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Signs and symptoms of Kidney Dysfunction • Fever • Pruritis

• Edema • Hypertension
• Nausea • Bloody or purulent
• Headache/body (pus) in urine
aches • Decrease urinary out-
• Fatigue put
• Flank/low back pain
• Loss of appetite

Nephrotic Syndrome (Nephrosis) Signs & Symptoms

• Bloody urine
Problems with kidneys • Edema
• Headache
• Flank or pelvic pain

• lethargy and sudden weight gain
• Protein in urine

Acute Renal Failure (ARF) • Emergency, because waste products build up in

blood frequently
• Signs/Sx:
• Oliguria (no urine)
• GI disturbances
• HA
• Drowsiness
Functions of the urinary system • Produces, stores and excretes urine
• Cleanses the blood of waste (urea-nitrogen,
creatine and uric acid)
• Regulates water, salts and acids
• Helps regulate blood pressure and RBC
• Reabsorbs useful compounds
• Activates Vit D

Diabetics let what go in urine that shouldn’t Glucose, body shouldn’t let any glucose go in urine

Why do individuals with renal disease usually Because the kidneys think I’m not getting enough
have HTN (Hypertension, High Blood pres- blood (Kidneys help regulate BP) so kidneys drive
sure)? BP up

Pyelonephritis • Kidney Infection

• Inflammation of renal pelvis of one or more of the kid-
• Caused by infection (99% of time)
• Etiology: Bacteria ascend form lower tract
• Signs & Symptoms:
• Fever, chills, Nausea/vomiting, lumbar pain, often pre-
ceded by UTI (urine full of WBC)

Nephropathy • Kidney Damage

• In all Type 1 and many type 2 diabetics
• S&S: Urinary retention, HTN, Nausea/vomiting,
protein in urine
Cancer of Kidney (Renal Cell Carcinoma) • Signs/Sx: Hemturia, abdominal mass, and flank
• May be asymptomatic for long time

Renal Calculi • Kidney Stones

• Signs/Sx: Renal colic with urgency (Left side)
• VERY PAINFUL, colicky pain, “Loin to Groin”
• Nausea/vomiting
• Blood in urine (due to damage in kidney wall)
• Oliguria (reduced urine, because blocked)
• Fever, chills
• Abdominal distention MEDICAL URGENGY

Cystitis • Bladder Infection (UTI)

• Signs and Symptoms
• Urinary urgency (Tenesmus), Frequency
• Even incontinence (nocturia)
• May have pain fever and chills
• Abnormal urine color (cloudy) might be
• Foul urine odor
• If no fever, homeopathy great
• Tests: Urinalysis, elevated WBCs

Urethritis • Inflammation of urethra (Lower UTI)

• Same Signs & Symptoms of Cystitis
• Painful or difficult urination (PRIMARY)
• Urinary urgency, Frequency
• Even incontinence
• May have pain fever and chills
• If no fever, homeopathy great
Prostatism • Enlargement of prostate, causes obstruction
• Weak stream
• Abdominal straining, hesitancy, intermittency of
• Incomplete emptying, terminal dribbling

Enuresis Bed-wetting

Stress Incontinence • Uncontrollable leakage of small amounts of urine dur-

ing physical exertion or physical stress
• May be precipitated by:
• Weakening of pelvic floor muscles
• From trauma or from childbirth
• Hormanal changes of aging
• Obesity
• Other medications

Signs and Symptoms of Endometriosis • Endometrical tissue implants outside uterus in the pel-
vic cavity or in the abdominal wall
• Responds to menses cycles
• Pain and cramping in lower abdomen, vagina, back
• Acquired dysmenorrheal, starting a few days before
menses and continuing after is classic
• May also have heavy periods
• Dysparunia
• Painful bowel function

(PID) Pelvic Inflammatory Disease • Mild or serious infection that involves some or all
of the female repro organs
• Most common in young nulliparous females
• Etiology: can be STD or common vaginal flora
• Sexual active increases risk
• Use of IUD’s, and douching
• Exam, swab, WBC elevated
• Often neisseria gonorrhea & Chlamydia trachomatis

Signs and Symptoms of PID • Fever, chills, Malaise

• Foul vaginal discharge
• Painful intercourse
• Irregular menstrual bleeding
• Backache
• Tender abdomen, lower abdominal pain
• Scarring as complication: URGENT

Leiomyomas and Fibroids • Benign tumors of uterine smooth muscles

• Signs/Sx: may be asymptomatic
• May cause pelvic pain, pressure
• Constipation, urinary frequency
• Abnormal bleeding or heavy menses
• Can cause infertility or spontaneous abortions
Testicular cancer • Signs/Sx:
• nodule or painless swelling of one testicle
• May have Heavy sensation in abdomen, perianal
area or scrotum
• Most common ages 20-35
• Trmt: radical orchiectomy, chemo, rad

Dysmenorrhea Dysmenorrhea—Painful
Amenorrhea Amenorrhea– none
Oligomenorrhea Oligomenorrhea-Not as often
Metrorrhagia Metrorrhagia– too often, bleeding outside period
Menorrhagia Menorrhagia– heavy period

Possible causes for amenorrhea • Pregnancy

• Hormonal meds
• Emotional factors
• Anorexia
• Malnutrition
• Sudden weight loss or gain
• Extreme athletic training
• Ovarian or pituitary tumors

Ovarian Cysts • Fluid filled or semi-fluid filled sacs on or near ova-

• Maybe large before symptoms appear
• Can cause: ovarian torsion, severe abdominal
• Nausea, fever

Toxic Shock Syndrome • Acute, systemic infection
• Associated with tampons
• Signs & Symptoms:
• High fever, Headache,
• Sore throat,
• And rash, progresses to hypotension and shock
• Etiology: increase in Staph toxin production from
presence of synthetic fibers

Menopause • Climateric
• Cessation of menstrual periods for >6 months
• Signs/Sx: Usually between 45 and 55 y/o
• Hot flashes, Night sweats
• Vaginal dryness
• Skin changes
• Depression, memory loss, anxiety, sleep distur-
bances, loss of sex drive)

Cervical Cancer, Signs & Symptoms • Watery, bloody vaginal discharge

• Bleeding between periods, after intercourse, or
after menopause
• Often asymptomatic
• Found on PAP smear
• Long pre-malignant stage
• Risk factors: PHV, smoking, early and multiple
parity, Oral contraceptives, STDs

Ovarian Cancer • Most cause of deaths of gynecological cancers

• Signs & Sx:
• OFTEN asymptomatic until advanced
• Subtle and non-specific complaints
• Lower abdominal discomfort
• Bloating, constipation, lower back pain, irregular men-
ses, urinary frequency or dysparunia, distention

Vaginitis • Inflammation of infection of vaginal tissues

• Signs/Sx:
• Vaginal discharge, itching, burning, vulva pain
• Etiology: Trichomonas (critter) from partner
• Bacterial, fungal, viral
STD’s • Sexually transmitted diseases
• May be asymptomatic
• Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, Syphilis, Hepatitis B

Chlamydia • STD
• Causes urethritis (men), urethritis & cervicitis (womn)
• Signs/Sx: some discomfort with urination or ejacu-
lation, discharges w/burning
• (female) thick vaginal discharge w/burning, itch-
ing, abdominal pain, dysparunia
• Etiology: a critter, Chlamydia Trachomatis
• Trmt: Antibiotics

Gonorrhea • Signs/Sx: purulent discharges and dysuria

• Often asymptomatic
• Vaginal discharges, or thick copious pus dis-
charges in men
• Dysuria (difficulty urinating)
• Off cycle menstral bleeding
• Usually both cervix and urethra are infected
• Can also infect eyes, throat, systemic
• Trmt: Antibiotics

Trichomoniasis • Protozoal infection of lower Gynourinary tract

• Signs/Sx: dysuria, itching, women may get pro-
fuse greenish yellow discharge

Genital Herpes • Recurrent, incurable viral disease

• Causes painful genital sores (like cold sores)
• Signs/Sx: blister-like lesions on or around geni-
• Trmt: reducing duration and frequency of out-
Genital Warts • Condyloma acuminatum
• Causes cauliflower-like growth in or near vagina
or rectum or on penis
• Etiology: HPV Human Papilomavirus
• Treatment: chemical or surgical removal, reoc-
currence in common

Dysparunia Painful intercourse, men or women

Causes of Female infertility • STD’s • Antisperm antibodies

• Ovary dysfunction • medications
• Blocked fallopian tubes
• Congenital structural or
chromosomal disorders
• Scar tissue
• Tumors
• Endometriosis

Breast Cancer (Signs & Symptoms) • Hard, irregular, fixed lump

• Swelling
• Tenderness, pain not common
• irritation or dimpling or breast skin, ulceration or
retraction of nipple
• Bloody discharge
• Abnormal mammogram

Orchitis • Inflammation of the testes

• S/S: swelling, tenderness, and acute pain
• Etiology: viral or bacterial infection
• Trmt: antibiotics
Prostatitis • Acute or chronic inflammation of the prostate
• Signs/Sx: asymptomatic or pain and burning with
• Low back pain, fever, muscular pain, urinary fre-
quency and urgency
• Hematuria

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia • Nonmalignant non-inflammatory hypertrophy

(growth) of prostate gland
• Signs/Sx: common men > 50, difficulty starting
urination, weak stream, inability to empty the
bladder completely, urinary frequency, nocturia
(need to get up and urinate at night)

Failure to seek treatment for gonorrhea, can • PID (pelvic Inflammatory disease), Septicemia
result in and septic arthritis

Syphilis • Chronic systemic STD w/four stages

• Etiology: Treponema pallidum spirochete spread thru
sexual contact, bodily fluids
• Trmt:: cured early stages
• Signs/Sx: Primary, painless but contagious chancre
on genitalia, heals in 1-2 months when spread thru

Prostate Cancer • Primary malignancy prostate gland

• Very slow growing, only 3% of men die from it
• Signs/Sx: often asymptomatic, detected on digital
rectal exam or by high PSA level (>6), symptoms
or urinary obstruction may occur, new onset of
erectile dysfunction