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AGE OF REVIVALS

REVIVAL OF THE CLASSICAL STYLE


AGE OF REVIVALS -
ENGLAND

EARLY
VICTORIAN

CRYSTAL
PALACE

CLIFTON
SUSPENSION
BRIDGE

HIGH
VICTORIAN

Liverpool
Cathedral
AGE OF REVIVALS -
ENGLAND

1. INFLUENCES
 Started in Britain in the last quarter of the 18th C. And
gradually spread across Europe and the New world
2. REVIVALS IN ENGLAND
2.1 EARLY VICTORIAN – Greek and Roman Revival
A. Crystal Palace ( Sir Joseph Paxton)
B. Clifton Suspension Bridge ( Isambard Brunel)
AGE OF REVIVALS -
ENGLAND

2.2 HIGH VICTORIAN – Gothic and Renaissance Revival


A.Liverpool Cathedral ( Sir Edwin Lutyens )
2.2 LATE VICTORIAN – Gothic and Renaissance Revival
 ―Queen Anne Style‖

 Eclectic Style

Combination of old style and domestic architecture


Ex. Tudor Cathedral, Cornwall
Heathcote, Yorkshire
AGE OF REVIVALS -
ENGLAND
3. NEO-CLASSICISM
 Characterized by the introduction and widespread use of Greek and
Roman Orders, decorated motifs, strong geometric compositions and
the frequent shallow relief in ornament and treatment of facades
3.1 CLASSICAL REVIVAL
 Arts and Architecture in the style of ancient Greek and Romans

 Buildings were usually rectangular in plan, two rooms deep, gable-


fronted with long side of the house commonly facing the street
3.2 FEDERAL STYLE
 Classic revival style the decorative arts and architecture in the USA
from the 1780 to 1830
3.2 COLONIAL STYLE
 Style in which decoration and furnishings of the British colonies in
America mainly adapted to local materials and demands from
prevailing English styles
AGE OF REVIVALS -
ENGLAND
4. GOTHIC REVIVAL
 Movement reviving the forms of Gothic Architecture

 Originating from France, Germany, England and the USA

5. RICHARDSONIAN ROMANESQUE
 Revival of Romanesque style in the USA by Henry Hobson
Richardson
 Heavy arches, rusticated masonry walls, and dramatic asymmetrical
effect
Architects of the Federal period

Charles Bulfinch
James Hoban
Thomas Jefferson
Pierre L'Enfant
Benjamin Latrobe
John McComb, Jr.
Robert Mills
Alexander Parris
William Strickland
Martin E. Thompson
William Thornton
Ithiel Town
Ammi B. Young
AMERICAN ARCHITECTURE
AMERICAN ARCHITECTURE

COLONIAL PHASE
1. GEORGIAN PHASE
 Strict symmetry arrangements

 Centered panelled front door with rectangular windows

 Cornice embellished with decorative moldins

 Chimney on both sides

A. Central Pavilion, Boston ( Charles Bulfinch)


B. Hammon Howard House ( William Buckland)
1.1 CLASSICAL REVIVAL
 Developed for ancient Greek and Roman architecture

A. White House( James Hoban)


B. United States Capitol ( William Thorton)
C. Lincoln Memorial ( Henry Bacon)
COLONIAL PHASE
GEORGIAN ARCHITECTURE

CORNELIUS LOW HOUSE (NEW JERSEY)


CENTRAL PAVILION
(BOSTON)

CHARLES BULFINCH
COLONIAL PHASE
GEORGIAN ARCHITECTURE

>> PREVAILING STYLE IN ENGLAND AND NORTH AMERICA


FROM 1714 TO 1811
>> DERIVED FROM RENAISSANCE AND BAROQUE FORMS

HAMMON HOWARD HOUSE, ANNAPOLIS


WILLIAM BUCKLAND
COLONIAL PHASE
CLASSICAL REVIVAL
ARCHITECTURE DERIVED FROM
THE GREEKS AND ROMANS

WHITE HOUSE, WASHINGTON DC


JAMES HOBAN
COLONIAL PHASE
CLASSICAL REVIVAL

UNITED STATES CAPITOL


WILLIAM THORTON
COLONIAL PHASE
CLASSICAL REVIVAL

WASHINGTON MONUMENT
ROBERT MILLS
COLONIAL PHASE
CLASSICAL REVIVAL

LINCOLN MEMORIAL
HENRY BACON
AMERICAN ARCHITECTURE

2. 0 GOTHIC REVIVAL
 Derived from Gothic Architecture

A. Trinity Church, New York ( Richard Upjohn)


B. St. Patricks Cathedral ( James Renwick)
1.1 CLASSICAL REVIVAL
 Developed for ancient Greek and Roman architecture

A. White House( James Hoban)


B. United States Capitol ( William Thorton)
C. Lincoln Memorial ( Henry Bacon)
AMERICAN ARCHITECTURE
GOTHIC REVIVAL

DERIVED FROM GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE

TRINITY CHURCH, NEW YORK


RICHARD UPJOHN
AMERICAN ARCHITECTURE
GOTHIC REVIVAL

ST. PATRICK’S CATHEDRAL


JAMES RENWICK
AMERICAN ARCHITECTURE

3. 0 NATIONAL PHASE
3.1 First Eclectic Period
 Introduced Ballon Framing

 Use of cast–iron materials

3.2 Second Eclectic Period


 Development of the sky scrapers

 Invention of the elevator

 Steel frame system

A. Chicago School
 Pioneered the steel frame skyscrapers in commercial
architecture
B. Carson, Pirie and Scott building
 Louis Sullivan

 Intricate cast Iron decoration


AMERICAN
ARCHITECTURE
NATIONAL
PHASE
(FIRST ECCLECTIC)

BALLOON FRAMING
CONSTRUCTION
CAST-IRON MATERIALS
AMERICAN ARCHITECTURE

NATIONAL PHASE
(SECOND ECCLECTIC)
AMERICAN
ARCHITECTURE
NATIONAL
PHASE
(SECOND ECCLECTIC)

SKYSCRAPERS

HOME INSURANCE BUILDING, CHICAGO


WILLIAM LE BARON JENNEY
AMERICAN
ARCHITECTURE
NATIONAL
PHASE
(SECOND ECCLECTIC)

SKYSCRAPERS

WOOLWORTH BUILDING, NEW YORK


CASS GILBERT
AMERICAN
ARCHITECTURE
NATIONAL
PHASE
(SECOND ECCLECTIC)

SKYSCRAPERS

EMPIRE STATE BUILDING


NEW YORK
SHREVE, LAMB & HARMON
AMERICAN ARCHITECTURE

C. Wainwright Building (Louis Sullivan)


D. Reliance Building (Daniel Burnham)
3.3 Modern Architecture
 From 1930 to the present

 Development of New technology


TRIBUNE TOWER, CHICAGO
HOWELLS & HOOD
AMERICAN ARCHITECTURE

NATIONAL PHASE
(MODERN ARCHITECTURE)
Modern architecture is characterized by
simplification of form and creation of
ornament from the structure and theme of the
building.
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
INDUSTRIAL
REVOLUTION

 New social order  New construction


and rapid growth materials – iron and
steel - were discovered
in population and put into use
resulted in need  Engineering systems
for new buildings were gradually
incorporated in
serving new municipal, commercial
functions and residential buildings
INDUSTRIAL
REVOLUTION
 Significant
Examples
TURN OF THE CENTURY
Modernism
 After 1900 artistic innovation in Europe and the US increased in
a rapid succession of movements, or ―isms‖. The modern
movement lasted through the first half of the 20th Century.

 Modernism rejects old, traditional ideas and styles in art and


design

 Although Modernist styles are diverse, art moved toward


abstraction based on line, color, shape, space, and texture

 Modern architecture and design moved toward abstraction and


rejected historical styles and ornamentation

 Modern architecture reveals rather than conceals the inner


structure of the building
Arts and Craft Movement
 Movement that led to the development of the Art Noveau

 An English movement applied in arts indirectly in architecture

 The Arts and Crafts Movement was a British, Canadian,


Australian, and American aesthetic movement occurring in the last
years of the 19th century and the early years of the 20th century.
Inspired by the writings of John Ruskin and a romantic idealization of
a craftsperson taking pride in their personal handiwork, it was at its
height between approximately 1880 and 1910.
 Began primarily as a search for authentic and meaningful styles for
the 19th century and as a reaction to the ecclectic revival of historic
styles of the Victorian era and to "soulless" machine-made
production aided by the Industrial Revolution.
ARTS AND CRAFTS
MOVEMENT

 WILLIAM MORRIS
pioneered the Arts and
Crafts Movement in
Britain putting forward
an alternative to the
impasse of historicism

 Establishment of a
more logical
relationship between
design and materials
Prairie Style

 American Midwest Architect Frank Lloyd Wright invented the Prairie


Style in early 20th Century

 Related to The Arts and Crafts Movement, using craft, including


stained glass windows, ceramics, and wood carpentry

 Wright preferred the countryside to the city

 Natural Materials / Natural Environment

 Inspired by Japanese Architecture (long, low buildings with open


interior spaces). Wright designed a hotel in Tokyo (now demolished)
Art Nouveau
 Art Nouveau began in France
 (Late 19th Century – Early 20th Century)
Art Nouveau (French pronunciation: [aʁ
nuvo],
Art Nouveau incorporates Organic and
Natural Forms into the decoration,
especially floral and other plant-inspired
motifs
 as well as highly-stylized, flowing
curvilinear forms and whiplash lines
 Art Nouveau is an approach to design
according to which artists should work on
everything from architecture to furniture,
making art part of everyday life.
 Architecture +Interior Design, Fashion,
Graphic Arts, Decorative Arts
Art Nouveau
is an international movement and style of art, architecture and applied
art—especially the decorative arts—that peaked in popularity at the turn
of the 20th century (1890–1905). The name 'Art nouveau' is French for
'new art'. It is also known as Jugendstil, German for 'youth style',
named after the magazine Jugend, which promoted it, and in Italy, Stile
Liberty from the department store in London, Liberty & Co., which
popularized the style. A reaction to academic art of the 19th

Versions of Art Noveau


1. France – Le Modern Style
2. Germany – Jugendstil, Bandwurmstil, Tapeworm
3. Austria – Sezessione
4. Italy – Stile Liberty, Stile Inglese
5. Spain - Modernismo
 TASSEL HOUSE
 Victor Horta
Antonio Gaudi
Spanish

Antonio Gaudi, Casa Mila (Barcelona,


Spain), 1907
Art Nouveau
Casa Batlo, Barcelona (1905-1907)

Sagrada Familia, Barcelona


By Antonio Gaudi
Louis Sullivan American
• Art Nouveau (organic /
natural motifs and
decoration

• Used Cast iron


decoration on first and
second floors

• Large display windows

Louis Sullivan, Carson,


Pirie, Scott Building
(Chicago), 1899-1904
ART NOUVEAU
 GLASGOW
SCHOOL OF ART
 Charles
Rennie
Mackintosh
De Stijl (The Style)
 Began in 1917 by a group of artists in Holland

 ―balance between individual and universal values‖

 Integration of Art and Life

 Geometric Forms / ―Purity‖ and Simplicity


Gerrit Rietveld
• Rietveld was a furniture maker
and architect

• Schroder House combines


geometric forms and primary
colors with black, white, grey

• simple, open spaces

• furniture designed by Rietveld

Garrit Rietveld,
Schroder House
(Utrecht, Holland)
1924
Gerrit Rietveld

Garrit Rietveld, Schroder House (Utrecht, Holland) 1924


Art Deco
• Movement in 1920’s and 1930’s associated with “the
Jazz Age”

• Began in France, but spread to other parts of


Europe, USA, and around the world

• People still wanted decoration despite the de Stijl


and other modern movements eliminating all
unnecessary decoration

• Industrial Design Combined with Fine Art Elements


(industrial materials (metal) and objects + patterns and
repeated shapes)

• Industrial Design – cars, household appliances,


fashion, decorative objects, architecture

• Inspiration from Ancient Cultures, including Egypt


The Chrysler Building
New York
• Exterior made of
stainless steel

• Art Deco motifs –


repeated shapes
(triangles, etc.)

• Built for Car


Manufactuer, Chrysler
Automotive Company

• Monument to the
“Roaring 1920’s”

William van Alen, The Chrysler Building


(New York), 1928 - 1930
Art Deco · Coca Cola Bottling Plant·
Streamline Moderne
California
Art Deco
Buildings
Streamline
Moderne
Miami
MODERN ARCHITECTURE
The Bauhaus
 The Bauhaus was an important art and design school in Germany
opened in the 1920’s

 The Bauhaus focused on understanding Pure Form (color, shape,


line, composition, space, etc,)

 Many important artists and designers taught and studied there

 The Bauhaus trained artists, designers, and architects to accept


and anticipate the needs of the 20th Century

 The Bauhaus greatly influenced modern design – ―streamlined‖


the look of architecture and design, including typography

 The Bauhaus was closed by the Nazis in 1933


The Bauhaus
Bauhaus
designers
invented new
simplified
forms of The Bauhaus
typography designers created
(sans serif) ―streamlined‖
design with
simple, “clean
lines”
Walter Gropius German
Walter
Gropius, the
Bauhaus
(Dessau,
Germany),
1925 - 1926
Walter Gropius German
 Main Building of Bauhaus
Art and Design School

 In 1919, Gropius, German


architect, was appointed
director of The Bauhaus

 Gropius focused on Formal


Elements (shape, color,
line, etc.)

 Gropius promoted the unity Walter Gropius, the Bauhaus (Dessau,


of art, architecture, and Germany), 1925 - 1926
design
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe German

Mies van der


Rohe,
German
Pavilion in
International
Exposition
(Barcelona,
Spain), 1929
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe German

• Director of Bauhaus
from 1930 - 1933

• Mies van der Rohe said


“Less is More”

•Simple, Open Space


and Quality Materials

• “Domino system” - Mies van der Rohe, German Pavilion in


combine rectangles to International Exposition (Barcelona,
form architecture Spain), 1929
Bauhaus
Bauhaus is a German expression meaning house for building. In 1919, the
economy in Germany was collapsing after a crushing war. Architect Walter
Gropius was appointed to head a new institution that would help rebuild the
country and form a new social order.
Called the Bauhaus, the Institution called for a new "rational" social housing for
the workers. Bauhaus architects rejected "bourgeois" details such as cornices,
eaves, and decorative details. They wanted to use principles of Classical
architecture in their most pure form: without ornamentation of any kind.
Bauhaus buildings have:
Flat roofs
Smooth facades
Cubic shapes.
Colors are white, gray, beige, or black.
Floor plans are open and furniture is functional.

The Bauhaus school disbanded when the Nazis rose to power. Walter Gropius,
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, and other Bauhaus leaders migrated to the United
States. The term International Style was applied to the American form of
Bauhaus architecture.
Modernism

Modernist architecture emphasizes function. It attempts to provide for specific


needs rather than imitate nature. The roots of Modernism may be found in the
work of Berthold Luberkin (1901-1990), a Russian architect who settled in London
and founded a group called Tecton. The Tecton architects believed in applying
scientific, analytical methods to design. Their stark buildings ran counter to
expectations and often seemed to defy gravity.

Modernist architecture can express a number of stylistic ideas, including:

Structuralism
Formalism
Bauhaus
The International Style
Brutalism
Minimalism
Modernism
Modernist architecture has these features:

•Little or no ornamentation
•Factory-made parts
•Man-made materials such as metal and concrete
•Emphasis on function
•Rebellion against traditional styles

For examples of Modernism in architecture, see works by:

Rem Koolhaas
I.M. Pei
Le Corbusier
Philip Johnson
Mies van der Rohe

In the later decades of the twentieth century, designers rebelled against the
rational Modernism and a variety of Post-modern styles evolved.
Modernism
The Herbert F. Johnson Museum
of Art at Cornell University is a
Modernist building by I.M. Pei.
Bauhaus

The Bauhaus Gropius House in Lincoln,


Massachusetts
Bauhaus
Examples of Bauhaus and the
International Style:
The Seagram Building
The Gropius House
The Farnsworth House
Philip Johnson's Glass House
The Transco Building by Philip Johnson
U.N. Headquarters by Le Corbusier
The Miller House by Richard Neutra
The Lovell House by Richard Neutra
The Bauhaus Building in Dessau, Germany

Architects Inspired by the Bauhaus


Movement
Walter Gropius
Le Corbusier
Richard Neutra
Philip Johnson
The Seagram Building Mies van der Rohe
375 Park Ave., 1954-1957 Marcel Breuer
Mies van der Rohe, Philip Johnson
International Style
International Style is a term often used to describe Bauhaus architecture in the United States.
The name came from the book The International Style by historian and critic Henry-Russell
Hitchcock and architect Philip Johnson. The book was published in 1932 in conjunction with an
exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art in New York. The term is again used in a later book,
International Architecture, by Walter Gropius. While German Bauhaus architecture had been
concerned with the social aspects of design, America's International Style became a symbolism
of Capitalism: The International Style is the favored architecture for office buildings, and is also
found in upscale homes built for the rich.

Examples of Bauhaus and the International Style:


The Seagram Building
The Gropius House
The Farnsworth House
Philip Johnson's Glass House
The Transco Building by Philip Johnson
The Miller House by Richard Neutra
The Lovell House by Richard Neutra

Architects Inspired by the Bauhaus Movement


Le Corbusier
Richard Neutra
Philip Johnson
Mies van der Rohe
Marcel Breuer
International Style

One of the most famous examples of the International Style is the United Nations
Secretariat building, designed by Le Corbusier. The smooth glass-sided slab dominates
New York's skyline along the East River. The United Nations Secretariat building was
completed in 1952.
Expressionism and Neo-expressionism

Expressionism evolved from the work of avant garde artists and designers in
Germany and other European countries during the first decades of the
twentieth century.

Key features of Expressionism are:

•distorted shapes
•fragmented lines
•organic or biomorphic forms
•massive sculpted shapes
•extensive use of concrete and brick
•lack of symmetry

Many fanciful works rendered on paper but never built


Expressionism and Neo-expressionism

Neo-expressionism built upon expressionist ideas. Architects in the 1950s and


1960s designed buildings that expressed their feelings about the surrounding
landscape. Sculptural forms suggested rocks and mountains. Organic and
Brutalist architecture can often be described as Neo-expressionist.

Expressionist and Neo-expressionist Architects

Gunther Domenig
Hans Scharoun
Rudolf Steiner
Bruno Taut
Erich Mendelsohn
Walter Gropius (early works)
Eero Saarinen
Expressionism and Neo-expressionism
Built in 1920, the Einstein Tower
(Einsteinturm) in Potsdam is an
Expressionist work by architect
Erich Mendelsohn.
Constructivism

During the 1920s and early 1930s, a group of avant-garde architects in


Russia launched a movement to design buildings for the new socialist
regime.

Calling themselves constructivists, they believed that design began with


construction.

Their buildings emphasized abstract geometric shapes and functional


machine parts.

Constructivist architecture combined engineering and technology with


political ideology.

Constructivist architects tried to suggest the idea of humanity's collectivism


through the harmonious arrangement of diverse structural elements.
Constructivism
Constructivist buildings have many of these features:
•Glass and steel
•Machine-made building parts
•Technological details such as antennae, signs, and projection screens
•Abstract geometric shapes
•A sense of movement

Constructivist Architects:
Vladimir Tatlin
Konstantin Melnikov
Nikolai Milyutin
Aleksandr Vesnin and his brothers Leonid and Victor Vesnin
El Lissitzky
Vladimir Krinsky
Iakov Chernikhov
Constructivism
Russian architect Vladimir Tatlin
launched the constructivist movement
when he proposed the futuristic, glass-
and-steel Tatlin's Tower.
Functionalism
When American architect Louis Sullivan coined the phrase "form follows
function," he described what later became a dominant trend in Modernist
architecture. Louis Sullivan and other architects were striving for "honest"
approaches to building design that focused on functional efficiency.

Functionalist architects believed that the ways buildings are used and the types
of materials available should determine the design. Of course, Louis Sullivan
lavished his buildings with ornamental details that did not serve any functional
purpose.

The philosophy of functionalism was followed more closely by Bauhaus and


International Style architects.

Toward the end of the 20th century, the term Functionalism was used to
describe any practical structure that was quickly constructed for purely practical
purposes without an eye for artistry. However, for Bauhaus and other early
Functionalists, the concept was a liberating philosophy that freed architecture
from frilly excesses of the past.
Functionalism

Architect Louis I.
Kahn sought
honest
approaches to
design when he
designed the
Functionalist Yale
Center for British
Art in in New
Haven,
Connecticut.
Structuralism

Structuralism is based on the idea that all things are built from a system of signs
and these signs are made up of opposites: male/female, hot/cold, old/young, etc.

For Structuralists, design is a process of searching for the relationship between


elements. Structuralists are also interested in the social structures and mental
processes that contributed to the design.

Structuralist architecture will have a great deal of complexity within a highly


structured framework.

For example, a Structuralist design may consist of cell-like honeycomb shapes,


intersecting planes, cubed grids, or densely clustered spaces with connecting
courtyards.

Architect Peter Eisenman often brings a Structuralist approach to his works.


Structuralism
The Berlin
Holocaust
Memorial is a
controversial
Structuralist
work by
architect Peter
Eisenman.
Formalism
As the name suggests,
Formalism emphasizes form.
The architect is interested in
visual relationships between the
building parts and the work as a
whole. Shape, often on a
monumental scale, is the focus
of attention. Lines and rigid
geometric shapes predominate
in Formalist architecture. You
will find Formalism in many
Modernist buildings, especially
in Bauhaus and International
Style architecture. Architect I.M.
Pei has often been praised for
the "elegant formalism" of his
works.
Brutalism
The Bauhaus architect Le Corbusier used the French phrase béton brut, or raw
concrete, to describe the construction of his rough, concrete buildings. Brutalism
grew out of the Bauhaus Movement and the béton brut buildings by Le Corbusier
and his followers. Heavy and angular, Brutalist buildings can be constructed
quickly and economically.

Common features include:


•Precast concrete slabs
•Rough, unfinished surfaces
•Exposed steel beams
•Massive, sculptural shapes

The Prizker Prize-winning architect Paulo Mendes da Rocha is often called a


"Brazilian Brutalist" because his buildings are constructed of prefabricated and
mass-produced concrete components. Shown here is his home in São Paulo,
Brazil.

The Bauhaus architect Marcel Breuer turned to Brutalism when he designed the
Whitney Museum in New York City and the Atlanta, Georgia Central Library
Brutalism

The Bauhaus architect Marcel Breuer turned to Brutalism when he designed the
Whitney Museum in New York City and the Atlanta, Georgia Central Library
Brutalism

Rugged reinforced concrete construction, or Béton Brut, lead to an approach


popularly known as Brutalism.
The Paulo Mendes da Rocha Residence in São Paulo, Brazil by Paulo Mendes
da Rocha, 2006 Pritzker Architecture Prize Laureate
Minimalism

One important trend in Modernist architecture is the movement toward minimalist


or reductivist design. Hallmarks of Minimalism include:

•Buildings are stripped of all but the most essential elements.

•Emphasis is placed on the outline, or frame, of the structure


Interior walls are eliminated

•Floor plans are open

•Lighting is used to dramatize lines and planes

The negative spaces around the structure are part of the overall design
Minimalism
Modernist architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe paved the way for Minimalism
when he said, "Less is more."

Minimalist architects drew much of their inspiration from the elegant simplicity of
traditional Japanese architecture.

Minimalists were also inspired by a movement of early twentieth century Dutch


artists known as De Stijl.

Valuing simplicity and abstraction, De Stijl artists used only straight lines and
rectangular shapes.

The Mexico City home of the Pritzker Prize-winning architect Luis Barragán is
Minimalist in its emphasis on lines, planes, and open spaces.
Architects known for Minimalist designs include:
Tadao Ando
Luis Barragan
Yoshio Taniguchi
Richard Gluckman
Minimalism

The Minimalist Luis


Barragan House, or
Casa de Luis
Barragán, was the
home and studio of
Mexican architect
Luis Barragán. This
building is a classic
example of the
Pritzker Prize
Laureate's use of
texture, bright
colors, and diffused
light.
Post-Modern Architecture
In the later decades of the twentieth century, designers rebelled against
the rational Modernism and a variety of post modern styles evolved.
Examples of post modern architecture include:

Postmodernism
High Tech
Organic
Deconstructivism
Postmodernism
Postmodern architecture evolved from the modernist movement, yet
contradicts many of the modernist ideas. Combining new ideas with traditional
forms, postmodernist buildings may startle, surprise, and even amuse.
Familiar shapes and details are used in unexpected ways. Buildings may
incorporate symbols to make a statement or simply to delight the viewer.
Philip Johnson's At&T Headquarters is often cited as an example of
postmodernism. Like many buildings in the International Style, the skyscraper
has a sleek, classical facade. At the top, however, is an oversized
"Chippendale" pediment.

The key ideas of Postmodernism are set forth in two important books by
Robert Venturi: Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture and Learning
from Las Vegas.

Postmodern Architects:
Robert Venturi and Denise Scott Brown
Michael Graves
Philip Johnson
Postmodernism
Philip Johnson's At&T
Headquarters (now the
SONY Building) is often
cited as an example of
postmodernism.
High-tech

High-tech buildings are often called machine-like.

Steel, aluminium, and glass combine with brightly colored braces, girders, and
beams.
Many of the building parts are prefabricated in a factory and assembled later.

The support beams, duct work, and other functional elements are placed on the
exterior of the building, where they become the focus of attention.

The interior spaces are open and adaptable for many uses.

The High-tech Centre Pompidou in Paris appears to be turned inside out,


revealing its inner workings on the exterior facade.
High-tech

The Centre
Pompidou in Paris
is a High-tech
building by Richard
Rogers, Renzo
Piano, and
Gianfranco
Franchini.
Organic Architecture

Frank Lloyd Wright said that all architecture is organic, and the Art Nouveau
architects of the early twentieth century incorporated curving, plant-like shapes into
their designs.

But in the later half of the twentieth century, Modernist architects took the concept
of organic architecture to new heights.

By using new forms of concrete and cantilever trusses, architects could create
swooping arches without visible beams or pillars.

Organic buildings are never linear or rigidly geometric. Instead, wavy lines and
curved shapes suggest natural forms.
Organic Architecture

Examples of Organic Modernism:

Frank Lloyd Wright used shell-like spiral forms when he designed the Solomon R.
Guggenheim Museum in New York City

Artist and architectural designer used ocean motifs when he designed Sea Ranch
Chapel in Gualala, California

Architect Eero Saarinen is known for designing grand bird-like buildings such as
the TWA terminal at New York's Kennedy Airport and Dulles Airport near
Washington D.C.

Architect Jorn Utzon borrowed shell-like forms for the Sydney Opera House in
Australia.
Organic Architecture

Architect Eero Saarinen is known for designing grand bird-like buildings such as
the TWA terminal at New York's Kennedy Airport and Dulles Airport near
Washington D.C.
Organic Architecture

The Sydney Opera House, designed by Jørn Utzon, winner of the Pritzker
Architecture Prize in 2003
Deconstructivism

Deconstructivism, or Deconstruction, is an approach to building design that


attempts to view architecture in bits and pieces. The basic elements of
architecture are dismantled.

Deconstructivist buildings may seem to have no visual logic.

They may appear to be made up of unrelated, disharmonious abstract forms.

Deconstructive ideas are borrowed from the French philosopher Jacques


Derrida.

Examples of Deconstructivism in architecture, look at works by:

Peter Eisenman
Frank Gehry
Richard Meier
Rem Koolhaas
Deconstructivism

The Seattle Public Library by Dutch architect Rem Koolhaas is an example of


Deconstructivist architecture.
Deconstructivism

The Guggenheim Museum Bilbao, along the Nervión River in downtown


Bilbao by Frank Gehry, with the Maman, a huge spider by Louise Bourgeois
AMERICAN ARCHITECTURE

NATIONAL PHASE
(MODERN ARCHITECTURE)
Modern architecture is characterized by
simplification of form and creation of
ornament from the structure and theme of the
building.
MODERN ARCHITECTURE

LE CORBUSIER
Charles-Édouard
Jeanneret-Gris

VILLA SAVOYE
NOTRE DAME, RONCHAMP
UNITE D’ HABITATION
CARPENTER’S CENTER
Le Corbusier French • Small church
chapel which
replaced a building
destroyed in WWII

• Shape represents
praying hands or
wings of a dove
(symbol of peace)

• Reference to
Le Corbusier, Notre Dame du Haut
Medieval Architecture
(Ronchamp, France), 1950 - 1955

• Concrete over
metal structure
MODERN ARCHITECTURE

LUDWIG MEIS
VAN DER ROHE

FARNSWORTH HOUSE
SEAGRAM BUILDING
LAKESHORE
APARTMENTS
MODERN ARCHITECTURE

WALTER
GROPIUS

BAUHAUS
MODERN ARCHITECTURE

FRANK
LLOYD
WRIGHT

UNITY TEMPLE
GUGGENHEIM MUSEUM,
NEW YORK
ROBIE HOUSE
KAUFFMAN HOUSE
MODERN ARCHITECTURE

PHILLIP
JOHNSON

GLASS HOSUE
AT&T BUILDING
SOUTH-EAST ASIA
CHINA . JAPAN . INDIA . CAMBODIA .
INDONESIA
CHINESE ARCHITECTURE
WOOD CONSTRUCTION
CHINESE ARCHITECTURE
TIMBER FRAMED STRUCTURE
CHINESE ARCHITECTURE
PAGODA
CHINESE ARCHITECTURE
GREAT WALL OF CHINA
CHINESE ARCHITECTURE
GREAT WALL OF CHINA
JAPANESE ARCHITECTURE
JAPANESE ARCHITECTURE
SHINTO SHRINE
JAPANESE ARCHITECTURE
PAGODA
INDIAN ARCHITECTURE
HINDU ARCHITECTURE
INDIAN ARCHITECTURE
BUDDHIST ARCHITECTURE
INDIAN ARCHITECTURE
GREAT STUPA AT SANCHI
CAMBODIAN ARCHITECTURE
ANGKOR WAT
CAMBODIAN ARCHITECTURE
ANGKOR WAT
CAMBODIAN ARCHITECTURE
ANGKOR WAT
THAILAND ARCHITECTURE
ROYAL PALACE
THAILAND ARCHITECTURE
CHOFA
THAILAND ARCHITECTURE
WAT PHRA SINGH PALACE
THAILAND ARCHITECTURE
CHIANG MAI (chedi)
INDONESIAN ARCHITECTURE
BOROBUDUR
INDONESIAN ARCHITECTURE
BOROBUDUR

Six square platforms topped


by three circular platforms.

Decorated with
2,672 relief panels and
504 Buddha statues.

A main dome is surrounded


by 72 Buddha statues seated
inside perforated stupa.
INDONESIAN ARCHITECTURE
BOROBUDUR
PHILIPPINE ARCHITECTURE

INDIGENOUS . SPANISH COLONIAL.


AMERICAN COLONIAL . COMMOWEALTH
PERIOD . PRESENT FILIPINO
ARCHITECTURE
PHILIPPINE
ARCHITECTURE
PHILIPPINE
ARCHITECTURE
PHILIPPINE
ARCHITECTURE
Philippine architecture
NIPA HUT / BAHAY KUBO

>> BULWAGAN
>> SILID
>> GILIR / PAGLUTUAN
>> DAPOGAN
>> BANGGERA
>> BATALAN
>> SILONG
>> KAMALIG
Philippine architecture
Bahay na bato
Philippine architecture
Bahay na bato

GROUND FLOOR

>> ZAGUAN
>> CUADRA
>> BODEGA
>> ENTRESUELO
>> PATIO
>> ALJIBE
Philippine architecture
Bahay na bato
Philippine architecture
Bahay na bato

SECOND FLOOR

>> CEREMONIAL STAIRS


>> CAIDA
>> SALA
>> COMEDOR
>> COCINNA
>> DISPENSA
>> COMUN / LATRINA
>> BANYO / PALIGUAN
>> CUARTO
>> AZOTEA
>> BALCON
Philippine architecture Bahay na bato
Philippine architecture
Bahay na bato
PHILIPPINE
CHURCHES
 BARASOAIN
CHURCH (Bulacan)

 Firstbuilt by
Augustinian priests
in 1859

 Combination of
Romanesque and
Renaissance
PHILIPPINE CHURCHES
PHILIPPINE CHURCHES
 MANILA CATHEDRAL
 Known as the ―Cathedral Basilica of the
Immaculate Concepcion‖
 It is Neo-Romanesque in character
PHILIPPINE CHURCHES
PAOAY CHURCH
PHILIPPINE CHURCHES
PHILIPPINE CHURCHES
PHILIPPINE
ARCHITECTURE
PHILIPPINE
ARCHITECTURE
PHILIPPINE
ARCHITECTURE
 1 - PBCOM TOWER
 (Gabriel Formoso & Partners /
SOM)
 2 - GT INTERNATIONAL TOWER
 (Recio + Casa Architects / KPF)
 3 - PETRON MEGA PLAZA
 (Skidmore, Owings and Merill)
 4 - 1322 ROXAS BOULEVARD
 (Gabriel Formoso & Partners)
 5 & 6 - BSA TOWER 1 & 2
 7 - ONE SAN MIGUEL TOWER
 (Philip Recto)
 8 - LKG TOWER
 (Recio + Casas Architects / KPF)
 9 & 10 - PACIFIC PLAZA 1 & 2
 (Recio+Casas, Architects)