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FORCE, MOTION, AND ENERGY

MOTION is the process of an object changing place or position. It can be described by an objects direction and
speed. Tracking and measuring an objects position over time can describe its motion.

POSITION refers to an object’s location. The position of an object all depends on how a person is looking at
the object and what it is being compared to, which is known as an object’s relative position. Position can be
described by comparing it to the location of another object or background.

SPEED is how fast an object is moving or changing position. It is a measure of motion. When an object
changes it’s position, it always changes position at a certain rate of speed. Speed can be at a fast rate or it can
be at a slow rate. A constant speed is when an object moves at the same speed the whole time it moves. An
object moving at a variable speed means that it changes its speed as it is moving.

ENERGY is the ability to do work. Energy comes in many different forms.

TWO STATES OF ENERGY


KINETIC ENERGY is the energy of motion. Anything moving has kinetic energy.
POTENTIAL ENERGY is stored energy.
FORCE is any push or pull that causes an object to move, stop, or change speed or direction.

The greater the FORCE, the greater the change in motion will be. The more mass an object, the less effect a
given force will have on the object.

TYPES OF FORCES
FRICTION is a force that works against an object that is moving along a surface, which can slow down or stop
the object. FRICTION creates heat.
GRAVITY is an attracting force that tries to pull two or more objects together. Gravity depends on two things:
the mass of the objects and the distance between them.

Unless acted on by a force, objects in motion tend to stay in motion and objects at rest remain at rest.

ELECTRICITY - The continuous flow of negative charges (electrons) creates an electric current. The pathway
taken by an electric current is a circuit. CLOSED CIRCUITS allow the movement of electrical energy. OPEN
CIRCUITS prevent the movement of electrical energy.

Electrical energy moves through materials that are CONDUCTORS (metals). INSULATORS (rubber, plastic,
wood) is a material that restricts the transfer of either heat or electricity. Insulators are used to protect us
from the dangerous effects of electricity flowing through conductors.
Among conducting materials, the rate at which energy flows depends on the material’s RESISTANCE.

In a SERIES CIRCUIT, there is only one pathway for the current, but in a PARALLEL CIRCUIT there are two or
more pathways for it.

Rubbing certain materials together creates STATIC electricity. Lightning is the discharge of STATIC electricity in
the atmosphere.
Static electricity is the build-up of an electrical charge on the surface of an object. The reason that it’s actually
called static electricity is because the charges stay in one area for some time and don’t flow or move to a
different area.

Atoms are made up of neutrons, protons, and electrons. The electrons spin around on the outside. A static
charge happens when two surfaces touch each other and the electrons move from one object to another. One
of the objects will have a positive charge and the other a negative charge. Items with different charges
(positive and negative) will attract each other, while items with similar charges repel each other.
Electrical energy can be transformed into light or motion, and can produce thermal (heat) energy. Electricity,
Motion, Radiant Energy, Sound and Thermal Energy are all kinetic energies.

Thermal Energy – Electricity can be used to produce


heat. Examples include an electric heater for a house
or a hot plate used to heat food.

Radiant Energy – Electricity can be used to produce


light in the form of a light bulb.

Mechanical Energy – Electricity can be used to produce


motion (electrical motors). Examples include blenders
and toy trains.

Sound Energy – Electricity can be used to produce


sounds. Examples include

MAGNETISM is the property of attracting certain types of metals. The invisible field around a magnet is called
a magnetic field. LINES OF FORCE extend from the poles of a magnet in an arched pattern defining the area
over which magnetic force is exerted.
An electric current creates a magnetic field, and a moving magnetic field creates an electric current. A current
flowing through a wire creates a magnetic field. Wrapping a wire around certain iron-bearing metals (iron nail)
and creating a closed circuit is an example of a simple electromagnet. There are a few key differences
between permanent magnets and electromagnets. Firstly, and possibly most relevant in terms of their uses, is
that an electromagnet can be turned on and off, whereas a permanent magnet, as its name suggests, is
permanent.

Electricity creating an electromagnet.

Spinning magnets create electricity. (Generator)


In 1752, Ben Franklin conducted his famous kite experiment. In order to show that lightning was electricity, he
flew a kite during a thunderstorm. He tied a metal key to the kite string to conduct the electricity.

Thomas Edison developed a complete electrical distribution system for light and power, set up the world's first
electricity generation plant in New York City, and invented the alkaline battery.

Michael Faraday’s major contribution was in the field of electricity and magnetism. He was the first to
produce an electric current from a magnetic field and invented the first electric motor.