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Welding Inspectors

Q:- What is the standard for Process (or) Plant piping systems?
Answer: ASME B 31.3

Q:- What is the standard for Power Piping systems?


Answer: ASME B 31.1

Q:- What is the standard for liquid Petroleum Transportation piping systems?
Answer: ASME B31.4

Q:- What is the standard for Gas Transmission and Distribution piping systems?
Answer: ASME B31.8

Q:- What is the Code for Welding of Pipelines and Related facilities?
Answer: API 1104

Q:- What is the standard for welding rods Electrodes and filler metals?
Answer: ASME Sec-IIC

Q:- What is the standard for Non-destructive Examination?


Answer: ASME Sec-V

Q:- What is the standard for welding and Brazing Qualifications?


Answer: ASME Sec-IX

Q:- Which type of process we are using in field/fabrication shop?


Answer: Fusion welding

Q:- What is the specification/classification for carbon steel filler wire?


Answer: AWS 5.18/ER70-Sx

Q:- What is the specification/classification for carbon steel Electrode?


Answer: AWS 5.1/E-XXXX

Q:- Where we can use E-6010 type electrode?


Answer: we can use at root pass for deep penetration

Q:- What is the meaning for ASME?


Answer: American Society for Mechanical Engineering

Q:- Which type of electrode we are using in GTAW process?


Answer: Non-Consumable Tungston Electrode

Q:- How Many times we can dry the electrodes?


Answer: Only one time
Q:- Why we are baking the electrodes?
Answer: To remove the moisture content from the Electrodes.

Q:- What is the standard for Structural steel fabrication?


Answer: AWS D1.1

Q:- What is the standard for Welding symbols?


Answer: AWS A2.4.

Q:- What is the hydrotest pressure?


Answer: 1.5 Times of design pressure.

Q:- What is the drying temperature for Stainless Steel electrodes?


Answer: 120 to 250 degree temperature.

Q:- What is the drying procedure procedure for Low hydrogen electrodes?
Answer: 260 to 430 degree temperature.baking for two hours

Q:- What are the defects we can find in visual Inspection?


Answer: Porosity,Undercut,Surface crack (HIC),Side wall fusion on fusion boundary.

Q:- What is the Procedure for Fit-Up inspection?


Answer: Base metal classification,cleaning,Alignment,root gap,root face,bevel angle & mismatch (or) overlap.

Q:- What is the internal overlap (or) mismatch for piping?


Answer: 1.5 mm.

Q:- How much root face are allowed?


Answer: As per WPS (or) 0.8 to 1.6 mm

Q:- What is meaning for F – Number?


Answer: F- is filler metal grouping Number.

Q:- What is meaning for P – Number?


Answer: P – is base metal grouping Number.

Q:- What is meaning for A – Number?


Answer: A – is electrode chemical analysis number.

Q:- How much bead width we can allow?


Answer: Max 3 times of electrode diameter.

Q:- How much area is required for Pre-heat?


Answer: 75 mm minimum from both end of the Joint.
Q:- Which section we are using for NDT?
Answer: ASME Sec-V

Q:- What are the essential variables for SMAW process?


Answer: In base metal thickness, P-number, dia of pipe, pre, post weld heat treatment
In filler metals F,A-numbers, dia

Q:- What are the essential variables for GTAW process?


Answer: In Base Metal thickness, P-number, dia of pipe, pre, post weld heat treatment… In Filler Metals F, A-numbers,dia of fill

Q:- If welder made test by 2’’ dia, what is his range qualified?
Answer: He has qualified 1’’-dia and above.

Q:- If welder made test by 14 mm thickness, what is his thickness range qualified?
Answer: He has qualified unlimited thickness.

Q:- What is carbon % in low carbon steel?


Answer: Max 0.30 %

Q:- What is the interpass temperature for carbon steel materials?


Answer: Max 315’C

Q:- What is meaning for SAES,SAEP and SAMSS?


Answer: Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards
Saudi Aramco Engineering Procedures
Saudi Aramco Materials System Specification.

Q:- How much under cut depth allowed in piping?


Answer: 0.8 mm

Q:- How much area is required for Pre-heat?


Answer: 75 mm minimum from both end of the Joint.

Q:- How much percentage is allowed more than test pressure in Pressure relief device?
Answer: Test pressure plus10% (10% should be lesser than 50Psi).

Q:- How much gap is allowed in socket weld?


Answer: 1.5 mm minimum before welding.

Q:- What is the minimum fillet size in socket weld?


Answer: Minimum 3 mm fillet size.

Q:- Hydro test.


1. Piping Internal Cleaning
a. Air compressor
b. Air blower
c. Electrical cable
d. Generator
c. Wire brush
d. cotton waste cloth
e. water tanker water with pump
2. Testing
a. Pressure gauge-(30days calibration valid, range 1.5 to 2 times test pressure)
b. Test manifold (calibration validity)
c. Pressure relief valve( Set to 5% above test pressure)
d. Test pump
e. Water tank
f. Hoses
g. Test blind
h. Test water (refer as per project specification)
II. Test package
1. Calibration Certificates of Gauges ,relief valves
2. P&ID and ISO Drawing
3. Test Package Control sheet
4. Marked up P&ID
5. As built Drawing
6. Welding log
7. NDE report
8 .Punch list –all punch list cleared (category one)
9. Pressure test Check sheet
10. Safety check lists
ch (or) overlap.
er Metals F, A-numbers,dia of filler metal
Saudi Aramco Piping Qc Inspector Sample Interview Questions & Answers...

1. What are the main duties of the piping inspector?

Material receiving inspection à Storage & preservation à Cutting, assembly & fit-up à Pre-welding inspection à Visual inspection

2. How many types of gaskets do you know?

Full face (Asbestos)


Spiral wound metallic
Ring type
Metal jacketed
Inside bolt circle

3. What are the different types of mating flanges? Name the 4 most common

Flat face
Raised face
RTJ(Ring type Joint)
Tonge & groove
Male & female

4. What type of information do you get from Isometric drawings?

Line routing, Line orientation, Northing, easting & elevation, Bill of mat’l, Insulation type, NDT requirement, Revision status, Ma

5. What type of codes and standards do you use as a piping inspector?

ASME B31.3, ASME B31.1, ASME B31.5, ASME B31.9;


JERES-A-004, JERES-A-007, JERES-A-206, JERES-A-301, JERES-L-105, JERES-L-108, JERES-L-110, JERES-L-150, JERES-L-130, JERES-

6. What are the types of Valves?

Gate valve, Globe valve, Butterfly valve, Needle valve, Check valve, Control valve, Knife gate valve,
Based on function:-non-return valve, isolation valve, regulation valve, special purpose valve,

7. What are the main things you will check before Bolt torquing?

Size of bolt, Calibration of torque wrench, Manual /hydraulic require, Lubricant, Friction factor for threaded lubricant, torque v

8. Write 3 Saudi Aramco piping standards (L-Series)?

SAES-L-105, SAES-L-108, SAES-L-110, SAES-L-150, SAES-L-130, SAES-L-310, SAES-L-350,SAES-L-351


9. Write minimum ten hydrostatic test punch list items prior to commence hydrotest at site? Indicate which is YES item & NO it

1. All hot work shall be completed


2. Strainers shall be removed
3. All NDT & DT completion
4. PWHT completion
5. Adequate attachment
6. Coating on weld joint shall be removed.
7. Calibration of equipments used. Test blind MTC.
8. Test certificates of testing fluid
9. Components in new piping systems which interfere with filling, venting, draining or flushing shall not be installed.(orifice p
10. All joints (flange, threaded, welded or mechanical seals) are left exposed for visual leak detection during the strength test.
11. All permanent flange joints were inspected, gasket mat'l verified & properly torqued.
12. Drains shall be provided at all low points of the piping system.
13. Vents and drain valves, both temporary and permanent, conforms with the piping class or rating.
14. Supports are installed. Additional temporary support may be installed as required.
15. Expansion joints and spring hangers or spring supports are provided with temporary restraints.
16. Arc strikes, gouges, and other indications of careless workmanship (such as surface porosity, uneven weld profiles, and und
17. Drains are provided immediately above check valves (vertical lines)
18. All threaded joints up to the first block valve of hydrocarbon pipeline are seal welded. Thread engagement has been verifie
19. The pressure testing manifold is separately pressure tested to at least 1.2 times the system test pressure but not less than
20. Line compliance with Isometrics:
i. Correct Materials utilized grade/schedule (Bill of Mat'ls)
ii. Correct flange and fittings rating
iii. Construction tolerances per SAES-L-350

10. Which type of documents/reports attached in hydrostatic test package?

Refer Attached

11. Weep hole size shall be drilled for dummy pipe support will be ________mm

Weep hole shall be located near base plate for all vertical dummy pipe support & near run pipe at 6’O clock position for horizon

12. What is dead leg and explain?

· Dead Legs: Piping sections that are potential for internal corrosion due to flow stagnation.
· Dead legs are created mainly by flow stagnation enhanced with presence of settled water and solid deposits.
· When the length of the section or branch , for 2 inch pipes and larger, is longer than three times its pipe diameter, or 1.22
· For branch connections of 1-½ inch NPS and smaller, the length of the dead leg is the distance measured from the end of

13. Write any 2 types of piping supports?

Shoe, Spring loaded, resting, weer pad,


14. Line class 103CS3C is listed on the Isometric Drawing. Explain each________

1 03 CS 3 C
Raised face Flange rating 300 Carbon steel C.A-4.5mm Caustic
As per JERES-L-105 page 375-377

15. What type of connection is acceptable for a 24” header, 12” branch?

Weldolet or welded branch with reinforcement pad as per JERES-L-110 app:A

16. How many minimum Pressure gauges to be installed during hydro test?

Two(JERES-A-004, para 7.1.5)

17. Relief valve calibration period would be___________

One week, per JERES-A-004 para 5.5.1

18. What is a PIP?

Process industry practices

19. Name the different types of Service Conditions?

NFS :- Normal services, Category M, Category D, High pressure fluid services(ASME-B31.3)

20. How do you verify (name several items to check) that the correct piping material is used?

Material specification, Pipe size, schedule, length, flange face rating, olet size rating, threaded/socket weld type, MTC, PMI repo

21. How do you identify fittings and flanges?

By material classification, size, rating, joint type (lap, socket, threaded, butt), face;

22. How do you check piping for the correct schedule?

Verify pipe material thickness by Vernier at the end or UT on surface or stenciling done by the manufacturer (visual) or heat nu

23. What is the standard mill tolerance for piping 2’’ & less?

12% of nominal wall thickness


24. What is the tolerance for ovality of piping?

5% of nominal diameter at any cross section other than weld end & 3% at weld end (JERES-L-350 para 9.2)

25. What is the difference between torqueing CS and SS bolting?


CS:- Yield strength High; Torque value High
SS:- Yield strength low; Torque value low

26. What are jackscrews and when are they required?

Used in flange joint assemblies which often require frequent separation includes orifice plate, spectacle plates, spacers, screen

27. What is often overlooked during orifice flange fabrication?

· Inside surface of welded joints at @ orifice flanges shall be ground & machined smooth (JERES-L-350 para 10.4.2)
· Orientation of taps are as per JERSD-J-0001
· All parallel pipe lines with adjascent orifice fittings shall have a min spacing of 300 mm (12 in) between flanges outside di
Orifice flanges in adjacent lines shal be staggered so that no two pairs of orifice flanges are less than 1 m(3ft) apart.

28. What is the maximum diameter piping allowed in hazardous service?


Socket weld:- 2” for maintenance & minor modification & 1-½” for new construction
Threaded:- 1-½” for standard fitting & valve, and 2” maximum when required for maintenance, minor field minor modification

29. What is the minimum sized piping that can be installed on pipe racks?
Ø1”

30. Can Teflon tape be used prior to seal welding?


No, (JERES-L-110 para 8.5)

31. How many threads can be visible after seal welding threaded joints?
No, should cover all exposed threads(JERES-W-011 para 12.15.3)

32. What is the gap requirement for socket welds for new construction?

1.5mm-3mm (ASME B31.3 fig 328.5.2C)

33. Give examples of unique support details that allow piping freedom of movement for thermal expansion?
Guide support, Moving saddle support, Expansion ballons, shoe support, Spring loaded

34. When you will apply 24 hours recorded hydro test?


If for justifiable safety reasons the UG line must be backfilled, then the joints shall remain exposed during testing, otherwise th

35. Difference between carbon steel and stainless steel?

CS:- Low cost, no chromium content, suitable for non-corrosive service upto 350 degree C, max carbon 0.3%.
SS:- Contains more than 12% Cr, 0.08% C, Suitable for corrosive, cryogenic, High temp services, costly.

36. Difference between RT & UT?

RT:- Uses X-ray or Gamma ray to detect discontinuities, reveals mostly volumetric. planar defects & subsurface defects not dete
UT:-Uses ultrasonic beam to detect discontinuities reveals both planar & volumetric defects, but size &exact location of defects

37. Difference between PT & MT?

MT:- Only Applicable for ferromagnetic materials & able to detect both surface & sub surface discontinuities, compare to PT ex

PT:- Applicable for both ferromagnetic & non ferromagnetic materials & able t detect only surface discontinuities, It requires m

38. How do you control material in fabrication shop?

1) All materials shall have material spec and grade stamped or stenciled & clearly marked with permanent marker.
2) All materials,heat no. will be made traceable to MTC from approved vendor & no material substitution will be done without
3) All materials shall be stored & stacked separately as per material grade.
4) Heat no. shall be transferred before cutting into pipes that have to be cut.
5) All materials shall be color coded as per tracebility procedure

39. Write inspection items during valve installation?

1. Valve type corrects at the location


2. Valve test certificate
3. Valve tag as per P&ID
4. Valve direction of flow as per P&ID
5. Gasket bolts as per isometric & type
6. Handle direction
7. Chain wheel installed
8. Valve flange face condition
ng inspection à Visual inspection of socket & threaded joints à Pneumatic test for reinforcing pad à Pickling & passivation àDatabase reporti

requirement, Revision status, Material class’n, Design, operating & testing temp/pressure, paint system, P&ID, slope, Service details, flow d

ERES-L-150, JERES-L-130, JERES-L-310, JERES-L-350, JERES-L-351, JERES-W-011, JERES-W-016

for threaded lubricant, torque value, JERES-L-109 / 351


dicate which is YES item & NO item

g shall not be installed.(orifice plates, flow nozzles, sight glasses)


tection during the strength test.

ty, uneven weld profiles, and undercut) shall be removed by grinding and inspected by magnetic particle or liquid penetrant method.

ead engagement has been verified & accepted.


m test pressure but not less than the discharge pressure of the pump used for the pressure testing.

e at 6’O clock position for horizontal dummy.(SAES-L-350 13.2.3 & L-310 14.7.2)

r and solid deposits.


e times its pipe diameter, or 1.22 m (4 ft) in length, the length of the dead leg is the distance measured from the outside diameter of the h
tance measured from the end of the boss to the near end of the valve.
socket weld type, MTC, PMI report.

manufacturer (visual) or heat number, traceability by MTC of product.


50 para 9.2)

spectacle plates, spacers, screens, and drop out spools shall be provided with jack screw to facility separation and opening for the mainten

(JERES-L-350 para 10.4.2)

2 in) between flanges outside diameters if horizontal taps are required. Where this spacing is not practical follow JERSD-J-0001.
s than 1 m(3ft) apart.

, minor field minor modification of existing piping system(JERES-L-110 para 7.2)

mal expansion?
osed during testing, otherwise the test shall be a 24 hour recorded test.(JERES-L-150 para 7.4.2)

x carbon 0.3%.

ts & subsurface defects not detectable easily


ut size &exact location of defects are not easily identifiable. Possible only on materials that do not defract UT waves.

discontinuities, compare to PT examination it takes less time for testing & inspection; Applicable for large temp range.

ace discontinuities, It requires more time; Applicable for small temp range.

permanent marker.
ubstitution will be done without proper approval from the company.
g & passivation àDatabase reporting à Visual inspection of completed spools à Piping pre-inspection & spool erection à orifice flange inspec

&ID, slope, Service details, flow direction, support details, notes;


r liquid penetrant method.

m the outside diameter of the header (or run) to the near end of the branch valve.
on and opening for the maintenance. When flange separations are used, jackscrews are not required.Jackscrews shall be installed to be ac

follow JERSD-J-0001.
ol erection à orifice flange inspection à Pipe support inspection à Verification of slope à Internal cleanliness à Valve installationà Piping flang
crews shall be installed to be accessible from both sides of the pipe. For orifice flanges, jack screws shall be installed at 3 & 9 o’ clock positi
à Valve installationà Piping flange joint inspection à Pre-test punch listing à Hydro testing àpre-commissioning.
e installed at 3 & 9 o’ clock positions.(JERES-L-310 para 17.7)