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Part 1 condition: 400C, 70C, 1:1

Volume of HCl Mole of HCl/NaOH Mole of NaOH neutralised Acid density


KOH H3PO4 KOH H3PO4 KOH H3PO4 KOH
EFB 44.3 47.7 0.00089 0.00095 0.00031 0.00025 3.14
Corn Cob 49.1 54.2 0.00098 0.00108 0.00022 0.00012 2.18
Palm Frond 41.7 51.3 0.00083 0.00103 0.00037 0.00017 3.66

Palm frond Volume of HCl Mole of HCl/NaOH Mole of NaOH neutralised Acid density
0.3 35.4 0.00071 0.00049 4.92
1 41.7 0.00083 0.00037 3.66
2 49.3 0.00099 0.00021 2.14

Part 2 Condition: 70C , 1:1


carbonisation
temperature Volume of HCl Mole of HCl/NaOH Mole of NaOH neutralised Acid density
400 43.2 0.00086 0.00034 3.36
600 28.8 0.00058 0.00062 6.24
800 30.4 0.00061 0.00059 5.92

Condition: 600C, 70C


Impregnation
ratio Volume of HCl Mole of HCl/NaOH Mole of NaOH neutralised Acid density
0.5 32 0.00064 0.00056 5.6
1 28.8 0.00058 0.00062 6.24
1.5 25.3 0.00051 0.00069 6.94

Condition: 600C, 1:1.5


Act Temp Volume of HCl Mole of HCl/NaOH Mole of NaOH neutralised Acid density
50 31.5 0.00063 0.00057 5.7
70 28.8 0.00058 0.00062 6.24
90 27.7 0.00055 0.00065 6.46

Sequences Volume of HCl Mole of HCl/NaOH Mole of NaOH neutralised Acid density
Carb to Act 31.5 0.00063 0.00057 5.7
Act to Carb 28.8 0.00058 0.00062 6.24

part 3
Condition: 600C, 1:1.5, 90C
Method Volume of HCl Mole of HCl/NaOH Mole of NaOH neutralised Acid density
Direct sulpho 30.1 0.00060 0.00060 5.98
4BDS 35 0.00070 0.00050 5
Ammonium persul 56.9 0.00114 0.00006 0.62
7

Total Acid Density (mmol/g)


6
H3PO4 5 6.6

2.46 6.4
4
1.16

Total Acid Density (mmol/g)


6.2
1.74 3
6
2
5.8
1
5.6
0
0 200 400 600 800 1000 5.4

Carbonisation Temperature (ºC) 5.2

5
0 10 20 30
Imp

7
Tota l Acid Dens i ty (mmol /g)

6 6

5
5
4

Tota l Acid densi ty , mm


4
3

2 3

1
2
0
0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
1
Impregnation Ratio

0
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
Si ze
6.6

6.4
Total Acid Density (mmol/g)

6.2

5.8

5.6

5.4

5.2

5
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Impregnation Temperature (ºC)

5
Tota l Acid densi ty , mm

0
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 2.2
Si ze of Oi l Pal m Frond (OPF), mm
PFAD Acid Value
43.2 242395.2
Part 2
carbonisation 100.00
temperature Volumen of KOH Acid Value Conversion
400 6.2 34788.2 85.65
600 2.6 14588.6 93.98 80.00
800 5.6 31421.6 87.04

Conversion (%)
60.00
Impregnation
ratio Volumen of KOH Acid Value Conversion
40.00
0.5 2.4 13466.4 94.44
1 2.6 14588.6 93.98
1.5 1.9 10660.9 95.60 20.00

Act Temp Volumen of KOH Acid Value Conversion 0.00


0 200
50 5.9 33104.9 86.34
70 2.6 14588.6 93.98
90 1.5 8416.5 96.53

Sequences Volumen of KOH Acid Value Conversion 100.00


Car to Act 2.3 12905.3 94.68
Act to Car 1.6 8977.6 96.30 98.00

Conversion (%)
Part 3 96.00
method Volumen of KOH Acid Value Conversion 94
Direct sulpho 1.5 8416.5 96.53 94.00
4BDS 1.3 7294.3 96.99
Ammonium persulfa 39.5 221634.5 8.56 92.00

90.00
0 0
Im

100.00

95.00
Conversio (%)

90.00

85.00

80.00
40
Conve
85.00

80.00
40
100.00 93.98
85.65 87.04

80.00

60.00

40.00

20.00

0.00
0 200 400 600 800 1000
Carbonisation Temperature (ºC)

100.00

98.00
Conversion (%)

95.60
96.00
94.44
93.98
94.00

92.00

90.00
0 0.5 1 1.5 2
Impregnation Ratio (OPF: KOH)

100.00
96.53
93.98
95.00
Conversio (%)

90.00
86.34
85.00

80.00
40 60 80 100
Impregnation Temperature (ºC)
86.34

Conve
85.00

80.00
40 60 80 100
Impregnation Temperature (ºC)