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THE INFLUENCE OF MUSIC THERAPY OF JAVA LANGGAM TO DECREASE ANXIETY

LEVELS IN THE ELDERLY

A. BACKGROUND
Elderly is a person who has reached the age of 60 years or older, both men and women.
Biologically, the elderly characterized in that, visible on changes in physical and mental. This
process occurs naturally unavoidable and runs continuously. The more a person gets older,
mak a vital function in the body participate in decline, the hearing began to decline, blurred
vision, and his physical strength began to weaken (Nugroho, 2008).
Effect of the aging process experienced by the elderly cause a variety of problems both
physical, mental, social and economic. If the elderly are having problems of mental disorders,
then call the pitch conditions can interfere with daily activities of the elderly. Problems often
arise mental disorders in the elderly include anxiety, depression, and insomnia (Maryam,
Fatma, Rosidawati, Jubaedi, 2008). One of the mental disorders of the elderly is anxiety.
Anxiety is an unpleasant feeling or fear that is not clear and great. This happens as a reaction
to something experienced by someone(Nugroho, 2008).
Anxiety is an emotional response to assessment that describes the state of worry, anxious,
fearful, and uncomfortable accompanied by various physical complaints. The circumstances
may occur within any life situation as a nuisance disease (Vida, 2004). Meanwhile, according
to Pietra (2001) and Haryanto, et al. (2004) anxiety is the existence of reactions that become
real or shadow threats and general feelings of insecurity or fear. Anxiety problems are a
problem complex so it needs serious handling.
Anxiety is a condition characterized by a feeling of fear accompanied by a somatic sign
that states the hyperactivity of the autonomic nervous system. Anxiety is a non-specific
symptom that is often found and is often a normal emotion (Kusuma W, 1997).
Basically the symptoms of anxiety in the form of complaints (symptom) and symptoms
(sign) that is psychological and physical. (especially hyperactivity of the autonomic nervous
system and psychomotor symptoms). This disorder affects 1 in 10 people aged over 55 years
and more attacks on women than men with a ratio of two to one. Anxiety disorders that many
elderly people experience are anxiety disorders and agoraphobia. Anxiety disorders may arise
from the perception that they will lose control over their lives, which may develop when they
have to fight the illness, lose their loved ones, and experience economic downturn.
Agoraphobia may be attributable to sad and unpleasant new things to them, such as the death
of a spouse so that they lose their social support. In addition, physical conditions that have not
seprima once again allow them to fear of an accident on the road and eventually refused to
leave the house alone. Normal anxiety needs to be distinguished from pathological anxiety. In
advanced age anxiety disorder is often disguised and usually more physical disorders
(somatic).
The prevalence of anxiety in Indonesia ranges from 2-5% of the general population caused
by various factors (Rehatta, 1999). The concept of psychoneuroimmunology explains anxiety
as stressors that can lower the body's immune. This happens through a series of actions
mediated by the axis Hypothalamus, Pituitary, Adrenal so stimulating anterior pituitary
hormones to increase production ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic hormone). This hormone will
stimulate the adrenal cortex to increase secretion of cortisol which will further compress the
system immune body (Rehatta, 1999; Guyton & Hall, 1997).
Anxiety especially in the elderly can be more days tends to increase as much factors of the
elderly body that can affect anxiety such as decreased function organ. The elderly residing in
the home can experience increased anxiety due to environmental and environmental factors
social life in daily life in the orphanage.
High anxiety rates and reasonably complex factors require serious treatment, one of which
is by relaxation techniques (Budiarti et al., 2006). One of the relaxation techniques that can be
used is music therapy (National Safety Council, 2004). The choice of music is important
because previously known music is believed to be more effective for overcoming anxiety
(Salve & Prabowo, 2007; Setiadarma, 2002).
Music therapy helps people who have emotional problems in releasing their feelings,
making positive changes with mood, helping to solve problems, and correcting personal
conflicts (IHA, 2010). The choice of music is an effective thing to overcome anxiety, because
music is one form of sound stimulation which is a stimulus typical for the sense of hearing.
Adapted from the culture of the elderly then selected Javanese music style identical with slow
tempo and has a calm and relaxed music characteristics and cause harmony of soul and taste
(Esteher, 2003). Javanese music is a form of Javanese traditional music. The length of time to
listen to music therapy is highly dependent on the state of the patient to be performed music
therapy (Anonymous, 2007).
Based on the writer's observation in Handapherang village, Ciamis regency, there are still
many elderly people whose daily activities only stay at home, some of them have been left
behind by their spouse and some of them are left behind by their family. From the results of
the preliminary study survey in Handapherang village, Ciamis regency, from the results of
interviews with Handapherang village head the number of elderly can be 60 people. The results
of interviews from 28 elderly who came at the time of the diposyandu, most of them said that
what they thought was a fear of death due to the end of their age, felt that they were useless
and only the burden of their child living together, worried about losing the nearest person and
fear no one else would take care of her in her late days, worried about not being able to get
together again with her son who was away wandering. From the interviews, the elderly also
said on their sidelines sometimes they listen to the radio to enjoy traditional Javanese music.
From the results of the data above encourage researchers to conduct research entitled " The
influence of music therapy of java langgam to decrease anxiety levels to decrease anxiety levels
in the elderly in the village Handapherang Ciamis regency".

B. Formulation of the problem


Based on the above authors formulate the problem "is there any Java Effect of music
therapy of java langgam to decrease anxiety levels to decrease anxiety levels in the elderly in
the village Handapherang Ciamis regency?"

C. Goal
Identifying the Effect of music therapy of java langgam to decrease anxiety levels to
decrease anxiety levels in the elderly in the village Handapherang Ciamis regency.

D. Benefits
The benefits of this research to determine the effect of Javanese music to anxiety elderly
so that the elderly being able to choose the best therapy to overcome anxiety and apply it.
E. Research methods
This research method is quasi experiment with pre-post test with control group design.This
design seeks to disclose causal relationships involving groups control and experiment Selection
of both groups using random sampling technique by dividing into two groups (Arikunto, 1997).
The study involved 60 elderly people who experienced anxiety from a total of 100 elderly
people living in House. A total of 30 samples were randomly selected for treatment and or as,
respectively control group. Data were collected through interview technique with the help of
modification of Hamilton Rating Scale (HRS-A) questionnaire. Meanwhile, the post-test was
conducted to all research participants in both experimental and control groups.

D. Result
Age range in each sample group is the same ie age 60 years and over. Amount most
respondents were women ie 23 samples in the control group and 20 samples in the group
experiment. Number of male respondents in the group control and experiment respectively 7
and 10. Marital status is mostly widows and widower. In the experimental group there were 19
people widows and 9 widowers, while the control group there are 23 widows and 7 widowers.
Few respondents live together, same, that is a married couple. That disease suffered by
very diverse respondents such as hypertension, rheumatic, and the most are somatic
complaints. The technique of giving music therapy is by listening to Javanese style music at
odd hours certain as an introductory break. The type of music that is used between one cassette
with another so that it has the homogeneity of the test equipment.
The results of the anxiety level analysis of group respondents experiments before being
given Javanese music therapy shows that respondents experienced a level moderate anxiety
(33.33%) and weight (40%). Then after Java Langgam music therapy, the level of anxiety was
reduced to 3.33% and 0% weight. Anxiety level of control group respondents before being
given Javanese music therapy showed moderate anxiety symptoms (23.33%) and weight
(23.33 %). After six weeks, re-measurement was performed and an increase in anxiety
symptoms was moderate anxiety (30%) and weight (70%). This analysis is only done on the
majority of results or caused by the rise or fall of pre test and post test.
The results of the stastistic test in the pre test control group were obtained mean of 19.57,
t-arithmetic -54.79, SD 7.04 (p = 0.00, α = 0.05, 95% CI). Measurement of pre test of
experimental group got mean result equal to 25,33, t count -50,21, SD 7.05 (p = 0,00, α = 0,05).
Meanwhile, the final result post test in the control group was obtained mean 17,53, t count -
47,42, SD 8,37 (p = 0,00, α = 0,05). Final result of measurement post test experimental group
show mean 16,80, t count -60,47, SD 16,80 (p = 0,00, α = 0,05)

E. Conclusion
Javanese music therapy therapy to the elderly can reduce the level of anxiety in the elderly.
Anxiety can decrease because the elderly will be more relaxed by listening to Javanese music
whose tone is more recognized and make elderly become comfortable.
Provision of java music therapy hail effectively effective on the audience or people who
used to listen to Java music because if this Javanese music is listened to the Sundanese people
might just add anxiety due to the strange tone in the ears of the Sundanese.
Therefore, in the provision of therapy things like tribe, interest, and type of music on the
paki will affect music therapy in the elderly. In order for a musical therapy therapy to be
effective it must be concerned about it.