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VISVESVARAYA TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY

“JNANA SANGAMA”, BELAGAVI-590 018

An Internship Report on
“IoT AND EMBEDDED SYSTEMS IN FOOD INDUSTRIES”

Submitted in partial fulfilment for the award of the degree of

BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING
in
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Submitted by
YASHASWIN MAYYA
USN: 1JS15EC125
Internship carried out at
CCP IOT Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
Bengaluru - 560011

Internal Guide External Guide


Dr. ARAVIND H S Mr. ALOK SHANKAR
Professor, Dept. of ECE Manager, Human Resource
JSS Academy of Technical Education CCP IOT Technologies

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION

JSS ACADEMY OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION


JSS Campus, Dr.Vishnuvardhan road, Bangalore 560060
JSS ACADEMY OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION
JSS Campus, Dr. Vishnuvardhan road, Bangalore 560060

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION

Certificate
It is Certified that the internship, titled “IoT AND EMBEDDED SYSTEMS IN FOOD
INDUSTRIES” at CCP IOT TECHNOLOGIES PVT. LTD., BENGALURU carried out by
YASHASWIN MAYYA [USN: 1JS15EC125], is bonafide student of JSS ACADEMY OF
TECHNICAL EDUCATION in partial fulfilment for the award of BACHELOR OF
ENGINEERING in ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING as prescribed
by VISVESVARAYA TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY, Belagavi during the year 2018-19.
It is certified that all correction/suggestions indicated for internal assessment have been
incorporated in the report. The internship report has been approved as it satisfies the academic
requirements for the said degree.

Signature of Internal Guide Signature of HOD Signature of Principal

Dr. Aravind H S Dr. Siddesh G K Dr. Mrityunjaya V


Latte
Professor Professor and HOD Principal

Dept. of ECE, JSSATE-B Dept, of ECE, JSSATE-B JSSATE-B


JSS ACADEMY OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION
JSS Campus, Dr. Vishnuvardhan road, Bangalore 560060

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION

DECLARATION

I, YASHASWIN MAYYA [USN : 1JS15EC125], the student of eight semester BE,


Electronics and Communication Engineering, Visvesvaraya Technological University,
hereby declare that the internship titled “IoT and Embedded System in Food Industries”
has been prepared and presented by me and submitted in partial fulfilment of the course
requirements for the award of degree in Bachelor of Engineering in Electronics and
Communication Engineering of Visvesvaraya Technological University, Belagavi
during the year 2018-2019.

Place: Bengaluru YASHASWIN MAYYA

Date: USN: 1JS15EC125


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I have taken efforts in this Internship report. However, it would not have been
possible without the kind support and help of many individuals and organizations. I would
like to extend my sincere thanks to all of them.

I express my gratitude to Dr. Mrityunjaya V Latte, principal, JSS Academy of


Technical Education, for providing me excellent facilities and academic ambience which has
helped me in completion of this Bachelor Degree.

I extend my sincere thanks to my Head of Department, Dr. Sidddesh G K for


rendering their support leading to successful completion of the internship.

I am highly indebted to my Internal Guide, Dr. Aravind H S for his guidance and
constant supervision as well as for providing many useful suggestions during the course of
this work.

I have immense pleasure in expressing thanks to my external guide Mr. Alok


Shankar, HR Manager, CCP IOT Technologies Pvt. Ltd, Bengaluru for their support,
guidance and suggestions in this internship.

I would like to sincerely thank all the people at CCP IOT Technologies Pvt. Ltd for
spending their valuable time in ensuring that I understand the working of the company and
helping me in the preparation of this report.

Finally, I would like to express my gratitude towards my parents, teaching and non-
teaching staffs of the department, the library staff and all my friends who have directly or
indirectly supported me during the period of my internship.

Regards,

YASHASWIN MAYYA
1JS15EC125
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

CCP Technologies Limited (ASX: CT1) specialises in Cloud, Internet of Things (IoT),
Blockchain, ML/AI product development and product management. It is an ASX listed
company with a global market. The company assist customers to create advanced solutions
by providing hardware, firmware and software development services. The product
development team leverages in-house hardware design, firmware and software development
expertise to develop turnkey and tailored (bespoke) solutions. They support the entire
product life-cycle process – from concept to creation, and ongoing product management.
CCP Technologies has built its own business-to-business hardware and software solution,
which provides customers with a critical control point monitoring platform. From 1982 to
September 2016, the company was named Agenix Limited – one of Australia’s oldest listed
biotechnology companies. In September 2016, the company completed acquisition of CCP
Group and was renamed CCP IOT Technologies Pvt. Ltd. Last few years it has gradually
expanded its activities to keep pace with the industrialization and modernization of the
country. CCP IOT Technologies is integrating cutting edge dominant technologies and
expertise in the area of design and engineering to strategically develop and produce state-of-
art sub-systems and electronic products for mission critical application in the field of food
safety. All these have been achieved through its continuous research and development efforts
made by CCP IOT engineers.

It has been a great opportunity and an honour to be a part of CCP IOT Technologies as an
Intern. This report includes the experiences as an intern at CCP IOT Technologies.

The CCP environment inspired me to work dedicatedly, which gave me a great exposure to
work on emerging technologies. In this span of internship, we have acquired the knowledge
of various microcontrollers, sensors and communication protocols also, the parameters
required for the selection of same. The field visits to the various industries made me to find a
solution to increase efficiency of existing products with the help of IoT.

The internship at CCP has improved my confidence, communication and basic knowledge.
IoT AND EMBEDDED SYSTEMS IN FOOD INDUSTRIES

CONTENTS:

Chapter 1 : Introduction to CCP 04


1.1 Brief introduction of CCP IOT technologies 04
1.2 People at CCP 05
1.3 Areas of Interest 07

Chapter 2 : Products 08
2.1 Generation 1 RTD Tag 08
2.2 Generation 2 Smart Tags 08
2.3 Generation 2.1 NB-IoT Cellular Tag 09
2.4 Generation 2.2 Sigfox Tag 09

Chapter 3 : Commercial Projects Undertaken 10


3.1 Automated Wireless Real Time Critical Data Monitoring 10
3.2 Remote Energy Monitoring Solutions 11
3.3 Shipment Solutions 12

Chapter 4 : Technology used in CCP 13


4.1 Multipath IoT 13
4.2 Sigfox Cellular style network 14
4.3 Narrow Bang IoT 15
4.4 CCP App to monitor tags in real time 15

Chapter 5 : Work carried out at CCP 16


5.1 Study of Nordic nRF52832 Microcontroller 16
5.2 Study of different types of sensors 17
5.2.1 LM73 Temperature Sensor 17
5.2.2 Quectel M66 GSM Module 18
5.2.3 DRV5032FB Ultra-Low-Power Hall Effect Sensor 19
5.3 Programming the modules 20

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5.4 Pre-Production Testing 21


5.5 Power Analysis 22
5.6 Ultrasonic Welding 22
5.7 Post-Production Testing 22
5.8 Status Indicator Monitoring 22

Chapter 6 : Outcome 24

Chapter 7 : Conclusion 27
7.1 References 28

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LIST OF FIGURES

No. Name of the Figure Page no.

1. Hierarchy at CCP 5

2. Scalable IoT Platform 7

3. Generation 1 RTD Tag 8

4. Generation 2 Smart Tag 8

5. Generation 2.1 NB-IoT Tag 9

6. Generation 2.2 Sigfox Tag 9

7. A Screenshot of RTD report on CCP Web App 11

8. Energy Monitoring on CCP Web App 12

9. Shipment Monitoring on CCP Web App 12

10. Multipath IoT Framework 14

11. Sigfox Logo 14

12. A Screenshot of CCP Web and Mobile App 15

13. Nordic nRF52832 Module 17

14. LM73 Temperature Sensor 18

15. Quectel M66 GSM Module 19

16. DRV5032 Hall Sensor IC 20

17. Status Monitor PCB Layout and Schematic 23

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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION TO CCP

1.1 Brief introduction to CCP IOT Technologies

An IOT and Blockchain company headquartered in St. Kilda, Victoria, Australia founded in
1982 under its former name Agenix Limited – one of Australia’s oldest biotechnology
companies. In September 2016, the company completed acquisition of CCP Group and was
renamed CCP IOT Technologies Pvt. Ltd. CCP Technologies specialises in Cloud, Internet of
Things (IoT), Blockchain, ML/AI product development and product management. The product
development team leverages in-house hardware design, firmware and software development
expertise to develop turnkey and tailored (bespoke) solutions. They support the entire product
life-cycle process – from concept to creation, and ongoing product management. CCP
Technologies has built its own business-to-business hardware and software solution, which
provides customers with a critical control point monitoring platform.

CCP IOT Technologies is integrating cutting edge dominant technologies and expertise in the
area of design and engineering to strategically develop and produce state-of-art sub-systems
and electronic products for mission critical application in the field of food safety.

The company has its North America branch located at La Jolla Village, San Diego, California,
USA. It also has a state of the art R&D facility located in Bengaluru which has an in-house
Product Development team which aide in successful project completion by leveraging the
team’s IoT hardware design, firmware and software development expertise.

It has been a great opportunity and an honor to be a part of CCP IOT Technologies as
an Intern. This report includes the experiences as an intern at CCP IOT Technologies.

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1.2 People at CCP


CCP has many bright and young minds being led by alumnus of top Engineering and
Business Schools. The chart shown in Figure 1 shows few people associated with the
company.

Figure 1 : Hierarchy at CCP

Chairman:
Mr. Leath Nicholson, was a Corporate Partner at a leading Melbourne law firm, gaining
experience with a breadth of ASX listed entities, before co-founding Foster Nicholson Jones
in 2008. Mr. Nicholson’s principal clients continue to be ASX listed companies and high net
worth individuals. He has particular expertise in mergers and acquisitions; IT based
transactions, and corporate governance. He also has significant experience in corporate and
commercial based dispute resolution.

Senior Director:
Mr. Anoosh Manzoori has 20 years’ commercial experience in building highly successful
businesses. He specializes in working with technology companies with large scale transactional
volumes on a global scale; taking them from start-up to full-sale commercialisation and trade
sale.

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As a founder and CEO of SmartyHost, Mr. Manzoori was responsible for growing this business
to reach 70,000 customers within 5 years.

Chief Executive Officer:

Mr. Michael White has over 20 years’ executive experience in cold chain management and
brings global food industry connections. Mr. White has a track-record of successfully
developing technology businesses in food production and supply chain management across
Asia Pacific and North America.

Chief Technical Officer:

Mr. Kartheek Munigoti has over 15 years’ experience in Information technology including 8
years managing software development in wireless cold chain management.

Team CCP:

Alok Shankar
Praveen Raje Urs
Adithya Tripathi
Santosh Manjunath
Rani Seegi
Vinoth Kumar

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1.3 Areas of Interest:

Food Industries: The Food and Food Services industry in the United States and Australia is
the first vertical in which CCP has started rolling out its technology, specifically to monitor
cool-room, freezer and refrigerator temperatures. Customers use CCP’s technology to lower
food wastage and monitoring costs, avoid health hazards, improve food safety regulatory
compliance and maintain their corporate reputations

Energy Consumption: The aim is to develop small size, large integration IoT hardware to
effectively monitor the current Power consumption in real time along with Power Factor
analysis. The system can also be further extended to ensure continuity of supply and identify
devices whose energy consumption is critical.

Smart Solutions: CCP has successfully installed smart sensing tags in various cold storage
industries to monitor critical parameters such as Temperature, Humidity, pH and Dissolved
Oxygen level. This ensures perishable food safety, biological material safety, regulatory
compliance reduced wastage, underpinning supply chain quality and risk management.

Scalable IoT Platform: CCP’s platform provides a foundation for a range of IoT applications,
which the company may decide to leverage on in the future, e.g. Smart City applications such
as smart street lighting, traffic management and parking, remote energy metering and air
quality monitoring. Monitoring control points such as temperature and energy consumption
drives efficiency and protects the reputation of businesses. To underpin food safety, the CCP
solution is being used to measure, monitor and report the temperature of fridges in hospitals,
grocery stores, food wholesalers, food retailers and major hotels.

Figure 2 : Scalable IoT Platform

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CHAPTER 2

PRODUCTS

CCP has come up with quality products and has marketed these products at various cold storage
industries like Caltex, IGA, Metacash and Crowne Plaza The products are the following:

2.1 Generation 1 RTD Tag: Button activated mechanism for turn on and turn off actions with
an on-board RTD based temperature sensor, LM73 developed by Texas Instruments capable
of measuring temperatures from -40oC to 125oC. These tags have Bluetooth Low Energy
(BLE) and RF communications mode to communicate with a centralized hub and thereby push
the real time temperature data to cloud using Microsoft Azure services.

Figure 3 : Generation 1 RTD Tags

2.2 Generation 2 Smart Tags: A real time temperature data might play an integral role in
maintaining the standards of a cold storage food industry, but other critical parameters like
humidity, Dissolved Oxygen and pH also play a vital role. Keeping this in mind, Generation 2
smart tags were created which had NFC triggered on/off, wireless induction charging,
Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) and RF communication to setup a link with hub and the cloud
thereafter.

Figure 4 : Generation 2 Smart Tags

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2.3 Generation 2.1 NB-IOT Cellular Tag: The generation 2 smart tags have one disadvantage
that it must always be connected to the hub using BLE, RF or LPWLAN for real time analysis.
Thus, the NB-IOT Cellular tags were created to avoid this problem. The Generation 2.1 NB-
IOT Cellular Tag consists of an on board GSM SIM card slot. This GSM is controlled by
Quectel M66 module to have a direct link with the cloud using GPRS connectivity rather than
depending on a separate Hub.

Figure 5 : Generation 2.1 NB-IoT Tag

2.4 Generation 2.2 Sigfox Tag: Sigfox is a provider of Ultra-Narrow Band (UNB)
connectivity in a cellular style network. UNB signals operate in the unregulated sub-GHz
spectrum, i.e. at a very low frequency, using low power, and facilitate burst transmissions of
small data packages up to 12 bytes. This is sufficient for many remote sensors to transmit their
data to the Cloud. Sigfox’s effective communication range can vary from maximum 3
kilometres in urban areas to 50 kilometres in rural regions, with a range of more than 1,000
kilometres potentially possible outdoors under perfect conditions and with line of sight.
Using the Sigfox network, the tags can upload their data directly to the CCP Cloud without the
need for an on premise gateway at the customer venue. The advantages of using Sigfox are low
cost and wide range. However, the maximum data package size of 12 bytes (upload) and the
maximum number of 140 data uploads and 4 downloads per day, limit the applicability of
Sigfox to pure IoT applications, i.e. remote sensors that don’t require high frequency, large
data transfers. In other words, Sigfox is ideal for CCP applications.

Figure 6 : Generation 2.2 Sigfox Tags

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CHAPTER 3

COMMERCIAL PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN


Major source of income of CCP are the commercial projects undertaken. CCP ensures that the
projects are either related to sustainable technologies in food industries. CCP carries out these
projects so well, that the work is worth publications and winning awards as CCP has won many
awards with these projects. Some of projects are the following:

3.1 Automated Wireless Real Time Critical Data Monitoring: Critical control points refer
to specific points or procedures in a certain supply chain, such as refrigerated spaces and food
preparation areas in the Food industry, that need to be monitored accurately in order to prevent
food safety hazards. For instance, excessive temperatures in supermarket refrigerators may
result in perishable foods going bad without staff or customers even being aware of it.
Temperature measurements in the food industry are still mostly done manually, with staff
taking temperature readings multiple times per day and manually recording these readings in
logs. While satisfactory from a regulatory point of view, we believe these manual processes
are prone to human error, e.g. when reading out, writing down and transferring these
measurements into a computer.
Additionally, the entire process is cumbersome and therefore relatively costly to business
owners. With manual systems, staff may not be aware of overnight fridge failure which could
create food safety risk.
Other than temperature, measurement at CCP’s can also relate to humidity levels, gases,
movement, air flow, rain fall etc.
Therefore, CCP believes in an automated, accurate and cost-effective solution is highly
desirable from a regulation and operating cost point of view.
The key benefits of deploying automated wireless sensors to monitor critical control points for
CCP’s customers in the Food and Foodservice Industry include less wastage, lower operating
costs, better regulatory compliance and lower reputational risks.
Approximately 1.2 billion tons of food are wasted globally each year, according to IMechE,
the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Furthermore, approximately 48 million Americans
suffer food poisoning each year in the United States alone (Source: CDC), causing more than
US$ 150billion in healthcare costs in the US annually.
Here, CCP’s smart tag solution can help reduce reputational risk stemming from food safety
and food wastage issues.

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Figure 7: A screenshot of RTD Report on CCP Web App

3.2 Remote Energy Monitoring Solutions: No matter what industry you can think of,
energy (power) is a critical control point in every supply chain. With the cost of electricity
spiralling, CCP is introducing an appliance-level real-time energy monitoring solution to help
our clients save money and reduce business risk.
Refrigeration is a massive energy consumer. Refrigeration is an essential part of every
developed economy and research suggests 15% of the world’s electricity is used for
refrigeration. According to the Australian Government’s 2018 Cold Hard Facts Report,
refrigeration and air conditioning (RAC) technology is the single largest electricity
consuming class of technology in Australia. The Smart Energy Design Centre found that for
an average US grocery store, 57% of its energy costs are directly associated with
refrigeration, and that a $1 saving in energy cost is equivalent to a $59 increase in sales. By
using CCP, food business can reduce the electricity bill.
By combining power consumption and duty cycle data with temperature, humidity and
defrost cycle data, the CCP Solution provides a unique understanding of refrigeration
performance. After installing CCP in a food service business, the performance of a small
walk-in freezer was shown to be sub-optimal due to high frequency and high temperature
defrost cycling (8 cycles per 24 hours up to -110C). The running cost of the freezer was
$372.30 per month. Following adjustment ($180 refrigeration service fee), the defrost cycle
frequency was reduced to three cycles per 24 hours and the peak defrost temperature was
reduced to -140C.
By optimising refrigeration, CCP reduced the electricity cost from $372.30 per month to
$244.13 per month, a saving of $128.17/month (52%).

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Figure 8 : Energy Monitoring in CCP Web App

3.3 Shipment Solutions: All cold chain stakeholders have a requirement for temperature
monitoring to comply with food safety legislation and regulations. The CCP Shipment
Monitoring solution makes compliance easier and provides peace-of-mind for those
transporting temperature sensitive consignments. In the food industry, CCP provides end-to-
end IoT-based critical control point monitoring solutions from farm to fork. CCP can also be
used in other industries; for example, in the health industry, our solution can be used to monitor
vaccine, blood and other shipments. CCP offers multi-path connectivity which leverages
diverse LPWAN, BLE, NFC and other communication systems. By providing easy access to
data at any point along the supply chain, our shipment monitoring solution is designed to enable
customers to prevent failures before they occur.

Figure 9 : Shipment Monitoring in CCP Web App

CHAPTER 4
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TECHNOLOGY USED IN CCP


A variety of up-to-date and latest technology is used in CCP IoT Technologies. Be it hardware
or software, CCP adapts easily to the market by updating itself at from time to time. All the
PCB designing is done using DipTrace. The firmware coding and upgradation is fulfilled using
Keil µVision 5. The Data Analytics and Cloud Computing is done using Microsoft Azure and
Amazon Web Services. Apart from these, various other technologies and products used in CCP
are as follows:

4.1 Multipath IoT: CCP’s suite of Smart Tags use advanced IoT technologies to provide
continuous reliable monitoring of critical control points. Critical control points are the points
in a supply chain where a failure of standard operating procedure has potential to cause serious
harm to people – and to a business’ reputation and bottom line. Standard critical control points
include temperature, energy, environment (e.g. air and water quality, pH, chemicals, noise,
acoustics and gases) and movement.
CCP captures data using Smart Tags (sensors) and an advanced Internet of Things (IoT)
network. Data is delivered to the company’s big data cloud platform where it is analysed to
deliver business intelligence. Customers access this information through Web and Mobile
Dashboards; and they receive real-time alerts via SMS, email and push notifications.
Once CCP’s tags are deployed in a customer’s environment, the data they collect is uploaded
to the CCP Cloud Platform, which is based on Microsoft Azure. The actual upload to the CCP
Cloud can be done directly from the tags to the cloud or through an on premise gateway (i.e.
Wi-Fi). In cases where the venue requires a gateway/hub, CCP uses 2.4Ghz RF to transmit data
between tags and the on premise gateway. In cases where no gateway is required (e.g. Sigfox
solution), the tags can transmit their collected data directly to the CCP Cloud.

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Figure 10 : Multipath IoT Framework

4.2 Sigfox Cellular style network: Sigfox is a provider of Ultra-Narrow Band (UNB)
connectivity in a cellular style network. UNB signals operate in the unregulated sub-GHz
spectrum, i.e. at a very low frequency, using low power, and facilitate burst transmissions of
small data packages up to 12 bytes. This is sufficient for many remote sensors to transmit their
data to the Cloud.
Sigfox’s effective communication range can vary from maximum 3 kilometres in urban areas
to 50 kilometres in rural regions, with a range of more than 1,000 kilometres potentially
possible outdoors under perfect conditions and with line of sight.
Using the Sigfox network, CCP’s tags can upload their data directly to the CCP Cloud without
the need for an on-premise gateway at the customer venue. CCP’s Sigfox subscription costs
amount to a few dollars per device annually.

Figure 11 : Sigfox Logo


The advantages of using Sigfox are low cost and wide range. However, the maximum data
package size of 12 bytes (upload) and the maximum number of 140 data uploads and 4
downloads per day, limit the applicability of Sigfox to pure IoT applications, i.e. remote sensors

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that don’t require high frequency, large data transfers. In other words, Sigfox is ideal for CCP
applications.

4.3 Narrow Band IoT: Similar to Sigfox, Narrow band IoT (NB-IoT) is an LPWAN, which
brings benefits in terms of power consumption, costs and range. However, where Sigfox
operates in the unlicensed radio spectrum, NB-IoT can operate on unused bandwidth of older
GSM networks or on dedicated bandwidth of LTE (Long-term Evolution) networks, i.e. 4G
networks. This means that NB-IoT connectivity is likely to be more reliable than Sigfox, and
therefore likely to be a bit more expensive.

4.4 CCP App to monitor tags in real time: CCP provides enterprise grade system
administration, access control and business intelligence through Web and Mobile (iOS and
Android) devices. This allows business users to instantly access the information they need to,
whether they are in the office or on the go, and within hierarchies to align with organisation
governance. Once tag data is uploaded to the CCP Cloud, customers can monitor their critical
control points through CCP’s Web and Mobile apps. Displayed data includes location, current
value (e.g. temperature), signal strength, remaining tag battery life and a traffic-light based
alert status. Customers can view individual tag data to analyse performance, perform failure
analytics and optimize asset operation. At 15-minute data capture intervals every 1,000
monitoring points deliver CCP approximately 3 million data points every month. By
aggregating such data from many different nodes and from many different customers, CCP will
also have the opportunity to perform Big Data and predictive analytics, which may be used to
provide services, such as predictive maintenance alerts.

Figure 12 : A Screenshot of CCP Web and Mobile App

CHAPTER 5
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WORK CARRIED OUT AT CCP

The real engineering demands knowledge of different disciplines and integrating hardware and
software for system level development. CCP designs system level projects. Thus component
level testing is required before integrating those components to the system. Before joining
different teams for developing understanding of project, a set of tasks were assigned to refresh
our basic electronics concepts and later were assigned with the task to explore few sensors and
calibration of those sensors was assigned. Lastly, we were assigned with a project of building
a Status Indicator to monitor door close/open events. Exposure was gained of various wireless
micro-controller units and sensors.

5.1 Study of Nordic nRF52832 Microcontroller:

Features:
• Supply voltage range 1.7 V–3.6 V
• ARM Cortex-M4 32-bit processor with FPU, 64 MHz
• 215 EEMBC CoreMark® score running from flash memory
• 58 μA/MHz running from flash memory
• 51.6 μA/MHz running from RAM
• Data Watchpoint and Trace (DWT), Embedded Trace Macrocell (ETM), and
Instrumentation Trace Macrocell (ITM)
• Serial wire debug (SWD)
• -96 dBm sensitivity in Bluetooth Low Energy mode
• 512 kB flash/64 kB RAM
• 256 kB flash/32 kB RAM
• Support for concurrent multi-protocol
• Type 2 near field communication (NFC-A) tag with wakeup-on-field and touch-to-pair
capabilities
• 12-bit, 200 kbps ADC - 8 configurable channels with programmable gain
• 64 level comparator
• 32 general purpose I/O pins
• 3x 4-channel pulse width modulator (PWM) units with EasyDMA

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• 5x 32-bit timers with counter mode


• Up to 3x SPI master/slave with EasyDMA
• Up to 2x I2C compatible 2-Wire master/slave
• I2S with EasyDMA
• UART (CTS/RTS) with EasyDMA
• Programmable peripheral interconnect (PPI)
• Single crystal operation

Applications:
• Internet of Things (IoT)
• Home automation
• Personal area networks
• Health/fitness sensor and monitor devices
• Medical devices
• Key fobs and wrist watches
• Interactive entertainment devices (Remote control, Gaming controllers)

Figure 13 : Nordic nRF52832 Module

5.2 Study of different types of Sensors


Exposure Was Gained to various Sensors like:

5.2.1 LM73 Temperature Sensor:

Features:
• Calibrated Directly in Celsius (Centigrade)
• Linear + 10-mV/°C Scale Factor
• 0.5°C Ensured Accuracy (at 25°C)
• Rated for Full −55°C to 150°C Range

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• Suitable for Remote Applications


• Low-Cost Due to Wafer-Level Trimming
• Operates from 4 V to 30 V
• Less than 60-μA Current Drain
• Low Self-Heating, 0.08°C in Still Air
• Non-Linearity Only ±¼°C Typical
• Low-Impedance Output, 0.1 Ω for 1-mA Load

Applications:
• Power Supplies
• Battery Management
• HVAC
• Appliances

Description: The LM73 is an integrated, digital-output temperature sensor featuring an incremental


Delta-Sigma ADC with a two-wire interface that is compatible with the SMBus and I 2C interfaces.
The host can query the LM73 at any time to read temperature.

Figure 14 : LM73 Temperature Sensor

5.2.2 Quectel M66 GSM Module:

Features: M66 is an ultra-small quad-band GSM/GRPS module using LCC castellation


packaging on the market. Based on the latest 2G chipset, it has the optimal performance in
SMS & Data transmission and audio service even in harsh environment. The ultracompact
15.8mm × 17.7mm × 2.3mm profile makes it a perfect platform for size sensitive applications.
M66 adopts surface mount technology, making it an ideal solution for durable and rugged
designs. The low profile and small size of LCC package makes sure M66 can be easily

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embedded into size-constrained applications, and provides reliable connectivity with


applications. This kind of package is ideally suited for large-scale manufacturing which has
strict requirements for cost and efficiency. The compact form factor, low power consumption
and extended temperature make M66 a best choice for M2M applications such as wearable
devices, automotive, industrial PDA, personal tracking, wireless POS, smart metering,
telematics, and more.

Figure 15 : Quectel M66 GSM Module

5.2.3 DRV5032 Ultra-Low-Power Hall Effect Sensor:

Features:
• 1.65- to 5.5-V Operating VCC Range
• Magnetic Threshold Options (Maximum BOP), 4.8 mT, High Sensitivity
• –40°C to +85°C Operating Temperature Range

• RX: 5.4 mA (Sub-1 GHz), 6.4 mA (Bluetooth low energy, 2.4 GHz)

• TX at +10 dBm: 13.4 mA (Sub-1 GHz)

• Sensor Controller, One Wake up Every Second Performing One 12-Bit ADC Sampling:
0.95μA

• Standby: 0.7 μA (RTC Running and RAM)

• Shutdown: 185 nA (Wakeup on External Events)

• 2.4-GHz RF Transceiver compatible with Bluetooth Low Energy 4.2 Specification

• Excellent Receiver Sensitivity –124 dBm Using Long-Range Mode, –110 dBm at 50 kbps
(Sub-1 GHz)

• 87 dBm at Bluetooth low energy

• Programmable Output Power up to +15 dBm (Sub-1 GHz) and +9 dBm at 2.4 GHz
(Bluetooth low energy)

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Applications:
• Battery-Critical Position Sensing
• Electricity Meter Tamper Detection
• Cell Phone, Laptop, or Tablet Case Sensing
• E-locks, Smoke Detectors, Appliances
• Medical Devices, IoT Systems
• Valve or Solenoid Position Detection
• Contactless Diagnostics or Activation

Description: The DRV5032FB device is an ultra-low-power digital switch Hall effect sensor,
designed for the most compact and battery-sensitive systems. The device is offered in multiple
magnetic thresholds, sampling rates, output drivers, and packages to accommodate various
applications. When the applied magnetic flux density exceeds the BOP threshold, the device
outputs a low voltage. The output stays low until the flux density decreases to less than BRP,
and then the output either drives a high voltage or becomes high impedance, depending on the
device version. By incorporating an internal oscillator, the device samples the magnetic field
and updates the output.

Figure 16 : DRV5032 Hall Sensor IC

5.3 Programming the modules:

Each module manufactured at CCP, be it Gen1 Tags, Gen2 Tags, NB-IoT tags, Sigfox Tags
or Cat-M1 tags, each one had to be properly subjected to a set of procedures before going any
further. The first one among them is programming.
All the programming was done by Nordic Segger connector.

The steps involved in programming are as follows:


 Running the bootloader

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 Booting into an application


 Activating new firmware
 Entering DFU mode where DFU transports are activated and new firmware
can be delivered
 Feeding the watchdog timer
 Loading the Soft Device
 A Soft Device is a precompiled and linked binary software implementing a
wireless protocol developed by Nordic Semiconductor.

 Since a Soft Device is software, application developers have minimal compile-


time dependence on its features. The unique hardware and software supported
framework, in which it executes, provides run-time isolation and determinism
in its behaviour. These characteristics make the interface comparable to a
hardware peripheral abstraction with a functional, programmatic interface. The
Soft Device Application Program Interface (API) is available to applications
as a high-level programming language interface, for example, as a C header
file.
 Dumping the firmware

5.4 Pre-Production Testing

After dumping the necessary codes, the next and the most important step is testing. Here, each
and every module is subjected to unit test cases provided by the Testing team and the results
are logged. Since this testing is done before final assembly of tags, it is called as Pre-Production
Testing

Some of the tests performed are:


 NFC turn on and turn off testing
 Bluetooth range testing
 NB-IoT system testing
 Sigfox cloud testing
 Refrigeration temperature durability testing
 Sampling time varying

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5.5 Power Analysis:

After successful Pre-Production Testing, the passed tags are subjected to Power Analysis.
Power Analysis was done using Nordic Power Profiler Kit.

Here, the modules were subjected to a continuous current sink at a constant voltage. The test
results were logged. All those modules whose power consumption exceeded 15 μA were
rejected

5.6 Ultrasonic Welding:

After successful Power Analysis, the passed tags are subjected to Ultrasonic Welding.
Ultrasonic Welding was done do ensure the IP rating of the outer case.
IP rating certifies that a casing is completely sealed from outer atmosphere under all severe
conditions.

Ultrasonic Welding was outsourced and done at M/S Vishesh Innovative Solutions, Bangalore.

5.7 Post Production Testing:

Post Production Testing is the last stem n manufacturing protocols at CCP. This step is a final
check done before packaging and dispatching the modules. All the tests done in this step are
similar to Pre-Production Testing

5.8 Status Indicator Monitoring:

Typical Cold Storage Industries spend a huge amount annually on maintaining the temperature
of their facilities at low temperature. A lot of factors affect are involved in this. However, one
of the main disadvantage is the entry/exit points.
Since the atmospheric temperature outside the Cold Storage facility is higher, it is critical to
ensure that it is always sealed from external environment. However, the entry and exit points
tend to introduce external air to internal environment and tends to increase the internal
temperature. This leads to additional power consumption to further reduce the temperature and
thus more cost.

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Our Status Indicator was aimed at reducing such wastage by constantly monitoring the Door
Status and alerting the customer in case if the door was left open for a long time.

For this purpose, we were using the following components:


 DRV5032FB Ultra low power, Hall Effect based sensor

The Hall Effect Sensor IC detects the presence of magnetic field in its vicinity. Thus, we had
a permanent magnet mounted to the moving edge of the door.
The Status Indicator IC containing DRV5032FB was mounted on the fixed door frame.

The circuit was designed to produce a LOW digital output if the Door Status was found to be
close (i.e. Hall Sensor in the vicinity of permanent magnet).
However, the circuit would produce HIGH digital signal if the Door Status was found to be
open (i.e. Hall Sensor away from magnet).

The firmware was written in Keil μVision5. The DRV5032FB IC was connected to Gen2
Module using SPI communication with Hall Sensor as slave.

The Hall Effect IC sends a status monitor signal every 15 seconds once. If it was found that
Door Status was found open for more than 10 minutes, a notification alert would be sent to the
customer’s phone along with updating the status in web/mobile app.

The Schematic and PCB Designing was done using DipTrace PCB Creator tool and the
necessary Gerber files along with netlist and Bill of Materials was created.

Figure 17 : Status Monitor PCB Layout and Schematic


CHAPTER 6

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OUTCOMES

During the period of internship at CCP, there was a lot of knowledge that was absorbed and a
lot of it that was implemented practically. But before explaining the experiences during the
internship it would be ideal to describe the experience during and the interview process, which
can be treated as the first outcome of the whole process.
As a student pursuing BE in Electronics and Communication Engineering in VTU, it is
compulsory to get an internship experience in any industry to be as per with industry standards.
This resulted in an opportunity to attend an interview for CCP. which was very exciting. As
the interview process proceeded, questions relating to embedded system were involved and
since they mainly deal with IoT, a few questions on that topic were asked.
The whole process was a realization to the fact that confidence, communication and basic
knowledge are the important criteria to face any interviews. Following are the outcomes of the
internship:

A. Personal Skill Development


Personal skill development is a lifelong process. It’s a way for people to assess their skills and
qualities, consider their aims in life and set goals in order to realize and maximize their
potential. After having worked in a company, I realized that I have been able to inculcate
numerous soft skills like-
Communication
Confidence
Etiquette
Patience
Punctuality

B. Acquired the Management Skills


During the tenure of internship, I learnt the value of time, resources and acquired the various
management skills like:
Time Management-It involves organizing and planning of how to divide the time between
specific activities. Good time management enables us to work smarter not harder so that we
get more done in less time, even when time is tight and pressure is high. Failing to manage
time damages our effectiveness and causes stress.

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Resource Management-It is the efficient and effective development of an organization's


resources when they are needed. Such resources may include financial resources, inventory,
human skills, production resources, or information technology.
Organization Management-The process of organizing, planning, leading and controlling
resources within an organization with the overall aim of achieving its objectives. The
organizational management of a business needs to be able to make decisions and resolve issues
in order to be both effective and beneficial.
Financial Management-Financial management refers to the efficient and effective
management of money (funds) in such a manner as to accomplish the objectives of the
organization.

C. Acquired numerous managerial skills


It includes the ability to make business, decisions and lead subordinates within a company.
Three most common managerial skills include:
Human skills– It is the ability to interact, motivate and keep a healthy work environment in
and around you.
Conceptual skills–It is the ability to understand concepts, develop ideas and implement
strategies.
At CCP, I got an opportunity to know the importance of being a quick learner.
1. I understood the real difference between smart work and hard work and the importance
of being conceptually clear in every small topic that comes your way.
2. I realized that a person pursuing his/her Bachelors should definitely have an excellent
reading habit so that he/she is up to date with all the emerging technologies and has
innumerable ideas for implementing a particular task assigned.
Technical skills - It includes the abilities and knowledge needed to perform specific task.
Few of the technical skills acquired by me during the tenure of internship are listed below-
i. Technical Writing-Written communication is important when it comes to work. It
requires us to explain complex things in a way that is easy to understand. We might
have to send e-mails to manager, clients or manufacturers, or write press releases, web
content, or manuals for clients. Being able to communicate complex ideas in written
in a clear way makes life at work place simpler as today e-mails have become the most
important communication medium.

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ii. Documentation-Collection of the material that provides official information or


evidence that serves as a record is known as documentation. When it comes to work,
documentation work should always be up to date. The proper documentation reflects-

o clear idea about the work under progress
o the efforts being put in achieving the target
3. Circuit Simulation-Before developing any hardware model, it is always
advisable to carry out the corresponding circuit simulation on software like
MATLAB, MultiSim or Tina. The perfect simulation result provides us the clear idea
that the circuit is proper and can be implemented using hardware.
4. Hardware Designing-All the safety requirements must be met before
dealing with hardware components. Few requirements are mentioned below:

 Shoes and gloves must be worn if dealing with high voltages or high currents.
 During any welding or soldering process, the eye glasses should be worn.
 The ratings of every component used must be verified.

There are many more safety rules that must be followed and are mentioned in the safety
Hand Book of the company.

CONCLUSION

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Basically one can consider that majority engineers have three phases in their professional life.
The first one carries a lot of excitement and enthusiasm with a view of ‘What’ their future is
going to be. The second phase demands for a platform for an individual to develop core
competencies in the involved sphere and the final one is dedicated towards accomplishment of
the goals formed by the first two phases, which can contribute significantly in the betterment
of the world.

Internship at an IoT company was a really good decision. The enthusiasm in Embedded
Systems got further boosted when I got a chance to intern at CCP IoT Technologies Pvt. Ltd.,
Bangalore. In the first few weeks, the different projects which were already undertaken by CCP
were exposed to.

At the same time, along with deepened interest in the sustainable technologies sector, working
with CCP has also helped me to implement and also develop my knowledge and skills
respectively into the fields of IOT and Microcontrollers which can be synchronized into the
Embedded systems domain of work, to come out with ideas and products which will move
technology to a greater and smarter height. CCP has also been introduced me to the new
platforms of Internet of Things (IOT), which is a recent trend in the technology sector for the
coalition of conventional Engineering Technologies with the unconventional Smarter
Communication technologies to build up a smarter future for the world.

REFERENCES:
1. https://www.ccp-technologies.com/

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2. https://www.ccp-technologies.com/investor-presentation/
3. https://www.ccp-technologies.com/fixed-location/
4. https://www.ccp-technologies.com/shipment/
5. https://www.ccp-technologies.com/energy/
6. https://www.ccp-technologies.com/tech/
7. http://www.ti.com/lit/ds/symlink/lm73.pdf
8. http://infocenter.nordicsemi.com/pdf/nRF52832_PS_v1.1.pdf
9. http://www.quectel.com/Product/Quectel_M66_GSM_Specification_V1.4.pdf
10. http://www.ti.com/lit/ds/symlink/drv5032.pdf
11. http://infocenter.nordicsemi.com/softdevices.html
12. https://infocenter.nordicsemi.com/bootloader.html
13. CCP-Investor-Presentation-Jan-2019.pdf
14. CT1-Company-Research-Report.pdf
15. NBIOT_Cellular_Door_Sensor.csv
16. drv5032.pdf
17. Netlist.pin
18. NBIOT_Cellular_Door_sensor.dip
19. NBIOT_Cellular_Door_Sensor_Rev1.0.dch

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