Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 23

Extracting the fects of the

damaging ef 2010
eruption of in Central
Merapi volcano Java,
Indonesia

Fajar Yulianto,ofan,
Parwati Smarudin &
Muhammad Rokhis
Kho
Muhammad Haidar
Natural Hazards
Journal of the
International Society for
the Prevention and
Mitigation of
Natural Hazards

ISSN 0921-030X
Volume 66
Number 2

Nat Hazards (2013) 66:229-247


DOI 10.1007/s11069-012-0438-4

123
Your article is protected by copyright and all
rights ar +Businese held exclusively by Springer Science
is for per s Media Dordrecht. This e-offprint
archivedsonal use only and shall not be selfin
wish to selectronic repositories. If you
acceptedelf-archive your work, please use the
own webauthor’s version for posting to your
You maysite or your institution’s repository.
version ofurther deposit the accepted author’s
n a funder’s repository at a funder’s
provided it is not made publicly
until 12 months after publication.
request,
available

123
Author's personal copy
Nat Hazards (2013) 66:229–247

DOI 10.1007/s11069-012-0438-4

Extracting the damaging effects of the 2010 eruption of


Merapi volcano in Central Java, Indonesia

Fajar Yulianto • Parwati Sofan • Muhammad Rokhis Khomarudin •


Muhammad Haidar

Received: 14 February 2012/Accepted: 1 October 2012/Published online: 29 November 2012


Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2012

Abstract This research focuses on providing information related to the damaging effects of
the 2010 eruption of Merapi volcano in Central Java, Indonesia. This information will be
used to help emergency responders to assess losses more timely and efficiently, and to
monitor the progress in emergency response and recovery. The objectives of this research
are: (a) to generate a map of pyroclastic deposits based on activities pre- and post-volcano
eruption of 2010 in the research area, (b) to investigate the impact of volcano eruption on
the environment, and (c) to assess the impact of volcano eruption on landuse. ALOS
PALSAR remote sensing data pre- and post-disaster were used in this research for mapping
the volcano eruption. Topographic and geomorphological maps were analyzed for profiling
and field orientation, which were used to investigate the impact of volcano eruption on the
environment. SPOT 4 satellite images were used in this research for updating landuse
information from the topographic map. The result of the landuse updated data was used for
assessment of the volcano eruption’s impact on landuse with the GIS raster environment.
The volcanic eruption that occurred in 2010 is estimated to have an impact of 133.31 ha for
settlements, 92.32 ha for paddy fields, 235.60 ha for dry farming, 570.98 ha for plantations,
380.86 ha for bare land, and 0.12 ha for forest areas. An estimate of the number of buildings
damaged due to the volcano eruption in 2010 was carried out by overlaying a map of
pyroclastic deposits and the information point of the building sites from the topographic
map. The total number of buildings damaged is estimated to be around 12,276 units.

Keywords Merapi volcano eruption Remote sensing Building damage Agricultural


loss ALOS PALSAR GIS technology Central Java Indonesia

F. Yulianto (&) P. Sofan M. R. Khomarudin


Remote Sensing Application Center, Indonesian National Institute of Aeronautics and Space
(LAPAN), Jl. LAPAN No. 70, Pekayon, Pasar Rebo, Jakarta, Indonesia e-mail:
fajar.lapan.rs@gmail.com; fajar.yulianto@lapan.go.id

M. Haidar

123
Author's personal copy
230 Nat Hazards (2013) 66:229–247

National Coordinating Agency for Surveys and Mapping (BAKOSURTANAL), Jakarta, Indonesia
1 Introduction

Indonesia is a country prone to natural disasters. It lies among the Pacific tectonic plates,
the Eurasian and Indo-Australian, based on the scope of geography and geology. These
conditions make Indonesia vulnerable to natural disasters such as earthquakes and volcanoes
(Sutikno 2007). Indonesia has a history of volcanic eruptions since 1974, about 52 events,
which have caused 18,271 deaths and economic losses of US$ 344 million [Centre for
Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED) (2012)]. Merapi volcano is an active
volcano of the type stratovolcano, located in Central Java province, with a height of about
2,965 m above sea level. It was formed as a result of the activity of the IndoAustralia plate
zone and has caused volcanic activities along the central part of Java island. There have
been at least 61 recorded eruptions before the year 2000 (Lavigne et al. 2000).
Merapi eruption events have caused various effects of loss, including environmental
degradation, loss of life, property, and others. The impact of the eruption events has been
recorded since 1822. Eruption events in 1900 destroyed five villages, killing more than 100
people. In 1920, 1932, 1961, 1996, 1973, 1974, 1975, 1976, 1994, 1995, 1996, and 1998,
there has been more than 300 people killed and 500 houses damaged by the eruptions
(Lavigne et al. 2000, 2008). The Indonesian National Agency for Disaster Management
(BNPB) has noted the eruption event in 2010, which destroyed the settlement’s sector,
infrastructure, telecommunications, and caused disruptions to electricity and fresh water
supplies.
The need for the rapid mapping of volcanic hazards is necessary for emergency response
activities. Volcanic hazards mapping can be used to estimate the impact of disaster loss
assessment relatively precisely and efficiently, and to monitor the progress in emergency
response and recovery. Remote sensing technology can be used to map the impact of
disasters and monitor the progress of recovery and reconstruction. Several researches have
been carried out for mapping the impact of the damages caused by volcanic eruptions. This
research involved the use of high-resolution optical satellite imagery, as has been carried
out by Wang et al. (2003), Fu et al. (2004), Tang et al. (2006), Song et al. (2006), Suzuki
and Yamazaki (2008), and Guo et al. (2009). An active sensor, such as a synthetic aperture
radar (SAR), was also utilized, as has been demonstrated by Matsuoka and Yamazaki
(2000), Stramondo et al. (2006), Trianni and Gamba (2008), and Dong et al. (2010), and
light detection and ranging (LIDAR) was also investigated, as researched by Dash et al.
(2004).
SAR data can provide useful information for quick damage assessment. As an early stage
when the field survey is impossible due to bad weather (cloudy and rainy) and field
conditions after a serious disaster, SAR data can penetrate clouds and give the surface
information clearly. However, optical remote sensing cannot show the surface condition
when it is covered by clouds. SAR is strongly sensitive to the surface changes caused by
damage. The damage detection from SAR images requires pre- and post-disaster acquisition
(Dong et al. 2010). Change detection could also be applied to detect and assess other natural
disasters, such as earthquakes, floods, mud-rock flows, and forest fires. Several other
applications have been applied by Le Toan et al. (1997), Quegan et al. (2000), Nonaka et al.
(2007), Tzeng et al. (2007), Wulder et al. (2008), Bayarsaikhan et al. (2009), and Gao and
Liu (2010) for the monitoring and survey of marine resources, environmental changes and
pollution, obtaining a dynamic picture of urban landuse growth, evaluation of plant growth,
geographic database updates, etc. SAR data characteristics are poorer visual display, a lower

123
Author's personal copy
Nat Hazards (2013) 66:229–247 231

resolution, and the data processing strategies are more complex when compared with the
data of optical remote sensing. Utilization of the data is limited to a quick application for
monitoring and disaster management (Dong et al. 2010). Geographic information system
(GIS) technology can be used as a tool for modeling and assessing the hazards, as has been
done by Kresch et al. (2002), Marfai and King (2008), and Ward et al. (2011). A scheme to
map and model the volcano eruption and its effects, including landuse assessment based on
the development of remote sensing ability and GIS, is proposed in this current research.
Several researches have been conducted with different methods of approach used for the
hazard mapping and modeling of volcanic eruptions. For hazard mapping, these include,
among others, mapping tephra fallout risk (Barberi et al. 1990; Connor et al. 2001), hazard
prediction for volcanic explosions (Saito et al. 2001), and the impact of pyroclastic density
current (PDC) surges on building damage (Baxter et al. 2005). For modeling, these include,
among others, lava flow hazard mapping and using computer simulations (Wadge et al.
1994), GIS application for lava flow estimation (Kauahikaua et al. 1995), mapping of
pyroclastic flows using numerical modeling simulations (Rossano et al. 2004), hazard
modeling of volcanic ash falls using the Monte Carlo method (Hurst and Smith 2004), GIS
method for hazard mapping PDCs (Toyos et al. 2007), and approaches and modeling of lava
flow hazards (Felpeto et al. 2007).
This research focuses on providing information related to the damaging effects caused
by the 2010 eruption of Merapi volcano based on SAR data (Fig. 1). The objectives of this
research are: (a) to generate a map of pyroclastic deposits based on activities pre- and
postvolcano eruption of 2010 in the research area, (b) to investigate the impact of volcano
eruption on the environment, and (c) to assess the impact of volcano eruption on landuse.

2 Methodology

In this research, the data processing and analysis were divided into three steps: (1) generate
a map of pyroclastic deposits, (2) identification of the environment damage due to volcano
eruption, (3) assessment of the volcano eruption effect on landuse. ALOS PALSAR remote
sensing data pre-disaster (April 27, 2007) and post-disaster (November 5, 2010) together
with the SAR system was used within this research for mapping the pyroclastic deposits.
Environment damage in this study focused on the region affected by the distribution of
pyroclastic deposits from Merapi eruption events; this could include: sedimentation, air
pollution, volcanic ash, etc.. Topographic and geomorphologic maps are considered for
profiling and field orientation. SPOT 4 satellite images were used in this research for
updating landuse information from the topographic map. The result of the landuse updated
data was used for assessment of the volcano eruption’s effect on landuse with the GIS raster
environment. The types of spatial data used for this research are shown in Table 1 and
detailed descriptions of the methodology steps undertaken in this study are given in the
following sections.

2.1 Generate a map of pyroclastic deposits

The SAR images obtained in the same area at different times (pre- and post-disaster) were
analyzed in order to discover the change of land cover (Huang et al. 2011). In this research,
a SAR image change detection technique was used to generate a map of pyroclastic deposits.
SAR images were obtained that showed a change of information of the ground objects (Le

123
Author's personal copy
232 Nat Hazards (2013) 66:229–247

Toan et al. 1997; Quegan et al. 2000; Nonaka et al. 2007; Tzeng et al. 2007; Wulder et al.
2008; Bayarsaikhan et al. 2009; Gao and Liu 2010). The ALOS PALSAR data were used
for this study. A map of pyroclastic deposits was constructed based on the

Fig. 1 Research area at Merapi volcano, Central Java, Indonesia

Table 1 Types of spatial data used in this research


Data type Acquisition Map scale or spatial Source
date resolution

ALOS PALSAR April 27, 2007 ±11 m JAXA

ALOS PALSAR November 5, 2010 ±11 m JAXA


SPOT 4 June 24, 2009 ±20 m LAPAN

123
Author's personal copy
Nat Hazards (2013) 66:229–247 233

Topographic map Year 1998 1:25,000 BAKOSURTANAL


Geomorphology map Year 2010 1:50,000 Faculty of Geography, Gadjah Mada
University (GMU)
differences in back-scattering intensity from the pre- and post-volcano eruption ALOS
PALSAR data. To generate a map of pyroclastic deposits, several processes and stages of
data processing were required. The ALOS PALSAR product used for this research has a
pixel value in the form of a digital number. To obtain a back-scattering coefficient value
sigma nought (r0) at each pixel value of the data, conversion of the absolute radiometric
calibration of the digital number value was required. The conversion results illustrated the
value of the pixel digital number as a measure of the strength of the radar signal’s
backscattering from a distributed target, usually expressed in dB. More profitable SAR data
were used for this study because the system can penetrate clouds, smoke, dust, and
distribution of particle volcano material particles, whereas such capabilities are not
possessed by remote sensing optical sensors. In a situation of post-eruption, where volcanic
activity can cause the scattering of cloud, smoke, dust, and volcano material particles, radar
data are very helpful for investigating how much spatial damage occurs due to a volcanic
eruption.

2.1.1 SAR data radiometric calibration and processing methods

ALOS PALSAR level 1.5 products used for this research give the image pixel value [or
digital number (DN)]. Absolute radiometric calibration was performed on these SAR data
to derive the back-scattering coefficient sigma nought from the DN value. Sigma nought is
the measure of the strength of a radar signal’s back-scattering from a distributed target,
usually expressed in dB. The back-scattering coefficient sigma nought distributed over
PALSAR level 1.5 products were derived from Eqs. (1) and (2) (Dong et al. 2010):

r0i;j ¼ K DN2i;j ði ¼ 1;2;...;L; j ¼ 1;2;...;MÞ ð1Þ

Equation (2) was used to obtain sigma nought in dB:

r0i;jðdBÞ ¼ 10log10 r0i;j ¼ 20log10ðDNÞ þ KðdBÞ ð2Þ

where K is an absolute calibration constant, which is provided by the Japan Aerospace


Exploration Agency (JAXA), DNi,j is a pixel intensity value at image line i and column j,
r0i;jðdBÞ is a back-scattering coefficient sigma nought at image line i and column j in dB,
and L and M are the numbers of lines and columns in the product.
If there is change to a target’s surface roughness or geometric and structural
characteristics, there will be a change in the back-scattering intensity recorded in the SAR
image. Comparison between the pre- and post-disaster SAR intensity images will reveal the
impact information caused by volcanic eruption. With the change in back-scattering
intensity recorded at the time of pre- and post-eruption, the detection of change in the impact
disaster can be quickly done. In this research, differential and false-color composition
methods were used to highlight the pyroclastic deposits. The differential backscattering
intensity in images was calculated using Eq. (3) (Dong et al. 2010):

di;jðdBÞ ¼ r0i;jpostðdBÞ r0i;jpreðdBÞ ði ¼ 1;2;...;L; j ¼ 1;2;...;MÞ ð3Þ

123
Author's personal copy
234 Nat Hazards (2013) 66:229–247

where di,j is a pixel value in dB of the differential back-scattering intensity of an image at


image line i and column j, r0i;jpost is the sigma nought value of the post-disaster backscattering
intensity image at image line i and column j, r0i;jpre is the sigma nought value of the pre-
disaster back-scattering intensity image at image line i and column j, and L and M are the
numbers of lines and columns in the product.
In this research, statistical analysis of covariance and correlation is used to show the trend
of a linear relationship among two or more random variables. Two variables are used for
correlation and covariance analysis, which are the x-variable as a distribution of pixel values
of the back-scattering coefficients pre-volcano eruption and the y-variable as a distribution
of pixel values of the back-scattering coefficients post-volcano eruption. For the two random
variables x and y having means E{x} and E{y}, the covariance is defined in Eq. (4)
(Weisstein 1999):
Covðx;yÞ ¼ Ef½x EðxÞ½y EðyÞg ð4Þ
The covariance calculation begins with pairs of x and y values. We used the differences
from their mean values and multiplied these differences with each other. For instance, if for
x1 and y1 this product is positive, then for that pair of data points, the values of x and y has
varied with each other in the same direction from their means. If the product is negative,
then they have varied in opposite directions. The larger the magnitude of the product, the
stronger the strength in the relationship. The covariance is the mean value of this product,
calculated using each pair of data points x1 and y1. If the covariance is zero, then the cases
in which the product was positive were offset by those in which it was negative, and there
is no linear relationship between the two random variables. Computationally, it is more
efficient to use Eq. (5) to calculate the covariance (Weisstein 1999):
Covðx;yÞ ¼ Efxyg EfxgEfyg ð5Þ
The value of the covariance is interpreted as follows: (a) positive covariance shows that
higher than mean values of one variable tend to be paired with higher than mean values of
the other variable, (b) negative covariance shows that higher than mean values of one
variable tend to be paired with lower than mean values of the other variable, (c) zero
covariance occurs if the two random variables are self-directed, resulting in the zero
covariance. A covariance of zero does not necessarily mean that the variables are
selfdirected, as a non-linear relationship can exist that would still result in a covariance value
of zero.

2.2 Identification of the environment damage due to volcano eruption

This research has applied method of cross profile and rapid field observation to investigate
the impact of volcano eruption on the environment. Cross profiles in this study were used
to describe the cross section of the vertical and horizontal position of a region. By looking
at the vertical and horizontal position of an area, the condition of the region can be described
well. This could be beneficial to helping in the analysis of the study. Comprehensive
conditions of the region may include variations in geomorphology, landuse, topography,
and other environmental physical parameters. This method is used by Marfai (2011) to
investigate the impact of inundation on coastal environments and ecology. This method is

123
Author's personal copy
Nat Hazards (2013) 66:229–247 235

best used to describe and represent the environmental impacts of disasters in a region. The
topographic map and geomorphological and landuse units are factors to be considered for
profiling and field orientation. Physical conditions as well as environmental damages due to
volcanic eruption are the main focuses to be observed during the cross profiling and field
work activity. In addition, geomorphological characteristics (landforms) and landuse have
been used as a basis unit for the field observation. Topographic maps have also been used
to delineate the research boundary and design field routes and mappings.

2.3 Assessment of the volcano eruption impact on landuse

Assessment of the impact of disasters can be done by overlaying the map of the disaster with
the landuse map in order to determine the number of damages occurring, as has been done
by Marfai and King (2008), Ward et al. (2011), and Marfai (2011). In this research,
assessment of the impact of the 2010 volcano eruption on landuse requires a landuse map.
Up-to-date information for landuse in the research area is required. This is because the
existing landuse information is derived from topographic maps of the year 1998. The data
used to update the landuse information are from the SPOT 4 satellite image of the year 2009.
Satellite image technologies such as SPOT 4 are very useful for landuse assessment and
mapping. The landuse map has been generated using a visual interpretation technique and
field observation. Spectral analysis was used to determine the band on SPOT 4 images that
have the most channels in response to objects on the earth’s surface. This will be useful to
determine the composite color combinations most appropriate for refining the classification
of objects. The best color combination results describing the composite object classification
is used as the input and the combination for visual interpretation. A topographic map scale
of 1:25,000 was obtained by BAKOSURTANAL in 1998 (mediumscale maps), while the
SPOT 4 images had a spatial resolution of 20 m in 2009. The input levels on the scale of
mapping of SPOT 4 images are some of the input data that can be used for medium-scale
mapping (here, other data may be used, such as LANDSAT, ASTER, ALOS AVNIR, etc.).
Landuse information in the 1998 topographic maps can be updated by the interpretation of
data on the SPOT 4 images from 2009. Visual interpretation techniques on SPOT 4 images
of the on-screen digital views are used to update the information on the topographic landuse
map from 1998. Topographic maps in the vector data format can be displayed as an
image/overlay on the SPOT image, which is used to simplify the process of updating
information data on landuse in the study area. Information points of the building site
topographic map and results from the field survey by BAKOSURTANAL updated in 2009
are used for this research to detail the landuse information that was affected by the volcano
eruption, in particular, settlement landuse. To calculate the impact of the volcano eruption
on landuse, an overlay superimposed method in a GIS raster environment on the landuse
map, information points of building areas, and a map of pyroclastic deposits were applied.

3 Results and discussion

3.1 Map of pyroclastic deposits in the research area

The overall results of the volcano eruption event during the process of making maps for the
research area are presented in Fig. 2. Data from pre-volcano eruption are presented in Fig.
2a, whereas post-volcano eruption data are presented in Fig. 2b. Differences in

123
Author's personal copy
236 Nat Hazards (2013) 66:229–247

backscattering intensity from the pre- and post-volcano eruption data are presented in Fig.
2c, and the results of the map of pyroclastic deposits are presented in Fig. 2d. The false-
color composition images of the pre- and post-volcano eruption back-scattering intensity
images of ALOS PALSAR are shown, where the pre-eruption image of ALOS PALSAR
was assigned to the red channel, and the post-eruption image of ALOS PALSAR was
assigned to the green and blue channels. The distribution of pyroclastic deposits from the
Merapi eruption in 2010 can be clearly mapped. Differences in the values of back-scattering
in the data pre-and post-disaster are helpful for identifying the land surface changes due to
the volcanic eruption. Sediment deposits composed of pyroclastic material, i.e., volcanic ash
and sand, covered the surface of the land in the southern area of the studied zone. This
resulted in data on post-disaster appearing darker when compared with the data predisaster.
Darkness of the land surface to the data post-disaster is caused by the backscattering of
objects away from the satellite sensor. The distribution of these materials can be mapped by
the administrations led by districts Pakem, Cangkringan, Ngemplak, Depok, and Kalasan.

Fig. 2 Location of the damage area caused by the 2010 eruption of Merapi revealed by ALOS PALSAR
images. a Pre-volcano eruption value of back-scattering coefficient sigma nought image of PALSAR acquired
on April 27, 2007. b Post-volcano eruption value of back-scattering coefficient sigma nought image of
PALSAR acquired on November 05, 2010. c Differential value of back-scattering image of PALSAR between
pre- and post-volcano eruption. d False-color composite RGB image pre- and post-volcano eruption. R pre-

123
Author's personal copy
Nat Hazards (2013) 66:229–247 237

volcano eruption image of PALSAR acquired on April 27, 2007, G post-volcano eruption image of PALSAR
acquired on November 05, 2010, B post-volcano eruption image of PALSAR acquired on November 05,
2010. Result of the false-color composite: red color is a damage area and material from the volcano eruption
in 2010; black to grey to white is material not from the volcano eruption 2010
To show the changes between the pre- and post-volcano eruption conditions, the pixels
in each of the cross profile areas were then statistically analyzed by covariance and
correlation methods. Statistical analysis of the covariance and correlation is used to show
the trend of a linear relationship among two or more random variables. Two variables are
used for the analysis of correlation and covariance: x as a distribution of pixel values of the
back-scattering coefficients sigma nought pre-volcano eruption and y as a distribution of
pixel values of the back-scattering coefficients sigma nought post-volcano eruption. The
results of the statistical analysis of covariance and correlation calculations are shown in Fig.
3 and Table 2. Figure 3 shows the cross profile and distribution values of backscattering
coefficients sigma nought (dB) pre- and post-volcano eruption from cross profiles 1–5.
Table 2 shown the statistical analysis of the covariance and correlation values of back-
scattering coefficients sigma nought (dB) pre- and post-volcano eruption in the research
area.
The cross profile 1 has the highest covariance and correlation values among all the
profiles studied. The means that, in the cross profile 1 area, the pixel values in the prevolcano
eruption has mostly the same values as in the post-volcano eruption condition. There were
no significant changes that occurred in cross profile 1. However, the other cross

Fig. 3 1 Cross profile location with background false-color composite image PALSAR data pre- and
postvolcano eruption. 2 Distribution of values of back-scattering coefficients sigma nought dB in cross
profiles 1–5 (1a–5a). Cross profiles 1–5 back-scattering coefficients sigma nought pre- and post-volcano

123
Author's personal copy
238 Nat Hazards (2013) 66:229–247

eruption (1b–5b). The scatter plots and statistical analysis of covariance and correlation values of back-
scattering coefficients sigma nought in profiles 1–5, with the x variable being pre-volcano eruption and the y
variable being post-volcano eruption
Table 2 Statistical analysis of the covariance and correlation values of back-scattering coefficients sigma
nought (dB) pre- and post-volcano eruption in the research area
Cross profile area 1 2 3 4 5

Correlation (Pearson) 0.93 0.60 0.38 0.22 0.49

Covariance 20.93 3.81 1.57 0.84 1.56


profile areas showed some changes among the pre- and post-volcano eruption conditions
based on the covariance and correlation values. The largest changes occurred in the cross
profile 4 area, which showed the lowest covariance and correlation values among the cross
profile areas, i.e., 0.84 and 0.22, respectively. The lower covariance and correlation values
of two random sets of data indicated a less prominent relationship between those data. In
this research, the statistical analysis and correlation covariance were not used to describe
the extent of damage caused by volcano eruptions. They were, however, used to show a
change in the values of back-scattering of ALOS PALSAR pixels in the data, which may
show changes in the land surface due to volcano eruptions. The existence of covariance and
low correlation values may reflect differences about the value of back-scattering pixel data
on the condition of pre- and post-disaster that may show a change on the land surface. The
higher correlation and covariance values, may illustrate that there is no change to the value
of back-scattering and shows no signs of changing land surfaces due to the disaster. Changes
and differences in the value of back-scattering in the data pre- and post disaster are used as
input data to generate a map of pyroclastic deposits.
An illustration of the pyroclastic deposits due to the 2010 volcano eruption in the research
area is presented in Fig. 4.
The distribution of pyroclastic deposits accumulate and flow from the peak of Merapi to
the south. Material flows into the three-way main rivers, that is: Gendol, Opak, and Kuning.
The greatest impact of the flow of the three rivers is Gendol River. The length of the
pyroclastic deposits is ±16 km to the south. Figure 4a in this research can be described as
Zone I. This zone is the area closest to the peak of Merapi and is located at a distance of ±4
km. Material pyroclastic deposits are scattered on three main streams, that is: Gendol, Opak,
and Kuning. The impact of the distribution of pyroclastic deposits in Zone I includes the
villages of Glagaharjo, Kepuhharjo, Umbulharjo, and Balerante. Figure 4b of this research
is called Zone II, with a distance of ±8 km from the peak of Merapi. Most of the pyroclastic
material is spread via Gendol River. The impact of the distribution of material covers an
area encompassing Wukirsari village. Figure 4c is Zone III, which has a distance of ±12 km
from the peak of Merapi. The impact of the distribution of pyroclastic deposits appear to
flow toward Gendol River in the village of Argomulyo.

3.2 Preliminary assessment of the impact of volcano eruption on the environment

Cross profiling has been designed for five transect routes representing entire research areas
(Fig. 5). Figure 5 shows cross profiles 1–5 of the geomorphological map and landuse map
in 2009. During the investigation, meticulous assessment and observation in each
geomorphology and landuse unit was carried out. Information from local communities
during the profiling and interview activity was very valuable in order to obtain a description
of the environmental problems associated with volcano eruptions. Determination of the

123
Author's personal copy
Nat Hazards (2013) 66:229–247 239

sample five transect routes in this study was carried out at random. However, there are some
points to consider in making the samples, including the variations in slope,

Fig. 4 Distribution of pyroclastic deposits due to the 2010 volcano eruption in the research area

landuse, and geomorphological units. In addition, a transect route was also identified as the
area of land surface changes due to the impact of the distribution of pyroclastic deposits.
Cross profile 1 (Fig. 6) reveals that the impact of volcano eruptions cause several
environmental problems, such as effecting the distribution of volcanic ash and material
eruption sedimentation. Landuse units consist of forest and material eruption lahars/lava.

123
Author's personal copy
240 Nat Hazards (2013) 66:229–247

Impact events of the 2010 volcano eruption appear at a distance ±0.5 km from point A to ±3
km. Environmental problems and damage due to the volcano eruption include affected

Fig. 5 Cross profiles 1–5 of the geomorphological map (1) and landuse map (2) in 2009

123
Author's personal copy
Nat Hazards (2013) 66:229–247 241

Fig. 6 Cross profile 1


sedimentation of material eruption and forests being destroyed. The impact on fields of
volcano eruption events can be seen in Fig. 7a, b. Conditions of avalanche of the cone of
Merapi to the south resulted in material eruptions sliding downwards, as shown in Fig. 7a.
The impact of the volcano eruption area of cross profile 2 (Fig. 8) damaged paddy fields,
settlement, bare land, and forests. The impact appeared at a distance of ±5 km from point A
to ±3.75 km. Sedimentation of pyroclastic deposits caused environmental problems in this
area. The impact on fields from volcano eruption event and sedimentation on river flow
conditions around cross profile 2 was the result of a large amount of material being thrown
out and burying the damaged residential areas by the eruption of the material presented in
Fig. 7c, d.
The impact of the 2010 Merapi eruption on cross profile 3 (Fig. 9) appeared at a distance
of ±1.5 km from point A to ±3 km. Environmental problems that occur in this area include
sedimentation, the spread of volcanic ash, and damage to paddy fields, settlements, and dry
farming. The impact on fields from the volcano eruption event can be seen in Fig. 10a, b.
Cross profile 4 (Fig. 11) underwent environmental problems such as material eruption
sedimentation, damage to several areas of paddy fields, settlements, and dry farming, and
the spread of volcano ash. Impact events of the 2010 volcano eruption appeared at the
distance ±1.75 km from point A to ±3 km. Building damage occurred in residential areas
around the cross profile 4 area due to the material thrown out by the volcano eruptions and
bursts of hot clouds (awan wedus gembel) shown in Fig. 10a–d.
Environmental problems and damage due to volcano eruptions affected the distribution
of volcanic ash, sedimentation of material eruption, and some paddy fields, settlements, dry
farming were destroyed. The impact on fields of volcano eruption events and sabo dam
conditions around area profile 5 (Fig. 12) functioned as a buffer for material flow eruption

Fig. 7 Impact of volcano eruption in cross profile 1 (a, b). Impact of volcano eruption in cross profile 2 (c, d).
Photo field work taken on July, 2011

123
Author's personal copy
242 Nat Hazards (2013) 66:229–247

Fig. 8 Cross profile 2

Fig. 9 Cross profile 3

and the amount of sedimentation material deposited by rivers that are not depicted can be
seen in Fig. 13a, b. Impact events of the 2010 volcano eruption appeared at the distance
±1.75 km from point A to ±2.5 km.

3.3 Impact of volcano eruption on landuse and building areas

The result of calculations between the map of pyroclastic deposits overlayed with the
landuse map for the research area are presented in Table 3. Table 3 shows landuse area
damage effects of the volcano eruption in the research area while the results calculation
between the map of pyroclastic deposits overlayed with the information point of the building
site is presented in Table 4. Table 4 shows the building damage area effects of the volcano
eruption in the research area.
The volcano eruption is estimated to have an impact of 133.31 ha for settlements, 92.32
ha for paddy fields, 235.60 ha for dry farming, 570.98 ha for plantations, 380.86 ha for bare
land, and 0.12 ha for forest areas. In this study, estimates of the number of houses destroyed
was done by cross profiling or overlaying the map of pyroclastic deposits with the
information point of the building sites from the topographic map source of

123
Author's personal copy
Nat Hazards (2013) 66:229–247 243

Fig. 10 Impact of volcano eruption in cross profile 3 (a, b). Impact of volcano eruption in cross profile 4 (c,
d). Photo field work taken on July, 2011

Fig. 11 Cross profile 4

BAKOSURTANAL. ALOS PALSAR imagery with a resolution of 11 m is only used to


produce a map of pyroclastic deposits as one of the input data sets in the overlay to the
information point of the buildings to take into account the number of damaged houses and
cannot be used to estimate the damage to the houses directly. An estimated 4,464 housing
units in the village of Glagaharjo were affected, 3,966 units in the village of Kepuharjo,
1,695 units in the village of Argomulyo, 1,225 units in the village of Wukirsari, 865 units
in the village of Umbulharjo, and 60 units in the village of Balerante. The total number of
buildings damaged is estimated to be around 12,276 units.
The results from the impact of volcano eruptions on landuse obtained for the research
area are probably not that useful on ground level, but the results from these calculations can
be used as an initial step and rapid method for estimating the magnitude of damage

123
Author's personal copy
244 Nat Hazards (2013) 66:229–247

Fig. 12 Cross profile 5

Fig. 13 Impact of volcano eruption in cross profile 5 (a, b). Photo field work taken on July, 2011

Table 3 Damage impact on landuse Nu Landuse Area (ha)


area of the volcano eruption in the
research area
1 Settlement 133.31

2 Paddy field 92.32


3 Dry farming 235.60
4 Plantation 570.98
5 Bare land 380.86
6 Forest 0.12
Total 1,413.19

caused by disasters. So, the amount of losses and risk due to the impact of disasters on life
and property can be taken into account. As mentioned before, this research used the GIS
technique. A superimposed technique between a landuse map and a map of pyroclastic
deposits provides an advantage to monitor the impact of volcano eruption in a spatial
context. By using a large scale of spatial data input, the damage landuse area can be
identified effectively. Given the ability of the GIS technology for monitoring the impact of
volcanic eruption, for the next future research, the assessment of the risk and damage in
terms of economic losses can be calculated based on the current market value in that area.

123
Author's personal copy
Nat Hazards (2013) 66:229–247 245

Table 4 Damage impact on Nu Village Damage building


building areas of the volcano area (unit)
eruption in the research area
1 Glagaharjo 4,464

2 Kepuharjo 3,966
3 Argomulyo 1,695
4 Wukirsari 1,225
5 Umbulharjo 865
6 Balerante 60
Total 12,276

4 Conclusion

Distribution of the activities following the eruption of a volcano can be effectively carried
out using remote sensing SAR data, such as ALOS PALSAR with the same temporal
location. In this paper, we present ALOS PALSAR data with data acquisition conditions
pre- and post-volcano eruption. Cross profiling and rapid field work was carried out to
describe the environmental conditions within the research area. This is effectively done to
investigate the impact of volcano eruption on the environment, given the availability of time
and cost of research. The topographic map and geomorphological and landuse factor units
are to be considered for profiling and field orientation. The result of calculations of the
overlay between the eruption hazard maps with landuse using GIS tools can describe the
impact of damage caused by volcano eruptions. Although the result from this calculation is
an estimate, it can be used as a rapid method for calculating the volume of disaster damage
in the research area. The next future research can be done by calculating the risk of disasters
on life and property losses.

Acknowledgments This paper is a part of the activities research entitled ‘‘Mapping regional volcano risk
based on the remote sensing data’’. This research was funded by the budget of DIPA activities in 2011,
Remote Sensing Application Center, Indonesian National Institute of Aeronautics and Space (LAPAN).
Thanks go to Mr. Agus Hidayat, M.Sc. (Director of Remote Sensing Application Center, LAPAN) who has
supported the implementation of this research. ALOS PALSAR data were provided by the Japan Aerospace
Exploration Agency (JAXA). Topographic map and field survey data were provided by the National
Coordinating Agency for Survey and Mapping (BAKOSURTANAL). The geomorphology map was provided
by the Faculty of Geography, Gadjah Mada University (GMU).

References

Barberi F, Macedonio G, Pareschi MT, Santacroce R (1990) Mapping the tephra fallout risk: an example
from Vesuvius, Italy. Nature 344:142–144
Baxter PJ, Boyle R, Cole P, Neri A, Spence R, Zuccaro G (2005) The impacts of pyroclastic surges on
buildings at the eruption of the Soufrie`re Hills volcano, Montserrat. Bull Volc 67:292–313. doi:
10.1007/s00445-004-0365-7
Bayarsaikhan U, Boldgiv B, Kim KR, Park KA, Lee D (2009) Change detection and classification of land
cover at Hustai National Park in Mongolia. Int J Appl Earth Obs Geoinf 11:273–280
Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED) (2012) EM-DAT. The International Disaster
Database
Connor CB, Hill BE, Winfrey B, Franklin NW, La Femina PC (2001) Estimation of volcanic hazards from
tephra fallout. Nat Hazards Rev 2:33–42

123
Author's personal copy
246 Nat Hazards (2013) 66:229–247

Dash J, Steinle E, Singh RP, Ba¨hr HP (2004) Automatic building extraction from laser scanning data: an
input tool for disaster management. Adv Space Res 33:317–322
Dong Y, Li Q, Dou A, Wang X (2010) Extracting damages caused by the 2008 Ms 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake
from SAR remote sensing data. J Asian Earth Sci 40:907–914. doi:10.1016/j.jseaes.2010.07.009
Felpeto A, Matri J, Ortiz R (2007) Automatic GIS-based system for volcanic hazard assessment. J Volcanol
Geotherm Res 166(2007):106–116
Fu B, Ninomiya Y, Lei X, Toda S, Awata Y (2004) Mapping active fault associated with the 2003 Mw 6.6
Bam (SE Iran) earthquake with ASTER 3D images. Remote Sens Environ 92(2):153–157
Gao J, Liu YS (2010) Determination of land degradation causes in Tongyu County, Northeast China via land
cover change detection. Int J Appl Earth Obs Geoinf 12:9–16
Guo HD, Lu LL, Ma JW, Pesaresi M, Yuan FY (2009) An improved automatic detection method for
earthquake-collapsed buildings from ADS40 image. China Sci Bull 54:3303–3307
Huang S, Cai X, Chen S, Liu D (2011) Change detection method based on fractal model and wavelet
transform for multitemporal SAR images. Int J Appl Earth Obs Geoinf 12(6):863–872
Hurst T, Smith W (2004) A Monte Carlo methodology for modelling ashfall hazards. J Volcanol Geotherm
Res 138:393–403
Kauahikaua J, Margriter M, Lockwood J, Trusdell F (1995) Applications of GIS to the estimation of lava
flow hazards on Mauna Loa volcano, Hawaii. In: Mauna Loa revealed: structure, composition, history,
and hazards. Geophys Monogr 92:315–325
Kresch DL, Mastin MC, Olsen TD (2002) Fifty-year flood-inundation maps for Olanchito, Honduras. U.S.
Geological Survey, Open-File Report 02-257
Lavigne F, Thouret JC, Voight B, Suwa H, Sumaryono A (2000) Lahars at Merapi volcano, Central Java: an
overview. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 100(1–4):423–456
Lavigne F, De Coster B, Juvin N, Flohic F, Gaillard JC, Texier P, Morin J, Sartohadi J (2008) People’s
behaviour in the face of volcanic hazards: perspectives from Javanese communities, Indonesia. J
Volcanol Geotherm Res 172(3–4):273–287
Le Toan T, Ribbes F, Wang LF, Floury N, Ding KH, Kong JA, Fujita M, Kurosu T (1997) Rice crop mapping
and monitoring using ERS-1 data based on experiment and modeling results. IEEE Trans Geosci
Remote Sens 35(1):41–56
Marfai MA (2011) Impact of coastal inundation to ecology and agricultural land use, case in Central Java
Indonesia. Int J Quaest Geogr 30(3):19–32
Marfai MA, King L (2008) Potential vulnerability implications of coastal inundation due to sea level rise for
the coastal zone of Semarang City, Indonesia. Environ Geol 54(6):1235–1245
Matsuoka M, Yamazaki F (2000) Interferometric characterization of areas damaged by the 1995 Kobe
earthquake using satellite SAR images. In: Proceedings of the 12th world conference on earthquake
engineering (12WCEE 2000), Auckland, New Zealand, January/February 2000, vol 2, p ID2141
Nonaka T, Shibayama T, Umakawa H, Uratsuka S (2007) A comparison of the methods for the urban land
cover change detection by high-resolution SAR data. In: Proceedings of the IEEE international
geoscience and remote sensing symposium, Barcelona, Spain, July 2007, pp 3470–3473
Quegan S, Le Toan T, Yu JJ, Ribbes F, Floury N (2000) Multitemporal ERS SAR analysis applied to forest
mapping. IEEE Trans Geosci Remote Sens 38(2):741–753
Rossano S, Mastrolorenzo G, De Natale G (2004) Numerical simulation of pyroclastic density currents on
Campi Flegrei topography: a tool for statistical hazard estimation. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 132:1–14
Saito T, Eguchi T, Takayama K, Taniguchi H (2001) Hazard predictions for volcanic explosions. J Volcanol
Geotherm Res 106:39–51
Song Y, Fan X, Lu X (2006) Landslide calamity research using multi-temporal remote sensing images and
DEM data—a case study of Xintan landslide. J Anhui Norm Univ (Nat Sci) 29(3):276–280 (in Chinese
with English abstract)
Stramondo S, Bignami C, Chini M, Pierdicca N, Tertulliani A (2006) Satellite radar and optical remote
sensing for earthquake damage detection: results from different case studies. Int J Remote Sens
27(20):4433–4447
Sutikno S (2007) Earthquake disaster of Yogyakarta and Central Java, and disaster reduction, Indonesia.
Forum Geogr 21(1):1–16
Suzuki D, Yamazaki F (2008) Extraction of building damages in the 2007 Niigata-Ken Chuetsu-Oki
earthquake using digital aerial images. In: Proceedings of 28th Asian conference on remote sensing,
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, November 2008, paper no. 156, CD-ROM, 6 pp
Tang C, Zhang J, Wan SY, Zhou CH (2006) Loss evaluation of urban debris flow hazard using high spatial
resolution satellite imagery. Sci Geogr Sin 26(3):358–363 (in Chinese with English abstract)

123
Author's personal copy
Nat Hazards (2013) 66:229–247 247

Toyos GP, Cole PD, Felpeto A, Martı´ J (2007) A GIS-based methodology for hazard mapping of small
volume pyroclastic density currents. Nat Hazards 41(1):99–112
Trianni G, Gamba P (2008) Damage detection from SAR imagery: application to the 2003 Algeria and 2007
Peru earthquakes. Int J Navig Obs 2008:1–8
Tzeng YC, Chiu SH, Chen D, Chen KS (2007) Change detections from SAR images for damage estimation
based on a spatial chaotic model. In: Proceedings of the IEEE international geoscience and remote
sensing symposium, Barcelona, Spain, July 2007, pp 1926–1930
Wadge G, Young PAV, McKendrick IJ (1994) Mapping lava flow hazards using computer simulations. J
Geophys Res 99(B1):489–504
Wang XQ, Wei CJ, Miao CG, Zhang JF, Shan XJ, Ma QZ (2003) The extraction of seismic damage from
remote sensing images—a case study of Bachu-Jiashi earthquake with Ms = 6.8 occurred on Feb. 24,
2003. Earth Sci Front 10(Suppl 1):285–291 (in Chinese with English abstract)
Ward PJ, Marfai MA, Yulianto F, Hizbarond DR, Aerts JCJH (2011) Coastal inundation and damage
exposure estimation: a case study for Jakarta. Nat Hazards 56:899–916
Weisstein EW (1999) CRC concise encyclopedia of mathematics. CRC Press, Boca Raton
Wulder MA, Butson CR, White JC (2008) Cross-sensor change detection over a forested landscape: options
to enable continuity of medium spatial resolution measures. Remote Sens Environ 112:796–880

123