ABSTRACT
This is one in a series of manuals for teachers using
SMSG high school supplementary materials. The pamphlet includes
comrsintaries on the sections of the student's booklet, answers to the
extv- sear and sample test questions. Topics covered include directed
3gments, applications to geometry, vectors and scalars,
compunents, inner product, applicaticns of vectors in physics, and
vectors as a formal mathematical system. (MP)
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Reproductions supplied by EDRS are the best that can be aade
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Financial support far the School Mashematks Study Group has been
ptovided by the National Science Foundation.
Many classes and individual students, however, may find time to pursue
mathematical topics of special interest to them. This series of pamphlets,
whose production is sponsored by the Sdhool Mathematics Study Group, is
designed to make material for such study readily accessible in classroom
quantity.
Some of the pamphlets deal with material found in the regular curric-
ulum but in a more extensive or intensive manner or frog a novel point of
view. Others deal with topics not usually found at all in the standard
curriculum. It is hoped that these pamphlets will find use in classrooms
in at least two ways. Some of the pamphlets produced could bm used to
extend the work done by a class with a regular textbook but others could
be used profitably When teachers want to experiment with a treatment of a
topic different from the treatment in the regular text of the class. In
all cases, the pamphlets are designed to promote the enjoyment of studying
mathematics.
Section Page
1. Directed Line Segments 1
2. Applications to Geometry 3
3. Vectors and Scalars; Components . . . .
7
4. Inner Product 10
j
Commentary and Answers
Introduction.
Exercises 1. Answers.
1. AA 0 AB p BA
2. AA AB 0 AC 0 BB , BA , BC , CC , CB , CA .
3. a E-B CC =
AB DC , BA lig CD
AD rC * DA 5
AC , CA , BD , DB are also included in the list of directed
line segments. From plane geometry the diagonals of a
parallelogram have equal measure. This might lead one to
say AC and BD are equivalent. One needs to turn again
to the Definition la for equivalent directed line segments.
The same consideration can be invoked to convince one that
AC and CA are not equivalent.
4. (a) AC
(b) AC
(c) AC
(d) BA A
(0 BB , for
CB + CA + AC CB .
5. (a) A X B TX 4B,BXBA,
1
r p IS 7 .
(b) A a . El -1BA r = 2 , s -1 .
.(d) AX im AB BX = BA
3
2 1
r s .
(e) AX A1 ,
3
r p 3 an "'
3
3-41'
(f) B A X AR - iit 7BA
2. Applications to C'reometry.
Exercises 2. Answers.
The line AC .
(a)
As-AC
AS
-AB
AC A8
(b)
10
(2) (r 4- I - MAD + isDIC (s + m ms)EC + mrn
This equality (2) is satisfied if
(i). r + / - Jr mr and (ii) is a + m - ms
Solving (i) and (ii) for 1 and m in terms of r
and s we obtain
(4)
r+ -
rs -CAS + EZ) r.-77FT TZ .
r+s
Since V equals a constant times AC the inter-
7.
= AB - + + + 4- Aro .
+ + = + + AF)
AO = AP = AQ and points 0, P, and Q coincide.
Exercises 3. Answers.
1.
1 2
(b) a - 1 = - 6 , b - 2 is 3 -
a = -1 b 4
- a = 4 - (-6) , 2 b -3 - (-1)
a = -11 b 4
(d) x(9,0) .
by Theorem 3b.
(b) [1,-1] .
(h) (14,-3]
9
2x + 3y = 2
That is, x = - 31 and
x = g. 8
(0) and - 1-3.
a - 3b = 0 .
We conclude that 3 1
a = - IT and b =
10
+ b = 0
/ a - 3b = 1 .
1 3
We conclude that a = IT and b
+ 4b m 3
14a + 3b = -2 .
4. Inner Product.
Exercises U. Answers.
1. Given It = (1,0] and is (0,1] .
(c) (0,1].(1,0] . 0 .
(a) 1 .
(e) 0 .
'(f) -7
(g) -7 .
(h) ac + bd .
(i) 4a2 + 4b2 .
2. I It = rki co. .
(a)
(e) 131.80 .
(f) 33.6° .
(g) 0 .
(h) 1800 .
If I then 1 1 = 0 .
(a) (3,43.(a,41 = 0
16
3a + 16 = 0 ; a
(b) 4 -
(0) -3 .
(d) 4 .
(c) 9o° .
(a) 0 .
(e) 90° .
(f) 107 . 6° .
(g) 107.6° .
1e
12
ac + bd
(h) 005 Ng
b2) COS e
4(a2 b2)
(1) FNXI,2 b20\4-6(52
cos 8 ni 1
8in 00 .
(3) 00 .
3 = 5 cos 8 ----eb.cos B = 3
Desired component . 5 4. 3 .
pi' 005 8 m 1 . .
component = 5 1 . 5 .
13
pa + qb
Desired component =\42 + b2 cosi/ =
Vp2 c?
O.) The student could get the impression that his knowledge
of vectors makes him an expert physicist. This is not so. He
needs to learn a little physics as well as vector algebra to
solve these problems.
2.14
1. 5.%( lb.
) .
(P-J44. 0.1)
T. (0, -1000) .
4. 1141_ N/7
FI . 500,4. 866
II-500.
The force of wire AC on C is approximately 866 pounds;
the force of wire EC on C is 500 pounds; for equally
strong wires, CW is more likely to break since the
greatest force is on it and BC is least likely to break.
15
0.971 . D
2 2
Also, cos C 2 + 6 - 72 3
(2)(2)(6) m - 0.3750 and C 112° .
20
3.6
- (0, -20)
Since 1+1 +V NES adding the left member vectors gives
the equal vectors
(-0.588 rAl + 0.970 iI , 0.809 okl . 0.242 al 20)
. (0,0) .
-0.588 + 0.970 . ,
rgi 20
176
.5
.12 .
vg
Equating corresponding components gives the following pair
of simultaneous equations:
+ 1 rs1 - 0
N/Pa.
+ fi - 2000 - 0 .
NA
In the first equation,
- 2 rgl .
N/6
Using this value in the second equation, we obtain
N/16
F ept (IP-
ept
1 cos 30° , Tab
ept
I sin 300)
I Vs 1
Nab
sc.:"
pt
.[-IP2Z1 n
(o,-6)
18
ept L g
Adding the vectors in the left member we obtain
+ 0 +
IFLhJ
- A (0,0) .
[117;;INg
2
= (0.97 11 , 0.26
ept
.
F = (0.-10,000) .
19
Since
L
+Fep t + =0,we have the two simultaneous
equations:
10. FL . (IFL1 cos 100' , IFLI sin 1000) (-0.174 1FLI, 0.985
IFdl = (Ird cos 100 , sin 100) (0.985 iFdl 0.174 IFdl)
(o,-5oo) .
20
Febb = Fp costa
W = d F
ebb
(e) 100
10611°M.940 10.6 ft.
1000
d = 10 ft.
100 cos 00
sin e
W _lc 11.
d 575 ft.
(g) d = 10 ft.
42 2 2
= 1.3 + 0.5
ITV 42 (3.34)2 2 4
3.34 cos 21°
ITRI :I: 1.52 .
5. At t 15 the body is at
the point (130,131) . Thus:
it has moved 1300 miles to
the right, and 1310 miles
upward.
t2
t3
PATH OF SHIP B
4
Et RL EA
tan a -3 sin 8 +
3 cos 9
This problem can be handled easily by using calculus.
However, by making use of a table or graph we can obtain an
approximate solution without using calculus. Thus, the
smallest value of tan a occurs for
. 3
Sam 8 Im
49°
-3(.601 + (3 101.
. -1.98T 1.751
The corresponding value of a is given by
tan m 0.88
jrler 3 -VIT
410 .
2D
er.
25
30
Pinding the optimum value of 8 is, therefore, a
matter of compromise; it is motivated by a desire to oppose
the current as much as possible, without slowing progress
toward the opposite shore more than a little.
1. (a)
31. + + 517
(b)
+
27
2. (a) 16 . (d) 0 .
(b) 10 . (e) 0 .
(c) 0 .
3. (a) 16
3Neg
(b) 10
../rf
4. 0 .
ax (T 1) + a (3' 1) + a z (lb
- a (0) + a 1(1) + a(0)
x
- a .
28
ay I I -P al CO3 900
mg 0 .
la a44,
1Z 1 = a z = cos 600 = ir
e
Hence,
= + 40Z
Evidently,
11 .044
Now, 1 lies in the plane of 1Z and 11 . Hence, we can
use and 11 as basis vectors. Thus,
13 = + bp .
To find b
1
and b
2
we proceed as before. Let III = 1 .
I = b 1 = cos 60° = 7
1
U
aa
B = b
2
= CO3 30° 14
Consequently,
- +41
+441 +4-7)
29
The forces are equal in each cable. Let one unit of length
of vector represent one pound of force. Then, since the
cables are flexible and can transmit only forces parallel
to themselves, we have
3
7 c = 15 ,
c = 10 .
Thus, F = 101 .
-41 +
we know that
x
+ +
3
r4:
30
As before,
and we get
= 15
= 10
= 10
= 510%4T7T + ;
also, = 301 .
Consequently,
x; 3a. 4- 500. 1. 567 .
117 m.p.h.
57 m.p.h.
8. The proof is analogous to the one for two dimensions.
9. it - ST + 5; .
10.
11. 1
v7iT"
36
32
EXereises 6. Answers.
1. Yes.
r 0 (s 0 (apb)) m r E)
r(V) r(41-3)
(=" )
rea
p 111)
(rs) E) (a,b) p s
1 0 (11,17) m (1
37
33
(2a + c + e 2b + d + f)
la + c' + 2e b + d + 2f)
% 2
2
These are not equal.
(ra + sa rb + sb)
2 '