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“SATELLITE DISH ANTENNA TUNING USING ANDROID

APPLICATION”

Submitted by
Name of Students Roll No.
Ayaz (Group Leader) 13EL28
Asif Baloch 13EL01
Abdul Ghani Elahi 13EL08
Muhammad Hayat 13EL37
Muhammad Ishaq 12EL31
Adnan Badini 13EL54
Muhammad Khalid 13EL64

(Batch: 2013-2014)
Supervised By
Engr Yaqoob Baloch
Assistant Professor

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING


BALOCHISTAN UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY
KHUZDAR

Balochistan University of Engineering and Technology Khuzdar


DEDICATION
Special Dedicated
To our beloved parents, Respected Teachers, friends and those people who
have guided in this project.

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Acknowledgement
“Starting with the name of Almighty Allah who is most beneficial and most merciful”
First and foremost, we are very thankful to almighty Allah for giving us the ability to
accomplish our final year project in a rightful manner.
We are also thankful to our project advisor Assistant Professor Yaqoob Baloch for his
moral support and proper guidance in every step of our work and he thoroughly watch out
the scenario to provide us precious suggestion regarding our project. We would also like
to mention our dearest parents who sacrificed their happiness for our mission to accomplish
in a right manner without any difficulties to enabled us to reach the platform where we are
standing right now.

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ABSTRACT
The new technology developments in wireless communication of Bluetooth, GSM and
wireless fidelity have opened up opportunities for universities and other small
organizations with low budgets and short time frames. In our project the Satellite Dish
Antenna Tuning using Android Application with the goal of designing and building a fully
functional step up for every single common man can use. The purpose of this project is to
design and build the wireless communication between dish antenna and smartphone device
to establish a radio wave Bluetooth connection between them for the movement of dish
plate to accurately positioned. We used mobile application for connectivity with Arduino
board, where the command has given through programming. The android phone working
as a remote control. Main motive to select this project is to overcome the difficulties
efforts in the era of wireless communication because nowadays man efforts are being
converted into automatic technology for the easiness of mankind so finally we have design
an initiative project. This is first time in history for thinking in dish antenna and apply a
electro-mechanic work in wireless concept of Bluetooth because previously we only use
our hands for movement of dish antenna. But now introduce a bright concept in future to
work in dish antenna with different methodology.

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Khuzdar
Department of Electrical Engineering
CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the work presented in this project thesis on “Satellite Dish Antenna
Tuning using Android Application” is entirely written by the following students
themselves under the supervision of Assistant Prof. Muhammad Yaqoob Baloch.
Submitted by
Name of Students Roll No.

Ayaz (Group Leader) 13EL28


Asif Baloch 13EL01
Abdul Ghani Elahi 13EL08
Muhammad Hayat 13EL37
Muhammad Ishaq 12EL31
Adnan Badini 13EL54
Muhammad Khalid 13EL64

This Project is submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of “Degree
of Bachelor of Engineering” in Electrical Engineering Discipline.
Project Supervisor External Examiner Head of Department

Date: __________________

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Contents
Project title ..................................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
Dedication ......................................................................................................................................... i
Acknowledgement ........................................................................................................................... ii
Abstract ........................................................................................................................................... iii
List of figures ................................................................................................................................. vii
List of Table .................................................................................................................................. viii
Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Overview ................................................................................................................................ 1
1.1.1 Project Description ........................................................................................................... 1
1.2 Problem Statement ................................................................................................................. 2
1.3 Objectives of project .............................................................................................................. 2
1.4 Scope of the project ............................................................................................................... 2
1.5 Limitation............................................................................................................................... 2
1.6 Advantages............................................................................................................................. 2
Chapter 2: LITRATURE REVIEW
2.1 History of Arduino ................................................................................................................. 3
2.1.1 Arduino........................................................................................................................... 3
2.2 Breif history Microcontroller ................................................................................................. 6
2.2.1 Volumes .......................................................................................................................... 6
2.2.2 Microcontroller Atmega16U2 ......................................................................................... 6
2.2.5 Pin Descriptions .......................................................................................................... 122
2.3 History of Integrated Development Environment ................................................................ 12
2.4 History of Bluetooth Module ............................................................................................... 14
2.4.1 Bluetooth Range............................................................................................................ 14
2.4.2 Function of the Bluetooth ............................................. Error! Bookmark not defined.
2.4.3 Frequency of Bluetooth................................................. Error! Bookmark not defined.
2.5 Relay Module ....................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
2.5.1 Specifications ................................................................................................................ 15
2.6 DC Motor ............................................................................................................................. 16
2.7 Antenna ................................................................................................................................ 17
Chapter 3: METHODLOGY
3.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 19

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3.2 Connection diagram ............................................................................................................. 21
3.3 Flow Chart ........................................................................................................................... 21
3.4 Arduino Uno ........................................................................................................................ 22
3.4.1 Arduino Program for all parts ....................................................................................... 22
3.5 Bluetooth connection with Arduino ..................................................................................... 23
3.6 Installation of Relays ........................................................................................................... 24
3.6.1 Working of Relays ........................................................................................................ 24
3.7 Motor Drive Circuit ............................................................................................................. 25
3.7.1 Motor Rotation Control by Relays ................................................................................ 26
3.7.2 Dish Alignment Motors ................................................................................................ 27
3.8 Android Application’s contents ........................................................................................... 28
Chapter 4: RESULTS AND OUTCOMES
4.1 Initially Display Bluetooth Application ............................................................................... 31
4.2 Bluetooth Android Application connected condition .......................................................... 31
4.3 Dish Antenna positioning Android Application through Bluetooth .................................... 31
Chapter 5: CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORKS
5.1 Conclusion ........................................................................................................................... 33
5.2 Future Works ....................................................................................................................... 33
References ................................................................................................................................... 35

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List of figures
Figure 2.1 Arduino Board 4
Figure 2.2 Block Diagram of AT mega16U2 8
Figure 2.3 Pin Description of AT mega16U2 12
Figure 2.4 IDE (The Integrated Development Environment) 13
Figure 2.5 Bluetooth module HC-05, with symbol 14
Figure 2.6 Relay module 15
Figure 2.7 DC Motor 16
Figure 2.8 Dish Antenna 17
Figure 2.9 Dish Antenna position 18
Figure 3.1 Block diagram of project 19
Figure 3.2 Connection diagram of Circuit 19
Figure 3.3 Arduino Uno Kit with Microcontroller 22
Figure 3.4 Arduino Program Sketch 22
Figure 3.5 Bluetooth connection with Arduino 23
Figure 3.6 Working of Relays 24
Figure 3.6 (a) Working of Relay 1,2 25
Figure 3.6 (b) Working of Relays 3,4 25
Figure 3.7 Motor Drive Circuit 25
Figure 3.8 DC Motor rotation control 26
Figure 3.9 (a). Dish Alignment Motor 27
Figure 3.9 (b). Dish Alignment Motor 27
Figure 3.10 Dish antenna alignment overview 27
Figure 3.11 (a) Application contest 28
Figure 3.11 (b) Application contest 28
Figure 3.11 (c)Application contest 29
Figure 4.1 Display of Bluetooth Application not connected condition 30
Figure 4.2 Error display of mobile Application 30
Figure 4.3 Bluetooth Application on connected condition 31
Figure 4.4 Upward Position of Dish Antenna 31
Figure 4.5 downward Position of Dish Antenna 32
Figure 4.6 Rightward Position of Dish Antenna 32
Figure 4.7 Leftward Position of Dish Antenna 33

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List of Table
Table 2.1 Parameter of Arduino 5
Table 2.2 Key parameters of Microcontroller 9
Table 2.3 Programming Pins 10
Table 2.4 Serial Pins 11
Table 2.5 Pin Configuration of Relay 16
Table 3.1 (a) Relationship between Arduino, Bluetooth and Relay 20
Table 3.1 (b) Relationship between Relays, Battery and Motors 20
Table 3.2 Parameters of Bluetooth connection with Arduino 23
Table 3.3 logic representation of relay with motors 26

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Chapter-1 Introduction

Chapter No 1
Introduction
1.1 Overview
The proposed project “Satellite Dish Antenna Tuning using Android Application”
employs an Arduino (programmable) chip that consists of a Bluetooth with microcontroller
operate by the mobile and motors which rotates by 270° Approximately. with some
electronic equipment. Basically, Arduino microcontroller is designed to develop a satellite
dish positioning system which can be controlled by using Android Phone with Bluetooth
enable function. The main purpose of dish is receiving and sending from and to satellites
and other communication sources. It requires manual adjustment of dish to catch receiving
signal position that’s why it was important to create remote control position. To overcome
the difficulty of adjusting manually, a remote control (android mobile handset) usage for
the purpose to reduces the difficult to achieve the desired signal.
The mobile controlled the device as a remote but the accuracy is more efficient than a
simple IR remote because of Bluetooth of radio signals, a advanced operating device called
Arduino which consist of many electronic ICs, resisters, transistor having a microcontroller
as brain, a code program upload to this, and the relays which are used for controlling
spinning of motors and speed, because servo motors replaced by these DC motors.
This is first time in history for thinking in dish antenna and apply a electro-mechanic work
in wireless concept of Bluetooth because previously we only use our hands for movement
of dish antenna. But now we introduce a bright concept in future to work in dish antenna
with different methodology.
1.1.1 Project Description
This project consists of three phases
i. Communication between android to Bluetooth module
ii. Transmission of data from Bluetooth module to microcontroller (Arduino)
iii. Then motors are driven by Microcontroller (according to the instructions in
coding).
First of all, communication between android phone and Bluetooth module is conducted
that bridges between mobile set and microcontroller which receives the commands and has
predefined instruction for each specific input which in turn operates the motor.
The advancement in technology is the need of digital era, the analog systems almost
minimized. The Bluetooth phone are being used in worldwide, the radio wave signal is
another advance technique in digital communication. The Arduino Uno is easy and
economically efficient electronic device.

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Chapter-1 Introduction

1.2 Problem Statement


i. Satellite dish antenna requires moving it manually to receive the intended
satellite signal.
ii. It is too difficult because it takes long time and much hurdles.
iii. To reduce these difficulties a remote control based system is best option to
minimize these efforts.
1.3 Objectives of project
i. To make an easy way to control dish antenna.
ii. To develop an android application for selecting the desired satellite.
iii. To develop an Arduino code for controlling motor’s movement.
iv. To simulate the system for controlling the motors.
1.4 Scope of the project
i. Making improvements in dish antenna satellite positioning.
ii. Converting manual to remote based control system is necessary for this digital
era.
iii. Manual works are almost minimized or ended.
1.5 Limitation
i. This project will deal with Bluetooth communication between two sensors.
ii. The range is approximately about 10 meters.
iii. Its detecting intensity is limited to capture the motion.
iv. The project (model) is small in size as compare to practical one.
1.6 Advantages
i. It will reduce the time for tuning purpose.
ii. Handling dish antenna with android phone will consume the man effort.
iii. Use of Bluetooth will increase the handling range in meters then IR remote
control.

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Chapter-2 Literature Review

Chapter No 2
Literature Review
2.1 History of Arduino

The producer gets the opportunity to assemble at (IDII) communication Design


establishment Ivrea the city Ivrea, Italy. Where understudies utilized an essential stamp
microcontroller for $100, in 2003 Hernando Barragan assemble the improvement stage
wirring an ace proposition venture at IDII, under the oversight of Massimo Banzi and
Massimo and Casey Reas, who have dealt with the Processing language [1].

The Wiring stage depended on (PCB) printed circuit board with an ATmega168
microcontroller, which is an IDE in view of Processing and library capacities to effectively
program the microcontroller.

In 2003, Mr. Massimo Banzi, with David Mellis, IDII understudy, and David Cuartielles,
whom included help for the less expensive ATmega8 microcontroller to Wiring. Be that as
it may, rather than proceeding with the work on Wiring, they forked the venture and
renamed it Arduino [1].

Adafruit Industries, which is a New York City provider for Arduino sheets, parts, and
congregations, evaluated in mid-2011 that more than 300,000 authority Arduinos had been
economically delivered, and in 2013 that 700,000 authority sheets were in clients' grasp.

In October 2016, (Federico Musto) Arduino's previous CEO, accomplished half


responsibility for organization. In April 2017, Wired (magazine) detailed that Musto had
"created his scholarly record. On his organization's site, individual LinkedIn accounts, and
even on Italian business records, Musto was as of not long ago recorded as holding a PhD
from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. At times, his profiles likewise asserted a
MBA from New York University." Wired detailed that neither one of the universities had
any record of Musto's participation, and Musto later conceded in a meeting with Wired that
he had never earned those degrees [1].
2.1.1 Arduino
An open source stage created to use for making hardware circuits (ventures). It makes at
once out of equipment programmable circuit board (which named as microcontroller) and
a software, or Integrated Development Environment which is keeps running on our PC's,
which is fundamentally used to compose and consume the code to the physical board. The
superior Microchip 8-bit AVR RISC-based microcontroller consolidates 32KB ISP streak
memory with read-while-compose capacities, 1KB EEPROM, 2KB SRAM, 23 universally
useful I/O lines, 32 broadly useful working registers, three adaptable clock or counters with

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look at modes, outside and inward interferes with, serial programmable USART, a byte-
situated 2-wire serial interface, SPI serial port, 6-channel 10-bit A/D converter (8-directs
in TQFP and QFN or MLF bundles), programmable guard dog clock with inner oscillator,
and five programming selectable power sparing modes. The gadget works between 1.8 to
5.5 volts. By executing effective guidelines in a solitary clock cycle, the gadget
accomplishes throughputs moving toward 1 MIPS for each MHz, adjusting power
utilization and preparing speed [2].

Figure 2.1 Arduino board


The new Arduino Uno R3. With having similar highlights of the past board, the progress
Uno now supplanted by ATmega16U2 rather than the 8U2 found on the Uno (or the FTDI
found on past ages). This claim for quicker exchange rates and more memory. No need of
drivers required for Linux or Mac (however inf petition for Windows is required and
incorporated into the Arduino IDE), and the capacity to have the Uno turn up as a console,
mouse, joystick, and so forth[2].

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Table 2.1 Parameter of Arduino


Parameter Name Value

Program memory type Flash

Program memory(KB) 32

CPU Speed (MIPS) 20

RAM Bytes 2

Data EEPROM (bytes) 1024

Digital Communication Peripherals

Capture/Compare/PWM peripherals 1input Capture, 1CCP,


6PWM

Comparators 1

Temperature range (C) -40 to 85

Pin count 32

Cap touch channel 16

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2.2 Brief History of Microcontroller

The main microchip was the 4-bit Intel 4004 which is discharged in 1971, with the Intel
8008 and other more effective chip getting to be plainly accessible throughout the
following numerous years. Be that as it may, the two processors required outside chips to
execute a working framework, set up add up to framework cost, and making it difficult to
financially modernize instruments.
In 1993, the start of EEPROM memory permitted microcontrollers (starting with the
Microchip PIC16x84 to be electrically eradicated rapidly without an exceptionally costly
bundle as required for EPROM, allow both quick prototyping, and in System
Programming. (EEPROM innovation had been accessible past to this time, yet the prior
EEPROM was more-costly and less enduring, making it unsatisfactory for ease mass
delivered microcontrollers.) that year, Atmel imported the primary microcontroller
utilizing Flash memory, an extraordinary sort of EEPROM. Different organizations
instantly stuck to this same pattern, with both memory composes [4].
Cost has crumpled after some time, with the least expensive 8-bit microcontrollers being
accessible for under 0.25 USD in thousands out of 2009, and some 32-bit microcontrollers
around US$1 for comparable amounts.
Yet, these days microcontrollers are low thrown and promptly accessible for everybody,
with huge online groups around specific processors.
Later on, MRAM could conceivably be utilized as a part of microcontrollers as it has
interminable quality and its incremental semiconductor wafer process cost is generally low.
2.2.1 Volume of Micro controller
In mid-2002, right around 55% of every single PC sold on the planet were 8-bit
microcontrollers and microchips. What's more, more than two billion 8-bit
microcontrollers were sold in 1997, and as indicated by Semico, more than four billion 8-
bit microcontrollers were sold in 2006. All the more as of late, Semico has asserted the
MCU showcase increment 36.5% of every 2010 and 12% out of 2011.
2.2.2 Microcontroller Atmega16U2
The ATmega16U2 is a low-control CMOS 8-bit microcontroller in view of the AVR
upgraded RISC engineering. By disposing of capable guidelines in a solitary clock cycle,
the ATmega16U2 accomplishes throughputs moving toward 1 MIPS for every MHz
permitting the framework intended to expand control.
It gives the accompanying highlights 8K/16K/32K Bytes of In-System Programmable
Flash with Read-While-Write capacities, 512/512/1024 Bytes EEPROM, 512/512/1024
SRAM, 22 broadly useful I/O lines, 32 universally useful working registers, two adaptable
Timer or Counters with look at modes and (PWM) Pulse Width Modulation, one USART,

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a programmable Watch-canine Timer with Internal Oscillator, a SPI serial port,


troubleshoot WIRE interface, which is additionally utilized for getting to the On chip
Debug framework and programming and five programming selectable power sparing
modes. The Idle mode stops the CPU while permitting the SRAM, Timer or Counters, SPI
port, and interfere with framework to keep working. The Power down mode spares the
enlist substance yet ice the Oscillator, harming all other chip capacities until the point when
the following hinder or Hardware Reset. In Standby mode, the Crystal or Resonator
Oscillator is running while whatever remains of the gadget is resting. This permits quick
start up joined with low power usages. In broadened Standby mode, the principle Oscillator
keeps on running. The gadget is gathered utilizing Atmel's high-thickness nonvolatile
memory innovation. The on chip ISP Flash enables the program memory to be reinvented
in framework through a SPI serial interface, by a customary nonvolatile memory software
engineer, or by an on chip Boot program running on the AVR center. The boot program
can take any interface to download the application program in the application Flash
memory. Programming in the Boot Flash segment will keep on running while the
Application Flash segment is refreshed, giving genuine Read While Write operation. By
joining a 8-bit RISC CPU with In System Self Programmable Flash on a solid chip, the
Atmel ATmega16U2 is an intense microcontroller that gives an exceedingly flexible and
savvy answer for some installed control applications. The ATmega16U2 are bolstered with
a full suite of program and framework advancement devices including (C compilers), large
scale constructing agents, program debugger or test systems, in circuit emulators, and
assessment units [4].

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Figure 2.2 Block Diagram of ATmega 16U2

The Atmel AVR center comprise of a rich direction set with 32 universally useful working
registers. All the 32 registers are specifically associated with the math rationale unit (ALU),
enabling two free registers to be gotten to in a solitary direction executed in one clock
cycle. The subsequent engineering is more code effective while accomplishing throughputs
up to ten times quicker than customary CISC microcontrollers.

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Table 2.2 Key Parameters of Microcontroller


Parameter Value
CPU type 8-bit AVR

Performance 20 MIPS at 20 MHz

Flash Memory 32 kB

SRAM 2 kB

EEPROM 1 kB

Pin Count 28-pin PDIP, MLF, 32-pin TQFP, MLF[

Maximum Operating frequency 20 MHz

Number of touch channels 16

Hardware Q Touch Acquisition No

Maximum I or O pins 26

External interrupts 2

USB Interface No

USB Speed –

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Credibility of capability demonstrates that the anticipated information imprisonment


disappointment rate is considerably less than 1 PPM more than 20 years at 85 °C or 100
years at 25 °C.

Table 2.3 Programming Pins


Parallel program mode

Programming Pin Name I/O Function


signal

RDY/BSY PD1 O High means the MCU is ready for a new


command, otherwise busy.

OE PD2 I Output Enable (Active low)

WR PD3 I Write Pulse (Active low)

BS1 PD4 I Byte Select 1 (“0” = Low byte, “1” =


High byte)

XA0 PD5 I XTAL Action bit 0

XA1 PD6 I XTAL Action bit 1

PAGEL PD7 I Program memory and EEPROM Data


Page Load

BS2 PC2 I Byte Select 2 (“0” = Low byte, “1” = 2nd


High byte)

DATA PC[1:0]:PB[5:0] I/O Bi-directional data bus (Output when OE


is low)

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Programming mode is entered when PAGEL (PD7), XA1 (PD6), XA0 (PD5), BS1 (PD4)
is set to zero. RESET stick to 0V and VCC to 0V. VCC is set to 4.5 - 5.5V. Hold up 60 μs,
and RESET is set to 11.5 to 12.5 V. Hold up more than 310 μs. Set XA1:XA0:BS1:DATA
= 100 1000 0000, beat XTAL1 for no less than 150 ns, beat WR to zero. This begins the
chip delete. Hold up until RDY or BSY (PD1) goes high. XA1:XA0:BS1:DATA = 100
0001 0000, XTAL1 beat, beat WR to zero. This is the Flash compose summon. Et cetera.
Serial information to the MCU is timed on the rising edge and information from the MCU
is timed on the falling edge. at the point when Power is connected to VCC while RESET
and SCK are set to zero. Sit tight for no less than 20 ms and afterward the Programming
Enable serial direction 0xAC, 0x53, 0x00, 0x00 is sent to the MOSI stick. The second byte
(0x53) will be reverberated back by the MCU.
Table 2.4 Serial Pins

Serial Programming

Symbol Pins I/O Description

MOSI PB3 I Serial data in

MISO PB4 O Serial Data out

SCK PB5 I Serial Clock

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2.2.5 Pin Descriptions

Figure 2.3 Pin description of ATmega 16u2

2.3 History of Integrated Development Environment


The Maestro I is an item from Soft lab Munich. It was the world's initially Integrated
Development Environment for programming. Maestro I was introduced for 22,000
software engineers around the world. In 1989, 6,000 establishments persist in the Federal
Republic of Germany. Maestro was obligingly the world pioneer in this field from the
1980s. Today one of the last Maestro I can be found in the Museum of Information
Technology at Arlington [3].

The main IDEs with a module idea was Soft seat. In 1995 Computer woche said that the
utilization of an IDE was not all around characterized by designers since it would fence in
their imagination.

In March 2015, the most prominent IDEs are as take after Eclipse and Visual Studio. A
famous case of a high-efficiency Platform as a Service supplier that fuses an IDE is the Out
Systems Platform, a Rapid Application Development stage which guarantees a 10x

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speeding up being developed by utilizing a vigorous IDE and a (tool stash) of pre-
constructed parts. In 2016 Out Systems propelled its P10 Platform which has been
especifically intended to construct applications for portable.

Figure 2.4 IDE; The Integrated Development Environment

The Integrated Development Environment (IDE) is a product suite that build up the
fundamental apparatuses designers need to compose and test programming. Ordinarily, an
IDE contains a code editorial manager, a compiler or translator and a debugger that the
developer gets to through a solitary graphical UI (GUI)

The open source Arduino Software (IDE) makes it simple approach to compose code and
transfer it to the board. It keeps running on Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux. The earth is
composed in Java and in light of Processing and another open source programming [].

The First, Arduino compiler or IDE acknowledges C and C++ as-may be. Truth be told, a
considerable lot of the libraries are composed in C++. A significant part of the basic
framework isn't question situated, however it could be. Consequently, (The Arduino
dialect) is C++ or C.

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2.4 History Bluetooth Module


Dr. Jaap Haartsen, who concocted Bluetooth while working at Ericsson in the 1990s, has
been designated as a finalist by the European Patent Office in the business class for its
European Inventor Award
A Bluetooth gadget or module utilizes radio waves or flags rather than wires or links to
associate with a telephone or PC. A Bluetooth item, similar to a headset or watch, contains
a modest PC chip with a Bluetooth radio and programming that makes it simple to associate
and work. At the point when two Bluetooth gadgets need to converse with each other, they
have to match.

Figure 2.5 Bluetooth module HC-05, with symbol

2.4.1 Bluetooth Range


The energy of the transmitter bargains the range over which a Bluetooth gadget can work
or stable and, for the most part, gadgets are classified into one of three classes, class 1 are
the most effective and can work up to 100m (330ft), class 2 (the most well-known kind)
work up to 10m (33ft), and class 3 are the minimum capable and don't go much past 1m
(3.3ft).

2.4.2 Function of the Bluetooth

Bluetooth remote innovation includes low-transmission capacity, short-run association


between two gadgets empowered to get the information. The structure behind this
innovation is convoluted, and the degree of operation is execution particular. Utilizing
Bluetooth isn't troublesome and permits numerous valuable highlights that upgrade the
present innovation.

2.4.3 Frequency of Bluetooth

Bluetooth module works at frequencies in the vicinity of 2402 and 2480 MHz, or 2400 and
2483.5 MHz including recurrence of 2 MHz wide at the base end and 3.5 MHz wide at the
best. This is in the all-around unlicensed (however not unregulated) Industrial, Scientific

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and Medical (ISM) 2.4 GHz short range radio recurrence band.

Utilizing Bluetooth innovation take into consideration hands free cell phone use, and for
tuning in to music and sound documents put away on your Android telephone (also an
expansion of Borg sightings). By Pairing your cell phone with a Bluetooth headset or other
gadget expands your telephone's ease of use.

To interface your Bluetooth, above all else you need to empower the Bluetooth on your
telephone. After put your Bluetooth gadget into blending mode, with the goal that the
telephone perceives the gadget. From here, you should simply tap on the gadget's name on
your screen and the two ought to naturally associate.

2.5 Relay Module

The Relay module basically is an electrically worked switch, that enables you to kill on or
a circuit utilizing voltage or current significantly higher than a microcontroller could deal
with. There is no association between the low voltage circuit worked by the microcontroller
and the powerful circuit. The transfer additionally shields each circuit from each other.

Each direct in the module has three associations which were named NC, COM, and NO.
Contingent upon the information flag or message trigger mode, the jumper top can be set
at abnormal state powerful mode which 'shuts' the regularly open (NO) switch at abnormal
state input and at low level viable mode which works the same however at low level
information [9].

Figure 2.6 Relay Module

2.5.1 Specifications
a. On-board EL817 photoelectric coupler with photoelectric isolating anti-
interference ability strong
b. On-board 5V, 10A / 250VAC, 10A / 30VDC relays
c. Relay long life can absorb 100000 times in a row
d. Module can be directly and MCU I/O link, with the output signal indicator

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e. Module with diode current protection, short response time

Table 2.5 Pin Configuration of Relay


Parameter Value
VCC 5V DC

COM 5V DC

IN1 High/Low output

IN2 High/Low output

GND GND

2.6 DC Motor
DC (coordinate current) Motors are two wires (I-e control and ground), ceaseless turn
engines. At the point when control provided, a DC engine will begin turning until the point
that that power is compelled to stop. Most DC engines keep running at a high Revolutions
for each minute(RPM), illustrations are PC cooling fans, or radio-controlled auto wheels.
The speed of DC engines is controlled utilizing beat width balance (PWM), it's a system
of quickly beating the power turn on and off. The level of time spent cycling the on or off
proportion decides the speed of the engine, (e.g. on the off chance that the power is cycled
at (half on, half off), at that point the engine will turn at a large portion of the speed of
100% (completely on). Each heartbeat is rapid to the point that the engine has all the
earmarks of being persistently turning with no faltering [6].

Figure 2.7 DC motor

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2.7 Antenna
Reception apparatuses is the key position with regards to talk about correspondence
frameworks. By the definition, receiving wire is a part that changes RF (Radio Frequency)
signals, which go by a transmitter, by means of electromagnetic waves in space. Radio
wires convey a trademark to be known as correspondence, which implies that a reception
apparatus will bear the comparable capacities regardless of possibly it is transmitting or
accepting. The Antenna ought to be basically tuned to the comparable recurrence band of
the radio framework to which holds the association, notwithstanding if condition isn't met
the endorsed, at that point we will get hindered transmission. At the point when flag is
being entered to a receiving wire, it will discharge radiation appropriated in space with a
settled example [7].

Figure 2.8 Dish Antenna

The property of parabolas is that at a point called the concentration, the greater part of the
lines or flags entering the parabola parallel to its pivot are "reflected" from the allegorical
bend and converge the core interest. This property is utilized by space experts to outline
and create telescopes, and by radio researcher specialists to configuration satellite dishes.

To locate the point of convergence of a parabola, take after these means

i. Step 1 Measure the longest distance across (width) of the parabola at its edge.
ii. Step 2 Divide the measurement by two to decide the sweep (x) and square the
outcome (x).
iii. Step 3 Measure the profundity of the parabola (an) at its vertex and increase it
by 4 (4a)

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Chapter-2 Literature Review

Figure 2.9 Dish Antenna Position

In radio and hardware, a reception apparatus (plural receiving wires or radio wires), or
elevated, is an electrical gadget which changes over electric power into radio waves, and
the other way around. It is relatively utilized with a radio transmitter or radio beneficiary.
Here are few clues and tips to enable you to get the most channels with your indoor radio
wire. Place it in the correct area. utilize a more drawn out link to achieve that window.
confront, it in the correct heading. lay your radio wire level on a level plane. move it higher
up. move it outside. utilize a superior link – very suggested.
There are some straightforward tips and traps that will enable you to get ideal or reasonable
gathering with your indoor radio wire.
i. Find out where the communicate towers are in your general vicinity. Pointing your
receiving wire at TV transmission towers can enhance gathering. ...
ii. Place the receiving wire in or close to a window. ...
iii. Go high. ...
iv. Test distinctive receiving wire arrangements.

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Chapter-3 Methodology

Chapter No 3
Methodology
3.1 Introduction
The method of making Dish antenna alignment using Arduino Uno is described bellow
First of all, communication between android phone and Bluetooth module is conducted
that bridges between mobile set and microcontroller which receives the commands and has
predefined instruction for each specific input which in turn operates the motor. Below
given block diagram would describe the project.

Figure 3.1 Block diagram project

3.2 Connection Diagram

Figure 3.2 Connection diagram of Circuit

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Chapter-3 Methodology

Table 3.1 Relationship between Arduino, Bluetooth and Relays


Arduino Pins Bluetooth Relays (1,2) Relays (2,3)

0 Dx

1 Tx

In put 5V Vcc

5 In2

8 In1

6 In1

7 In2

Out Put 5v Vcc Vcc

GND GND GND

Table 3.1 (b) Relationship between Relays, battery and Motors


Relays Voltage Source 12v Motors

NO +Ve

NC -Ve

COM Terminals

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Chapter-3 Methodology

3.3 Flow Chart


Start

Enable Serial
Communication

NO
If data is
received

Yes
Read
End

if 1 No

Yes if 2

Right No
Yes No
If 3
Left
Yes
if 4
Up

Yes

Down

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Chapter-3 Methodology

3.4 Arduino Uno


Arduino-Uno is main part of project, it has programmed according to described parts, all
components are connected to this board.

Figure 3.3 Arduino Uno Kit with Microcontroller


3.4.1 Arduino Program for all parts
Programming is the crucial part, this project based on programming. All components are
interconnected with Arduino by programing.

Figure 3.4 Arduino Program Sketch

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Chapter-3 Methodology

3.5 Bluetooth connection with Arduino


The of Bluetooth module with Arduino-Uno for connectivity with Android phon. It is
directly connected with Arduino. The Bluetooth VCC with Arduino Power & Aux I/O of
5V and Txd and Rxd connected with digital I/O (Rxd and Txd).

Figure 3.5 Bluetooth Connection with Arduino

Table 3.2 Parameters of Bluetooth connection with Arduino


Arduino Bluetooth module

5V VCC

GND GND

Rx Txd

Txd Rx

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Chapter-3 Methodology

3.6 Installation of Relays


1. Connect the segments in view of the figure appeared in the wiring outline utilizing
pin connectors. VCC and COM stick is associated with the 5V control supply, GND
stick is associated with the GND, IN1 and IN2 pins are associated with the
advanced I/O stick. Stick number will be founded on the real program code.
2. After equipment association, embed the specimen portray into the Arduino IDE.
3. Using a USB link, associate the ports from the microcontroller to the PC.
4. Upload the program.

3.6.1 Working of Relays


1. These four Relays are operating the direction of Dish. Every relay works their own
direction. Relay 1, 2, 3 and 4 operates for upward, downward, right and left
direction respectively.
2. It indicates by red LED lights when the relay received voltage when the command
given through remote (android mobile). Shown in Figure 3.6
3. Relay 1,2 Control 1st motor and Relay 3,4 control 2nd motor. The working
phenomena of relays shown in bellow figures 3.6 (a) and (b).

1 2 3 4

Figure 3.6 Working of Relays

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Chapter-3 Methodology

Figure 3.6 (a) Working of Relay 1,2


Figure 3.6 (b) Working of Relays 3,4
3.7 Motor Drive Circuit
The DC motors work as a servo by the adding relays. It operates when relay allow the
current flow. When voltage applied then relay completes the path and motor start to rotates.

Figure 3.7 Motor Drive Circuit

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Chapter-3 Methodology

3.7.1 Motor Rotation Control by Relays


Motor is connected with relays COM (common) poles. When command will be given by
Mobile (Remote) then relays starts working. (i-e 1st relay operates the motor in CW (clock
wise), similarly 2nd relay turn the motor on CCW (counter clockwise). Shown in figure 3.8
below.

Figure 3.8 DC Motor rotation control

Table 3.3 logic representation of Relays with Motors


RELAY 1 RELAY 2 Motor Status
OFF OFF STOP

OFF ON CCW

ON OFF CW

ON ON STOP

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Chapter-3 Methodology

3.7.2 Dish Alignment Motors


Dish antenna alignment being carried out by two directions where two motors are used
Shown in Figure 3.9 (a) and (b) it is also mentioned the directions of dish upward and
downward sides in figure 3.10.

Figure 3.9 (a) Dish Alignment Motor Figure 3.9 (b) Dish Alignment Motor

Figure 3.10 Dish Antenna Alignment Overview

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Chapter-3 Methodology

3.8 Android Application’s contents


Display of mobile App contents is the all command which have given for the making of
application, this application is used in android phone for connectivity of Bluetooth with
Arduino. It works as a remote whatever command will be given it operates the motors. This
the various commands are shown in figure 3.11 a, b and c.
Where figure 3.11 (a) is the initial stage where searching for Bluetooth module is being
carried out. While the figure 3.11 (b) described the connectivity of Phone with Bluetooth
module and motors limitation is mentioned. App will indicate by the RED button when
limit is reached. Similarly, in the last figure 3.11(c) modes of remote have described.

Figure 3.11 (a) Application contest

Figure 3.11 (b) Application contest

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Chapter-3 Methodology

Figure 3.11 (c) Application contest

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Chapter-4 Results

Chapter No 4
RESULTS AND OUTCOMES
4.1 Initially Display Bluetooth Application
It is a portable programming screen show when you open the android programming, it has
four bearings as observed in underneath square figure left, right, up and down separately.
There is additionally have cutoff points of course when the one bearing is come as far as
possible at that point circle shape has shown with red light that restricted is come to and
not surpassed that.

Figure 4.1 Display of Bluetooth App not connected condition


When You endeavor to move the course of dish yet it isn't associated with Bluetooth
Module of Arduino Device so this message happen on portable programming screen to
please interface first this versatile Bluetooth with Bluetooth of Bluetooth module.

Figure 4.2 Error display of Mobile Application

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Chapter-4 Results

4.2 Bluetooth Android Application connected condition


The figure 4.3 showing the Bluetooth
application used for connectivity of
Arduino with android phone.
When the ‘Bluetooth’ sign clicked a list
of devices appears on phone screen
selecting the Bluetooth module ‘HC-05’
the upper portion turn into green
‘Connected’ then it starts working.
The arrows buttons are indicating for
directions Right, Left, Up and
Downward.
There are four circle U, D, L and R are
the limit buttons when the 360’ degree
reached the switch turn off and the
following circles becomes red

Figure 4.3 Bluetooth Application on connected condition

4.3 Dish Antenna positioning Android Application through Bluetooth


Doing Dish Upward by Android Application which is connected to Android phone by
Bluetooth module then the 1st relay start functioning then it moves upward direction until
the range reached. Shown in Figure 4.4.

Figure 4.4 Upward Position of Dish Antenna

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Chapter-4 Results

When the Downward button of remote (App) pushed, then the 2nd relay starts the 1st motor
and rotates the dish on downward shown in Figure 4.5 bellow.

Figure 4.5 Downward Position of Dish Antenna


The Figure 4.6 showing the direction when the Right Arrow button of App pushed then 2nd
motor starts working and antenna rotates right side, here the 3rd relay is used.

Figure 4.6 Rightward Position of Dish Antenna

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Chapter-4 Results

The Figure 4.7 Showing the Leftward direction, when the ‘left’ arrow button pushed then
it turns into left direction where the 7th Relay starts working.

Figure 4.7 Leftward Position of Dish Antenna

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Chapter-5 Conclusion and Future works

Chapter No 5
CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORKS
5.1 Conclusion
The Dish antenna positioning by android application is the conversion of analog to digital
work, we designed and developed a device to align the dish antenna to required angle and
location which is operated by android application works as a remote, when we give the
command by android application to Arduino then it send the signal to relays and it will
operate the motors which align the dish antenna.
Initially Dish positioning was controlled by the IR remote sensor which was trouble-
causing in a sense that it bore the problem of Line of Sight. But now intended to implement
this project in which we are dealing with the two vertical and horizontal angles through the
usage of DC motors respectively. Android Phone replaces the IR sensor with Bluetooth
module as a communication mode between microcontroller and the command issuing hand
set. A desired command is generated from the mobile set which is then transmitted to
Arduino board that resultantly operates the motors and adjusts the dish position by
changing elevation and azimuth angle. Purpose-oriented android app has been developed
for the purpose of using this circuit.
The advancement in our project to use Bluetooth for connectivity in the range of 10meters
approximately. We used an advanced Arduino which was easy to programed and operate.

5.2 Future Works


The following works can be made in designing and improvement of “Satellite Dish
Antenna Tuning by Android App”
a. Improve in range by using WIFI for connectivity.
b. Adding 3 motors for 3 directional movement.

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References
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[8] Zocholl, Stan (2003). AC Motor Protection. Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories,


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[13] "The Android Source Code". source.android.com. Retrieved February 2, 2017

[14] Claburn, Thomas (July 12, 2010). "Google App Inventor Simplifies Android
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