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Lesson 5.4 FOUNDATIONS 5-1
Lesson 5.4
FOUNDATIONS
5-1
Foundation Selection
Foundation Selection

Shallow foundations:

• Used at rock sites or when firm soils are at shallow depth

• Not recommended where soils are:

• Compressible, expansive, collapsible, liquefiable, prone to scour

Deep foundations are used when shallow foundations are not suitable

Note: Can excavate and replace or improve problem soils if shallow enough

5-2

Earthquake Effects on Foundations
Earthquake Effects on
Foundations

Primary effects:

Force and moment demand due to inertial forces Secondary effects:

Displacement demand due to:

• Seismic settlement

• Liquefaction-induced lateral spreading

• Slope instability

• Fault displacement

5-3

Shallow Foundation: Seismic Vulnerability
Shallow Foundation:
Seismic Vulnerability

• Little field evidence of collapse due to geotechnical failure modes (excessive eccentricity, bearing, sliding)

• Structural failure has occurred due to overstressing of concrete, steel. Modes include; flexure, shear, and joint shear

• Permanent ground deformation can be a source of damage

5-4

Seismic Vulnerability of Deep Foundations Pile cap / pile head connection failure Inadequate structural capacity
Seismic Vulnerability of
Deep Foundations
Pile cap / pile head connection failure
Inadequate structural capacity
• Force demand
• Displacement demand
Inadequate geotechnical capacity
• Excessive pile / pile cap deformation
6-5
Soil-Foundation-Structure Interaction
Soil-Foundation-Structure
Interaction

Seismic loading on foundations depends upon soil-foundation-structure interaction

• Inertial interaction: interaction between the superstructure and the structural foundation

• Kinematic interaction: interaction between the structural foundation and the adjacent soil

• Not important except for stiff piles in very soft ground and massive structures on shallow foundations (e.g., nuclear power plants)

6-6

Soil-Structure Interaction: Inertial Interaction
Soil-Structure Interaction:
Inertial Interaction
    x x  ry      x 
  
x
x  ry
  
x  ry
ry

6-7

Soil-Structure Interaction: Kinematic Effects
Soil-Structure Interaction:
Kinematic Effects
1. Kinematic Seismic Response Kinematic motion
1. Kinematic Seismic Response
Kinematic motion

6-8

Modeling Soil-Structure Interaction:
Modeling Soil-Structure Interaction:

Approach:

Model foundation as a node at the base of the global bridge model Procedures:

Attach decoupled linear soil springs to foundation node

• Linear spring stiffness may depend upon deformation

• Springs represented by stiffness matrix

6-9

Sallow Foudnation Uncoupled Spring Model
Sallow Foudnation Uncoupled
Spring Model
Sallow Foudnation Uncoupled Spring Model 5-10

5-10

Foundation Stiffness Matrix 5-11
Foundation Stiffness Matrix
5-11
Deep Foundation Substructure Modeling
Deep Foundation Substructure
Modeling
Detailed model of superstructure
Detailed model of
superstructure

6-12

Pile Head Stiffness Matrix
Pile Head Stiffness Matrix
      x y z x y z  k 0
x
y
z
x
y
z
k
0
0
0
 k
0 
11
15
0
k
0
k
0
0
22
24
0
0
k
0
0
0
33
0
k
0
k
0
0
42
44
 k
0
0
0
k
0
51
55
0
0
0
0
0
k
66
Force Vector for δ x =1.0

6-13

General Methodology for Seismic Design of Foundations
General Methodology for Seismic
Design of Foundations

Step 1 - Size foundations for other limit states Step 2 - Provide foundation stiffness coefficients to seismic analyst (if required)

• Include embedment, finite layer effects

Step 3 - Check foundations using loads from seismic analysis

• Re-design foundation, re-compute stiffness, re- analyze seismic response if necessary

Step 4 - Repeat Steps 2 and 3 to Convergence

5-14

Load Components on Footings
Load Components on Footings
Load Components on Footings e = M/V 5-15

e = M/V

5-15

Stiffness Matrix Evaluation
Stiffness Matrix Evaluation

Stiffness of foundation depends upon:

• Mode of deformation

• Geometry of footing (L/B)

• Shear modulus and Poisson’s ratio of soil

• Footing embedment See FHWA GEC-3 for more information on stiffness calculations

5-16

Shallow Foundation Design Checks
Shallow Foundation Design Checks

Global stability Geotechnical capacity

• Excessive eccentricity

• Bearing resistance

• Sliding resistance

Structural capacity

• Flexure

• Shear

• Joint shear

5-17

Geotechnical Design
Geotechnical Design

Geotechnical

Geotechnical Design Geotechnical Ductile Excessive eccentricity, Bearing, and Sliding 5-18

Ductile

Excessive eccentricity, Bearing, and Sliding

5-18

Eccentricity Limits
Eccentricity Limits

No approval needed when:

• e max = B/3 for soil

• e max = 0.45B for rock

Larger values allowed with owners approval

• Can limit load transferred to footing

• See Appendix A of 2009 Guide Spec for rocking limits

5-19

Bearing Capacity of Shallow Foundations
Bearing Capacity of Shallow
Foundations

Footings on soil:

• Reduce footing dimensions to account for eccentricity

• Treat as uniformly loaded footing, use general bearing capacity equations

Footings on rock:

• Use trapezoidal or triangular bearing stress as appropriate

• Compare maximum bearing stress to unconfined strength

5-20

Reduced Foundation Width (Meyerhoff’s Method)
Reduced Foundation Width
(Meyerhoff’s Method)

B B 2e

q

N

B

Reduced Foundation Width (Meyerhoff’s Method) B  B  2 e q  N B 

5-21

Modified Bearing Capacity Equation
Modified Bearing Capacity Equation

Rectangular footings with inclined loads:

q n = cN c s c + q s N q s q d q C wq + 0.5B’N s C w

where s = Shape factor C wq and C wq = Water table correction factors

d q = correction factor for embedment

5-22
5-22
Soil Shear Strength
Soil Shear Strength

For seismic loading, FS = 1

Use effective stress parameters (c’, ’) for medium dense to dense sand, gravel

• For loose sand, reduce c’ and ’ by 1/3 rd ; i.e. c = 0.67c’ and ’ = tan -1 (0.67 tan’)

Use total stress parameters for saturated silt, clay

• c = undrained shear strength, S u ; = 0 for saturated soil

5-23

Sliding (with Passive Resistance)
Sliding (with Passive Resistance)

FS = (R +R P )/ (P h +P A )

Friction and adhesion / cohesion R n = (W+P v ) tan b +(c a (B - a l b) + c(a l b) + P P )L

b +(c a (B - a l b) + c(a l b) + P P )L

Friction only R n = (W + P) tan b + P P L

Note active earth pressure contribution to driving force

5-24

Secondary Seismic Loads
Secondary Seismic Loads

Displacement demands from permanent foundation soil deformations

• Vertical settlement

• Lateral displacement

5-25

Deep Foundation Failure Modes
Deep Foundation Failure Modes
Deep Foundation Failure Modes 6-26
Deep Foundation Failure Modes 6-26

6-26

Geotechnical Capacity of Deep Foundations For axial capacity • Plunging and uplift due to force
Geotechnical Capacity of Deep
Foundations
For axial capacity
• Plunging and uplift due to force and moment
demand
• Plunging due to downdrag-induced
displacement demand
For lateral capacity
• Pushover analysis using Lpile-type analysis
with static p-multipliers and passive resistance
of cap
• Stiffness usually governs lateral loading
6-27
Pile Group Effects
Pile Group Effects

Affect both vertical and lateral capacity and stiffness Depend upon spacing

– Check equivalent single pile for vertical capacity

– Lateral deformation and capacity based upon p-y multipliers

Moment capacity relies upon axial capacity

Moment Capacity for a Pile Group 6-29
Moment Capacity for a Pile Group
6-29
p-Multipliers for Pushover Analyses Note: p-Multipliers for displacement (lateral stiffness) analyses are
p-Multipliers for Pushover Analyses
Note:
p-Multipliers
for
displacement
(lateral
stiffness)
analyses are
different
See GEC-3
for more
information
6-30
Pile Head Pullout Failure
Pile Head Pullout Failure

Sudden loss of uplift capacity Significant reduction in moment capacity

• Theoretically can lead to overturning

Design Requirements

• Anchoring devices for timber, steel H piles and unfilled pipe piles

• Sufficient embedment length of reinforcement and dowels for concrete and concrete filled pipe piles

6-31

Batter Piles
Batter Piles
Batter Piles Carry more lateral load than vertical piles due to greater stiffness Provide cost effective

Carry more lateral load than vertical piles due to greater stiffness

Provide cost effective lateral resistance if properly designed • Must be capacity protected or designed for moment at pile head

6-32

Lesson 5.4 Questions? 5-33
Lesson 5.4
Questions?
5-33