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Chapter # 7


Definition of Nation

A large body of people united by common history, culture, language, and

inhabiting a particular state or territory.


Nationalism argues that the individual’s loyalty to the nation-state

surpass other individual or group loyalty.

Devotion to the national interest, unity & independence.

Nationalism promotes one’s own ideology against others.

"This term is used in two related senses. In the first usage,

nationalism seeks to identify a behavioral entity - the nation - and
thereafter to pursue certain political and cultural goals on behalf
of it. In the second usage, nationalism is a sentiment of loyalty
toward the nation which is shared by people."

Nationalism claims that the nation exists and should form the
basis of the political order.
Nationalism can be considered as ideology, as sentiments, and as

There are different typologies of nationalism, such as ethnic/civic,

elite/mass, state-strengthening/state-subverting.
The most important debates on nationalism concern whether it is
cause or consequence of nation, the relative importance of
culture, economics and politics, and the different roles played by
internal and external factors.

Nationalism in the eyes of scholars

• Arnold Toynbee, A negative force, and it will disappear and replaced

by internationalism.

• Karl Marx, Nationalism a temporary phase and it would vanish.

• A. Einstein, Nationalism is an infantile disease. It is the measles of


• Allama Iqbal, Muslims would gain freedom under western nation

state – then they will move towards a supranational community

Different Aspects of Nationalism

It is impossible to define a 'nation-state' in objective terms without

accepting the assumptions of nationalism. Therefore, nation-state will
be defined largely in terms of its self-description and that of the
international community.
There is no simple sequence leading either from nationalism to nation-
state formation to changes in the global political order or the other way

There is no single, dominant form of nationalism. Instead it can take

ethnic, civic, and other forms, be elite or popular, strengthen or subvert
existing states.

The best place to start is with the central political actors. These are the
most important state or states in each historical phase.

Waves of Nationalism
• Wave – 1: Began after French revolution stretched up to WWI.

• Wave – 2: From the end of WWII ended up in 1970s and led to the
decolonization of most of the developing countries.

• Wave -3: Rise of ethno-national movements during 1970s till today.

Mao, Mahajir, Kurd, Tamil etc.

Variants of Nationalism

Liberal Nationalism

• A classic form of European liberalism.

• Like individuals, nations have rights, in particular, the right of self-


• And self-determination should be universally applicable.

Expansionist Nationalism

• It is aggressive and militaristic in nature.

• A form of nationalism associated Mussolini & Hitler.

• It arises form a sentiment of intense, even hysterical nationalist

Anti-colonial nationalism

• A third world nationalism – directed against colonizers.

• National liberation movements in Africa and Asia after WWII.

• Indo-Pak 1947, China 1949, Indonesia 1949, Vietnam 1954, and

Algeria 1962.

• Since 1970s, it is being expressed through religious fundamentalism.

(Africa + Middle East + South Asia).

Nationalism as Ideology

As an ideology it is expressed through ethnicity.

Ethnic Nationalism is characterized by common ancestry.

It implies as stronger and perhaps more intense sense of distinctiveness.

Nationalism as Identity.
Nationalism helps to claim recognition and superiority.
People expresses the identification with their state.

It is based on shared national identity that has roots in culture,


Nationalism in Europe

Carleton Hayes lists three causes;

1- Lack of Religion – Nationalism replaced religion.
2 - Socio-economic Changes;
• Democracy
• Urbanization, emergence of middle class with the interest to
control the direction of the govts.
3 – Encouragement by politicians.
• Military, Pol Parties, revolutionary individuals.

Nationalism: Critical Analysis

• Nationalism is often said to be a reactionary than a progressive

Why Reactionary?

• This is sometimes the result of societal change, with a desire to

return to previous times. (Germany, Italy, Russia under Putin, Turkey
under Erdogan)
Evolution of Nationalism

The political ideology of states matters most because they have the
most power and others tend to respond to their power and ideologies.
At the start of our history global conflict is shifting power to extensive
middle classes in Britain and France, and the national idea justifies
demands for reforms which challenge 'top-down' ideals of power based
on religion, monarchy, and privilege.

Once the process is in motion it develops its own momentum. British

victory over France popularizes its liberal, constitutionalist nationalism
which is taken up in imitative form by elites elsewhere. These elites are
able, especially when linked to modernizing states like Prussia, Japan,
and the North in the American Civil War, to form powerful nation-

Those nation-states generate new forms of nationalism. Subordinate

nationalities react against new state nationalism. These states take up
illiberal, imperialist nationalism to challenge British hegemony. Such
imperialist nationalism provokes colonial societies to develop counter-

State-subverting nationalism usually cannot on its own defeat imperial

powers. Also important is that those powers are weakened in global
conflict with each other. Therefore the ability of state-subverting
nationalism to form nation-states is based on a combination of its own
social base and political organization, the power and policy of the state
it confronts, and a favourable international situation.
The sacrosanct principle of state sovereignty was weakened with the
end of the cold war, new nation-state formation, and new economic
and cultural forms of globalization.

This provoked a first wave of state-subverting ethno-nationalisms

which could lead to violence and ethnic cleansing.

However, international recognition for new states as civic, territorial

entities, along with new forms of intervention and pressure, put
pressure on nationalism to move away from this ethnic and
statesubverting character.

Roots of Nationalism

Nationalism is as old as human kind … Spartans Athenians,

Persians, Arabism.

After1648, French attacks gave rise to this ideology in Germany,

Italy, Russia, and Spain.
18 century Nationalism:

US & French revolutions brought liberal nationalism.

19th century Nationalism

During this era … Bismarck (1815-1898), of Germany became the flag

bearer of German Nationalism.
He dominated European politics during (1860-1890).
20th century Nationalism

After WWI many nations were not happy with the borders … so they
aspired to reshape the territories by using Nationalism. (Germany, Italy)

Salient Features of Nationalism

• Self image,

• Right of self Determination

• Militarism

• Patriotism

• Racism
Merits of Nationalism

• Promotes the emotions of independence.

• Promotes healthy competition.

• Gave charismatic leaders to the world - Syed Ahmed Khan, M Ali

Johar, Atta Turk, Ghandi, Nehru, Hitler, Tito, and Mussolini.

• Serves as very important psychological function.

• Acts as an expression of identity.

• It acts as a force standing against occupation.

Demerits of Nationalism
• Threat to others, it promotes national interest at the expense of

• Promotes racism, ethnocentrism, and hatred – that may lead to wars.

• Threat to the multi-ethnic societies – leads to separation.

• Promotes imperialism (expansionist nationalism)

• Infuses sense of superiority …. German race, and white race etc.

• Gives rise to the separatism … Sri Lanka, Bengalis, Tamils in India.

• Nationalism, even when it avoids military confrontation, may serve as

an obstacle to cooperation on international issues - be this trade,
migration, the environment.

Methods of promoting Nationalism

• Schools and Books,

• National anthems,

• Wars,

• History glorification,
• Propaganda,
• We can do it - self belief,
• ‘Avenge pearl harbour’ type publications.
• “Atoot-Ang”, “Shah Ragh phrases”.

Nationalism and IR

• Provides legitimacy – in the name of national interest.

• Nationalism made Self-determination popular.

• Stimulant for re-drawing of the borders. (Germany)

• Nationalism has been a source of conflict, and war.


There is a state-strengthening nationalism which focuses on the threats

globalization pose to the nation-state. This nationalism can
paradoxically get stronger the more the nation-state is weakened.

However, perhaps more important is the shift of nationalism away from

a state focus towards concerns with devolution, cultural recognition,
and transnational linkages. Nationalism, once again, is showing how
adaptive it is to changes in the nature of global politics.

"A global era requires global engagement.“

Kofi Annan, 1999

Definitions of globalization

Globalization—simply the widening, deepening, and speeding up of

worldwide interconnectedness.

Globalization is the increasing interdependence, integration and

interaction among people and corporations in various location around
the world.

Although geography and distance still matter, but globalization is time-

space compression.

Material aspects: Communication and transportation, Manufacturing

and finance, Movement of people and goods, Standardization,
Institutional links, Ecological commons

Immaterial aspects: Closeness of identification and values, Cultural

(including linguistic) similarities, Symbols of politics and organization,
Shared ideas and ideologies

Globalization and Different Theorists

Totalitarian states attempted to make the political community
absolute. Liberal-democratic states recognize that their citizens value
their membership of many communities alongside the nation-state.

Some liberals have argued that globalization promises a new era of

peace between the great powers. This is a condition in which more
cosmopolitan political communities may develop.

Many realists have argued that the war on terror and the renewed risk
of nuclear proliferation indicate that globalization will not alter the
basic features of world politics.

Huntington's notion of the Clash of Civilizations challenged the idea

that globalization will lead to a world moral and political consensus.

Cosmopolitan approaches which envisage an international system in

which all individuals are respected as equal have flourished in the
contemporary phase of globalization.

Communitarians argue that most people value their membership of a

particular political community; they are unlikely to shift their loyalty
from the nation-state to the human race.

Post-structuralists argue that all forms of political community contain

the danger of domination or exclusion.
Globalization by scholars

‘The intensification of worldwide relations by linking distant localities in

such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many
miles away and vice versa.’ Giddens

‘The integration of the world-economy.’ Gilpin

‘De- territorialisation — or supra-territorial relations between people.’


‘Time-space compression.’ Harvey

Sceptical View of Globalization

Globalization is evident in the growing extensity, intensity, velocity, and

deepening impact of worldwide interconnectedness.

Globalization denotes a shift in the scale of social organization, the

emergence of the world as a shared social space, the relative
deterritorialization of social, economic, and political activity, and the
relative denationalization of power.

Globalization can be conceptualized as a fundamental shift or

transformation in the spatial scale of human social organization that
links distant communities and expands the reach of power relations
across regions and continents.
Globalization is to be distinguished from internationalization and

The contemporary phase of globalization has proved more robust in the

aftermath of 9/11 than the sceptics recognize. Contemporary
globalization is a multidimensional, uneven, and asymmetrical process.

Globalization is transforming but not burying the Westphalian ideal of

sovereign statehood. It is producing the disaggregated state.

The bulk of int. economic and political activity is concentrated

within the group (OECD).

Security competition, conflicts, and wars are still blazing.

Globalization is at best a self-serving myth which reinforces Western
and particularly US hegemony in world politics????

Globalization and Global Politics

Globalization requires a conceptual shift in our thinking about world

politics from a primarily geopolitical perspective to the perspective of
geocentric or global politics—the politics of worldwide social relations.

Global politics is more accurately described as distorted global politics

because it is afflicted by significant power asymmetries.

Globalization creates a double democratic deficit in that it places limits

on democracy within states and new mechanisms of global governance
which lack democratic credentials.
Global politics has engendered its own global political theory which
draws upon cosmopolitan thinking.

Cosmopolitanism offers an account of the desirability and feasibility of

the democratization of global politics.

Distorted global politics can be interpreted as expressing a contest

between the forces of statism and cosmopolitanism in the conduct and
management of world affairs.

Globalization and the Transformation of Political


The members of a political community are usually committed to self-

government. Because of expectations of war, states have tried to
persuade their citizens to place obligations to the 'national community'
ahead of duties to other associations. Most forms of political
community in human history have not represented the nation or the

The idea that the state should represent the nation is a European
development which has dominated politics for just over two hundred

War and capitalism are two reasons why the nation-state became the
dominant form of political community.
The extraordinary power of modern states—the growth of their
'intensive' and 'extensive' power—made global empires possible.

States have been the principal architects of global interconnectedness

over the last five centuries. The global spread of the state and
nationalism are key examples of global interconnectedness.

Citizenship rights developed by way of reaction to the growing power

of modern states.

The demand to be recognized as a free and equal citizen began with

struggles for legal and political rights to which welfare rights were
added in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

The stability of modern forms of political community has owed a great

deal to the fact that citizens won these rights. Indeed, some
modernization theorists in the 1960s believed that liberal democracies
had largely solved the social conflicts of earlier centuries.
Modernization theory also assumed that non-Western societies would
emulate Western paths of development. This thesis resurfaced in the
West at the end of the bipolar era. It was linked with the belief that
liberal democracies belong to a unique sphere of peace.

Engines of Globalization

• Technological change.
• Economics markets and capitalism.

• Politics Financial interests, and Int. Financial institutions.

1- Technology logic. without modern communication and infrastructure,
a global system or worldwide economy would not be possible.

2- Economic logic. Capitalism’s insatiable requirement for new markets

and profits lead inevitably to the globalization of economic activity.
3- Politics logic. ideas, interests, and policies are the third logic of
globalization – facilitated by Int. Institutions like WTO, IMF, WB, ADB,
MNCs, etc.

Three Waves of Globalization

• First, the age of discovery 1450-1850 European expansion and


• Second, 1850-1945 major expansion in the spread of European


• Third, 1960 onward.

• From industrial revolution to the microchip/satellite are icons of a

globalized world order.

Redundant concepts of globalization


• This term refers to growing interdependence between countries.

• From this perspective, a more global world is one where more

messages, ideas, merchandise, investments, and people go cross


• In this case, globalization denotes - removing barriers on movements

of resources for creating an ‘open’ and ‘borderless’ world economy.

• This notion describes - globalization occurs as authorities reduce or

abolish trade barriers, foreign-exchange restrictions, capital
controls, and visa requirements.


• Globalization is described as a process of spreading various products

and experiences to people at all inhabited parts of the earth. e, g.
Technology transfer, Democracy promotion.

• On these lines, ‘global’ means ‘worldwide’ and ‘everywhere’.

• Universalization of everything, ideas, ideologies, and products.


• Universalization of social structures of modernity capitalism,

industrialism, rationalism, urbanism, individualism, etc. are spread
across the world.

• Globalization understood in this way is equal to colonization,

Americanisation and ‘Westoxification’.

• These critics view globalization is a hegemonic tool, an ideology of

supposed progress that ensures subordination by the West of the
Types of Globalization (based on Robert Kudrle)

Communication globalization: Economic effect, Cultural effect,

Comparison effect

Market globalization: Trade, Capital mobility, Labor mobility, Options

for states

Direct globalization:, The environmental “commons”, Other public

goods: “existence value”, Labor rights and human rights, Enforcement
patterns and issues

Globalization at different levels

• Various types of global connectivity across a variety of human


• Economic

• Social

• Political

• Cultural

Economic Globalization
• Increasing economic interconnectivity.

• International division of labor….?

• Rising volume of capital flows.

Capital remains concentrated among the wealthiest nations

• Economic interdependence is related to more peaceful relations.

Politics and Globalization

• States are less able to control social and economic events within their

• Global/regional decision-making bodies (UN, EU, ASEAN, BRICs, etc.)

are rising in importance.

• Non-state actors have gained power.

Technology and globalization

• Increases access to information, but…

Access is unevenly distributed (WikiLeaks, spying)

• Has made it easier to seek out like-minded voices and avoid opposing
views. (human rights activists + fb + twitter).

• Facilitated transportation and communication.

• Makes surveillance and control easier.

Cultural Globalization

Increases exposure to foreign ideas & practices.

• Cultural exports are disproportionately from western countries to the

rest of the world particularly the U.S. (American Dream)

• Some ethnic and religious groups feel culturally threatened by


• Has resulted in a sharp increase in reactionary “nationalist” and

“fanatical” groups…… revolt against modernity, says West.

Key Players of Globalization

• Multinational Corporations carrying out businesses across the globe.

• WTO, through which Int. trade agreements are negotiated and


• World Bank and IMF that gives financial assistance emergency and
long term developmental.

Effects of Globalization

• A force of good - has potential for generating wealth and improving

living standards.

• The benefits of trade, investment, and technological innovation are


• Increased standards of living, Access to new markets

• Decreased employment.
• According to int. trade union movement “things are getting worse for
the majority of the population”.
• Increased the gap between the rich and poor.

Globalization’s Impact on the Government


• Increase economic development by expanding infrastructure.

• Transfer of modern management techniques

• Greater interdependence among business partners

• MNC’s power increases.
• Competition results in too many concessions.
• Privatization, pressure to reduce social benefits (subsidies).
• Undermines state authority.
Impacts on the labour


• Increased job opportunities.

• Upgraded quality of education.

• Increased training.

• Job displacement Loss of industries
• Lowered labour standards
• Lowered wages because of competition
• Decreased union power diminished social contract

Sides of the Globalization

Bright Side

• Countries do what they can do best.

• Globalization gives you larger market.

• Consumers also profit from globalization, cheaper products, new

products in no time.

Dark Side
• Causes unemployment in industrialised countries.
• Environmental problems, deforestation, pollutions, global warming,
climate change.

Manifestations of globalization

• • Post

• • Telecommunications / Mass media


• Involves a complex mix of homogeneity.


• Migration has become a major global issue.

• Pilgrims
• Tourism, Business travellers
• Schengen Visa, or visa free entry
• Trans-world production chains.
• Global sourcing of inputs.
• Foreign exchange markets.
• Banking (deposits, payments and loans).
• Securities markets / Insurance business.

• Global products/Global marketing and sales strategies

• Global currencies / Bank cards with access to global ATM networks.

• Global credit cards, Digital cash in electronic valets


• Global commercial enterprises.

• Global governance agencies.

• Global civil society associations.


• Intercontinental weapons

• Global campaigns

Global atmosphere - climate change, ozone depletion, radioactive
fallout, acid rain.

• Global communicable diseases.

• Global aspects of diet, drug use etc.

• Global campaigns of health improvement.


• • Global rules and regulations – Int. Law

• • Trans-world networks of lawyers and police

• • ICJ
• • Conceptions of the planet as a single place
• • Global symbols
• • Global events
• • Trans-world solidarities

Globalization in everyday life

• Internet

• Facebook

• Twitter

• Email

• Skype

• Smart phones

Globalization is here to stay

• Globalization is a reality and here to stay, So…

• We need to learn how to reap its benefits, and minimize its costs. To
do that, we must;

• Understand its impacts,

• Work to remedy the problems,

• Work to spread the benefits as widely as possible.

Globalization and IR

From sovereignty to transsovereignty: Terrorism, Criminal gangs,

Infectious disease, New actors, new norms, new regimes, new networks

International organizations at the end of the twentieth century: States

and beyond, International civil service, Interactions with
nongovernmental organizations, Reform of the United Nations, New
round of negotiations in WTO, Governance by international

Civil society: Multinational corporations, NGOs, Participation and


Globalization and Nationalism

Globalization and fragmentation are two phenomena that challenge

traditional conceptions of community and citizenship.
Ethnic fragmentation is one reason for the failed state in Europe as well
as in the Third World, but demands for the recognition of cultural
differences exist in all political communities.

Globalization theorists have defended cosmopolitan democracy on the

grounds that national democracies are unable to influence the global
forces which affect them.
The apex of nationalism in relations between the great powers
occurred in the first half of the twentieth century.

Nationalism remains a powerful force in the modern world but

globalization and fragmentation have led to discussions about the
possibility of new forms of political community.