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CONTENTS

FILTRATION PROCESS ............................................................................................................... 1


1. Location of particle retention ...................................................................................................... 1
2. Generation of the pressure difference ......................................................................................... 1
3. Operation mode ........................................................................................................................... 2
4. Application .................................................................................................................................. 2
FILTRATION METHOD ............................................................................................................... 2
1. Depth Filtration........................................................................................................................ 2
2. Adsorption Filtration ............................................................................................................... 3
3. Biological filtration.................................................................................................................. 3
EQUATIONS .................................................................................................................................. 4
APPLICABLE TYPE OF WASTE ................................................................................................ 6
OPERATING PROBLEMS ............................................................................................................ 7
1. Mud Balls ................................................................................................................................ 7
2. Filter Bed Shrinkage ................................................................................................................ 7
3. Separation of Gravel ................................................................................................................ 7
4. Air Binding .............................................................................................................................. 7
ADVANTAGES OF WASTEWATER FILTRATION ................................................................. 8
DISADVANTAGES OF WASTEWATER FILTRATION ........................................................... 8
REFERENCES ............................................................................................................................... 9

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FILTRATION PROCESS
Filtration is a liquid –solid separation technique of passing mixture through medium that allows
only liquid to pass through retaining the solids. The particles are deposited either at the outer
surface of the filter medium and/or within its depth. The liquid separated from the solids is called
the filtrate, effluent, or permeate (Metcalf et al, 2003). It is usually employed as a tertiary treatment
process for treating industrial waste water.

Figure 1: Filtration Mechanism

Filtration processes can be classified in accordance with different criteria:

1. Location of particle retention


The particles can be separated on the outer surface of the filter medium (surface filtration, cake
filtration) or inside of the filter medium (depth filtration, deep bed filtration)

2. Generation of the pressure difference


Pressure filtration, vacuum filtration, gravity filtration, centrifugal filtration

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3. Operation mode
Discontinuous, continuous, quasi-continuous. Dynamic filtration and static (normal) filtration. In
case of dynamic filtration are during the filtration process mechanisms active which helps to reduce
the build-up of a filter cake. The most common dynamic filtration process is cross-flow-filtration

4. Application
For example water filtration, beer filtration (Spellman, 2009).

FILTRATION METHOD
Filters can be categorized by the main method of capture, i.e. exclusion of particles at the surface
of the filter media i.e. straining, or deposition within the media i.e. in-depth filtration. Strainers
generally consist of a simple thin physical barrier made from metal or plastic. In water treatment
they tend to be used at the inlet to the treatment system to exclude large objects (e.g. leaves, fish,
and coarse detritus). These may be manually or mechanically scraped bar screens. The spacing
between the bars ranges from 1 to 10 cm. Intake screens can have much smaller spacing created
by closely spaced plates or even fine metal fabric. The latter are usually intended to remove fine
silt and especially algae and are referred to as micros trainers. The most commonly used filtration
process for industrial wastewater is depth filtration.

1. Depth Filtration
Industrial wastewater containing suspended matter is fed at the top of the filter bed. The filter
media commonly used is sand. As the waste water passes through the filter bed, the suspended
matter in the wastewater is removed by a variety of removal mechanisms which include straining,
sedimentation, impaction, adsorption, flocculation and bacterial growth. With passage of time, as
material accumulates within the interstices of the granular medium, the head-loss through the filter
starts to build up beyond the initial value. After some period of time, the operating head-loss or
effluent turbidity reaches a predetermined head loss or turbidity value, and the filter must be
cleaned (backwashed) to remove the material (suspended solids) that has accumulated within the
granular filter bed. Backwashing is accomplished by reversing the flow through the filter. A
sufficient flow of wash water is applied until the granular filtering medium is fluidized (expanded),
causing the particles of the filtering medium to abrade against each other (Zhou et al, 2001).

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2. Adsorption Filtration
Adsorption works on the principle of adhesion. The process of adsorption involves separation of a
substance from one phase accompanied by its accumulation or concentration at the surface of
another .Adsorption can result either from the universal Van der Waals interactions and
electrostatic forces between adsorbate molecules and the atoms of the adsorbent surface (physical
adsorption, physisorption).The diagram below illustrates activated carbon filter which removes
chlorine, benzene, organic chemicals etc. During water filtration through activated carbon,
contaminants adhere to the surface of these carbon granules or become trapped in the small pores
of the activated carbon.

3. Biological filtration
The term biological filters or biofilters used in wastewater treatment includes all the processes that
combine biological purification through attached growth with the retention of suspended solids.
This technique applies thin biological films that are regularly renewed by washing.

The Biofor is a biological reactor where bacteria are attached to a specific single layer material
that is fixed and submerged. This material called biolite is based on expanded clay having a density
greater than 1.2 and provides a high degree of roughness and an extensive specific surface area.
This property is used to maintain a bacteria film that is sufficient for very quickly restarting the
biological process, even after a vigorous hydro-pneumatic wash.

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EQUATIONS
Head loss

As it percolates through a granular filter bed, water loses energy, i.e. pressure, through friction
which is designated head loss. At low velocities (laminar flow conditions), this head loss is
governed by Darcy’s equation:

𝑃 𝜇 1 𝛥𝑃 1
= V = RμV Where R= = .
𝐻 𝐾 𝑘 𝐻 𝑉𝜇

where V: filtration velocity,

K: filtering layer permeability,

ΔP: head loss through the filtering layer,

H: depth of the layer concerned,

μ: dynamic viscosity of the water,

R filtering layer’s filtration resistance,

Head loss ΔP will be proportional to filtration rate V, to the dynamic viscosity of the water, to the
depth of the layer and inversely proportional to the filtering medium’s permeability (or directly
proportional to this medium’s resistance).

The Kozeny (or Kozeny-Carman) formula quotes Darcy’s equation by clarifying the impact made
by the porosity of the filtering medium on the specific surface area of the granules:

𝛥𝑃 𝑘𝜇 (1−𝜖)2 𝑎 2
= . .( ) .V
𝐻 𝜌𝑔 𝜖 3 𝑉

where, in addition to the above definitions:

k: Kozeny’s constant (approximately 5),

ρ: fluid’s density,

g: gravity acceleration,

ε: porosity of the filtering medium,

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a/v: specific surface area per unit of volume of diameter d filtering granules, i.e. 6/d for a spherical
granule.

For higher velocities, in upflow or downflow mode (e.g. wash mode or approaching fluidisation),
we move into a transient or turbulent mode. We then have to apply Ergun’s formula which is based
on Kozeny’s formula, modifying k and adding a correction term to k, representing the kinetic loss
of energy through the medium:

𝛥𝑃 𝐾1 𝜇 (1−𝜖)2 𝑎 𝐾2 (1−𝜖)2 𝑎
= . .( )2 .V + . .( )2 .V
𝐻 𝜌𝑔 𝜖3 𝑉 𝑔 𝜖3 𝑉

where k1 = 4.17,

k2 = 0.3 (round grains) to 0.48 (crushed grain).

Ergun’s formula is more general because it applies to all hydraulic conditions. In the case of high
velocities, the second term which is proportional to the square of the velocity, becomes
preponderant.

Influence of fouling

However, as a liquid containing suspended solids percolates through this medium, and as these
suspended solids are gradually captured, this has an impact on the properties of the medium,
especially its porosity e which decreases and head loss that increases according to an empirical
law of the following type:

ΔP = Δ𝑃𝜊 (1+a.σ)

where σ: specific deposit (volume of deposit per unit of filter bed volume),

a: experimental coefficient.

Fouling is evenly distributed throughout the filter (the upper layers retain a greater proportion of
particles) and the different coefficients can have very different values depending on the nature of
the solids to be screened out and whether or not these solids have been coagulated. Therefore,
experimentation is essential and the above laws can then be used to interpolate or extrapolate the
results obtained.

Minimum fluidization rate


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In upflow conditions, we can write that the minimum fluidisation rate (Vmf). Fluidisation is reached
when the head loss is equal to the apparent weight of the bed per unit of surface area (real weight
less the Archimedes thrust) :

ΔP = H.(𝜌𝑠 - 𝜌𝑙 ).g.(1-ϵ)

APPLICABLE TYPE OF WASTE

Filtration process Type of waste Removal efficiency


Strainers Designated for cleaning grit, cleaning sludge or cleaning 50-70 %
waste, these sediments comprise waste that can be
compared to household or bulky waste together with a
mixture of organic matter and grit in extremely variable
proportions depending on the type of networks involved.
Adsorption filtration Activated carbon filters are widely used to produce 60-80 %
drinking water at household and community level (to
remove certain organics, chlorine or radon from drinking
water) and to treat industrial or municipal wastewaters

Biological filtration treatment of animal wastes,landfill leachates, dairy High up to 95%


wastewater,domestic wastewater.

In depth filtration Potable water, polishing following wastewaer treatment, 60-80 %


pre-treatment for desalination

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OPERATING PROBLEMS
There are three major types of filter problems. They can be caused by chemical treatment before
the filter, control of filter flow rate, and backwashing of filters.

1. Mud Balls
Mud balls are formed by the filter media cementing together with the floc that the filter is supposed
to remove. If the filter is backwashed effectively, the mud balls are broken apart and removed. As
the balls gain weight, they will settle to the bottom of the filter and occupy valuable filter volume.
This will cause the flow to increase in the areas of the filter that have not been plugged.

2. Filter Bed Shrinkage


Filter bed shrinkage or compaction can result from ineffective backwashing. Media grains in a
clean filter rest directly against each other with very little compaction. Filter media in a dirty filter
are surrounded by a soft layer which causes it to compact. This causes filter bed cracking and
separation of the filter media from the walls of the filter.

3. Separation of Gravel
Separation of the gravel is caused by the backwash valve opening too quickly; as a result, the
supporting gravel is forced to the top of the filter. This could also be caused by the filter underdrain
being plugged, causing uneven distribution of the backwash water. When this happens, a boil
occurs from the increased velocity in the filter. The filter media will start washing into the filter
underdrain system and be removed from the filter.

4. Air Binding
Air binding of the filter is not common as long as the filter is washed regularly. Air binding is the
result of pressure in the filter becoming negative during operation. This causes the air dissolved in
the water to come out of the solution and become trapped in the filter, resulting in resistance and
short filter runs. This negative head generally occurs in a filter that has less than five feet of head
above the unexpanded filter bed.

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ADVANTAGES OF WASTEWATER FILTRATION
Recent advances in membrane manufacturing technology have underscored the method’s
efficiency. When compared to conventional decontamination methods such as thermal filtration,
membrane filtration offers enhanced benefits, including:

 More Effective Contaminant Removal - smaller pore membrane technology has been tested
to remove contaminants at rates up to 99.9999%.
 Multiple Filtration Ratings - contaminants are extremely precisely filtered with settings
ranging from microfiltration to reverse osmosis.
 Reliability - membrane filtration products meet industry standards and government
regulations for reliable and consistent purity.
 Reduced Environmental Impact - the process requires lower energy supplies than
conventional methods while typically taking up significantly less physical space.
 Increased Efficiency - ratios of liquid produced versus liquid fed average close to 98%.
 Easy Operation - while traditional contamination removal technologies require constant
adjustment and monitoring, membrane filtration systems provide highly automated controls
that offer smooth operation and require less operator interaction.

DISADVANTAGES OF WASTEWATER FILTRATION


 Not all germs and contaminants are removed from filtered water. When the process is taking
place very, small particles can pass through the membranes used to perform water filtering.
 Thorough cleaning and care of the equipment is very vital so that they can carry out the water
softening process without any hitch whatsoever.
 All the cartridges must be disposed of after the water softening process. These cartridges
contain harmful toxins that were purified from the hard water. If they are thrown anyhow
they might end up being pollutants to the environment.

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REFERENCES
 Böhmer.S, Kügler.I, Stoiber.H, Walter.B, (2007), Waste incineration in Austria - status report.
 Chandler.A.J, Eighmy.T.T, Hartlén.J, Hjelmar.O, Kosson.D.S, Sawell.S.E, Van der Sloot.H.A,
Vehlow.J, (1997), Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator Residues, Amsterdam: Elsevier; 1997.
 Derek.B Purchas and Ken Sutherland (2002), Handbook of Filter Media (2nd Edition), Elsevier
Advanced Technology.
 Kenneth.S, (2008), Filters and Filtration Handbook, Fifth Edition. 5th Edition. Elsevier
Science.
 Krammer.H.J, Domenig.M, Dreier.P, Lassnig.D (1995), Federal Waste Management Plan
1995 (German), Vienna: Umweltbundesamt.
 Metcalf.E, (2003). Wastewater Engineering: Treatment and Reuse (4th ed.). New York:
McGraw-Hill.
 Neubauer.C, Walter.B, (2007), Treatment of mixed municipal and commercial waste in
Austria
 Shukla.A.A and Kandula.J.R, (2008), Harvest and recovery of monoclonal antibodies from
large-scale mammalian cell culture.
 Stubenvoll.J, Böhmer.S, Szednyj.I, (2002), Best Available Technologies for Waste
Incineration Plants (German).
 Spellman.F.R, (2009), Handbook of water and wastewater treatment plant operations, CRC
Press, 2nd edition.
 Waste classification ordinance (1997), Ordinance of the Federal Minister for the Environment,
Youth and Family Affairs for Waste Classification (German),
 Wien.E, Vienna, Albaros.M, Metcalf & Eddy, Tchobanoglous.G, Burton.F.L, Stensel.H.D,
(2003), Wastewater engineering: treatment and reuse.
 Zhou.H, Smith.D.W, (2001) Advanced technologies in water and wastewater treatment.
Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering.