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CFB31103 Food Process Engineering

Laboratory 4: Thermal processing

Pasteurisation Process

Objectives

1. Describe the working principle for pasteurisation process


2. Evaluate function of plate heat exchanger for heat transfer process
3. Compute the thermal energy involve during pasteurisation
4. Elaborate the effects of high temperature short time in food processes

Introduction

Thermal processing is a part of food preservation utilising heat to inhibit microbial growth. Food is complex and
heat sensitive often exposed to pathogenic microorganism that lead to food safety issues. Processing parameters
are materials’ specific. Therefore, by tailoring the process following material’s, will avoid changes in food properties
particularly sensorial, nutritional and also quality. One of the thermal processing commonly use in food industry is
pasteurisation. Pasteurisation is one of the high temperature short time (HTST) thermal processing. It’s commonly
for milk, non-acidic food and liquid that have not too high solid content.

Pasteurisation involve heating process depending of food materials, for example milk, 71.7℃ for 15 seconds to
inactivate microbial and cooling it to less than 10℃ as quickly as possible. For the heating and cooling process,
heat exchanger is used. It is ideal to monitor the temperature of inlet and outlet of heat-exchanger. This is to
ensure optimal conditions along the process. Commonly, in food industry, the hot milk is used to transfer heat to
the incoming cold milk at the heat exchanger as saving cost measures.

This experiment use Armfield Pasteuriser FT 75. The major components for this unit are holding tank, three stages
plate heat exchanger, holding tube and also water heating tank (Figure 1). The three stages heat exchanger
consist of heater, cooler and interchanger sections. After heating (pasteurise), food sample is hold at the holding
tube for 15 seconds. Food sample that not meet the set pasteurisation temperature will be diverted back to feed
tank through diversion valve. The temperature sensor at the diversion valve will transmits signal to heating element
of heat exchanger to adjust the temperature to ensure set target is met. Sample that have been pasteurised is
then circulated back to heat exchanger to the cooling section.

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Materials and Equipment

1. Water
2. ARMFIELD Pasteuriser FT75

Procedures
1. Fill in the feed tank with 3litres water.
2. Set temperature for pasteurisation. Press the pressing button (F) and simultaneously pressing UP or DOWN
button until reaching target temperature. Set to 72℃.
3. Check the volumetric flowrate at the flowmeter. Record it.
4. Switch on the heater.
5. Switch on the feed pump. Set the variable speed to position 20 on the graduations- ensure that air is
removed.

Data Analysis and Questions

Using recorded data:


1. Determine the efficiency of the pasteurisation process through the temperature obtained.
2. Describe the full process of pasteurisation in your own words. Use process flow diagram to show the
main unit operations.
3. Calculate the length of holding pipe to achieve the heating of 15 seconds.

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