjected to uniformly

distributed load, with compressed reinforcement- Bilinear stress-strain diagram (evaluated by SOCOTEC France -

ref. Test 3)

5.86 EC2 / NF EN 1992-1-1/NA - France: Verifying a rectangular concrete beam subjected to Pivot A efforts

645

652

656

660

667

670

675

683

690

Inclined stress-strain diagram (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 4 I)

699

5.87

EC2 / CSN EN 1992-1-1 - Czech Republic: Main reinforcement design for simple supported beam

705

5.88

EC2 / NF EN1992-1-1 - France: Verifying a T concrete section - Inclined stress-strain diagram (Class XC3)708

5.89 EC2 / NF EN 1992-1-1 - France: Tie reinforcement

710

5.90 NTC 2008 - Italy: Longitudinal reinforcement on a simply supported beam

714

5.91 EC2 / NF EN 1992-1-1 - France: Reinforcement calculation on intermediate support on a continuous beam716

5.92 EC3 / CSN EN 1992-1-1 - Czech Republic: Verification of stresses in steel and concrete on simply

718

5.93 NTC 2008 - Italy: Verifying the shear resistance for a rectangular concrete beam with vertical transversal

supported beam

reinforcement

722

5.94 NTC 2008 - Italy: Verifying a rectangular concrete beam subjected to a uniformly distributed load

725

5.95 EC2 / CSN EN 1992-1-1 - Czech Republic: Stresses and cracks verification for simple supported beam 729

6

GENERAL APPLICATIONS

735

6.1 Verifying the overlapping when a planar element is built in a hole (TTAD #13772)

736

6.2 Verifying element creation using commas for coordinates (TTAD #11141)

736

6.3 Modifying the "Design experts" properties for concrete linear elements (TTAD #12498)

736

6.4 Verifying the precision of linear and planar concrete covers (TTAD #12525)

736

6.5 Defining the reinforced concrete design assumptions (TTAD #12354)

736

6.6 Creating system trees using the copy/paste commands (DEV2012 #1.5)

736

6.7 Changing the default material (TTAD #11870)

737

6.8 Verifying the appearance of the local x orientation legend (TTAD #11737)

737

6.9 Creating system trees using the copy/paste commands (DEV2012 #1.5)

737

6.10 Launching the verification of a model containing steel connections (TTAD #12100)

737

6.11 Creating a new Advance Design file using the "New" command from the "Standard" toolbar (TTAD

#12102)

737

6.12 Verifying the objects rename function (TTAD #12162)

738

6.13 Generating liquid pressure on horizontal and vertical surfaces (TTAD #10724)

738

6.14 Verifying 2 joined vertical elements with the clipping option enabled (TTAD #12238)

738

6.15 Importing a cross section from the Advance Steel profiles library (TTAD #11487)

738

6.16 Verifying the synthetic table by type of connection (TTAD #11422)

738

6.17 Verifying mesh, CAD and climatic forces - LPM meeting

741

6.18 Creating and updating model views and post-processing views (TTAD #11552)

741

6.19 Verifying material properties for C25/30 (TTAD #11617)

741

6.20 Verifying geometry properties of elements with compound cross sections (TTAD #11601)

741

1 Finite Element Method

1 Finite Element Method

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1.1 Thin lozenge-shaped plate fixed on one side (alpha = 15 °) (01-0008SDLSB_FEM)

Test ID: 2440

Test status: Passed

1.1.1 Description

Verifies the eigen modes frequencies for a 10 mm thick lozenge-shaped plate fixed on one side, subjected to its own weight only.

1.1.2 Background

1.1.2.1 Model description

Reference: Structure Calculation Software Validation Guide, test SDLS 02/89;

Analysis type: modal analysis;

Element type: planar.

Thin lozenge-shaped plate fixed on one side Scale =1/10 01-0008SDLSB_FEM
Thin lozenge-shaped plate fixed on one side
Scale =1/10
01-0008SDLSB_FEM

Units

I. S.

Geometry

Thickness: t = 0.01 m,

Side: a = 1 m,

= 15°

Points coordinates:

A ( 0 ; 0 ; 0 )

C ( 0.259a ; 0.966a ; 0 )

D ( 1.259a ; 0.966a ; 0 )

B ( a

;

0 ; 0 )

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Materials properties

Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 2.1 x 10 11 Pa,

Poisson's ratio: = 0.3,

Density: = 7800 kg/m 3 .

Outer: AB side fixed,

Inner: None.

Loading

External: None,

Internal: None.

1.1.2.2 Eigen modes frequencies function by angle

Reference solution

M. V. Barton formula for a lozenge of side "a" leads to the frequencies:

f j =

1

2



a

2

2

i

Et 2 12 (1   2 )
Et
2
12 (1
 
2 )

where i = 1,2,

or i 2 = g().



3.601

8.872

M. V. Barton noted the sensitivity of the result relative to the mode and the angle. He acknowledged that the i

values were determined with a limited development of an insufficient order, which led to consider a reference value that is based on an experimental result, verified by an average of seven software that use the finite elements calculation method.

Finite elements modeling

Planar element: plate, imposed mesh,

961 nodes,

900 surface quadrangles.

Eigen mode shapes

961 nodes, ■ 900 surface quadrangles. Eigen mode shapes 1.1.2.3 Theoretical results Solver Result name Result

1.1.2.3 Theoretical results

quadrangles. Eigen mode shapes 1.1.2.3 Theoretical results Solver Result name Result description Reference

Solver

Result name

Result description

Reference value

CM2

Eigen mode

Eigen mode 1 frequency [Hz]

8.999

CM2

Eigen mode

Eigen mode 2 frequency [Hz]

22.1714

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

1.1.3 Calculated results

Result name

Result description

Value

Error

 

Eigen mode 1 frequency [Hz]

8.95 Hz

-0.54%

 

Eigen mode 2 frequency [Hz]

21.69 Hz

-2.17%

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ADVANCE VALIDATION GUIDE

1.2 Thin lozenge-shaped plate fixed on one side (alpha = 30 °) (01-0009SDLSB_FEM)

Test ID: 2441

Test status: Passed

1.2.1 Description

Verifies the eigen modes frequencies for a 10 mm thick lozenge-shaped plate fixed on one side, subjected to its own weight only.

1.2.2 Background

1.2.2.1 Model description

Reference: Structure Calculation Software Validation Guide, test SDLS 02/89;

Analysis type: modal analysis;

Element type: planar.

Thin lozenge-shaped plate fixed on one side Scale =1/10 01-0009SDLSB_FEM
Thin lozenge-shaped plate fixed on one side
Scale =1/10
01-0009SDLSB_FEM

Units

I. S.

Geometry

Thickness: t = 0.01 m,

Side: a = 1 m,

= 30°

Points coordinates:

A ( 0 ; 0 ; 0 )

■ B ( a ; 0 ; 0 ) 3 ■ C ( 0.5a ;
■ B ( a
;
0 ; 0 )
3
■ C ( 0.5a ;
2

a ; 0 )

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D ( 1.5a ;

3
3

2

a ; 0 )

Materials properties

Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 2.1 x 10 11 Pa,

Poisson's ratio: = 0.3,

Density: = 7800 kg/m 3 .

Outer: AB side fixed,

Inner: None.

Loading

External: None,

Internal: None.

1.2.2.2 Eigen mode frequencies relative to the angle

Reference solution

M. V. Barton formula for a lozenge of side "a" leads to the frequencies:

f j =

1

2



a

2

2

i

Et 2 12 (1   2 )
Et
2
12 (1
 
2 )

where i = 1,2,

or i 2 = g().



3.961





10.19

M. V. Barton noted the sensitivity of the result relative to the mode and the angle. He acknowledged that the i

values were determined with a limited development of an insufficient order, which led to consider a reference value that is based on an experimental result, verified by an average of seven software that use the finite elements calculation method.

Finite elements modeling

Planar element: plate, imposed mesh,

961 nodes,

900 surface quadrangles.

Eigen mode shapes

modeling ■ Planar element: plate, imposed mesh, ■ 961 nodes, ■ 900 surface quadrangles. Eigen mode
modeling ■ Planar element: plate, imposed mesh, ■ 961 nodes, ■ 900 surface quadrangles. Eigen mode
ADVANCE VALIDATION GUIDE

ADVANCE VALIDATION GUIDE

1.2.2.3 Theoretical results

Solver

Result name

Result description

Reference value

CM2

Eigen mode

Eigen mode 1 frequency [Hz]

9.8987

CM2

Eigen mode

Eigen mode 2 frequency [Hz]

25.4651

1.2.3 Calculated results

 

Result name

Result description

Value

Error

 

Eigen mode 1 frequency [Hz]

9.82 Hz

-0.80%

 

Eigen mode 2 frequency [Hz]

23.45 Hz

-7.91%

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

1.3 Circular plate under uniform load (01-0003SSLSB_FEM)

Test ID: 2435

Test status: Passed

1.3.1 Description

On a circular plate of 5 mm thickness and 2 m diameter, an uniform load, perpendicular on the plan of the plate, is applied. The vertical displacement on the plate center is verified.

1.3.2 Background

1.3.2.1 Model description

Reference: Structure Calculation Software Validation Guide, test SSLS 03/89;

Analysis type: linear static;

Element type: planar.

Circular plate under uniform load Scale =1/10 01-0003SSLSB_FEM
Circular plate under uniform load
Scale =1/10
01-0003SSLSB_FEM

Units

I. S.

Geometry

Circular plate radius: r = 1m,

Circular plate thickness: h = 0.005 m.

Materials properties

Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 2.1 x 10 11 Pa,

Poisson's ratio: = 0.3.

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ADVANCE VALIDATION GUIDE

Outer: Plate fixed on the side (in all points of its perimeter), For the modeling, we consider only a quarter of the plate and we impose symmetry conditions on some nodes (see the following model; yz plane symmetry condition):translation restrained nodes along x and rotation restrained nodes along y and z: translation restrained nodes along x and rotation restrained nodes along y and z:

Inner: None.

Loading

External: Uniform loads perpendicular on the plate: p Z = -1000 Pa,

Internal: None.

1.3.2.2 Vertical displacement of the model at the center of the plate

Reference solution

Circular plates form:

u

=

pr 4

64D

= -1000 x

1 4

64 x 2404

= - 6.50 x 10 -3 m

with the plate radius coefficient: D =

12(1-2 ) = 2.1 x 10 11 x 0.005 3

Eh

3

12(1-0.3 2 )

D = 2404

Finite elements modeling

Planar element: plate, imposed mesh,

70 nodes,

58 planar elements.

Circular plate under uniform load

Scale =1.5

Meshing

01-0003SSLSB_FEM

 
■ 58 planar elements. Circular plate under uniform load Scale =1.5 Meshing 01-0003SSLSB_FEM   29

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Deformed shape

Circular plate under uniform load Scale =1.5 Deformed 01-0003SSLSB_FEM
Circular plate under uniform load
Scale =1.5
Deformed
01-0003SSLSB_FEM

1.3.2.3 Theoretical results

Solver

Result name

Result description

Reference value

CM2

DZ

Vertical displacement on the plate center [mm]

-6.50

1.3.3 Calculated results

 

Result name

Result description

Value

Error

DZ

Vertical displacement on the plate center [mm]

-6.47032 mm

0.46%

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ADVANCE VALIDATION GUIDE

1.4 Vibration mode of a thin piping elbow in plane (case 2) (01-0012SDLLB_FEM)

Test ID: 2444

Test status: Passed

1.4.1 Description

Verifies the vibration modes of a thin piping elbow (1 m radius) extended by two straight elements of length L, subjected to its self weight only.

1.4.2 Background

1.4.2.1 Model description

Reference: Structure Calculation Software Validation Guide, test SDLL 14/89;

Analysis type: modal analysis (plane problem);

Element type: linear.

Vibration mode of a thin piping elbow Scale = 1/11 Case 2 01-0012SDLLB_FEM
Vibration mode of a thin piping elbow
Scale = 1/11
Case 2
01-0012SDLLB_FEM

Units

I. S.

Geometry

Average radius of curvature: OA = R = 1 m,

L = 0.6 m,

Straight circular hollow section:

Outer diameter d e = 0.020 m,

Inner diameter d i = 0.016 m,

Section: A = 1.131 x 10 -4 m 2 ,

Flexure moment of inertia relative to the y-axis: I y = 4.637 x 10 -9 m 4 ,

Flexure moment of inertia relative to z-axis: I z = 4.637 x 10 -9 m 4 ,

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Polar inertia: I p = 9.274 x 10 -9 m 4 .

Points coordinates (in m):

A ( 0 ; R ; 0 )

B ( R ; 0 ; 0 )

C ( -L ; R ; 0 )

D ( R ; -L ; 0 )

O ( 0

; 0

; 0 )

Materials properties

Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 2.1 x 10 11 Pa,

Poisson's ratio: = 0.3,

Density: = 7800 kg/m 3 .

Outer:

Fixed at points C and D

At A: translation restraint along y and z,

At B: translation restraint along x and z,

Inner: None.

Loading

External: None,

Internal: None.

1.4.2.2 Eigen mode frequencies

Reference solution

The Rayleigh method applied to a thin curved beam is used to determine parameters such as:

■ in plane bending:  2 EI z i f j = 2R 2 
■ in plane bending:
2
EI z
i
f j =
2R
2
A

where i = 1,2,

Finite elements modeling

Linear element: beam,

23 nodes,

22 linear elements.

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ADVANCE VALIDATION GUIDE

Eigen mode shapes

ADVANCE VALIDATION GUIDE Eigen mode shapes 1.4.2.3 Theoretical results Solver Result name Result description

1.4.2.3 Theoretical results

GUIDE Eigen mode shapes 1.4.2.3 Theoretical results Solver Result name Result description Reference

Solver

Result name

Result description

Reference value

CM2

Eigen mode

Eigen mode frequency in plane 1 [Hz]

94

CM2

Eigen mode

Eigen mode frequency in plane 2 [Hz]

180

1.4.3 Calculated results

 

Result name

Result description

Value

Error

 

Eigen mode frequency in plane 1 [Hz]

94.62 Hz

0.66%

 

Eigen mode frequency in plane 2 [Hz]

184.68 Hz

2.60%

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

1.5 Vibration mode of a thin piping elbow in plane (case 3) (01-0013SDLLB_FEM)

Test ID: 2445

Test status: Passed

1.5.1 Description

Verifies the vibration modes of a thin piping elbow (1 m radius) extended by two straight elements of length L, subjected to its self weight only.

1.5.2 Background

1.5.2.1 Model description

Reference: Structure Calculation Software Validation Guide, test SDLL 14/89;

Analysis type: modal analysis (plane problem);

Element type: linear.

Vibration mode of a thin piping elbow Scale = 1/12 Case 3 01-0013SDLLB_FEM
Vibration mode of a thin piping elbow
Scale = 1/12
Case 3
01-0013SDLLB_FEM

Units

I. S.

Geometry

Average radius of curvature: OA = R = 1 m,

Straight circular hollow section:

Outer diameter: d e = 0.020 m,

Inner diameter: d i = 0.016 m,

Section: A = 1.131 x 10 -4 m 2 ,

Flexure moment of inertia relative to the y-axis: I y = 4.637 x 10 -9 m 4 ,

Flexure moment of inertia relative to z-axis: I z = 4.637 x 10 -9 m 4 ,

Polar inertia: I p = 9.274 x 10 -9 m 4 .

Points coordinates (in m):

O ( 0

; 0

; 0 )

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A ( 0 ; R ; 0 )

B ( R ; 0 ; 0 )

C ( -L ; R ; 0 )

D ( R ; -L ; 0 )

Materials properties

Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 2.1 x 10 11 Pa,

Poisson's ratio: = 0.3,

Density: = 7800 kg/m 3 .

Outer:

Fixed at points C and Ds,

At A: translation restraint along y and z,

At B: translation restraint along x and z,

Inner: None.

Loading

External: None,

Internal: None.

1.5.2.2 Eigen mode frequencies

Reference solution

The Rayleigh method applied to a thin curved beam is used to determine parameters such as:

■ in plane bending:  2 EI z i f j = 2R 2 
■ in plane bending:
2
EI z
i
f j =
2R
2
A

where i = 1,2,

Finite elements modeling

Linear element: beam,

41 nodes,

40 linear elements.

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Eigen mode shapes

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE Eigen mode shapes 1.5.2.3 Theoretical results Solver Result name Result description

1.5.2.3 Theoretical results

USER GUIDE Eigen mode shapes 1.5.2.3 Theoretical results Solver Result name Result description Reference

Solver

Result name

Result description

Reference value

CM2

Eigen mode

Eigen mode frequency in plane 1 [Hz]

25.300

CM2

Eigen mode

Eigen mode frequency in plane 2 [Hz]

27.000

1.5.3 Calculated results

 

Result name

Result description

Value

Error

 

Eigen mode frequency in plane 1 [Hz]

24.96

Hz

-1.34%

 

Eigen mode frequency in plane 2 [Hz]

26.71

Hz

-1.07%

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ADVANCE VALIDATION GUIDE

1.6 Thin lozenge-shaped plate fixed on one side (alpha = 0 °) (01-0007SDLSB_FEM)

Test ID: 2439

Test status: Passed

1.6.1 Description

Verifies the eigen modes frequencies for a 10 mm thick lozenge-shaped plate fixed on one side, subjected to its own weight only.

1.6.2 Background

1.6.2.1 Model description

Reference: Structure Calculation Software Validation Guide, test SDLS 02/89;

Analysis type: modal analysis;

Element type: planar.

Thin lozenge-shaped plate fixed on one side Scale =1/10 01-0007SDLSB_FEM
Thin lozenge-shaped plate fixed on one side
Scale =1/10
01-0007SDLSB_FEM

Units

I. S.

Geometry

Thickness: t = 0.01 m,

Side: a = 1 m,

= 0°

Points coordinates:

A ( 0 ; 0 ; 0 )

B ( a

;

0 ; 0 )

C ( 0

;

a ; 0 )

D ( a

;

a ; 0 )

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Materials properties

Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 2.1 x 10 11 Pa,

Poisson's ratio: = 0.3,

Density: = 7800 kg/m 3 .

Outer: AB side fixed,

Inner: None.

Loading

External: None,

Internal: None.

1.6.2.2 Eigen mode frequencies relative to the angle

Reference solution

M. V. Barton formula for a side "a" lozenge, leads to the frequencies:

f j =

1

2



a

2

2

i

Et 2 12 (1   2 )
Et
2
12 (1
 
2 )

where i = 1,2,

and i 2 = g().

 





3.492



8.525

M.V. Barton noted the sensitivity of the result relative to the mode and the angle. He acknowledged that the i values were determined with a limited development of an insufficient order, which led to consider a reference value that is based on an experimental result, verified by an average of seven software that use the finite elements calculation method.

Finite elements modeling

Planar element: plate, imposed mesh,

61 nodes,

900 surface quadrangles.

Eigen mode shapes

61 nodes, ■ 900 surface quadrangles. Eigen mode shapes 1.6.2.3 Theoretical results Solver Result name Result

1.6.2.3 Theoretical results

quadrangles. Eigen mode shapes 1.6.2.3 Theoretical results Solver Result name Result description Reference

Solver

Result name

Result description

Reference value

CM2

Eigen mode

Eigen mode 1 frequency [Hz]

8.7266

CM2

Eigen mode

Eigen mode 2 frequency [Hz]

21.3042

ADVANCE VALIDATION GUIDE

ADVANCE VALIDATION GUIDE

1.6.3 Calculated results

Result name

Result description

Value

Error

 

Eigen mode 1 frequency [Hz]

8.67 Hz

-0.65%

 

Eigen mode 2 frequency [Hz]

21.21 Hz

-0.44%

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

1.7 Vibration mode of a thin piping elbow in plane (case 1) (01-0011SDLLB_FEM)

Test ID: 2443

Test status: Passed

1.7.1 Description

Verifies the vibration modes of a thin piping elbow (1 m radius) with fixed ends and subjected to its self weight only.

1.7.2 Background

1.7.2.1 Model description

Reference: Structure Calculation Software Validation Guide, test SDLL 14/89;

Analysis type: modal analysis (plane problem);

Element type: linear.

Vibration mode of a thin piping elbow in plane Scale = 1/7 Case 1 01-0011SDLLB_FEM
Vibration mode of a thin piping elbow in plane
Scale = 1/7
Case 1
01-0011SDLLB_FEM

Units

I. S.

Geometry

Average radius of curvature: OA = R = 1 m,

Straight circular hollow section:

Outer diameter: d e = 0.020 m,

Inner diameter: d i = 0.016 m,

Section: A = 1.131 x 10 -4 m 2 ,

Flexure moment of inertia relative to the y-axis: I y = 4.637 x 10 -9 m 4 ,

Flexure moment of inertia relative to z-axis: I z = 4.637 x 10 -9 m 4 ,

Polar inertia: I p = 9.274 x 10 -9 m 4 .

ADVANCE VALIDATION GUIDE

ADVANCE VALIDATION GUIDE

Points coordinates (in m):

A ( 0 ; R ; 0 )

B ( R ; 0 ; 0 )

; 0 )

O ( 0

; 0

Materials properties

Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 2.1 x 10 11 Pa,

Poisson's ratio: = 0.3,

Density: = 7800 kg/m 3 .

Outer: Fixed at points A and B ,

Inner: None.

Loading

External: None,

Internal: None.

1.7.2.2 Eigen mode frequencies

Reference solution

The Rayleigh method applied to a thin curved beam is used to determine parameters such as:

■ in plane bending:  2 EI z i f j = 2R 2 
■ in plane bending:
2
EI z
i
f j =
2R
2
A

where i = 1,2,

Finite elements modeling

Linear element: beam,

11 nodes,

10 linear elements.