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# Enquiry Case 5500/133:September 2003

to PD 5500:2003
Issue 3, November 2005

## Enquiry Case 5500/133

Flat unstayed ends of non-circular shape and associated flanges

Enquiry

Can the committee give guidance on how these flat unstayed ends of rectangular, elliptical or obround
shape should be designed? Also can the committee give guidance on how openings in these ends should be
designed and how associated rectangular flanges can be designed?

Yes, the following rules can be used for the above applications. These rules for flat ends with or without
openings have been based upon the rules that were given in the original issue of PD 5500:2000.

1 Flat ends
1.1 Flat unstayed end of rectangular, elliptical or obround shape without openings
The minimum thickness e of a welded or bolted non-circular flat end as shown in Figure 3.5-34, or
Figure 3.5-35a), Figure 3.5-35b) or Figure 3.5-35d) is given by:

e = CZa p / f

where
a is the smallest dimension of the rectangular, elliptical or obround end;
b is the largest dimension of the rectangular, elliptical or obround end;
C is as defined in 3.5.5.2 of the main text;
f is the design stress for the end;
p is the design pressure;
Z is a coefficient derived from Figure 1.

For a bolted flat end with a full face gasket, the bolt spacing shall not exceed:
0.25
E 6e
2 × d b + ⎛⎝ --------------------⎞⎠ × ⎛⎝ --------------------⎞⎠
200000 m + 0.5

where

## db is the bolt outside diameter;

E is the modulus of elasticity of the flat end material, at the design temperature, given in Table 3.6-3
(in N/mm2);
m is the gasket factor given in Table 3.8-4.

If necessary the flat end thickness shall be increased to enable this requirement to be met.
The minimum thickness e of a bolted non-circular flat end with a narrow face gasket, as shown in
Figure 3.5-35c) is given by:

2 2
0.3Gs pZ 6W ml h G
e = ---------------------------- + ----------------------------
S FO nP bmin S FO

Enquiry Case 5500/133:September 2003
to PD 5500:2003
Issue 2, November 2005

and the minimum thickness e1 at and beyond the gasket is given by:

⎛ 6Wh G 6W ml h G ⎞
- ; ----------------------------
e 1 = max ⎜ --------------------------- ⎟
⎝ nP bmin S FA nP bmin S FO⎠

where W, SFO and SFA are as defined in 3.8.2 of the main text, Gs, Wm1, hG and n are as defined in 2.2.2 of
this Enquiry Case, and Pbmin is the minimum spacing between bolt centres.
The minimum required thickness e shall not be less than e1.

NOTE In the case of long flat ends (where a/b < 0.2) other than as shown in Figure 3.5-35, a minimum value of CZ
equal to 0.71 should be used in accordance with 3.5.5.3.1 to determine the thickness required.

## Figure 1 — Value of coefficient Z for non-circular flat ends

1.2 Flat unstayed ends of rectangular, elliptical or obround shape with openings
The following rules can be used for openings no larger than 0.5 times the smallest dimension of the end
(i.e. a, as defined above). Holes may extend up to the inside of the shell if the end is welded, or up to the
inside of the gasket if the end is bolted. A group of holes of varying hole diameter and with any orientation
is permitted. For a group of holes, each pair of adjacent holes should be checked.
For long rectangular ends, with b/a>3, where the reinforcement is obtained by increasing the thickness of
the whole end, the minimum thickness ep is the greater of:

e p = e a/ ( a – d ) and

e p = e P/ ( P – d A )

Enquiry Case 5500/133:September 2003
to PD 5500:2003
Issue 2, November 2005

where

## d is the diameter of the opening or inside diameter of a branch;

dA is the mean diameter of a pair of openings;
P is the distance between the centres of the pair of openings;
other terms are as defined above.

Where the pair of openings is along, i.e. parallel to, the short axis of the end, only the first equation for
calculating ep needs to be considered.
For other ends, each opening should be provided with a reinforcement area equal to 0.5de axisymmetrically
and uniformly disposed about the centre of the opening. The same piece of material should not be used to
reinforce more than one opening. The maximum length of branch material that may be included as
reinforcement should be 2.5 times the lesser of the nominal thicknesses of the branch and the flat end.

2 Rectangular flanges
2.1 General
In the following notation the suffix L is used to denote lengths measured parallel to the long side of the
flange, and the suffix S for lengths parallel to the short side. This notation is shown in Figure 2,
Figure 3, Figure 4.

AL

CL

BL
BS
AS

CS

## Figure 2 — Overall flange dimensions

Enquiry Case 5500/133:September 2003
to PD 5500:2003
Issue 2, November 2005

g0

dB , n bolts

g1
t

BS or BL

GS or GL
G0S or G0L
CS or CL
AS or AL

g0

dB , n bolts

g1
t

BS or BL

A1S or A1L

CS or CL
GOS or GOL

## References given are to the main text unless otherwise stated.

It is assumed that the flange width measured from the inside edge to the outside edge is the same for both
long and short sides, similarly the distance from the centre line of the bolts to the inside edge of the flange

Enquiry Case 5500/133:September 2003
to PD 5500:2003
Issue 2, November 2005

is assumed the same for both long and short sides, i.e. AL – BL = AS – BS and CL – BL = CS – BS. Further it
is assumed that the flange hub thicknesses g0 and g1 are the same for both long and short sides.
2.2 Rectangular flange with narrow face gasket
2.2.1 General
For a circular flange calculated using the integral method, account is taken of the support from the shell,
however if calculated using the loose method the flange ring is assumed to carry the full calculated
moment. For a rectangular flange with a narrow face gasket the flange cannot be assumed to carry any of
the moment at the mid-span points and thus the following method assumes that the rectangular shell, to
which the flange is attached, carries the full moment.
NOTE These assumptions become more conservative for rectangular flanges with an aspect ratio close to a square.
The notation used in 2.2 of this Enquiry Case, if not given, is based on 3.8.2 of the main text.
It is assumed that the gasket width N is the same for both long and short sides; the gasket dimensions b
and b0 are calculated from 3.8.2 and gasket factors m and y are obtained from Table 3.8-4.
The dimensions of the gaskets are related as follows:
GL = G0L p 2b
GS = G0S p 2b
where G0 is the outside dimension of the gasket.

Enquiry Case 5500/133:September 2003
to PD 5500:2003
Issue 2, November 2005

2.2.3 Forces
The forces on the flange should be calculated using the following equations.
H = pGLGs
HG = 2b(2GL+ 2Gs)mp
HD = pBLBs
HT = H p HD
The minimum required bolt loads should be calculated using the following equations.
Wm1 = HG + H
Wm2 = 2(GL + Gs)by
Check assumed bolting as per 3.8.3.2.
2.2.5 Moments and moment arms
The moment arms and total moment acting on the flange should be calculated using the following
equations.
CL – BL – g1
h D = ---------------------------------
2
CL – GL
h G = ---------------------
2
2C L – B L – G L
h T = ---------------------------------------
4
Mop = HDhD + HGhG + HThT

Matm = WhG

## 2.2.6 Flange thickness

Using design stresses SFA and SFO, as defined in 3.8.2, the flange thickness, t, is the greatest of the
following:
6M op
Operating condition, t = -----------------------------------------------------------
-
S FO [ 2 ( C L + C S ) – nd ]

6M atm
Bolting-up condition, t = -----------------------------------------------------------
-
S FA [ 2 ( C L + C S ) – nd ]

( P bmax – 2d b ) × ( m + 0.5 )
Bolt spacing condition, t = --------------------------------------------------------------------
0.25
6 × ( E/200000 )

where

Pbmax is the maximum spacing between bolt centres on long or short sides;
db is the bolt diameter;
n is the number of bolts.

Enquiry Case 5500/133:September 2003
to PD 5500:2003
Issue 2, November 2005

## 2.2.7 Shell thickness

Using design stresses SHA and SHO, as defined in 3.8.2, the shell thickness, g0, is the greater of the
following:
6M op
Operating condition, g 0 = -----------------------------------------
-
2 ( B L + B S )S HO

6M atm
Bolting-up condition, g 0 = -----------------------------------------
-
2 ( B L + B S )S HA

## 2.3 Rectangular flange with full face gasket

2.3.1 General
For a rectangular flange with a full face gasket the bending moment is balanced by the reaction HR outside
the bolt circle, as in 3.8.4. It is assumed that no moment is transmitted into the rectangular shell to which
the flange is attached.
The notation used in 2.3 of this Enquiry Case, if not given, is based upon that of 3.8.4 of the main text, if
given there, or 3.8.2 of the main text.
It is assumed that the gasket width is the same for both long and short sides, i.e. G0L p A1L = G0S p A1S.
The gasket factors m and y are obtained from Table 3.8-4.
b½o = min[(G0L p CL);(CL p A1L)]
b½ = 4 b′ 0
GL = CL p d p 2b¾
GS = CS p d p 2b¾

## 2b¾ is the effective gasket pressure width, taken as 5 mm.

2.3.3 Forces
The forces on the flange should be calculated using the following equations.
H = p(CL p d)(CS p d)
HG = 2b¾(2GL + 2GS)mp
HD = pBLBS
HT = H p HD
2.3.4 Moments and moment arms
The moment arms and total moment acting on the flange should be calculated using the following
equations.
CL – BL – g1
h D = ---------------------------------
2
d + 2b″
h G = -------------------
2
C L + d + 2b″ – B L
h T = -----------------------------------------------
4

M = HD hD + HG hG + HT hT
G 0L – C L – d d
h R = ---------------------------------- + ---
4 2
M
H R = -------
hR

Enquiry Case 5500/133:September 2003
to PD 5500:2003
Issue 2, November 2005

The minimum required bolting loads should be calculated using the following equations.
Wm1 = HG + H + HR
Wm2 = 2(CL + CS)b½y
Check assumed bolting as per 3.8.3.2.
2.3.6 Flange thickness
Using the design stress SFO, as defined in 3.8.2, the flange thickness t is the greater of the following:

6M op
Operating condition, t = -----------------------------------------------------------
-
S FO [ 2 ( C L + C S ) – nd ]

( P bmax – 2d b ) × ( m + 0.5 )
Bolt spacing condition, t = --------------------------------------------------------------------
0.25
6 × ( E/200000 )

where

Pbmax is the maximum spacing between bolt centres on long or short sides;
db is the bolt diameter;
n is the number of bolts.