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SMTP stands for Simple Mail Transfer Protocol.

It is a TCP/IP protocol that works on

application layer and specifies how computers exchange electronic mail. It works with post
office protocol (POP).


To send a mail, a system must have a client MTA(mail transfer agent), and to receive a mail, a
system must have a server MTA. SMTP transfers this message from client MTA to server MTA.
SMTP uses commands and responses to transfer the message between an MTA client and MTA
server In order to send a mail, SMTP is used two times: one between the sender and the sender's
mail server, and the other between the two mail servers.
The problems that may arise with SMTP protocol are as follows:
Some older version of SMTP implementations cannot handle messages exceeding 64KB.
If the client and server have different timeouts, one of them may give up while the other
is still busy, unexpectedly terminating the connection.
To get around these problems, extended SMTP (ESMTP) has been defined in RFC 1425.

SMTP Commands
• SMTP commands are sent from the client to the server.
• Each command consists of a keyword or command name followed by zero or more
argument. It means some keywords do not contain any argument.

SMTP Responses
• SMTP responses are sent from server to client.
• Each response begins with a three digit code and may be followed by additional
textual information.
• The leading digits indicate the category of the response.

Mail Transfer Phases

The basic SMTP operation occurs in three phases:

1. Connection set up
2. Mail transfer
3. Connection termination
Connection Setup
An SMTP sender will attempt to set up a TCP connection with a target host when it has
one or more mail message to deliver to that host. The following sequence occurs during
connection setup:

1. The sender opens a TCP connection with the receiver.

2. Once the connection is established, the receiver identifies itself with '220 Service
3. The sender identifies itself with the HELO command.
4. The receiver accepts the sender's identification with "250 'OK".
Mail transfer
• Once the connection has been established, the SMTP sender may send one or more
messages to the SMTP receiver.
Connection termination
• The SMTP sender closes the connection in the following manner:
1. The sender sends a QUIT command and waits for a reply.
2. Sender initiates TCP close operation for the TCP connection.
3. The receiver initiates its TCP close after sending is reply to the QUIT command.

What is ESMTP?
In response to the rampant spam problem on the internet, an extension of SMTP was released in
1995: extended SMTP (ESMTP for short). It adds additional commands to the protocol in 8-bit
ASCII code, enabling many new functions to save bandwidth and protect servers. These
include, for example:

 Authentication of the sender

 SSL encryption of e-mails
 Possibility of attaching multimedia files to e-mails
 Restrictions on the size of e-mails according to server specifications
 Simultaneous transmission to several recipients
 Standardized error messages in case of undeliverability

Lastly, here are some examples of ESMTP commands:

command Meaning
command Meaning

EHLO The alternative to “HELO” in the extended protocol. The client logs on with its computer
name and starts the session. If the server supports ESMTP, the session is started
successfully. Otherwise, the client must use SMTP.

8BITMIME The client prompts the server to allow the 8-bit ASCII character set in the message text.

SIZE The client prompts the server to specify the maximum e-mail size allowed in bytes.

STARTTLS The client asks if the server supports TLS encryption.

What is FTP? One of the most popular uses of the Internet is to download files - that is,
transfer files from a computer on the Internet to your computer. Many thousands of files
are downloaded every day from the Internet. Most of these files are downloaded using the
Internet's File Transfer Protocol, commonly referred to as FTP. This protocol can also be
used to upload files from your computer to another computer on the Internet.


TP works when you have successfully opened the server command port 21 and
established a connection between the client and FTP server. Then you can upload or
access stored files through basic commands.

To connect and execute commands, the user is usually required to authenticate by

entering an username and password.

There are various uses for and types of FTP:

1. An FTP site is a web site where users can easily upload or download
specific files.
2. FTP by mail allows users without access to the Internet to access and copy
files using anonymous FTP by sending an email message
to ftpmail@decwrl.dec.com and putting the word help in the body of the text.
3. FTP Explorer is an FTP client based on Windows 95 file manager (Windows
95 Explorer).
4. An FTP server is a dedicated computer which provides an FTP service. This
invites hackers and necessitates security hardware or software such as
utilizing usernames, passwords and file access control.
5. An FTP client is a computer application which accesses an FTP server.
While doing so, users should block incoming FTP connection attempts using
command Meaning

passive mode and should check for viruses on all downloaded files.

Features of FTP
The basic features of FTP are:

1. Data representation
• FTP handles three types of data representations-ASCII (7 bit), EBCDIC (8-bit) and
8-binary data.

File organization and Data structures

• FTP supports both unstructured and structured file.
An unstructured file contains string of bytes and is enl-marked by EOF (End of file).
A structured file contains a list of records and each record is delimited by EDR (End
of Record).

3. Transmission modes
• FTP can transfer a file by using one of the following three modes:
Stream mode
BLOCK mode
Compressed MODE

4. Error control
• Since TCP is used for data transfer no additional error recovery mechanism is

5. Access control
• File access protection is done using login procedure with login name and
FTP operation
• FTP uses client/server model for communication.
• Two TCP connections are used for file transfer.
• On one connection control signals (commands and responses) are exchanged and
the other connection is used for actual data transfer. These two connections are
called control connection and data connection respectively.
command Meaning


What the Heck is SNMP Anyway?

SNMP stands for Simple Network Management Protocol. It is a standard way of monitoring
hardware and software from nearly any manufacturer, from Juniper, to Cisco, to Microsoft,
Unix, and everything in between. SNMP requires only a couple of basic components to work: a
management station, and an agent.
NMP works by sending messages, called protocol data units (PDUs), to
devices within your network that “speak” SNMP. These messages are called
SNMP Get-Requests. Using these requests, network administrators can
track virtually any data values they specify. All of the information SNMP
tracks can be provided to a product that asks for it. That product can either
display or store the data, depending on an administrator’s preferences.

The Architecture of SNMP

In order to effectively monitor network activity, SNMP relies on an
architecture consisting of the following:

 Managed devices: From printers and workstations to resources like

routers and switches, there are many devices within an organization’s
network that have to be managed and monitored. Managed devices
can be configured with SNMP nodes that allow them to interface with
other network components.
 Agent: Overall SNMP management relies on a system of local device
information being collected and transmitted. This happens via agents,
command Meaning

programs that are tied to local devices with the purpose of collecting,
storing, and signaling the presence of data from these environments.
 Network management station: This is the base that is shared
between agents and SNMP managers, and it provides the memory
and processing functionality to fuel network management.

Together, these components gather information to bring back to the network


What Can It Do?

SNMP is very simple, yet powerful. It has the ability to help you manage your network by:
 Provide Read/Write abilities – for example you could use it to reset passwords remotely, or re-
configure IP addresses.
 Collect information on how much bandwidth is being used.
 Collect error reports into a log, useful for troubleshooting and identifying trends.
 Email an alert when your server is low on disk space.
command Meaning

 Monitor your servers’ CPU and Memory use, alert when thresholds are exceeded.
 Page or send an SMS text-message when a device fails.
 Can perform active polling, i.e. Monitoring station asks devices for status every few minutes.
 Passive SNMP – devices can send alerts to a monitoring station on error conditions.

What is HTTP? HTTP, the Hypertext Transfer Protocol, is the application-level protocol that is used to
transfer data on the Web. HTTP comprises the rules by which Web browsers and servers exchange
Basic Features
There are three basic features that make HTTP a simple but powerful

 HTTP is connectionless: The HTTP client, i.e., a browser initiates an HTTP

request and after a request is made, the client waits for the response. The
server processes the request and sends a response back after which client
disconnect the connection. So client and server knows about each other during
current request and response only. Further requests are made on new
connection like client and server are new to each other.

 HTTP is media independent: It means, any type of data can be sent by HTTP
as long as both the client and the server know how to handle the data content.
It is required for the client as well as the server to specify the content type
using appropriate MIME-type.

 HTTP is stateless: As mentioned above, HTTP is connectionless and it is a

direct result of HTTP being a stateless protocol. The server and client are aware
of each other only during a current request. Afterwards, both of them forget
about each other. Due to this nature of the protocol, neither the client nor the
browser can retain information between different requests across the web
 Basically there are two types of top level domains
 Non-geographical Domains.
 Geographical Domains.
 (a) Non-geographical domains are those which indicate the type of organization,
e.g. www.yahoo.com in which com indicates that it is commercial type of

 (b) Geographical domains indicate the code for individual countries, e.g.

 Here .in indicates that the network connection is in a country named India.
Each domain corresponds to a unique numeric IP address. Whenever we specify a DNS name
like www.yahoo.com. This name is converted to its corresponding IP address and this IP address
is used to locate the exact site on Internet.


DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) is a protocol that is commonly used in networks for
dynamic IP addressing configuration. Every user’s device needs at least IP address to join the
network and connect to services. When computer first connects to local network with cable or WiFi
SSID, first thing is to look for IP address, netmask, default gateway and DNS servers.
How does DHCP work?

1. Host connecting to network (cable or wireless) sends DHCP discover message to all hosts in
Layer 2 segment (destination address is FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF). Frame with
this DISCOVER message hits the DHCP Server.

2. After the DHCP Server receives discover message it suggests the IP addressing offering to the
client host by unicast. This OFFER message contains:

 proposed IP address for client (here

 subnet mask to identify the subnet space (here
 IP of default gateway for subnet (here
 IP of DNS server for name translations (here

3. Now after the client receives the offer it requests the information officially
sending REQUEST message to server this time by unicast.

4. Server sends ACKNOWLEDGE message confirming the DHCP lease to client. Now client is
allowed to use new IP settings.