Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 24

ARDUINO BASED LPG

LEVEL MONITORING AND


LEAKAGE DETECTION

A PROJECT BASED LEARNING REPORT

Submitted by

NANDHA B 17EC051
SIVA SAKTHI S 17EC083
SREE TAKSHIN N 17EC086
THENNARASU S 17ECL07

In partial fulfilment for the award of the degree

Of

BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING

in

ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

NANDHA ENGINEERING COLLEGE, ERODE

(AUTONOMOUS)
(Affiliated to Anna University, Chennai)

OCT 2018
NANDHA ENGINEERING COLLEGE, ERODE
(AUTONOMOUS)
(Affiliated to Anna University, Chennai)

BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE

Certified that this project report “ARDUINO BASED LPG GAS


IDENTIFICATION AND DETECTION” is the bonafide work of
“NANDHA B, SIVA SAKTHI S, SREE TAKSHIN N, THENNARASU S” who
carried out the Project work under my supervision.

SIGNATURE

Mr.M.SRINEVASAN
Project Guide
Department of ECE,
Nandha Engineering College,
(Autonomous)
Erode-638052.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The success of a work depends on the team work and co-operation various
involved either directly or indirectly.

We express our thanks to our beloved Chairman of Nandha Institutions


Thiru.V.Shanmugan and all members of the Nandha Engineering College for
providing us all the basic amenities to complete the course successfully.

We wish to covey our earnest gratefulness to our cherished Secretary


Thiru.S.Thirumoorthi, for the excellent facilities provided to the project work
successfully.

We wish to express our deep sense of gratitude and thanks to our beloved
Principal Dr.N.Rengarajan, for the encouragement and support during the course study.

We are grateful to our Dean Dr.S.Kavitha Department of Electronics and


Communication Engineering for providing the facilities and also for their kind
patronage.

We are very indebted to our Project Coordinator & Guide Mr.M.Srinevasan,


Assistant Professor, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering for his,
valuable guidance, useful criticism, effective suggestions and kind advice to complete
our project work.
TITLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER NO TITLE PAGE NO

LIST OF FIGURES

ABSTRACT

1 INTRODUCTION 1

1.1 Problem Identification 1


1.2 Existing Techniques 1
1.3 Project Work Plan 2
2 HARDWARE KIT 3
2.1 Arduino UNO R3 3
2.2 Load Cell 3
2.3 HX711 Load Cell Amplifier Module 4
2.4 Transformer 5
2.5 Gsm module SIM300 6
2.6 Gas Detection Sensor 6
2.7 Driver module 7
2.8 Solenoid Valve 7
2.9 Relay 8
2.10 LCD Display 9

3 OPERATION & WORKING 10

3.1 Block Diagram 10


3.2 Circuit Diagram 10
3.3 Program Coding 11
4 HARDWARE DESCRIPTION 13

5 RESULT & CONCLUSION 14

6 APPLICATIONS 15

7 REFERENCE 16

8 APPENDIX 17
LISTS OF FIGURES

FIGURE NO NAME PAGE NO


1 Arduino UNO R3 3
2 Load Cell 4
3 HX711 Load Cell Amplifier Module 4
4 Transformer 5
5 Gsm module SIM300 6
6 Gas Detection Sensor 6
7 Driver module 7
8 Solenoid Valve 8
9 Relay 8
10 LCD Display 9
ABSTRACT

There is a rapid development in technology which influencing the human life in several
aspects due to rapid development in different fields but we still need to adopt that technology
such that we can make human life more easier to live. In our Country it is not possible to
supply LPG through Pipes to each and every home as production of LPG is too short. At
present we are having an system Advance LPG cylinder booking through IVRS or online
which is most difficult for the illiterate and busy schedule people to book the LPG cylinder in
advance. Another Major problem LPG cylinder users facing is “They don’t know exactly the
status of LPG gas completion” makes even more delay in booking the cylinder which is
uncomfortable most of the times. Now a days we are having a IVRS system in which customer
needs to go through few steps in accordance with the Automatic voice which also includes
selecting options. Most of the illiterate people can’t even complete the booking due to this
reason and also most of the times these landline phones are either busy due to congested calls
or phones not working due to some technical issues. This paper proposes a system that will
make entire LPG cylinder booking procedure automated without human intervention. This
system continuously measures the weight of the cylinder and once it reaches minimum
threshold it will automatically sends message to the authorized LPG Agent so that they can
deliver the LPG cylinder in time. Along with the Automated cylinder booking we also designed
feature related to the safety of the user in which it continuously monitor the leakage of LPG gas
and alerts the user regarding leakage to avoid major accidents which costs human lives mostly.

Keywords: Arduino UNO R3, Solenoid valve, GSM Modem, Gas Sensor, Load Cell.
CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Problem Identification:


There is a rapid development in technology which influencing the human life in
several aspects due to rapid development in different fields but we still need to adopt that
technology such that we can make human life more easier to live. In our Country it is not
possible to supply LPG through Pipes to each and every home as production of LPG is too
short. At present we are having an system Advance LPG cylinder booking through IVRS or
online which is most difficult for the illiterate and busy schedule people to book the LPG
cylinder in advance. Another Major problem LPG cylinder users facing is “They don’t know
exactly the status of LPG gas completion” makes even more delay in booking the cylinder
which is uncomfortable most of the times. Now a days we are having a IVRS system in which
customer needs to go through few steps in accordance with the Automatic voice which also
includes selecting options. Most of the illiterate people can’t even complete the booking due to
this reason and also most of the times these landline phones are either busy due to congested
calls or phones not working due to some technical issues.

1.2 Existing Techniques

In the year 2014, Hitendra Rawat, Ashish Kushwah, Khyati Asthana, Akanksha
Shivhare, designed a system, They provided security issues against thieves, leakage and fire
accidents. In those cases their system sends SMS to the emergency number provided to it. In
the proposed system we have designed “LPG gas monitoring and automatic cylinder booking
with alert system”. These report focus on detection of economic fuels like petroleum, liquid
petroleum gas, alcohol..etc., and alert the surrounding people about the leakage through SMS.
It also sense surrounding temperature, so that no fire accidents occurs. The one more important
feature is automatic cylinder booking by noticing the current expenditure of LPG gas in our
daily life.
These projects alert the user by sending message to mobile through SMS in three
conditions. They are

 When LPG gas weight reaches to maximum threshold value.


 When the LPG gas exceed its peak value.
 When the temperature exceed more than room temperature.

These project gives alert message by buzzing the buzzer and trough SMS to the
house holders.

1.3 Project Work Plan:


There are approximately 30crore LPG users in the country in which mostly 40%
of the population. The Several standards have been implemented for the gas leakage detection
system. The existing systems provides an alarm system which is mainly meant to detect an Gas
leakage in the house and commercial premises The objective of the proposed system is to
continuously measure the weight of the cylinder and as soon as it reaches the minimum
threshold it will automatically sends an SMS alert to the user as well as Authorized LPG agent
so that they can act accordingly. The main aim of this project is to monitor for liquid petroleum
gas (LPG) leakage to avoid major fire accidents and also facilitating safety precautions where
security has been an important issue and automatic cylinder booking without human
intervention. The system detects the leakage of the LPG using gas sensor and alerts the
consumer about the gas leakage by sending SMS. The system measure the weight of cylinder
by using weight sensor and display corresponding weight in LPG display. The proposed system
uses the GSM Modem to alert the person about the gas leakage via SMS and status of
automatic cylinder booking. When the system identifies that LPG concentration in the air
reaches the specified level then it alert the consumer by sending SMS to registered mobile
phone and alert the people at home by activating the alarm which includes Buzzer
simultaneously and also display the same message on LCD to take the necessary action and
switch on the exhaust fan or opening windows to decrease the gas concentration in the air.
CHAPTER 2

HARDWARE KIT

2.1 Arduino UNO R3

Arduino/Genuino Uno is a microcontroller board based on the ATmega328P


(datasheet). It has 14 digital input/output pins (of which 6 can be used as PWM outputs), 6
analog inputs, a 16 MHz quartz crystal, a USB connection, a power jack, an ICSP header and a
reset button. It contains everything needed to support the microcontroller; simply connect it to a
computer with a USB cable or power it with a AC-to-DC adapter or battery to get started.
"Uno" means one in Italian and was chosen to mark the release of Arduino Software (IDE) 1.0.
The Uno board and version 1.0 of Arduino Software (IDE) were the reference versions of
Arduino, now evolved to newer releases. The Uno board is the first in a series of USB Arduino
boards, and the reference model for the Arduino platform; for an extensive list of current, past
or outdated boards see the Arduino index of boards.

2.2 Load Cell

Load cell is transducer which transforms force or pressure into electrical


output. Magnitude of this electrical output is directly proportion to the force being applied.
Load cells have strain gauge, which deforms when pressure is applied on it. And then strain
gauge generates electrical signal on deformation as its effective resistance changes on
deformation. A load cell usually consists of four strain gauges in a Wheatstone bridge
configuration. Load cell comes in various ranges like 5kg, 10kg, 100kg and more, here we have
used Load cell, which can weight upto 180kg.

2.3 HX711 Load Cell Amplifier Module

Now the electrical signals generated by Load cell is in few millivolts, so they
need to be further amplify by some amplifier and hence HX711 Weighing Sensor comes into
picture. HX711 Weighing Sensor Module has HX711 chip, which is a 24 high precision A/D
converter (Analog to digital converter). HX711 has two analog input channels and we can get
gain up to128 by programming these channels. So HX711 module amplifies the low electric
output of Load cells and then this amplified & digitally converted signal is fed into the
Arduino to derive the weight.
Load cell is connected with HX711 Load cell Amplifier using four wires. These four wires are
Red, Black, White and Green/Blue. There may be slight variation in colors of wires from
module to module. Below the connection details and diagram:

 RED Wire is connected to E+


 BLACK Wire is connected to E-
 WHITE Wire is connected to A-
 GREEN Wire is connected to A+

2.4 Transformer

A transformer is an electrical device that transfers electrical energy between two


or more circuits through electromagnetic induction. Electromagnetic induction produces an
electromotive force within a conductor which is exposed to time varying magnetic fields.
Transformers are used to increase or decrease the alternating voltages in electric power
applications. It is a step down transformer in which the secondary winding is more than
primary winding. Due to this windings it can able to step down the voltage. A Transformer
changes electricity from high to low voltage or low to high voltage using two properties of
electricity.
2.5 Gsm module SIM300

A GSM Module is basically a GSM Modem (like SIM 900) connected to a PCB
with different types of output taken from the board – say TTL Output ( Arduino) and RS232
Output to interface directly with a PC (personal computer). The board will also have pins or
provisions to attach mic and speaker, to take out +5V or other values of power and ground
connections. For our project of connecting a gsm modem or module to arduino and hence send
and receive sms using arduino its always good to choose an arduino compatible GSM
Module – that is a GSM module with TTL Output provisions.

2.6 Gas Detection Sensor

This module contains a MQ3 sensor which actually detects LPG gas, a
comparator (LM393) for comparing MQ3 output voltage with reference voltage. It gives a
HIGH output when LPG gas is sensed. A potentiometer is also used for controlling sensitivity
of gas sensing. This module is very easy to interface with microcontrollers and arduino and
easily available in market by name “LPG Gas Sensor Module”. We can also build it by using
LM358 or LM393 and MQ3.
2.7 Driver module

The Motor Driver is a module for motors that allows you to control the working
speed and direction of two motors simultaneously .This Motor Driver is designed and
developed based on L293D IC.

L293D is a 16 Pin Motor Driver IC. This is designed to provide bidirectional


drive currents at voltages from 5 V to 36 V.

2.8 Solenoid Valve

Initially the sensor senses the process towards the outlet side of the solenoid
valve. When it senses that certain quantity of the flow of the fluid is required, it allows the
current to pass through the solenoid valve. Due to this the valve gets energized and the
magnetic field is generated which triggers the movement of the plunger against the action of
the spring. Due to this the plunger moves in upwards direction, which allows the opening of the
orifice. At this instant the flow of the fluid is allowed from the inlet port to the outlet port.

If the current passing through the solenoid valve is constant, the position of the
plunger and hence opening of the orifice remains constant. If the sensor senses that more flow
of the fluid is required, it allows the increase in current passing through the solenoid valve,
which creates more magnetic field and more upwards motion of the plunger. This leads to
further opening of the orifice and more flow of the fluid from the inlet port to the outlet. If the
required flow of fluid is less, the sensor allows passage of the lesser current to the solenoid
valve. When the sensor senses that the fluid is no more required in the process, it stops the flow
of the current to the solenoid valve completely. Due to this the solenoid valve gets de-energized
and the plunger reaches the bottom most position and closes the orifice completely thus
stopping the flow of fluid from the inlet port to the outlet port.

2.9 Relay

Relay is an electromagnetic device which is used to isolate two circuits


electrically and connect them magnetically. They are very useful devices and allow one circuit
to switch another one while they are completely separate.
A relay switch can be divided into two parts: input and output. The input section
has a coil which generates magnetic field when a small voltage from an electronic circuit is
applied to it. This voltage is called the operating voltage. Commonly used relays are available
in different configuration of operating voltages like 6V, 9V, 12V, 24V etc. The output section
consists of contactors which connect or disconnect mechanically. In a basic relay there are
three contactors: normally open (NO), normally closed (NC) and common (COM).
2.10 LCD Display

The liquid-crystal display has the distinct advantage of having a low power
consumption than the LED. It is typically of the order of microwatts for the display in
comparison to the some order of milliwatts for LEDs. Low power consumption requirement
has made it compatible with MOS integrated logic circuit. Its other advantages are its low cost,
and good contrast. The main drawbacks of LCDs are additional requirement of light source, a
limited temperature range of operation (between 0 and 60° C), low reliability, short operating
life, poor visibility in low ambient lighting, slow speed and the need for an ac drive.
CHAPTER 3

OPERATION & WORKING

3.1 Block Diagram

3.2 Circuit Diagram


3.3 Program Coding

Include <LiquidCrystal.h>
LiquidCrystal lcd(8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13);
long sample=0;
float val=0;
long count=0;
unsigned long readCount(void)
{
unsigned long Count;
unsigned char i;
pinMode(DT, OUTPUT);
digitalWrite(DT,HIGH);
digitalWrite(SCK,LOW);
Count=0;
pinMode(DT, INPUT);
while(digitalRead(DT));
for (i=0;i<24;i++)
{
digitalWrite(SCK,HIGH);
Count=Count<<1;
digitalWrite(SCK,LOW);
if(digitalRead(DT))
Count++;
}
digitalWrite(SCK,HIGH);
Count=Count^0x800000;
digitalWrite(SCK,LOW);
return(Count);
}
void setup()
{
Serial.begin(9600);
pinMode(SCK, OUTPUT);
pinMode(sw, INPUT_PULLUP);
lcd.begin(16, 2);
lcd.print(" Weight ");
lcd.setCursor(0,1);
lcd.print(" Measurement ");
delay(1000);
lcd.clear();
calibrate();
}
void loop()
{
count= readCount();
int w=(((count-sample)/val)-2*((count-sample)/val));
Serial.print("weight:");
Serial.print((int)w);
Serial.println("g");
lcd.setCursor(0,0);
lcd.print("Weight ");
lcd.setCursor(0,1);
lcd.print(w);
lcd.print("g ");
if(digitalRead(sw)==0)
{
val=0;
sample=0;
w=0;
count=0;
calibrate();
}
}
void calibrate()
{
lcd.clear();
lcd.print("Calibrating...");
lcd.setCursor(0,1);
lcd.print("Please Wait...");
for(int i=0;i<10000;i++)
{
count=readCount();
sample+=count;
Serial.println(count);
}
sample/=100;
Serial.print("Avg:");
Serial.println(sample);
lcd.clear();
lcd.print("Put 10000g & wait");
count=0;
while(count<1000)
{
count=readCount();
count=sample-count;
Serial.println(count);
}
lcd.clear();
lcd.print("Please Wait....");
delay(2000);
for(int i=0;i<10000;i++)
{
count=readCount();
val+=sample-count;
Serial.println(sample-count);
}
val=val/10000.0;
val=val/10000.0; // put here your calibrating weight
lcd.clear();
}
CHAPTER 4

HARDWARE DESCRIPTION

The Several standards have been implemented for the gas leakage detection
system. The existing systems provides an alarm system which is mainly meant to detect an Gas
leakage in the house and commercial premises. The objective of the proposed system is to
continuously measure the weight of the cylinder and as soon as it reaches the minimum
threshold it will automatically sends an SMS alert to the user as well as Authorized LPG agent
so that they can act accordingly. This system also designed to detect LPG gases such as
propane and butane.

The system detects the leakage of the LPG using gas sensor and alerts the
consumer about the gas leakage by sending SMS. The system measure the weight of cylinder
by using weight sensor and display corresponding weight in LPG display. The proposed system
uses the GSM Modem to alert the person about the gas leakage via SMS and status of
automatic cylinder booking. When the system identifies that LPG concentration in the air
reaches the specified level then it alert the consumer by sending SMS to registered mobile
phone and alert the people at home by activating the alarm.

The load cell is a transducer that is used to convert a force into electrical signal,
which is used to measure of a LPG gas cylinder weight so that we can expect and alert the user
with in how many days the cylinder is about to empty. There are different Load cells available
in the market with different weight measurement capabilities.

The Gas Sensor is also one of the components used to detect the leakage of the
LPG Gas (Methane & Propane) which converts one form of the signal into other form. We are
using GSM Modem to alert the user by sending SMS(Short Message Service) about Gas
Leakage and LPG Gas Completion Status.GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication) is
a digital mobile telephone system.
CHAPTER 5

RESULT & CONCLUSION

As we shorted out the problems faced by LPG gas consumers so we come up


with some solutions to meet the few requirements of them, as we made our system is
completely automate the process of refill booking without human intervention. Our system
is also reasoned to help customers to upgrade their safety norms, act in accordingly with
minimum requirements on environmental issues and mostly the basic function being
prevented by major disasters and protect life and property from reputed Accidents.

The primary objective of our project is to measure the gas present in the cylinder
when weight of the cylinder is below the fixed load, this can be done using the weight
sensors. The gas retailer gets the order for a new cylinder and the house owner (consumer)
receives the message regarding the status and the secondary objective is to provide any
malfunctionin gas servicing system in order to prevent damage or explosion of LPG.

Thus the system developed by us will somehow help the LPG using Consumers
to lead a comfortable life.
CHAPTER 6

APPLICATIONS

The Home and Industry Safety using Fire and Gas Detection using GSM system
is used to detect any fire, smoke or gas leakage in any premises, building or industry. It is used
for detecting any leakage of gas or smoke due to fire or any chemical reaction. Here some of
the real-time applications are given below.

 This project is used as a security system in applications like homes, Hospitals, hostels,
industries.
 Because of its low power consumption, reliability, portability this system used in other
applications like smoke detection.
 It is very useful in-house for detecting LPG gas, which can cause huge loss of property
and life.
CHAPTER 7

REFERENCES

 K. Galatsis, W. Woldarsla, Y.X. Li and K. Kalantar-zadeh, “A Vehicle air quality


monitor using gas sensors for improved safety”, report in Recent Researches in
Applications of Electrical and Computer Engineering.

 “Smart Gas Cylinder Using Embedded System”, Issn (Online) 2321 – 2004 Issn (Print)
2321 – 5526, International Journal Of Innovative Research In Electrical, Electronics,
Instrumentation And Control Engineering Vol. 2, Issue 2, February 2014.

 “Design and Implementation of an Economic Gas Leakage Detector” A.


MAHALINGAM, R. T. NAAYAGI,1, N. E. MASTORAKIS§ Department of
Engineering Systemsschool of Engineering, University of Greenwich (Medway
Campus)Chatham Maritime, Kent ME4 4TBUNITED KINGDOM, article in Recent
Researches in Applications of Electrical and Computer Engineering.

 Johansson, A.; Birk, W.; Medvedev, A., “Model-based gas leakage detection and
isolation in a pressurized system via Laguerre spectrum analysis”, Proc. of IEEE
International Conference on Control Applications, pp. 212-216, 1998.
CHAPTER 8

APPENDIX