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Czech Historical

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Revised Edition

• n. . . 10, • •


First Edition. London /957
Revised Edition. Hamburg /9 77

WITH its Indo~European background and its connexions in Latin
and Greek, the Old Czech language is a suitable introduction to
Slavonic linguistics. The archaic nature of Old Czech grammar,
obscured only by phonological breakdown, has made reference to
Old Church Slavonic and other Slavonic languages almost super~
fluous, and it is believed that by treating the language on its own,
with explanatory references to Greek, Latin, Sanskrit, Germanic,
and Lithuanian where necessary, Old Czech has been given a clarity
of definition which would have been impossible by any other means.
For this reason too, references to Modern Czech have been cited only
when necessary to complete the historical perspective.
The Grammar is based on fourteenth-century texts, and the
earliest forms are given in every case. The spelling of these texts is
highly arbitrary, for which reason the practice of Czech compara~
tivists has been followed, whereby words are respelt in modem
phonematic characters. A departure from this rule was felt to be
CIP- Kurztitelaufnahme der Deutschen Bibliothek
necessary in setting out the specimen texts; here an average
fourteenth-cen!ury spelling has been chosen, and ambiguities have
Mann, Stuart E. been removed.
Czech historical grammar. - Rev. ed. - Hamburg: Research has been hampered by the lack of a complete Old Czech
Buske, 1977. Dictionary, the scantiness of existing Old Czech and Czech Historical
ISBN 3-87118-261-3
Grammars, and the fragmentary nature of Old Czech texts.
Etymological interpretation is conservative, and speculative
matter has been eliminated. AIl the same a need was felt for a good
deal more interpretation of grapunar than is usual in works of this
kind, and where the evidence of non~Slavonic languages has been
ISBN 3-87118-261-3
unequivocal I have not hesitated to use it. In this way many
Alle Rechte vorbehalten
apparent anomalies in the Slavonic field have turned out to be
GesamthersteJJung: fotokopwi lhelm weihert KG , Darmstadt quite normal. Moreover it is the interpretation of grammar, together
'"with the rigorous disciplineFOREWORD
of phonology, which is best calculated to
IOTACISM: actual or historical [j]; its effect on a preceding consonant
make of linguistics an exact science. But much remains to be ex· or group of consonants. Vb. to iotaci;:.e.
plained. PUONEME: there is much disagreement as to the definition of this
The want of technical terms has created a need for introducing word. The term is here used to denote a speech-sound type regarded
calgues from French or Gennan. Such terms are inevitable, but in a as a unit of utterance. A difficulty arises where a single speech-
few, happily rare, cases, I have had to supply a term of my own ad sound has become two (as Middle English htls, Mod. Eng. howe) , or
hoc. A self-explanatory term has always been preferred to an obscure where two or more speech-sounds have become one (as DE scilling,
one, since it is believed that terminology should be an aid to learning, Mod. E. shilling) . Sound-groups which seem to form organic units
not an obstacle. For this reason 'purposive construction' is preferred are regarded as phonematic groups, cf. Eau) in Eng. house. Variants of
to 'final construction', and the aspectual division of Old Czech verbs phonemes which do not affect the sense of a word are sometimes
is represented as 'specific' and 'general', called 'allophones' (cf. the qualities of the four t's in Eng. tea, light,
The following terms need some elucidation. little, and eighth [ei-t-th]).
AsPECT: any modal connotation affecting the form or the wage of a PR..EPALATAUZATION: the effect of an iotacized vowel (je, written l)
verb, noun, or adjective. Cf. the difference of aspect between the on a preceding velar consonant. Vb. to prepalatali;:,e.
past tenses bet and betted, burnt and burned. PLOSIVE, or STOP: a consonant which is incapable of prolonged
BASE: what is left ofa word when stem and ending are removed. The utterance,p, k, t, b, g, d, etc. cr. CONTINUANT.
uninflected torso ofa word. Cr. STEM. MORA: a unit ofphonematic duration, equivalent to that ofa single
CoNTINUANT: consonant capable of prolonged utterance, s, 4,J. v, short vowel. A long vowel, a diphthong made up of short vowels,
etc. and a vowel followed by I, m, n, r, have the duration of two morae. A
DACTYLISM: the fixing of the stress no further back than the ante- triphthong, a slurred long vowel, and a long or slurred diphthong,
penultimate syllable. have the duration of three morae. A useful if somewhat elastic term.
EXTENSlON: a modifying syllable, frequently a vowel followed by RADICAL: the root of a word; the immutable part of a word; the
1 or r, by which a radical (q.v.) is lengthened. Cf. Eng. chat, &hatt-er; minimum formula to which the base of a word can be reduced with·
mid, midd-u; salt, salt-y; till, til-th; Lat. jugum,jug-ulum; Gk. O"r&yoS', out involving any variables. There is some conflict in the usage of
O'TVY-JloS', O'TVY-EPOs-· this word. Thus although -."Ibhr- is the immutable residue of type
GLIDE-PALATALIZATION: the modification of phonemes (in Old ·bher· 'to bear' it is usual to cite the radical as -."Ibher-. This practice
Czech t, d, n, I, and r) by a following i, 'or l, caused by a flattening of is unavoidable in instances where a vowel is enclosed by two plosives,
the tongue-tip against the upper gums. as in -."IbJud- 'dig, prod'. In instances where the base-vowel is
GRADATION (Apophony), or VOWEL GRADATION (Vowel Apophony): either -d- or -ch as in -."Isthd-/sthii 'stand', usage is unsettled.
the alternation of internal vowels in related words. The alternation REFLEX: a recognized derivative-sound; a phoneme or phoneme-
of internal vowels in a verb to mark tense, mood, or aspect. Cf. cluster seen in terms of its historical background. Thus Eng. 0 in
English seat and soot; sit and sat; bite and bait; rise and raise. stone is the normal reflex of DE din sMn, of Germanic ·Qi, and of
INDUCTION: the anticipation of a speech-sound before it is due, lE ·ai/oi.
resulting in a repetition. Thus lE ·J.lrankiij 'to the arm' (cf. Rustic RETRACTED PLOSIVE: the phoneme Et].
Lat. branctu, Walde-Hofmann, see § 27) is held to have passed RETRACTED SIBILANTS: the phonemes [§] and [:f:].
through a prehistoric phase ·rankjaj before reaching Common SIGMATISM: phoneme [8] or reflex of[s]. Any inflection or modification
Slavonic .,pc!. This theory is used to explain the peculiar history of marked by the presence of s or its derivative (in Old Czech: s, I, and
pre-Slavonic velars before vowels derived from ·ai, ·oi, etc. ch).
SLUR-TONE: a tonal modification suggested by J. Wright in 191:2:
to describe the compensatory lengthening of a syllable through
loss of a vowel or other reason.
STEM: the link between a word-base and its inflection, cf. Lat.
VOWEL FRONTINO: the utterance of a derived vowel higher in the
mouth than was the case with the prototype. Thus Lat. vas> French CONTENTS
vow; Lac. sex> French six. The anticipation in a preceding syllable
of a vowel in the following syllable, resulting in assimilation. Con- FOREWORD page v
trast English woman and women [wlmin]. The assimilation, in Czech, ABBREVIATIONS AND SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY x
of a vowel to a followingj, thus aj > ri.


London, 1956 S. E. M. "




A. The Evolution of Czech Orthography 152
B. Changes in Phonology between I lOO and 1600 154
c . Modern Czech Dialects 154
D. The Composition of Czech Vocabulary 159
E. Sentence-Fonnation 160
F. Note on Numerals .62
(Ala). Die alttscMchisdu Alexturdreis, eel. R. Trautmann (Heidelberg, 1916) THE GERMAN SCHOOL
Fr. V. Autrata, Uueden{ t:W mluvnice starolukl (Fourth edition, Olomouc,
IN THE eleventh century Quo ofBamberg, Evangelist of Po mer ani a,
1936 )
Fr. BartoJ, DiaUktologie moravskd (Prague, I8gS) pointed out a striking relationship between Latin and Slavonic.
(Bit). Bestdn{ feli, by T. Sdtny (cd. M. Hatta1a, Prague, IBg7) Illustrating his discovery with a comparative word·list published in
(eeM). CasopU !e.skJ/w m~a (Prague, 18:.17-) one of his Biographies, he concluded that 'the Slavonic language
(Dal). Kronika Dalimilova (ed. V. Mourn. Prague, 1910; cd. V. Flajihans. resembles Latin in many of its words' . But it is to the nineteenth-
Prague, 19\10) century linguist Franz &pp (I791-IB67) that the comparison of
V . F1ajihans. NejsrorJ{ jHJmdtky j(U.yka i pumuri&tvi llski/w (Prague, 1909) Slavonic with cognate families owes its beginning. Bopp came to
J. Gebauer. Historidcd mltumict tuUho ju.yka (Prague, 1909) London in the second decade of the last century to learn Sanskrit in
Boh. Havranek. 'Nal'eti &:Sk;\.' (in Ceskoslovenskd uwtivlda: ja.r.yk. Prague, the library of India House. This led to the publication in 1816 of
1936 ) his comparative conjugational system Conjugationssystem, Frankfurt
J. Holub and Fr. Kope6ty. Etymowgickj slolmlkjtJ.tJka lesk/Iw (Prague, 19511)
O. Hujer. Ovod do dljinja.qka &skllw (Third edition, Prague, 1946)
a.M. (of Sanskrit in comparison with Greek, Latin, Persian and
(KS) . KnUky Jestny, by T . Stftny (cd. K.]. Erben. Prague, 1852) Gcnnanic). The work was followed in 1833 by his more famous
A. Novak. Strul1ii dljiny li/eraJury mkt (Olomouc, 1946) VergleicMnde Grammatik (of Sanskrit, Zend, Greek, Latin, Lithuanian,
(rtNS). lleli mdllni 12 svdtllnl, by T. Stitny (Prague, 1929) Slavonic, Gothic and German). This was revised and extended in
(St). Sou~ek. Studie Itltl1\.$ki (Prague, 1909) 1852 to include Armenian.
J. Stanislav. ~skosllJr/QlSkd mlUll1lia (Prague-Pfdov, 1938) August Schleicher (1821-68) carried Slavonic etymology into the
F. Simek. Slouflfak star/le1tiny (Prague, 1947) field.of Baltic linguistics. In 1853 he addressed the philological sec·
Fr. Travrueek. Stnd"nd mlUll1lia leskd (Prague, 1941) lion of the Czech Academy on the relationship of Slavonic and
Fr. Travrueek. Historickd m/UlI1Iiaja.r.yka uslwswuensklho (Prague, 1935) Lithuanian, and consolidated his researches by publishing a Hand·
Fr. TnivnJeek. Sbwnfkja{JIM leskJlw (Prague, 1946) budl (/er LitauiscMn SprocM (1856) and a Litauische Chrestomathie (1857).
Much of the Grammar was assembled from the speech of natives and
recorded orally, though tonal distinctions are not observed. The
expounding of this aspect of Baltic speech fell to Kurschat, a native
Lithuanian whose Bdtrage zur Kunde der litauischen SftTache (a phono-
logy) appeared in 1849. to be followed years later, in 1876, by a
August Leskien (1840-19I6) is known for his tonal researches in
the Slavonic and Baltic languages. Following an essay on the tones of The life-story of this indefatigable linguist is one fired by a strong
Lithuanian (1881) there appeared a series of articles on tonality in local patriotism that was fruitful, if at times misplaced. A tireless
Slavonic and its reflexes in Czech and Slovak. Despite his acute word-hunter, Miklosich added to bis achievements a list of personal
observations the problem still cannot be considered solved. names (1859), collections of Slavonic loanwords in Rumanian,
A true successor of Schleicher and Leskien was Reinhold Traut- Albanian, Modem Greek, and Hungarian (dated variously between
mann, whose careful editing of the Alexandreid fragments and 1862 and 1871), a glossary ofloanwords in Slavonic (1862), a list of
compilation of the whole of its fourteenth-century Czech vocabulary Turkish loanwords in the Balkan languages, Russian, Ukrainian,
(1916) are only equalled by his exhaustive Balto-Slavonic Dictionary and Polish, and a list of Slavonic, Hungarian, and Rumanian loan-
of 1923. words in Turkish! The final appearance of his Vergleichende Grammatik
Trautmann's contemporary and friend, Erich Bemeker, author of der slavischen Sprachen was delayed again and again by a habit of
an unfinished Slavonic Etymological Dictionary arranged under turning aside to collect vocabularies. The Phonology afthe Grammar
'Common Slavonic' captions, and the German Pole A. Brilckner, appeared as early as 18S:Z, but it was not until 1875 that the Gram-
based their Slavonic researc.hes on Balto-Slavonic foundations, the mar was completed. Weighed down by the bulk of his material,
first with a descriptive grammar (Die preussische Spraehe, Strasbourg, Miklosich gave himself little time for reflection or interpretation.
18g6), the second with a monographic article entitled Slavisch- Moreover his mechanistic approach led him to normalize the older
Litauisch (in Gruntiriss tier itfg. Spraeh- unti Altertumskunde, Strasbourg, Slavonic material in a single pattern and for this reason his work
1917). Countless German comparativists have drawn upon Slavonic lacks historical perspective. His Etymological Dictionary of the
materials without making Slavonic their main field, Slavonic Languages reveals by its very title one of its author's prin-
cipal faults-that of attempting too much. There is actually more
etymological material in the much smaller Phonology of his Com-
parative Grammar, but here, as in the Dictionary, Miklosich allowed
With Franz Miklosich (1813-g1), a Viennese Slovene, Slavonic himself neither the time nor the space to develop etymological
linguistics took a great step forward. Miklosich devoted the whole of themes, which are all in the nature of brief notes. Much useful work
his life to Slavonic linguistics. Without acknowledgement he profited by his predecessors and contemporaries was ignored.
by the descriptive work of his fellow Slovene B. Kopitar (1780-t844),
author of a grammar of the Slavonic dialects of Carniola, Carinthia
and Styria (IB08) , and that of the Serb Vuk Karadfit, author ofa
Serbian dictionary (IB IB), and was above all inspired by the pioneer In the years 153B and 1544 Sigmund Gelenius (or Jelen) , a Czech,
work ofFranz Bopp. A youthful work Radices linguae slavicae (1845) set published two editions of a comparative dictionary entitled Lexicon
the pattern for the remainder of his writings. A 147-page book of Symphonum, in which he compared similar words in Slavonic,
Slavonic Derivations foreshadowed his Erymologisches WiiTttrbuch tier Latin, Greek, and German. This work remained isolated and with-
slaviscMn Spraehen (1886)J which is still the only one of its kind. From out offspring. Veleslavin's Latin -Czech-German-Greek Dictionary
the descriptive work of others Miklosich gathered together all the entitled Silva Q.uadrilinguis (1598) is no more than a tetraglot
words that today would be called ·Common Slavonic', regardless of vocabulary, a work betraying a certain contemporary interest in
date and source, turned them into 'Cyrillic', and labelled the product languages, but without significance for comparativists. After the
'Old Slovene', Such was the raw material of his etymological work, invasion of the Czech lands by Austria in 1620 Czech literary
published as a Lexicon palaeoslovenico-graeco-latinum betvveen the years activity languished. Bohusluv Balb!n, a Jesuit of Hradec Kr~Uove
1862 and 1865. ( 1621--88), made a significant contribution with aDissertatio apologetica
pro lingua slavonica, prfUcipue boltemica (1672-3), a work which anti- Slavonic as one language differentiated into dialects. His master-
cipated DobrovskY's Lehrgebdutk tkr bOhmuchen Spradte by well over a pieces uhrgebiiude tier bohmischm Spraclu (ISog and 1819), and
century. Balbfn, too, was intrigued by Latin parallels in other lnstitutitmn linguae s/awae dialuti vekris (1822), arc marred by lack of
languages, as his equation Ego haheo unum hortum = lch habe einen reference to texts, the misdating of Cyrillic in relation to Glagolitic
Carten shows. (The equivalence of Latin luzbeo and German Iulben. is writing, and a mUWlderstanding of the nature of Slavonic nasal
now discredited.) vowels and semi-vowels. Three ofDobrovsky's German dissertations:
Subsequent Czet:h linguistic studi~ are in the main independent AbJwndlung iibn Ursprung u. Bildung fkr slavischLn, insb. tier bOhm.
of the Slavonic schools of Germany and Austria. Joser Dobrovskt Sprac},e (1790). Die Bildsamr.ejl tin slav. SpnuM ( t 799), and Entwurf zu
(1753-1829), a Hungarian-born Czech, educated at Prague Univer- einem aUg. Erymologicon aer slav. Spradre foreshadowed a large-scale
sity, and aJ~uit pri~t, spent the greater part of his life hunting for etymological compendium which was never realized. Dobrovsky's
old Czech records, using them as material for the scientific analysis importance to linguistics is in his valid distribution of Slavonic into
of the Czech language and the illumination of Czech literary history. Western, Southern, and Eastern dialects and his rational classifica-
His works are in German or Latin, for Dobrovsky was unpractised tion of the verb. His strictly descriptive methods were a sound
in the art of writing Czech, a technique that had waned under the corrective to the extravagances of the early comparativists. Less
Austrian regime in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. More- concerned with linguistic comparison than with records, Dobrovsky
over Dobrovskfs schooling had been a German onej he was an made some acute observations on Czech in relation to Greek and
Austrophil and was sceptical of the Czech national revival. His Latin. He was the first to equate Czech lrdti and Latin vorare, ilut
devotion to the Czech language and its literature was essentially and XAO?j, 1!T1W and granum, zima and hiems, iaiud and glans, from
that of the antiquary and the grammarian, and his tireless search for which it is clear that Dobrovsky realized, as few others had done, that
old manuscripts took him as far afield as Sweden, Russia, Bavaria, relationship bet\veen words rests on organic parallelism, not on
and Italy. chance likeness.
Dobrovsky, impatient of the fanciful romanticizing of both the To Josef Jungmann (1773-1847) belongs the credit of assemb-
old Cze<:h chroniclers and the contemporary revivalists, was never ling the first exhaustive Slovnlk kskonlmukj (1835-9). This laborious
deceived by the poetic forgeri~ ofLinda and Vaclav Hanka, an able task was executed from materials in Tomsa's Czech Dictionary
but dishonest pupil, whose epics of past Czech heroes were designed of '790--9, Pelcl's word-list of the year 1800, and DobrovskY's
to put the beginning1 of Czech literature into the ninth century. German-Czech Dictionary, with additions from Veleslavin's SUoa
Hanka, in his capacity of Keeper of the Czech National Museum, QJuuJrilinguu of 15gB, and an incomplete seventeenth-century MS
was in a favoured position for his self-appointed task. His 'Ossianic' vocabulary by Vaclav Rosa. The entries are supplied with German
poems, replete with aorists, imperfects and dual numbers, betray meanings and etymological notes. Jungmann planned an etymo-
their falsity by the juxtaposition of the prehistoric archaisrns MO, logical index to the Dictionary, but its execution fell to F. L.
bolia and late fonns such as s tebu, s seMj moreover the transparent CeIakovsky, whose linguistic equipment was inadequate to the task.
semantics and the romantic style of the poems stamp them as a Valuable help was given by the historian Palacky, and by P. J.
product of the nineteenth century. It is surprising that they deceived Safarlk, who revised the manuscript and the proofs.
.the literary giants of the day, and for so long. P. J. SafaHk (1795-1861) was the outstanding antiquary and
Dobrovsky, content rather to be a drudging scholar than a rap- textual critic of the R~vival. Remembered for his important modifi-
turous poet, stimulated the appetite of his contemporaries without cations to Czech spelling, he is the author of a Geschichtt det si(Wischen
satisfying it, and held back from the mainstream of the Revival with Sprache und Literatur nach allen Mundarten (1826), a work of less
all its romantic excesses. Like others of his time, he thought of Hnguistic interest than his own articles in the Journal of the
Czech Museum, of which Safaflk eventually became editor, and to Slavonic verb-system with that of Latin (1845), the other comparing
which he contributed from time to time. His articles are sometimes it with that of Greek (1851). The oneness of Slavonic was an idea
shrewd, more often naive. Some betray the influence of Bopp and which persisted after the middle of the century, and in 1855 Martin
Miklosich, but in criticizing the latter's etymologies as over-daring Hattala, joint editor with Patera of an edition of the Alexandreid,
SafaHk proposed others which were wrong. In this, though with was still referring to the Slavonic languages as dialects. A long article
less arrogance, SafaHk anticipated the eccentric dogmatism of in CCM bears the title 0 pomlTU cyrillliny k nynlj1lm ndftllm slovanskjm
the German Pole A. BrUckner. A shrewd article on word-formation (1855, I, 81). In it Hattala succeeds in identifying the home of
by suffixes (1846) is inaccurate, and an article on the Indo-European 'Cyrillic' with Dacia on the Black Sea. But the normalizing craze was
numerals is without value except for the possible identification of at its height, and despite the Slovak secession, which had become an
Czech pit 'five' with PlJt 'fist'. In an article entitled Transmutations accomplished fact, the pan-Slav bias is prominent in Hattala's
(COM, 1847, n, p. 127), he pointed out the correspondence ofpho- work; indeed Hattala was more impressed by resemblances than by
nernes which he labelled Greek k1, Latin ,1, Lithuanian 1, and differences.
Slavonic s, and illustrated the point with the common words for 'ten' Very different was the attitude of Jan Gebauer (1838-1907).
and 'right-hand', but in this he is merely quoting Bopp. Bopp was Graduating from an early interest in Bulgarian, Russian, and
also the model for Safafik's Vjklad, or outline of Comparative Sanskrit, steeped in Bohemian and Moravian dialectology, and
Slavonic (1847), where he makes the point that the -ch- of the Slavonic trained in the exact linguistic methods of Brugmann and rus fol-
aorist is identical with the Sanskrit suffix -S-, Greek -a- in 1U7"7]ao. and lowers, Gebauer was an outstanding representative of Czech
Latin -siinrtgsi (sic) andscribsi (sic). He thought that aorist sigmatism linguistic studies, both as grammarian and lexicographer. His work,
was traceable to the original form of Czech jst m 'am', and Latin written in the tradition ofDobrovsky, matured late, and it is thought
sum. To him goes the credit for supplying words overlooked by Miklo- that he, like Miklosich, undertook a programme which was too large
sich in the first edition of his Old Slavonic Dictionary. His articles for him to complete. This may be the reason why his important
on Old Serbian and on the Glagolitic texts display some original Historickd mluvnice ja~ka ltskilw appeared so late in life. The Phono-
features. logy was published in 18g4, the section on Declension in 1896,
The contributions of other Czechs of the early nineteenth century and that on Conjugation in 18gB (revised and republished post-
are more trivial. M. Klacel's poetic 'analysis' of Czech sounds humously in Ig09). Volumes on Word Formation and Syntax
(Poldtky vltkcki mluvnictv{ ltSkiho), written some time before 1844, were contemplated. Badgered by carping critics, he unwisely
recalls the phonic lists in Wallis's Grammatica linguae anglicaruu. More dissipated his energies answering their charges and turned aside to
important is V. Hanka's analysis of Czech vowel-distribution write his Slovnlk staroltskj before his Grammar was finished. This
(,Ablaut') in CCM, 1844-5, where rynu is paired with rjpati, finu with valuable dictionary was published in parts; two volumes appeared
fibati, kynu with kyplti, kan4 with kapati, njju with naviti, etc. The acute in all, and it had reached the letter N by the year Ig07, when its
sense of analogy displayed in this article had served him well in the author died. Gebauer's careful editing of Old Czech texts gave the
propagation of his forged 'Old Czech' epics. Celakovsky-'s 'etymo- subject new importance, and his followers were many. But the
logies' ofthe Slavonic numerals (CCM, 1850) are reminiscent of the monumental Dictionary remains as the author left it, unfinished.
extravagances of Kollar, the pan-Slav poet. Josef Zubaty (1855-1931) is chiefly remembered for his many con-
After 1848 panslavist ideals gave rise to a crop of proposed tribu~ons to linguistic journals. He pointed out the need for a better
alphabets by which all the Slavonic languages might be unified! semantic interpretation of Old Czech. Vaclav Vondrak (1859-1925)
One of the would-bc unifiers was the lexicographer J. F. Sumavsky, is mentioned here on account of his VerglticMndt slaviscM Grammatik
who is mentioned here because of two articles, one comparing the (1906), written in German to reach a wider public than his own. His
work has been made available in a modified Czech version by Milo! attempted to introduce Moravian Slovak grammatical fonus into
Weingart (Ucebniceiru;yka staroslofJlnsktho, 1937). the standard language. Jungmann did not, however, object to
Moravian and Slovak words in Czech settings, indeed the Slovakisma
J:.lIQlnj, QUJliti, jarmo, and u.leif, and the Moravianisms ndfe8 and
(lfu/mlt were welcomed by him, and art now part of the literary
The question as to whether Czechoslovak literature would have language.
benefited from being written in a composite language based on Continued efforts were made by Czech writers to prevent Slovak
Czech, Moravian, or Moravian Slovak is one which belongs to from evolving on its own, but by the year 1836 the die was already
politics, not linguistics. Unification has been achieved in Poland cast m its favour. In this year there appeared a Slovakjournal Zora.
• After a briefrun it lapsed for two years and re-emerged in 1839 with
France, Britain, and Italy by the imposition ofa single dialect from a
strong political centre. The lack of such a centre in Scandinavia is a eulogistic review of Hollfs epic-style idyll Sldv. The spelling used
responsible for the existence today of three similar languages where was little different from that in use today. It signalized the break with
one might have sufficed. The enfeebled prestige of Prague after 1780, Czech by substituting v for Czech w, and by rationalizingi as a con-
the beginning of the Revival, was insufficient to dominate Slovak sonant, adopting f as the symbol for the long vowel, a reform sub-
culture, which had for centuries been subject to magyarization, and sequently made in Czech by Safaflk in 1842. But, as frequently
to which the culture of Bohemia and Moravia was largely alien. For happens, the most zealous propagators were the least gifted; indeed,
better or worse the Slovaks have chosen to propagate a language <ora owed its revival to one Hamuljak, an obscure journalist. A Czech
which is grammatically in contrast to Czech, though its vocabulary reviewer deplored the Slovak language in which Ho1l1 had com-
is similar. But the survival of Slovak was not achieved without a posed his poem and quoted the poet against himself in the words
struggle. 'nesvomost' il.ikdi dobreho il.emivala konca' (disunity never had a
Pioneers of separatism were Anton!n Bernolak (1762-1813), J. 1. happy ending). But the movement was not to be halted. About the
Bajza, and Jan Holly (1785-1849). BernolAk, a Jesuit writer, year 1844 a Slovak society called 'Tatrln' was formed to propagate
operated from Trnava, and used its dialect in his writings; Bajza, a Slovak writings, and the unrestrained tone of its journal Pozornlk
parish priest and pedagogue, and Ho1l1, an idyll-writer in the made an anti-separatist Slovak, Zaborsky, appeal to its editor to
classical manner of J. KoDar, represented the dialect of Nitra. prevent the breakaway before it was too late.
Bohemia had a growing literary centre in Prague while Slovakia had Zaborskfs arguments followed the familiar lines. Which of the
none. Sundered by its dialects, and handicapped by the lack of dialects could be regarded as standard, smce Be.rnolik's norm had
literary tradition, Slovak was slow to emerge. found no adherents? A break in Czech-Slovak political and literary
As early as J832 Jungmann rebuked Moravians and Slovaks for unity would be disastrous for both. A norm for Siovak grammar was
trying to set up independent literary languages, and praised the difficult to find, and if established, would not compensate for the
Slovaks Palkovic, Kollar and SafaHk for writing in Czech. When poverty of Slovak literary expression. Moreover. a separate Slovak
certain Slovak writers chose the dialect of Nitra as their medium language, being intelligible to Czechs and Slovaks alike, would
J ungmann condemned the choice as an act of literary suicide, and merely serve to widen the political rift between them; indeed, rather
pointed to the Slavonic manifesto of Budapest made in 1823 in than be irritated by reading works in Slovak, the Czechs might well
favour of Czech. turn to books written in Polish or Russian. The dearth of Slovak
J ungmann was equally harsh with Moravian separatists. He schools and libraries, the fewness ofSlovak books, and the difficulty
joined Palack1 in condemning Fr. Tmka, who, in an apologia Slovaks had in finding work among Czechs should decide them against
entitled 0 leskim jru;yku. spisovnim (Bmo and Olomouc, 1831-2), Slovak. The Czech 'K.ralice Bible' (1579-93) should be their model
for all time. To consolidate his arguments, Zaborsky established a
fund of five hundred florins at Pi-dov for the studyof'Czechoslovak'.
An appeal by the journalist and editor of CCM, J. E. Vacel, came
too late to have effect. L'udevit Slur, Slovak poet and patriot, pub-
lished a journal Slcvenski nouiny which ran till June 1848, when the
organ was suppressed, and Stur's band of followers was dispersed by I
the Magyar authorities. To offset Czech influence, the Kossuth
regime launched a pro-Hungarian journal at Bratislava under the
name of Slovticki noviny, but this came to an end with the invasion of
Hungary by Imperial troops. With its disappearance, another
journal, Slovenskj po{ornik, came out under the editorship of Lichard. I . An Indo-European prototype-language (protoglossa) must be
In the middle of 1849 a semi-official journal appeared in Vienna postulated for the languages of the Indo-European group, since these
under the name Slovenski noviny. Whatever the underlying motives, languages, clearly related in grammar and vocabulary, cannot be
political or literary, Slovak journals continued to appear and dis- derived from each other. Since no language is uniform, it follows
appear, but the Slovak movement had taken root. By 1850 literary that Proto-Indo-European will show variations. But there is a sur-
Slovak was a reality. prising degree of uniformity in the words and inflections which can
be reconstructed out or known material, especially when reconstruc-
tion is founded on such well-preserved languages as Sanskrit,
Lithuanian, Greek (whose value is lessened only by the loss oflE .j
and ·11 and the partial loss of lE ·s), and Latin (where the lE
diphthongs have become obscured, and the aspirated consonants
have undergone unusual changes). Indeed the whole oflE phonology
- its consonants, vowels, semivowels, and diphthongs-<an be re-
constituted on the evidence of Greek and Lithuanian alone, except
for the aspirate groups .sph-, .stk-, etc. (to be found only in Sanskrit
and Armenian), initial ·lIl- and ·I!r- (ascertainable only from
Sanskrit, Germanic, and Celtic), and the laryngeal (laryngal)
sounds or 'breathings' postulated for lE on the evidence of Hittite.
2. The vocabulary that emerges from reconstruction gives a seman-
tic picture in which the following items are represented: wild animals
(beaver, otter, wolf, lynx, stoat, weasel, squirrel, red-deer, mouse,
hedgehog, and horse), domestic animals (bull, ox, pig, sheep, goat, and
dog), birds (goose, duck, thrush or blackbird, crane, capercailie or
blackcock, crow, and jackdaw),jisk (salmon, eel), insects (fly, wasp,
a nd hornet), trees (birch, willow, aspen, ash, elm, hazel, apple, and a
mast-tree--oak or beech), grains (wheat, barley), plants (heather,
madder, moss, vetch, dropwort, flax, and garlic), and crafls such
as house-building, cart-construction, wood~carving, hunting. and
The vowel -{ is held to be the first vowel of a reduplication; -4
soil-cultivation. This evidence seems to place the 'cradle' of
alternates with -a and may be identical with -6 (the obscure vowel
Inde-Euro~an c~lture in the park-lands of Northern Europe, in or
near theBalttc platn. But aseparate group ofanimal-breeding nomads of English a-hout, com17llltld).
ofl?do-European speech and with little or no knowledge of fanning 4. The next step is to break up the words into their respective
or umber-craft seems to have given rise to a clistinct culture serving phonemes for comparison. Two presumed cognates, especially if
as prototype to those of Anatolia (Hittite, etc.), Northern Indi<l, and they are Greek and Lithuanian, may be sufficient to provide the
the plateau of Iran. The absence of most of the lE agricultural reconstruction. Thus
terms from the languages of these areas, as well as finds of early Lith . k4iTlil,
Gk. 1I"OW~, f.
battle-axes, corded ware, and separate graves in the Ukraine, 'price'
'ransom, bride-price'
suggest a prehistoric division of 'lnde-European' speakers into Analj'1is: k is lE k or qll
Analysis: 11" is lE P or g¥
parkland-dwellers and steppe-dwellers. aisIEaoro
o is lE 0
,islEi i is lE i
3. The reconstruction of an lnde-European prototype involves the
vislEn n is lE n
following steps. Thewordswhicharedeemed. tobe akin are assembled
'lislE/ora a (finally in fems.) is lE 11
from reco~d~d or living languages, preferably the older ones (Latin,
Greek, Hlttlte, and Sanskrit) and those which are well preserved The phonemes common to Greek and Lithuanian are Ij/,l-o-i-n-ll,
(Lithuanian, Gothic, Icelandic, and Slavonic). From these a form hence -ql.l0ina is held to be the prototype of both words. The root
has to be deduced which will contain all the data without remainder. may be that of Lat. quid 'what'. quot 'how much', etc. Such recon-
The deduced form must be expressed in the known phonemes of structions are marked with an asterisk, since they are inferred, not
primitive lnde-European, which are believed to be recorded. Where variants occur, the varying fragment is added to
the reconstruction; variations, whether of noun or verb, mark
fluctuation in aspect or gender. Thus
Labials P (Ph) b bh m
ut. stabulum, n. 'stable' Old Cz. stodDw, f. 'barn '
D entals t (th) d dh 0
Analysis: si is lE st or sth
Analysis: st is lE st or sth
Palatals t (th) i th (') oislEo,aorl
Velars or Gutturals k (kh) g gh (9) b is lE b, hh or (medially) dh dislEdordh
Labie-Vdars q. (wh) Cl! gf!h It is lE u or 6 (in extensions), o is lE 0, a or ,
Sibilants , «) Liquids , or a late fill-vowel la is lE la

'" •
[um is lE wm (finally)
Semivowels I • I r
The bracketed phonemes are held to occur in association with other
The phonemes common to both languages provide the reconstruction
-st(h)adlulom,d or -st(h)6dluwm,ll. For this example no known
phonemes, and lE *11, *1), and *t are without separate history. The language provides the clue to the vowel ofthe first syllable, and it is
groups -ph, etc., occur most commonly after initial -s. therefore advisable to write -4 to r epresent 'lE -a or -/. The group
VOWELS -sth~ ' can be inferred from the Sanskrit verbal root -stlul- 'stand',
hence the most satisfactory reconstruction is lE - sth4dlulom,a.
Short at; 0 u 6 (t. If)
Diphthongs ai tj oi li or 4i; au tU ou 6U or 4u
the sounds of any given language may be affected by sentence-
CENTUM LANGUAGES AND SAT;)M LANGUAGE S position, degree of stress, consonant-grouping, taboo,~olk-etymology,
and other factors; such incidental influences give rue to 'by-laws'
5. The languages of Northern Europe (Baltic and Slavonic), which may considerably modify the expected pattern. Thus despite
together with Albanian, Armenian, and to some extent Sanskrit, the correspondence of German Htim and English home, Stein and
distinguish the palatal sounds postulated for lE as "r, "1 and ·gh sto1l4, Eithe and oak, Ttil and dou, German tin corresponds (a) to
from the velars "", "g, and "gh. Since these languages represent the English 0114, (b) to English a, an, and (c) to the first part of English
word for 'hundred' with an initial 1-, s, -or i- (Albanian and Armenian on-9' Here we have twO important deflections from the expected
alone lack the word), they have come to be called sa/im languages
after its Iranian form (sat1l1f, related to Lith. Jimt4r: Latv. .nmts: norm.
OCz. sto: OPer. sata) . By contrast, the languages of Southem Europe 8. But rhymes are on the whole more frequent than non-rhymes,
(Latin and Greek), together with Celtic, Germanic, Hittite, and and here, by way of example, is a table illustrating the reflexes of
Tokharian, do not indicate whether the prototype-word for 'hun- lE .ai/oi in four languages. The more distant the relationship
dred' contained lE "If or lE ·k, and are accordingly called tentum between the languages, the fewer are the correspondences.
languages after the Latin form of the word. The minimum require- Indo~European ·ai/oi
ment for a valid lE reconstruction is generally a form from a sahm ENGLISH M. SCOTS OERMAN oc.
language and a form from a tentum language. Occasionally four or MU dad Teil dJI.
more forms have to be compared jn order to deduce the prototype.
6. T he I ndo-European languages which provide the essential data
hoel ""I &lIb
for reconstruction are as follows: ba'"
boe. Bein
(a) Baltic, Slavonic, and other sabm languages, which supply ,ak oel Eithe
the evidence for the presumed palatals ·E, .g, and ·gh. moan
(b) Latin, Greek, and Sanskrit, which supply the evidence for do<
the aspirates "hh, ·dh, "gh/gh, and ·C1Ih. fa< foe
(c) Latin, Brythonic, and Hittite (with Greek and Armenian),
which supply the evidence for the labiovclars .911, .g1', VOWEL GRADATION (VOWEL ApOPHONv)
and .g,p,.
(d) Latin, Greek, and Celtic, which supply the evidence for 9. The Indo-European languages are characterised by a system in
lE "0 as distinct from lE ·a. which the internal vowel of a word may be changed while the
Armenian alone provides evidence for both palatals and aspirates, surrounding consonants remain unaltered. This alternation of
thus Arm. d<.mn 'hand' can be derived only from lE "gher~ (not vowels is known as vowel gradation, or vowel apophony (G. Ablaut).
from • ghtr- nor from • gtr-). Armenian sometimes suppLies the The commonest of these fluctuations is that from e to 0 with the
evidence for lE ·0 (if originally in a stressed position, as in orb occasional occurrence offorms from which the vowel has disappeared
'orphan') and for "qll as in k'arra- 'four'. altogether. The three grades are represented in the English strong
7. The most convincing indication of kinship between languages is verb sing, sang, and sung respectively. (See §75)· .
the fact that owing to the almost mechanical operation of sound-laws Another vowel gradation series of common occurrence ID the lndo-
a rhyme pattern emerges; the more closely the languages are related European languages is one which gave rise to the vowels of the
the greater the number of rhymes. It should be said, however, that English strong verb take, took, and the noun-pair grave, groove.
US-, u-declension: persons and objects with function; u-declension
GRAMMATICAL GENDER IN INDO-EuROPEAN (also) liquid substances (grammatical nominative not dis-
10. Grammatical gender has evolved on similar lines in many of the tinguished).
derived languages of Indo-European origin. Gender was not
primarily related to sex, but rather to function and aspect, and the THE VERBAL PATTERN OF INDO-EUROPEAN
three grammatical categories masculine, feminine, and neuter
12. From the complex pattern ofmoom and tenses in the derived
merely indicate the way in which folklore has rationalized function
languages a scheme emerges which emphasizes aspect rather than
and aspect by emphasizing their main attributes. Chief of these are
tense. Since few, if any, verbal notions are capable of displaying all
the IUtilJf role attributed to the male (hence the 'masculine' gender of
the possible aspects, it is difficult to illustrate them from the inflec-
the words for 'fire' and 'rain'). and the passil!l role attributed to the
tions of anyone lE verb. Differences of aspect are sometimes illus-
female (hence the 'feminine' gender of the words for 'earth, night'.
trated by the association of two distinct verbs, as for instance Latin
etc.) . Single isolated objects of active function are deemed 'mascu-
JerD and tuli, Greek q,lpw and l1"EYKo". In English the verb 'to carry'
line'. whereas parts of objects. receptacles, and things without out-
is purely descriptive, while 'to bring' denotes an act without reference
line or shape are considered 'feminine'.
to the manner of its performance. Thus it appears that a verbal
11. The distribution of the lE declensions was broadly as follows: category in Indo-European is distinguished by the manner of an
os-declension: isolated objects; objects with active function; objects operation rather than by any notion of time. In the following scheme
which are the results of acts. an attempt is made to show how the aspectual mechanism works.
om-declension: objects (the grammatical nominative not dis- Examples are drawn from Latin, Greek, Sanskrit, Old Czech, and
tinguished). Lithuanian.
If-declension: objects with passive or negative function; objects
without definite shape; hollow objects and containers; lands and 13. THR ASPECTUAL SCHEM.E
countries; some parts of the body; birds which are hunted. EXAMPLES
chased, or bred; some insects, tools, substances; collectives;
qualities. un-(o/t) durative-progressive fer" = q,EPW = bhdrami = beru;
jos-, ~m-, j4-decleruioru: attributive tenus, fonnerly adjectives or vehfJ = vdluImi = vezu; aTlvw;
possessives. Myw; p..lvw; W(.TOp..o.l.
"n/ m-declension: objects and acts associated with or derived from un-(mi) present absolute sum = E:iJ-l = dsmi = jsem.
other objects and acts. leni- intenruttent aTe:lvw; meru; fdu; feno; wlauw.
mtJ-decleruion: verbal-nouns with med.io-passive sense. ltli~ instant present capiD; rapiD; veniD; {jatllw; 8cfit~w;
mtlt-decleruion: collective objects (grammatical nominative not {3cf)')'w.
l8allOv; IftaAov; EZSOII (·e-ltidom);
distinguished) .
er-declension: family relationships.
'p- instant past
Is/os-declension: durative or pennanent notions (grammatical "M- instant future, future- K£llTEW; K'"EW; aTEplW; moveD;
nominative not distinguished). present blu; Ep..lw = Li. vemiu.
is-declension: creatures and objects of common gender; parts or existent ('verbs of mane"; IuJbeo; caleD; paleD; laUD;
'ot- valeD; tlleju; rubeD = rdlju si;
derivatives oflargcr objects. Nouns in -tis denote acts or results state')
of acts. faveD = Iwvlju.
tin· completed or final dpi; 'em£; veni; IfJTJII; sldi; 19ij
co-ipi; m~Di; scab!; ldi = Skt.
ada (but Lith. Imiaf1, skohiaa,
Idtiau, etc.) .
tm/- static sede~ = sez:.u~sedlti.; vide6 = Diz:.u.
Didlti; kiu·ldlti; trpiu, trplti. II
Un4j- progressive, iterative sldare = sidati; tlkoti.
11",- incompleted vixi; traxi; flu.xi; mansi; foxi; SLAVONIC AND
E1I".\t"vua = pltu:h; dixi = 18H,a. THE WESTERN SLA VS
unsl- inceptive-progressive criscO; gnosco; Piisc" = pasu; disc6;
hisc6 = XauKoo.
14. The Slavonic group of languages occupies a position inter-
un-nu- instant-mutative apllvp.w; 8pllvIU = ronu-ronuti
mediate between the Germanic languages in the west, the Baltic
= .n:Wmi.
languages (Lithuanian and Latvian) in the north, and a lost group
tltln- localized, intensive gign6 = yiyvop.at; sist6 = tOTTJIJ.t;
sid6 = t{0f'4'i 8l8oop.'; p.lpovoo;
, ,
WXOO; '"t1T1'ooj'TUC'TOO.
of languages in the south-east, of which Scythian was no doubt one.
The earliest southern neighbours of the Slavonic languages can only
be inferred, but as Slavonic is in the sabm language-group it is dis-
tdon- resultant .\(.\0'11"0..
tinct from the Mediterranean types of Indo-European, represented
tlnt/i. (I) habitual (I) IIVK'T£pEOoo, cf. nociju~nocluati;
in the main by Latin and Greek, to which it bean an equally close
q,vmJoo = u-bytouati.
(li) functional (2) ·O"Ttynloo (OTtYE"Us) = sle-
Iwvatij 130.0'4.\(.)00; panovati; 15. Slavonic is held by some to show a closer affinity to Baltic
krallvati. (Lithuanian, Latvian, and Old Prussian) than to other groups of
tonij (I) factitive (I) moneo; doceo; t/>ofJEoo; (~ wiu languages. This assertion is supported by the similarity of the
-(po~)loliti; vrdcu-vrdtiti. Baltic and Slavonic declension patterns (though that of Lithuanian
(li) frequentative (2) OXioo = volu.vociti; t/>oploo; is considerably the more archaic), and by some close coincidences of
noIu-nositi. vocabulary (thus OCz. prst: Lith. pirItas 'finger'; OCZ. nesu: Lith.
un/ tondj (I) denominative (I) flmdre = djrnati; lIiKaoo; nelll 'I carry'; OCz. /Mdu: Lith. ",dll 'I lead'). Moreover cognate
'Tip..4.oo; arare = vrati. words which are otherwise widely documented bear Slavonic
(li) ejaculative (2) murmurare; ovare = Wd{oo; meanings which are closer to those of Lithuanian and Latvian, while
uluLire; tondre; mlare = 'eh- their counterparts in Latin are closer in meaning to Celtic. Thus
tati; stonati; volati. OCz. mina 'change': Lith. mainas 'change', but Lat. milnus 'gift':
lonli- denominative ?ToMooj 1I"OpEoo; potitij po-hlliti Olr. moln 'gift'. Similarly OCz. tur 'bison': Lith. lailras 'bison', but
= glutire; O'T04XEoo = stiliti. Lat. taurus 'bull' : Olr. larh 'bull' .
tonii (I) denominative /wstire = po-Iwstili; O"TO'X"oo. 16. Again, Slavonic and Baltic display modifications of verbal
(2) ejaculative grunnire; IIJitofili. aspect by means of prefixes, and both groups have a distinct adjective
tonuj- denominative 8alCpow; p.(90oo; statu6; u-mrtIJiti. declension with a pronoun as suffix. On the other hand Slavonic and
ton·n- adjectival '\aYYEoo; (Go.) waknan; (Go.) Baltic display dissimilar patterns of conjugation; indeed, the
follnan; moknUti. Lithuanian future tense has its counterpart in Greek, Armenian, and
lodo-Iranian, and the past tense is similar in some ways to the Latin . 5. ·berdb, ·beretb. berefi, bereh;..
perfect and the Albanian aorist. 6. ·oblh, ·pblm., ·-CbrnD, DI?J:b, pl'bttb, Q'bnD, SI1I'6rtb (but
17. Common features beyond theanes cited above are found in other ·SI7Ibrtb. the Ostromir Gospels have
grou~ of languages besides Slavonic and Baltic. Similarity of oblh. etc.).
vocabulary is a criterion of little value. Lith. DilV41 'God', f!fttu 7. ·grbdJc, ·ordlo. gr&lo, raiD.
'man', slntll 'old', and Ilaunu 'buttock' have cognates in Latin but 8. ·jlda (or ·'da). jada.
not in Slavonic, whereas DOz. fldova 'widow'. hos, 'guest'. d4m 2:1. Serious objections to a postulated Common Slavonic are (a) the
'house', and w(.!'middle path' have cognates in Latin but not in unverifiable forms ·velk-, ·volk-, ·"",.t-, .oort-, etc., within the
Lithuanian. Slavonic period, and (b) the uncertain prehistoric value of some
18. The Slavonic languages, with their sharply-defined. well- clusters of consonants, palatalized in recorded Slavonic. such as are
preserved hut complex grammar, show a high degree of basic found in the words for 'night' and 'thing' (OCS noItb beside OCz.
similarity. The number of declensions has been multiplied because of noe; Des l!iJtb beside OCz. oIe). Moreover the true representation of
modifications to consonants and vowels within the 'Slavonic' period the vocalic consonants .J and ·r is in some doubt. Otherwise the
of evolution. There are six cases, a vocative, and a dual number, the adjustments required for postulated Common Slavonic are minor
last having all but disappeared from some of the Slavonic language! ones based on the evidence oflanguages that exist today or in records
spoken today. The conjugation system of Slavonic has been con- of the past.
siderably simplified within historical times; the older languages of 22. The following passage is designed to give some idea of a Slavonic
the group possessed three types of aomt, an imperfect and a present language (Czech) in terms of its common vocabulary with Latin.
tense, with an inflectedjussive-imperative. All other tenses are com- Inflections do not always agree.
pounded from auxiliary verbs and participles, or are formed from
the present tense with the addition of an aspectual prefix. A movable Vdooa[a]mdt' sedt 0 doml. Vidua [etJ m4ter sethnt in dOfflll.
stress, and the existence of at least two tones are factors which have Vdooa fije; mdfpleu. Vidua suit; main pltctit.
had some influence on the shaping of Slavonic grammar. Vdooa ntU vid!. Vidua nDs oitkt.
Jejl sestra stojl [u] ohM a pele Eius soror slat [anteJ ignemre~,oqllit
:19. Since Old Church Slavonic (OCS), the oldest Slavonic lan- pro ambdbus.
pro obl.
guage, antedates Old Czech (DOz.) by only !wo years there is no
Ohm<!jmJ. IgnisjUmat.
need to cite forms from both languages unless Des shows some dis- Doa bratn sekajl housera v 111)01 DuD jratrh secant {h)an.rerem in
tinctive feature not to be found in OCz. An archaic feature ofOCS, novD stabulD.
for instance. is its nasal vowels, which have disappeared from 002.
71eH "ratr ord; lturtj, !tm4n4f, Tertius jrdter orat; quartus, simi-
20. The basic uniformity of Slavonic makes it sometimes desirable vete trnl;!kvef je mele. tulriw, vehit grana; levir ea mdlit.
to postulate a Common Slavonic (ComSl) for items of grammar or Pdtj bratr jest sedldf. QJlintwfrater est sellarius.
vocabulary that can be covered by a single formula. DCS diffen Sest) braJr, bradatj,jest pastjf. Sextus/rllter, barM/us, esl pdstor.
from this postulated basic pattern as follows: Tdta jejieh by[1] vlnaf,. nynl jest Tata eDrumjUil Idndriw; nun[eJ est
I • • velk-,
volk-; ·vert-, vorl-. vllk-, vlak-; vrlt-, vrat-. Veler jsou bratn doma. Vesperi suntjratrls domi.
2. ·kuPjp, ·ljubjp, ·slovjp, ·m'bmjp. kupljp,ljubljp, slovljp, m'bmiip. Md! Md/dla [a] nil, [a] dd j. Mater firt ediilium [et] !lil, [etJ dot
3. ·vorljp, ·medja. vraItp, metda. bralffm [a] sestrdm. eojrdtribus [et] sorQribw.
4· ·i6g0. ,go. Vlrujestdllmpln liooM. VtrD est domus pllM vittU.
14, l E .j arter labials as in Lat. vindlmia: OCz. ztml, Srh.
SLAVONIC LANGUAGE Other features of Czech are vowel-length, which is quantitative,
23. The distinctive features of Czech can be illustrated by comparing not tonal, a nd the formative prefixes !!Y- a nd V4- which are a bsen t
them with their equivalenu in Serbian (Southern Slavonic) and from Serbian.
Russian (East Slavonic) respectively.
t. lE *f~, *iJl as in Lith. !vairyti, lvaigldl: OCz. Iwlt; hvl{da, SLAVON I C LANGUAGES
5rb. coel; {De{da, R. cvlt-ok; {vl{da 'flower; star'.
2. lE .tj, ·dj, *dhj as in Lat. dillOTtium, odium, media, ruhia: OCZ. 24. The features which distinguish Czech from iu western Slavonic
theuj r.cl, Srb. cUi rdJa, R. thoro; rla 'I wish; rust'. neighbours, Slovak, Lusatian, and Polish, are fewer than those which
3. lE *kti as in Lat. nolli-, Lith. naktis: OCz. not, Srb. noc, R. distinguish it from Southern and Eastern Slavonic. The uniform
nol/) 'night'. stressing of the first syllable of words is shared with Slovak and
4· lE ·,ai, *ar, *01, *or, and another consonant, as in Lat. s(Jllere, Lusatian, where also monosyllabic prepositions containing a vowel
pullus (adj.), barba, Lith. saidUs, paluas, bar~dd: OCz. slad; hrad, Srb. are stressed as if fonning part of the following word. The lengthen-
si&!, grad, R. sO/od; gorod 'malt; fortified town'. ing of masculine nouns in the nominative singular (OCz. koff,
5· lE *el, er and another consonant as in Gk. 8EA,pVs, Lat. vo.c) is also a feature of Polish and of Carpathian Ukrainian. Two
vertebra: OCz. lUb, llab; uflteno, 5rb. lub; DTeteno, R. lOlcb; vmteru} forms of the lE semivowel .J are distinguished in Cz. (pIn, dluh)
'trough; spindle'. and in Polish (pelrry, dlug), but not in Slovak (pIn, dlh). Polish, how-
6. lE vocalic *1 (a) as in Lat. liiM, (b) as in Lat. indulge6: OCz. ever,like Russian, distinguishes two forms of vocalic ·1 (smierc, targ;
vIno; dluh, Srb. vUM (wool); dug, R. vointJ (wave); dolg 'wave or R. smertb, torg), while Czech and Slovak do not (srnrt, trh; smrt', trh).
wool; debt'. Czech shares with Slovak the distinction of long and short vowels;
7· lE vocalic ·r (a) as in Lat. granum, (b) as in Lat. fumus: OCz. long vowels sometimes coincide with Eastern Slavonic stressed
{rno; hrn-ec, 5rb. {rno; grn-ac, R. {erno; gorn (furnace) 'grain; pot'. vowels, short vowels with Serbian slurred vowels. Unique Czech
8. lE initial *al, *ar, *01, *or and another consonant, as in Lat. features are the fronting of fonner nasal vowels before e, i, I, J, or "
armus, orbus, Lith. alkuni. Cr. 4. OCz. lokd; rami ; r04-, Srb. lakat; and of a by a precedingJ (iotacism). Hence OCz. pit 'five' (cr. Skt.
rame; ra{-, R. ldkotb; rameno; ra4- 'elbow; shoulder; apart'. panJctiM beside pal} 'fifth' (Gk. TTfP.TTTOS), a modification similar in
g. lE. initial *a and *e followed by *e/i as in Lith. Ueras, Gk. cause and origin to German 'Umlaut' . Again, SlavonicJa appears as
AX'pwlI: OCz.Je.cero, Srb.Je.ceTO, R. o4ero 'lake' . jl, I when final (moJI duIl), with prepalatalization when internal
10. lE *ker, *ler, *ser before another consonant as in Lat. (stiUh',abylej, and initially when e,l, i,J, or' occur in the following
tertdmen, Gk. K/p8os, KfPIIOS, Lith. kerpiJ, lerd/.s: OCZ. Iflp; stfld, syllable as in JltJl beside javo; In beside Jaro; jlsnl beside Jamj. OCz.
Srh. crtp; md, R. l/rep; sered-ina 'sherd; middle'. I, a dental r, is a product of lE *ri, -ri, and corresponds historically
11. lE ·dhI after *r and vowels: OCz. hrdlo; sddlo, Srb. gr1o; saio,
to Polish r.c and Lusatian , (phonetically = l) .
R. gorlo; solo 'throat; lard'.
1.2: lE *i in monosyllables and extensions, as in Gk. >.tIlOV, Lat.
tafnhum: OCz.ien, kOnJ!c, Srb. ion, konac, R. lin, konec 'flax; end'.
13· lE *u in monosyllables and extensions . as in Gk. U'IfVOS,
Lat. angulus: OCz. sen; uhd, 5rh. san; ugao, R. son; ilgol 'dream;
These conclusions are confirmed by Latin, where the cognate forms
[_ ], duae, grdnum, and jugum show una5pirated consonant!.
The Conunon Slavonic phonemes x/I (Czech ch/I) represent
lE -s in the presence of lE -u/il or after lE -I. Otherwise they are
III derived from a group ofconsonanu (cf. OOZ. muchati and Eng. mU).
Old Czech modifies the simple Common Slavonic consonant! as
THE CONSONANTS OF OLD CZECH follows: CornS!. g, C, rb : OCz. h, ~, f.

25. The simple consonantal system of Czech differs little from that 21. THE UNVQICED PLOSIVES
of Common Slavonic, which bean the following relationship to the IE'p > Oc..p
lE system: pro 'for': Lat. pro: Eng.jor. lE -pro beside -Pro.
lE .P. t, t, Jr., qr; ComSI.: p, I, I, k, " with poai- po 'after': Gk. a,7TO 'from': Eng. off. lE -apo.
tional variants land c (=ts) . lE -t > OCz. ,
lE ·0, d, I, g. gr; } CornS!.: h, d, 1;, g. g with posi- ry 'thou' : Lat. la: Eng. ,hou. lE -ta.
lE ·bh, dll, ih, gh, gllh tional variants l and ~ ( - dt) . tfi4 'three': Lat. trls: Eng. three. lE -trejes.
lE ·1, r, rn, ", I, (z), i. '" Com.S1: l, r, m, n,!, (.,j, v. lE -r > OCz . .r
26. From the above table it will be seen that the lE aspirates and sto 'hundred': Lat. centum: Eng. hunt/-red. lE -l'1ltom.
labio-velars are not differentiated, and that CornS!. s represents both (milo-)srdu 'mercy': Lat. (miseri-)cordia. lE -lldijom, lldip.
IE·l and lE -K. For distinguishing these two phonemes Lithuanian lE -k > OCZ. k before -a, 0, u, a, 0, Ii, and certain consonanu; l
is a useful ally, since this language represents lE ·1 by S (sldtti 'to before -e, i,l, i, j; c before -ai, oi, aj, oj
sit'), but lE *£ by 1 (!ifiltas 'hundred'). Reference to Latin, Greek, kopec 'hill': Pal. Iwpuc 'mound': Lat. capitium 'peak, bonnet' (cf.
Germanic, Sanskrit, or Armenian is essential for determining which It. cappuccio ' head of cabbage' beside Sp. cabeVl 'head') . lE
phonemes of thc Slavonic series b, d, ~,g, and g were once aspirated. -ko,pitjq- beside -kaputi,o-.
English, Dutch, Low German, Frisian, and Old Norse indicate, Iwpu 'kick, dig': Gk. K01M"W 'hit'. lE -Iwp-.
without expressing, which of the corresponding consonanu were aio 'forehead', cf. Lith. keiti 'raise', and Lat. ex-u1l6 'stand out'.
aspirated, for in this event they are identical with Slavonic. English lE -kel-.
however shows the velar and palatal aspirates variously as g,)" and Umefiu 'sneezewort': OHG lumna 'sneezewort': Lith. kemeras
w. Thus OCz. berw and Eng. blaT point to lE -bh; OCZ. dlvi and 'hemp agrimony'. lE -kemer-.
Eng. door point to lE -dh; OCz. alju and Eng. yawn point to lE -Jh; dl-j 'whole': Ger. Mil: Eog. whok. lE -kailos.
OCz. host (CornS!. gostb) and Eng. gunt point to lE -gh. Aspiration ruel 'to the hand' : Lat. hraTl&tu 'to the paw' (Walde-Hofmann,
in these words is confirmed by further reference to Latin J where the LAteinisches etymologiscMs WOrterbuch). lE -lIran.taj.
cognate forms are f ero, forls,hi6, andhO$tis respectively. On the other lE -1Jll > OCZ. k before -a, 0, u, a, 6, a, and certain consonant! ; f
hand English, Dutch, etc. indicate which of the Slavonic sounds before -e, i, I, i, j; c before -ai, oil aj, oj
were not aspirated in lE, since they show p, t, k, and k (Eng. c) for kteTj 'which': Gk. 1fonpos: Eng. wluther. lE -q1JfJteros.
lE -b, -d, -I, and -g respectively. Thus OCz. vdbiu and Eng. wtep It'whose', cr. Lat. quius, cuius. lE -qlliios or 91140$,
point to lE -h; OCz. dvl and Eng. two point to lE -d; OCz. z rno and elna 'price': Gk. 1fOtV~ 'ransom, bride-pricc': Lith. kdina 'price'.
Eng. corn point to lE-I, and OCz.jho and Eng.yoke point to lE -g. lE -qfiOina.
stlliti 'bring': Gk. flTO'X€W 'move in battle order'. lE ·stoightio.
28. THE VOICED PLOSIVES polozi 'to position': Lith. palagai 'to an erected weather-shield',
lE *b > OCz. b lE ·upo·loghiij.
blabtati, blbotan 'twaddle, rave': Lat . .balbutire 'stammer': Arm. stzi 'footpath', cr. Gk. flTlXES' 'lines' and Lett. stigo 'path':
PrNam 'bubble'. Cf. Skt. Balbillha~ (a man's name). lE OE stige 'ascent'. lE ·stigluIi.
*6, [b1t-, • h11huI-. lE .g}!h > OCz. h before .0, 0, u, a, 0, il, and certain consonants; l
lE *d > QCz. d before *e, e, i, i, 1; z before ·ai, oi, di, Di
dvl 'two, f.': Lat. duae: Eng. two. lE *dlPi. mieh 'snow' (snlhovj 'snowy': Lat. niv-eus 'snowy'): Eng. SMW. lE
dualy 'tenth': Gk. 8ll<(l1'os: Eng. tithe. lE *dtK1]Itos. snoig/lh-.
lE ·1 > OCz . .t hovlli 'favour': Lat.fovere. lE ·g/lMJr.
Q1kl 'grain': Lat. granum: Bng. corn. lE *ifnAm. tEla 'vein': Lith. gjsla id.: Latv. dzisla 'vein, sinew': Arm. Ail
,{,It' 'son-in-law': Lat. gens, gentis 'tribe', cf. Bng. kith. lE *jentis, 'nerve, sinew': Lat.filum 'thread'. lE *g/lhisla.
CV tis .
lE *g > OCZ. h before *a, 0, U, a, 11, il, and certain consonants; I
29. THE LIQ.utDS
before *e, i, i, i, i; <:: before -ai, oi, ai. 6j
jlw 'yoke': Lat.jugum: Eng.yoke. lE *jugdm. lE ·1 > OCz.I
luna 'moon': Lat. lilna: cf. Av. raoxlno 'bright' . lE ·10uksn4.
l~ju, bdti 'chew': Bng. duw. lE ·giau-,
rod 'horns': Lith. ragai, cf. Bng. raJu. lE ·rogDi. rE ·r > OCz. r
rodj 'red': Lat. riifw: Eng. red. lE *roudhos.
ho.ci 'gods', er. Skt. bhdgai) 'lord': Av. bayo 'god', lE *bhdgoi,
lE -Cl' > OCz. h before *a, 0, U, a, 11, ii, and certain consonants, l
before · e, I, i, i, j; z before ·ai, oi, ai, oj
hav-ld' 'beast': Lat. bOs 'ox': Eng. cow. lE ·g/lo/l-. IE·m > OCz. m
mole 'sea': Lat. mare: Eng. mere. lE *mllri-.
tlltti 'suffer': Gk. 87}Mop.a, 'hurt, am harmful': Ger. qulilen
'torment'. lE ·gf!ll-. IE·n > OCz. n
noc 'night': Lat. nox, nocti!: Eng. night. lE *noktis.
lE ·bh > OCz. b 30. THE SEMIVOWELS
beru 'I take': Lat.fn o: Eng. bear. lE ·bhno. lE·j >OCz.j
bdti, baju 'relate': Lat.fori 'say': Gk. ~7}p.l 'say'. lE ·bluI-. jho 'yoke': Lat.jugum: Eog.yoke. lE ·jug6m.
lE .dh > OCz. d lE ./1 > OCz. v
dfui 'door': Lat. forlr: Eng. door. lE ·dhy,fejts. vdova 'widow': Lat. vidua: Eng. widow. lE ·/lidluf!.a.
ddl'hollow, valley': Gk. DOMS' 'hollow, dome': Eng. dale. lE *dlwl-. For lE ·1, r see §§ 88, 8g. For .1(1, tl see §§ 69, 70.
lE ·Ah > OCz. Z
vezu 'I convey': Lat. veM: Eng. wtigh. lE ·J.U!AhO.
,dma 'winter': Lat. hitmS: Gk. 'X"rp.a.. lE ·gluim-.
lE .gh > OCz. h before ·a, 0, u, 0,0,11, and certain consonants; l lE *s > OD:. s, but chi! in the presence of *u, il, and after */
before · e, I, i, i, j; z before ·ai, oi, ai, oi sedlo 'saddle': Lat. sella: Eng. settle. lE · sed-dhlom, a, ·sedlom, d.
host 'guest': Lat. /wsti! 'stranger, enemy': Eng. glUst. lE ·ghosti!. uJi 'ears' (dual): Lat. auris : Eng. ears. lE ·ous-.

such) 'dry'; Lith. sausas: Bng. sear. lE ·stIusos. lE *t~ls; -t{lu" This equation is supported by that of oes
my/'mouse': Lat. miis: Eng. moust'. lE *miis. linb 'thong': Lat.fonu 'rope' < lE t{lin- (I), and by the equation
jUcha 'soup, sauce': Lat.jiis 'soup'. lE ·ias., of Gk. uivOfl(U 'perish': OE pwinan, id.: Lat. flnw 'death',
splch 'haste': Lat. spls. lE .spes-. lE .t{lin- (2) 'die'. Note that lE ·I{l > OCz. tv before a, a, and
semivowels (tllOnti, tvrdj, etc.).
Misti beside brdu 'wade',
CONSONANT GROUPS visti beside vedu. 'lead'.
vieste 'know ye'. lE ·{loidte.
slast 'sweetness' beside sladk} 'sweet'.
lE ·Pt, pn, ps; -ht and *bht, *bn and *bhn; *mn r6st 'growth' beside rad 'kind'.
nef, nt ttf, gen. sing.: rutefe 'niece': Lat. neptis: Skt. naPti~ beside cud 'foreign', a Genoanic loanword, er. Goth. Piudisks 'Genoan',
nopm!}. 'grand-daughter': OLith. neptland mptis, id. lE ·ruptis, bfl;:,ie 'fertile', er. Lat.forda. lE *bher-did.
*nepter-. mezl 'baulk': Lat. media: Eng. mid. lE ·medhp.
vasa 'wasp': Lat. vlspa: Lith. vapsvd: Eng. wasp. lE ./lops4 ven 'out'; radical in Skt. ud· 'up-, out-', cf. also DE iltan ·outside'.
(< *lIobhsii). lE ·u.dn-.
os-ika 'aspen': Wel. aethnen: Eng. aspen. lE *apsn6, -en-. vlna 'dowry': Gk. 18voII 'bride.price': OE weatuma 'dowry'. lE
sen 'sleep. dream': Gk. ihrvoso. lE ·supnos. .{ledrpno-, ·{ledno•.
Cr. for loss ofp the pairs topitij tonuti 'drown'; kapati j kanuti 'drip', vjml 'udder' contains *iidh-, cf, Gk. oiJ9ap : Lat. iiber 'udder', lE
and z-trnuti 'be dumbfounded': Lat. torpto: Lith. tirpstu. *iidhmQ.
The verb skUsti (beside skubu) 'tug' and the noun doo 'bottom' raslu 'grow' beside rad 'kind', cf. Du. (umun 'grow' . lE *ordhsf-.
seem to show loss of b; the reconstruction of dno however is un-
certain in view of the conflicting evidence (Lith. dugnas, Latv.
dibens 'bottom', and Olr. doman are all equally possible cognates,
though unrelated inter se). lE ft, Its, and sfi gt and ght
tnu 'cut': Gk. T'aflllW beside T"flIlW, id.: Olr. tamnaim 'lop': Lat. os 'axle': Lat. axis. lE *aJtsis.
temno 'despise' (for the semantic analogy cr. Olce!. sndJa 'cut; pasu 'tend': Lat. pllsco. lE *ptis"o.
sneer at, ignore') . lE. -t,pno, temrW . mast 'ointment' beside mtlZati 'smear'.
See further under Sibilant Groups § 36, s"-.
lE -tt, ti, i{l; dt and -dht; -dst and -dhst; *di and *dhi; *dn and
-dhn; -dhst lE -M, !wel !ri, kstJe, qf!.S
skjsti beside skytu 'proffer'. mlch 'bellows': Lith. mdi!as 'bag': Ir. maou 'bag': Olcel. mrus 'box,
Cisti beside ftu 'count, read'. basket'. lE ·rnoiksas.
vrdcu 'return', cr. Lat. di-vartium. lE *(lorti -. mlicl'midge', cf. Lat. mwca 'fly' and Sp. mosquito. lE (OCz. type)
tU 'yew': Lith. tl!isas, id. lE *t{lis-. ·muksitp.
tichj 'silent', cr. Gk. Ut'W7T7) 'silence' ( = OCz. *ticho-oka1i short OCz. ch· possibly embodies a merged prefix (·Its?) followed by
vowel in Olcel. Pwis! 'silence!' probably also Lat. for 'thief'. lE *k, er. OCZ. chovati 'keep, hide' and Lat. (ex·)caveo; chopin
'seize' and Lat. (ex· )cipio beside capi~ . Cr. however Ietfiti lE • ski, skr
'watch, care' and Skt. qatram 'dominion, rule': Av. xla8T'1m, id., chlUd'stick,log': Lith. sklanda 'bolt, bar, pole': ONor. slanta 'bolt,
xla8ri.s 'mistress of house' and Hitt. sxassaras, id. lE ·hjelr- (?) . taper'. lE .sklondos, 4.
c/wt' 'desire': Po!. chp, id.: Arm. xand, id.: Bret. chwant, id.: Mlr. Dual representation of lE ·skr· appears in chftJdtWti 'wither' and
saint, id. lE ·WSanJis. in skfehtati 'squeal', for which the reasons are not clear.
c"yba" 'waver, sway', er. Skt. kfuMytImi 'sway'. lE .huM-, ·lcsubh-. lE ·sk before ·a, 0, U, etc. ; lE ·sk before ·e, i, ai, oi, etc.
chvlju si 'tremble' : Du. zwtuUtn 'sway'. lE ·ksJ!li~ or ·sqllii~. skop 'wether'; Lith. skapas 'eunuch': Arm. xo 'ram', cf. Gk.
lie 'harness': Gk. #AtOV beside ljIaAtOII: Olce!. seli 'harness'. lE O'K07T£Ms 'cliff'. lE ·skop-.
qllJelio-, p. IlJp 'graft, cutting': Lith. skiepas, id.; Gk. O'KOL7T0S' 'rafter' or
lE ·kt and .qJlt sim. lE "'skoipos.
pletu,pllsti 'weave, knit': Lat. plecto, id.: Ger.fleehlm, id. lE ·plekt6. lE ·skh before ·a, 0, u, etc.; lE ·skh before" i, ei; lE .skh before
pot 'sweat': We!. (a5!Iimilated) poeth 'hot'. lE ·poqlltos. ·ai, oi
lE ·kti, qllti, ghti, etc. sMla 'gap, chink': Gk. O'Xa'Ms 'cleft stick'. lE "'skluIl-.
mu 'night': Lat. TIOX, noctis, id.: Eng. night. lE ·noktis. list} 'pure, clear': Latv. lkists, id., cf. with short vowel Gk. O'XlO'TOf>
peci 'bake', pee 'oven': Gk. '1T'I/J~f> 'cooking'. lE ·peqlJtj·. 'separate': Lat. scissus 'cut': Skt. a-lhittal} 'un-cleft'. lE "'skhidt-
moci 'be able', moc 'power': Eng. might. lE ·moghli-. > •sHist· (skhidt· > skhist-) .
Early loanworos embody this feature, thus locika ' lettuce' from tiediti 'sift, purify': Latv. skaidit 'water down, sift': Lith. skaidyti
Lat. lactilea. 'analyse'. lE ·skhoid(h) •.
lE .fqJI
36. SIBILANT GROUPS chvojlfir-branches': Let. skuja, id. lE .sql!oj-.
lE • sph, spl, spr lE .rsn
pro·splju 'succeed': Skt. spluiye 'wax fat, increase'. lE ·sPhli6. lrn} 'black': OPr. kirsnas, id.: Skt. krrodfl, id. lE ·ql!lsnos (i-basis) .
sUQI 'spleen': Gk. 0'7TAl}II, id.: Av. spmVl, id.: Lat. liln, id. lE
pfahu, pfieci 'harness': Lith. sprengiu, ·ti 'stretch out, force open'.
37. lE ·Vl, vr BEFORE A VOWEL

lE ·sprmg., cr. pndnj 'springy' and OCS pre6'b 'grasshopper': No certain Slavonic instances of initial ./lJ. occur, though in view of
MHG spranke, id. lE • sprong•. the equation of Lat. lama 'puddle': Latv. [Qmtl, id.: Lith. lorrui 'low-
lE ·sth, sdh (I;dh), sgh land' and lvILG wlom 'muddy', the loss of lE ·If· in this position
stajl'dwelling.place': Skt. stluiya~ 'station'. lE .stluiios, d. seems probable for Slavonic. For lE "'vr. there is the probable
prost) 'simple, plain': Skt. prastJra~, -am, n. 'plain'. lE ·pro-sthos equation of Rustic Latin brafICa 'paw, limb of tree': OCz. ruka:
(cpd.). Lith. rankd. Cf. a lso fieVluti 'cut': Gk. PWvVf'l 'break'. lE ·/lrig-nu•.
ml;da 'reward': Gk. p.w8tk, id.: Eng. mud. lE ·misdlws, If (fr. ·mit·
d/ws, a).
mo-th 'brain, marrow': Lith. mii{gas 'knot, tangle, bunch, bud':
Gk. p.60'xof> 'bud'. lE "'mosghos. The evidence for initial "'qW· is limited to chvrasten 'shrubby', of
lE "'SK and "'sKi uncertain history. An uncertain lE type "'qJ!4rmos (or "'KllMmOS)
stien 'shade': Ck. O'K1JII~ 'tent'. lE *sKjan-. seems to have given risc to Olcel. /warmr 'eyelid': Gallo-Latin parma
For "'s~- see further under ./Cs-. 'shield': OCz. chram 'church', lit. 'shelter, cover, sanctuary'. Other
assimilations are represented in mdzdra 'membrane'. cf. Lat.
mlmbriina. lE .mbnsTii; m{.(ia 'pay, reward': Gk. J.'~a8o<.;, id. ulti·
mately fr. ·mit-dhos 'fixed return'; po;:.dl 'late' fr. ·pos-dh-; mdslo
'butter' to mazati 'smear'; vulo 'oar' to vb:.ti 'convey'; Itsla 'adze' to
tesatj 'carve' and tIll 'hungry'; Lith. tuJlias 'bare, void': Skt. tuccluJ{I IV
'empty, vain'. etc. See §§ g8, 99. First and Second Palatalizatioru.
Assimilation is represented in feflvy 'burning' « *it,·); dissimila- THE VOWELS OF OLD CZECH
tion in modern Czech lebro 'rib' (OCz. febro), and in jefdb 'crane'
« '(,,-). 39, IE·a > OCz. 0; lE *a followed bye, i > OCz.je initially
moie 'sea'; Lat. mare, id.: Bng. mere. lE *mari-.
os 'axle'; Lat. axis. lE ·aw.
jet;.tTO 'lake': Lith. iltras, id., cf. Gk. AXEPWII 'a river in Epirus'. lE
jelen 'stag': Lith. dlnis, Ilnis, id., cf. Ger. Eltn(titr). lE ·alm·, ·den·.
jedtn 'one', cf. Ok. ciOLVOS' 'massed, in one, together' . lE "adin·.
j esen 'autumn'; Arm. alun, id.; OPr. assanis, id. lE ·asen·.
The loanword jeptiJka « abbatissa) 'nun' shows fronting from
a· to je·.
40. lE "e > OCz. e, initially je, before ·ll > 0
mld 'honey'; Gk. p.iOv 'wine': Eng. mlad. lE ·mldhu.
vt-tU 'convey': Lat. veM: Eng. weigh. lE ·f/egM.
beru 'take': Lat.feTe: Eng. bear. lE ·bherc.
jest 'is': Lat. est: Eng. is. lE "esti.
plow 'flow': Gk. ,"'M.w 'sail', cf. Lat. pluit 'rains'. lE ·plef/e.
slovu 'am called': Gk. IC'M.W 'extol': Lat. clueD, id. lE ·1let;6.
41. lE . j > OCz. e in monosyllables, extensions, and triliteral
clusters; lE ·i appears as a residual palatalization in words
ending in tl, n, and sometimes t (f); it appears as a modification
in final f (dental r); it disappears in other positions
/en 'flax': Gk. ),,[vov, cr. Eng. linen.IE "linos, om.
lest 'cunning' : MEng. list. lE ·listis.
men! 'less': cf. Lat. minus. lE ·min·.
kopt(; 'hill': Pol. kopiec 'mound'; Lat. capitium 'peak', cr. Lith. kapCius
(loanword?) 'mound' and Olce!. hpfhi 'headland'. lE "kapitic-
beside "kaputjo·.
smrt 'death' (a compound), beside mod. mr( 'dead matter': Lat.
mors, mortis; Ger. Mord 'murder'. lE "mrtis.
pa-ml( 'memory' (a compound): Lat. mens, mentis: Bng. mind. lE Cz. ron{m, roniti 'run, drip': Gk. patllw 'shower, sprinkle'. lE ·r,n-.
inofu, mofiti 'kill': Arm. mDrem 'extinguish', marim 'swoon': Ir.
hrut 'guest': Lat. Mstis 'stranger, enemy': Bng. guest. lE ·ghastis. mDirim 'wear out'. lE ·nur-.
rel'rye'; Lith. rugjs, id.: Bng. rye. lE ·ruthis. Cz. lunnolj'mutilated': OHG hamaJ, id., cc. Gaul. camuJa-. lE ·kam;kJS.
kt'lie': Ger. Liige, id.: Eog. lie. lE ·'ughis. The relationship between the vowels of STP 'sickle': Late Lat.
vdoV4 'widow'; Lat. vidua, id.: Eng. widow. lE *Jlidhqa.
sarpa 'billhook'; bIbj 'stupid': Lat. balbus 'stammering'; and krpec
Loanwords behave similarly, thus mIl 'mass' from Lat. missa. 'bast-shoe': Saro. crapitliJ « .carpitja) is due to the Latin representa-
tion of lE ·I,.i before labials, cC. palma, palpare, etc. The isolated aliei!
42. lE .0 > OCz. 0, but 6 (mod. tl) in the nom. and ace. sing. of 'fire': Lat. ignis : Skt. agn(~: Lith. ugnls seems to show a reduced
several monosyllabic masculine nouns vowel of i-type, lE ·ignis. It may be necessary to postulate diverse
ddm, gen. sing.: domu 'house': Lat. domus. lE ·domus. developments of lE shwa [;)] according to the surrounding vowels
"'" 'night': Lat. fUlX, noctis, id.: Eng. night. lE *noktis. and consonants. See §§ 88, 89.
slon 'groan': Gk. O"TOllOS'. id. lE ·stonos.
l E .io appears as e in mofe 'sea', IDle 'bed', cf. Gk. '\'OXtOV 'of THE LONO VOWELS
childbirth' (neut.).
43. lE .u functions like lE *j (q.v.), but does not cause palataliza- 45. IE·d> OCz. a, initially ja-
milti and mdll, gen. sing.: matefe 'mother': Lith. mAtt, gen. sing.: m6ters
'woman': Lat. mater 'mother': Eng. math4r. lE ·matj;, ·mater-.
rdlju si, rdieti si 'blush': Lat. rubto, rubire, id. lE ·rudhli~·
rd 'rust': Lat. rubia 'a plant producing red dye', cf. Eng. ruddy. lE bratr 'brother': Lat.frater: Eng. brotmr. lE ·bhratr-.
a 'but, and, yet': Gk. if 'or': Lith. 0 'but': Skt. d 'also'. lE ·a.
ddvna 'long ago': Gk. S~II 'for a long time'. lE ·ddJ.ln-.
sen 'dream, sleep': Gk. V1TVOS'. lE ·suprws.
kal 'mud': Gk. 1f'l'jAOS' 'clay' . lE ·q/ldlos.
re('rye': Lith. rugjs, id.: Eng. rye. lE ·rughis.
jaJof!j 'vain, haggard, barren': !.ett. alava 'restless cow, barren cow':
let 'lie': Ger. Luge, id.: Eng. ii4. lE ·lughis.
r7Uch 'moss': cf. Lith. milrai, id.: Eng. moss. lE ·musos, oi, beside Gk. ~A£6s 'raving'. lE ·i!etlOl, ·tIhJiOs.
milIos,oi. 46. IE·i > OCz. I, ie; initially j.; after OCz. f, J, t,j > a (but I if
Uhel'angle, corner': Lat. angulus. lE ·angulos or ·anghuIol. e, i,j, ' follow); after lE ·J.li, fJIIi > i
jho 'yoke': Lat.jugum: Eng.yoke. lE ·iug6m. sinnl, gen. sing.: sll7Wl4 'seed': Lat. slmen, id.: Ger. Sdmm, id. lE
tIll 'empty': Lith. lultias, id.: Skt. tucchafi, id. lE ·tuk.rtiOl. ·simO.
Loanwords behave similarly, cf. mest 'must of wine' from Lat. stfllo, 'arrow': Lith. str/la 'shoot, sprout': Latv. strilo, 'streak in
mustum; mnich 'monk' from Greek (via Germanic ·munika.t), cc. cloud': Ger. StrahI 'beam': OE str.il'arrow, dart'. lE ·striios, d.
Milnc/wz. vitra 'faith', vlru 'indeed': Lat. virus 'true', cf. vlro 'indeed': Ger.
wahr. lE ·(liros.
44. lE ." 4 > OCz. 0 Un Clazy': Lat.linis 'smooth' . lE *linis ceasy_going'.
tivet 'life': Lat. vita: Lith. gyvatd, id.: Skt. jivitam: Gk. f3loTos and
~vH 'game animal': Gk. 8~p, id.: Lith. tvlris, id. lE .bhir-.
f31.O'T~. id. lE ·g~i~tos, a, om.
jiem ' I eat': OLith. idmi, id., cf. OCz. jiedlo 'food', Lat. edillium id.
iOlos 'salmon': Lith. iaJiId, id. (with assimilated consonants): Ger.
l E ·id-. '
Lachs, id. lE ·ldK~sos, a.
Ikofu 'hasten': Gk. ClKatpw 'jump' (with epenthetic -i-): Av. Ikar- After f, t
'jump': Bret. Ikara 'run'. lE ·skdr-. fdr 'magic': Late Av. lard 'remedy, means': Per. ltIre; short vowel in
Lith. kiras, kerai 'magic', Gk. -r/pas, a.-ros 'omen, wonder'. miUa, id. Greek l?anwords with v arc represented with y. The i in
lE ·qrJir., ·'lFer-. risiw: 'thousand' is due to assimilation, contrast oes ryspIla.
ill 'sorrow' (umlaut); tillti 'regret' (umlaut): Gk. 81jA€oJL«lo 'harm':
Ger. Q;uil 'torment': quiiun 'to torment'. lE .gIjiJ•. TaE DIPHTHONGS
After ·1-li. ·qf.li 50. lE .ai, ,i, tIj > OCz. I, ie; initially jl,jie; finally when part of the
viju 'twist': Lat. vieo, id. lE ·l!iliD . .. radical, or when intervocalic > oj. Triphthongal, or with
otpoCinuti 'rest', radical: {i., cf. Lat. quieo, id. lE ·qf.lilio. slur·tone > y
41. lE i > OCz. i, initially ji ell, cllj 'whole': OPr. kails, id., cf. Osc. kaiitJ 'shrine' or sim.: Eng.
liv,lil!Y 'alive': Lat. vivus: Skt.jiudQ: Lith. gjvas. lE ·gf.lirJos. whole. lE ·kailos.
rUina 'strait': Lat. angina 'constriction'. lE ·ang1-lhinii. lerj'left-hand' (e after l): Lat. ituvus, id. lE .lail,lOs.
lirj 'mere, sheer': OE stir 'clear, bright'. lE ·sKiros or ·skhiros. vdool ' to the widow': Lat. viduae. lE ·l,lidhel;ai.
piu, Piti 'drink': Skt. prye, id., cf. Gk. fut. 7TWP.a.,. lE ·prio. dvl, f. 'two': Lat. duae : Eng. two. lE ·dJPi.
divl 'wonderful' (mod. dillj 'strange'): Lat. dius 'heavenly, excellent': jlskati 'seek': Lith. idkoti, id.: aIr. aiscim 'search': Skt. iechdmi 'seek':
Gk. 8toS', id.: Skt. ditO'aQ, id. lE ·dillios. OHG eiskon 'seek, ask': Eng. ask. er. Umbo nscurenJ 'they shall
demand'. lE ·aihsKo.
48. lE • " > OCz. a; initially ja; before e, i, etc. > jl Evidence for ·ai in radical open syllables is wanting. Triphthongal
dva. m . 'two': Lat. duo. lE ·drJ0{ll)· or slur tone ·aje, ai, ai, etc. is suggested by gen. sing. and nom. plur.
nas, vds 'us, you': Lat. nDs, vos. lE ·nos, 1-I0s. vdo/!y 'of the widow, widows'. For the gen. sing. cf. Gk. -TJS', OLat.
do.r 'gift': Gk. 8wpo", id.: Per. ddr, id. lE ·doros, om, us. -dr (but Plautine comoediiii), Goth. gi06s, Lith. raflkos, etc. For the
t'/lZU, vaditi 'egg on': Gk. w8/w 'thrust, egg on'. lE ·J!.odheiD. nom. plur. cf. Skt. aJllIi~, OHG gebd, Goth. gihiis, Lith. railkos, and
jasan,jlsen,jls 'ashtree': Lat. ornus 'wild ash': Lith. UlIsis 'ashtree', cf. above all Lat. viduae beside Osc. Umbo scriftar, urtas, etc. for which
Gk. (&XE:p)wiS 'white poplar'. lE ·osis, oun-, etc. the prototype inflection may be ·-iijes.
The isolated form vajce 'egg' is not reflected in OCS, where it is
jaje: Gk. WO". Early loanwords show change of 0 to a as in kWter 51. lE .ei > OCz. i; initially ji

'monastery' from MHG kJ6sUr (Lat. claustrum). vid 'aspect': Lith. vlidas 'face': Gk. ftSos, n. 'fonn'. lE ·~d-.
ni 'neither': Lith. and OLat. nei, id.: Lat. ni. lE ·nei.
49. lE u > OCz. y; initially vy; after i > i or u (after OCz. j and slimdlc 'snail, slug': Lat.limiix, id.: Gk. >.E:ip.at. lE ·sleim4k-.
1 > i; after j sometimes> u) jll 'clay'; Gk. €l>'Js beside t>.w 'mud'. lE ·eilus (or ilus).
ryn 'son': Lith. mnUs, id. : Skt. siinuQ, id., cf. Go. sunltS, id. lE ·sunus. Note that triphthongal lE ·eje > OCz. je in tfje. m . 'three' < lE
f>' 'thou': Lat. tu: Eng. thou. lE ·til. ·trejes, cf. OHG dri, and in l'udie 'people' < lE ·Jeudhejes, cf. Lith.
my.I 'mouse': Lat. mlls: Eng. mouse. lE ·mw. lidudis, sing. and OHG liuti, plur. Similarly OCz. hostje 'guests':
djm'smoke': Lat.fomus: Lith. damai, plur. id.: Gk. 8vp.ck 'breath, Lat. hoslis: OHG gestio
spirit'. lE ·dhimUJs.
vydra 'otter': Gk. iJ8pa. 'water-snake', (,,'v8ptS', otter', short vowel in 52. lE ·oi > OCz. I, ie, but oj finally when an open radical, or
Eng. otter. lE ·ildra. when intervocalic; initially j/,jie; in weak sentence position> i
jUcM,jicha 'soup': Lat.jw. lE ·iilh snieh, gen. sing.: snlhu 'snow': Lith. snilgas, id.: Eng. snow. er. Lat.
Jiu, .Iili 'sew': Lith. siilvll, nati: Lat. suo, suere: Eng. sew. lE • sjUl,lD, sjili6. niv-ew: Cz. snlhorj. lE ·snoigtlhos.
Loanwords: mjto 'toll' from either Medieval Latin milla or OHG viem 'I know' (a perfect·present): Gk. ot8a., id.: Skt. veda, id. Cf. Lat.
vfdi 'I have seen': OCz. vldl 'I know': Eng. wot. lE .1I0id'1l beside ludie 'people': ORG liuli, id. lE ·lludlujes.
·lIoici1i. lubj 'dear, kind': lubiti 'revel in': Ger. lilb, lieben. lE ·leubh-.
dui 'part': Ger. Teil: Eng. dou. lE ·dhoilos. Ju-l 'already': Lith. jail 'already', jailgi 'indeed'. lE ·jeu-ghi.
vlloa 'branch': Gk. olaUu 'withy' . lE ·J,Witll-. Note that lE ·w ceases to be a diphthong when it is followed by a
elna 'price': Lith. kdina, id.: Gk. '!TOtll,? 'ransom, bride-price'. lE vowel, and becomes .ql. This, by Slavonic assimilation, becomes
·qlloirW. OCz. OD . Hence mlh-ooj: Lat. niv-Ius 'SDOWY'; slolJ(J 'word': Gk.
jld 'poison': MHG ei;; 'abscess': Gk. olaos 'tumour'. lE ·oid-. KAlOS 'rumour, glory'; nov, mIDj 'new': Gk. vios, id.
jil{.Dtl 'wound, gash': OPr. tySfJO (= aizvo) 'wound': cr. Let. al{.tl 55. lE ·014 > OCz. u
'gulf, gorge, cleft': Lith. diliti 'crack open': Gk. oiyw, ol)"'vfU [una 'moon': Lat. luna, id.: OPr. lauksnos 'stan'. lE ·louksn4.
'come open'. lE ·oil-. rudj 'red': Lat. dial. riifus 'red-brown': Eng. red. lE ·roudlws.
mln 'measure', mlna 'change; valuable, trinket': OLat. rnilnlLf
'gift, favour': Lith. mainas 'change': OIr. moln 'gift'. lE ·moin-
'requital' . BEFORE I, m, n, r, AND S
OPEN RADICAL 56. This theory is required to explain the incidence in Slavonic of
doj-ka 'wetnurse, milch cow', cf. Skt. dh/nd 'milch cow', Sw. dlja b, i, 'b, andy where cognate forms in other languages show lE . " t, 0,

'dairymaid'. lE ·dhoi-. and.o respectively. Thus, if the lE vowels ·',l. o. iJ occurred in an

01'1 'shaft of cart', cf. Gk. orat" 'tiller' and Hitt. eya. lE ·oj-. unstressed position before ·1, rn, n, r, or·s they underwent Umlaut
to ·i, i, 14, ii respectively before their final passage into Slavonic.
WEAK SENTENCE POSITION 57. lE ., via . j to b
tru 'rub': Lat. teriJ. (lE plur. stressing .terimes, ·terdnti influenced the
tun 'bison', plur.: Gk. 'TCl.vpo, 'bulls': Lat. taurf, id.: Lith. taurai
singular, hence ·terd > via ·tiriJ > OCz. tru) .
'bison', plur. lE ·-oi.
stru 'spread', cf. Lat. sterniJ.
befit 'take': Gk. (optative) 4>'po'~. Cf. OLith.pa-ftTalairn 'let us ask'.
ote-vru 'open', za·vru 'shut', radical in Skt. vdrtfmi 'shut': Lith. rJeT"itJ
lE .-ois.
'open, shut'.
mi 'to me', ti 'to thee' (unemphatic): Gk. fLOC, crot (weak enclitic),
tnu 'cut off": Gk. 'TiIJllw beside 'Tap.llw, id.
id.; Skt. me, u (weak enclitic), id. lE ·moi, ·wi.
mru 'die'. cr. Arm. mtrrnim, id.
Triphthongal or slur-tone ·oje, ·oi, etc. is implied in ij:
lAu 'reap': Gk. fut. 8£J1w 'shall kill'. lE ·gr;lun- 'strike, kill, hunt'.
Gk. '!TOWs 'what kind of', and in nov-j 'new': Lith. naujdsis (gen.
dru 'flay': Gk. fut. 8fPW 'shall flay'. lE ·der-.
sing.: ndujoio), from a type ·lUJ.los-is.
By their form and meaning the above verbs are of 'aoristic' type,
53. lE ·au, 114 > OCz. u with fluctuating stress. The stress fell upon the root syllable in the
/ur 'bison': Lat. taurus 'bull'. lE ·ttiuros. singular, and on the stem syllable in the plural and dual as in Skt.
uJi 'can' (dual): Lat. auris (plur.), id.: Eng. ears. lE ·4us-. hdnmi 'I kill', third plur.: ghndnti: Hitt. kwemi (for .kwenmi) 'I strike',
sueh, suehj 'dry': Gk. avoS', id.: Lith. sailsas, id.: Eng. sear. lE ·s4usos. third plur.: kunanci. lE ·g~hinmi, third plur.: ·et#lndnti. It is not
{.uf-ivj 'violent': Gk. yaiipoS' 'arrogant': Lith. liaurW 'cruel, fierce': certain from the evidence of the documented languages how far the
Olr. garb 'rough' . lE ·14uros. radical vowel was reduced in the dual and plural, but a residual
54. lE ·eu > OCz. ju (> ji); > u when iotacism is absorbed by a vowel occurs in Hittite 'aoristic' verbs throughout the plural where
preceding palatalized consonant no implied aspirate (such as ·bh, dh, gh, gllh) is present. Note the
contrast of aspect in the related pairs dru 'flay' and deru 'plunder' and lE */son via *e.riln, siln to OCS sy 'being'.
in [nu 'reap' and lenu 'drive'. lE *e.rdn (= Gk. (wv) via *ison to OOz. jsa 'being'.
lE *-e- arises in the unemphatic dative jmu 'to him' beside the Contrast also the divergent evolution of lE *e and *0 before lE
emphaticjemu, id. Umlaut has spread by analogy to include the weak .-hh- (where the vowel remains unaltered in Slavonic even though
formjho 'him' beside the emphatic formjeho, id. unstressed), and the evolution of the same vowels before _no:
58. lE I via *i to i (Oez. -ie-) lE *tehhi- via *tehe (vowel unchanged) to OCz. tebe 'thee'.
s.bieraju 'collect'. lE *bhiT- (via *bir-), DeS -biT-. lE *tobhdi via ·Ioboi (vowel unchanged) to OCz, tobl'to thee'.
u.tieraju 'wipe'. lE *tir- (via *tir-), DeS -/ir-. but lE *mene- via *mine (vowel fronted) to OOz. mne 'me'.
ot-vieraju, <.a-uieraju 'open, close'. lE *tdr- (via *[lir-). oes -vir-. lE *mondi via ·munoi (vowel fronted) to OCz. mnl'to me'.
u-mieraju 'die'. lE *mlr- (via ·mir-), oes ·mir-. The fronted vowels implied for OCz. mne and mm are confirmed by
Contrast the evolution of the same lE vowel [*e] before other those of the Ostromir Gospels of circa 1060, where we find mb1U' and
consonants than I, m, n, r, s, as in u-tiekaju 'run away', .ca-mittaj" rmnl respectively.
'refute', .ca-sldaju 'lay snares', etc. (OeS ·l-, not -i-). The verbs of
this type are usually compound, and are durative-frequentative in METATHESIS
61. A feature of recorded Slavonic is the treatment of lndo-Euro-
59. lE *0 via *u to 'b
pean forms in which a vowel is followed by I or r and another
mnohj 'many a'; mfU)ho 'many': oes rmnog?J, m'bnogo: Goth. mtJnags.
lE *mon6gh- (via *munog-).
consonant. The sequence vowel + +
liquid consonant is illustrated
by such words as Latin alhw, orhus, sallere, pullw (adj .), vertD, rmTtex,
tUT, nom. and acc. sing. 'bison': oes W1"b: Lith. ta/iras, tdurq: Lat.
harba, marmor, area; Lithuanian saldiLs, parvas, velk", vafnas, verliu;
taurus, taurum: Gk. -raiipos, -ravpov. lE *·os, *-om (via *-w,
Greek EAxW, rl>tpfW., I(tpvos, oprpav6s; Englishfilm, salt,fallow, hirch,
arm, heart, etc.
mnl 'to me': oes m'bnl. Type *monOi (via *munoi, contrast OOz.
In Slavonic these clusters retain their primitive sequence only in
tobl < */obMi via *toboi).
prehistoric loanwords preserved in Finnish, Greek, Rumanian, and
The preservation of the neuter ending 0 may be due to generalizing
Albanian, and in the scantily recorded Polabian Slavonic of LOne-
of the oxytonic stress of typesjho 'yoke' (lE *jugdm), .cr1W 'grain' (lE
burg, which was still spoken by a few old people at the beginning
*lfndm) to include s-stems of type slorJo 'word' (lE */eUIiOS, -4$-), kow
of the eighteenth century. This was recorded by Pastor Henning
'wheel' (lE *qI,dlos, -u-), etc.
in his Vocahularium Vendicum, a work composed between the years
60. lE *0 via *Q to y 1706 and 1709. By the middle of the same century the language was
ny, vy (unemphatic) 'us, you' beside emphatic nds, vd.!: Lat. nos, uos. extinct. From Henning's record we learn that not only were the
lE *nOs, liDS (via *nw, utlr). nasal vowels heard in LUneburg Polabian, but words retained the
pas!#, 'shepherd': Lat. pastor, -6ris. lE *pdstor- (via PastilT-), perhaps a sequence vowel + liquid + consonant. Thus bMna 'gateway', gord
Vlach loanword. 'castle', korvo 'cow', mOT.c 'frost', andporse 'pig'. The following loan-
OOS has a form kamy 'stone': Gk. a.1(fl-WV 'anvil'. lE *dkmon (via words from Slavonic illustrate the same sequence:
akmiln). Finnish talUa 'chisel': Rumanian dalt4, id.: Albanian daiti, id.
An interesting contrast in pre-Slavonic stressing is seen in the Modern Greek fiaA'ros 'marsh': Rumanian bal/4, id.: Albanian
diverse history of the active participle 'being' (Homeric £wv) in oes balM 'mud'.
and oez.: Finnish palthfUl 'linen' also shows the primitive sequence.
When we turn to recorded Slavonic however, the picture is different. 65. lE -or + consonant
Western and Southern Slavonic reverse the order of the vowel and mata 'gate': Lith. vaf'tai, id., cr. Lat. port-ex. lE -J.lOrt- 'turning'.
the liquid; Eastern Slavonic introduces a second vowel. The prin- mds-ka 'wrinkle': Lat. versus 'furrow' (Lat. ue- represents lE -t..Je- and
ciple is well illustrated by the Slavonic reflexes of the Germanic -1I0-): Olcel. VP", id., er. Lith. varsnas 'strip of ploughed land'.
name Waldemar. This appears in Czech and Slovak as Vladimir, but lE -lIors-.
in Old Russian as Volodimir. Again, the formative element of prtUl 'pig': Lat. ponus: Eng.farrow. lE -porK-.
Germanic place-names like Stutt-gart has its counterpart in Czech 66. lE -al + consonant
names of type Vy§e-hrad, and in Russian names of type Nov-gorod. slad 'malt', sladkj 'sweet': Lith. saldUs 'sweet', cf. Lat. saIflre. lE
Thus Western (and Southern) Slavonic trUlalhtsis (with vowel- -saldos.
lengthening) contrasts with Eastern Slavonic (vowel
67. lE -er + consonant
doubling or 'polnoglasie').
hrada 'chin, beard': Lith. harzdd 'beard': Lat. harha, id. (assimilated
62. lE ·el + consonant consonants): Eng. beard. lE -hharsdha.
pIeku 'pull': Lith. velku, id., cr. Gk. 1>"KW, id. lE -J,lHlkiJ with variants. krdkofu 'croak': Gk. KapKatpw 'rumble'. lE -kdrkar-.
tUh. llah 'trough': Lat. volha 'vulva' (A. M eHlet): Gk. 8€AcPVs The principle of metathesis extends to Latin and early Germanic
'womb'. lE -gJ#!lhhd, Us 'hollow, etc.'. loanwords, cf. mramor 'marble' from mannor; krabicl 'box' from
lUza, lldza 'gland'; llez 'garlic' or sim.: Gk. ylAytS' 'clump (of corhila 'bumboat'; mliko 'milk' from Gmc. *lTreluk-; miok 'salamander',
garlic),: MHG kelch 'goitre, double chin', cf. Lith. geltfys. cr. Ger. Moleh.
geIelaunls 'gland, glanders, goitre'. lE -gell-. 68. A modification to the above scheme arises when *al-, ar-, 01-,
63. lE -er + consonant and *or- occur initially as in Lat. albus, orbus. Subsequent evolution
rnlteno 'spindle, contrate wheel of mill': Skt. varlantl} 'felloe of wheel': in OCz. depends on an original difference of tone according to some
Per. vardane 'rolling-pin' . Cr. Lat. verle-hra. lE -lIerten-. authorities, though others with equal conviction believe that the
tfln-ka, mod.: slfen-ka 'handle': DCS lTln'b 'handle, holder': Gk. distinction depends on whether or not a reduced vowel once followed
KlpvoS' 'holder for dishes': Mlr. cem 'dish. platter'. lE -kern- the liquid consonant. Thus OCz. rtdlo 'ploughshare' is explained
'holder' . either as lE -drdhlom (with emphatic tone) or as -ar.,dhlom (with a
lUmen, mod.: stfetrUn 'stirrup': oes lTlm'b 'tent': Skt. ldrman 'skin, following reduced vowel, viz. - ,) . Otherwise OCz. converts initial
leather': Gk. Klpp.a. 'cut piece, slice'. lE -kerm- 'cutting'. -al-,ol-; ar-, or- into 10- and ro- respectively, cr. role 'field': Pol. rol, <
a type -arImC/; roM 'child', cf. Lat. orbus, type -orhhmC/; loni 'last
64. lE -01 + consonant year': Old Lat. oUi 'formerly' < -olni; Iodl 'ship', a Germanic loan-
vIal. 'load', mod.: 'train'; po-vlaka 'cataract on eye': Lith. palktU word, cc. OIcel. ellibi and Lith. aIdijd 'boat made out of hollow trunk';
'dragnet, cataract on eye': Skt. valkdl} and valkdm 'bark, bark- rolen, gen. sing.: rolnu 'spit', cf. Gk. cipX~ 'corner' (of sheet), hence
cloth': Lett. valks 'dress'. Cr. Gk. 'OAK6s 'drag, furrow'. lE 'point, beginning'.
-1I01k- 'pull', with variants.
plap, plauj 'fair-haired': Lith. pa[vas 'light, fallow': Lat. pullw
'tawny, dun (of hare)': Eng.fallow. lE -polt,los.
sldma 'straw': Lett. salm! 'single straw': Lith. lamala; (sic) 'haulms': 69. The Common Slavonic treatment of the Indo-European nasal
Lat. culmus 'single straw, haulm': OHG halam, halm 'haulm': clusters is extremely simple. lE *em, en, im, in, and -1]1, C/ if not fol-
Eng. haulm. lE -Kolm-, Koum-. lowed by a vowel became Common Slavonic -, - (believed to have
sounded like French -ain). whereas lE "am, an, om, on, urn, un under 72. The CornS!. Back Nasal appears in OCz. as u and u in all
similar conditioIl3 became ComSl. -p- (as French on). These are positions:
known respectively as Front Nasal and Back Nasal according to the lE ·om, on
position of utterance. The positional variant [Q] is not differentiated, ;:.uh.'tooth': Gk. y&p.4»os 'spike, nail, tooth'; Skt.jdmhhafl 'tooth,
nor are long vowels. fang'. lE ·gomhhos.
The Czech representation of the nasal clusters is more complex. jsu 'they are': Lat. sunt: Skt. santi: Hitt. asanci. lE ·(e)sonti.
Tonal difference accounts for the twofold representation of the front put 'journey, pilgrimage': Lat. pons, ponlis 'bridge'. lE ·pontis
nasal asja-, andjd-. Internally j is lost or is merged with the pre- 'passage, crossing'.
ceding consonant which is then palatalized, and the vowel appears as
a or d. A following e, I, i,j, or' converts the front nasal into jl and 73. lE ·am, an
ju respectively. Internally these two new vowels also lose} leaving uhel 'angle': Lat. angulus. lE .anghulos or ·angulos.
I and ie. The whole development is illustrated in the following ju 'her': Lat. earn, id.: Skt.yam, id. lE ·j4m.
scheme: lE ·um, un
huhel 'bladder': Pol. bqbel ' bubble': Lith. bumbulas 'lump': Arm.
INITIALLY jat jdtra jllie juti
6mbul 'fluffy animal, eiderdown', cf. Gk. -rrol1-cpo)..vf 'bubble'
'taken' 'liver' 'taking' 'to take'
INTERNALLY fad fdd ·flditel IUditi
(lE .u + u > Gk. 0 + v, cf. lColClCvg 'cuckoo', p.oPI1-VpW 'mur~
rnur', etc.): Eng. bumble.foot, a disease in fowls. lE ·bhumbhul·.
'line' 'order' 'director' 'line up'
klub 'knob', cr. also mod. klub-ko 'ball of wool'; OCS klpbo 'lump,
All the above examples contain reflexes of ComSl. ,. Cr. § 84. ball': Ir. clomh 'flax-beater': Wel. clwm 'knot': Eng. lump. lE
70. lE .em, en The CornS!. loanword kpi'o ; OCZ. kUt 'corner' derives from
maso 'flesh': Skt. mamsam, id.: Go. mirnz, id.: Arm. mit. lE ·mlms·. Gk. Kav8~ 'corner (of the eye)" though by what route is not
jalra 'liver': Gk. bnpa 'entrails'. lE ·enter,. certain.
;:;If 'son·in-Iaw': Lith.lintas, id.: Lat. gens, gentit 'tribe'. lE ·gentis,
pit 'five': Skt. pankt£~ 'group of five' . lE ·penrwti·.
74. In Common Slavonic all lE nasal groups in weak position are
reduced to a simple vowel 1.1, initially 170. Thus, Old Czech st~
'hundred' (CornSI. nto) from lE .bp.t6m (Lat. centum, Gk. €-KO:T'OV
71. lE ·im, in, 1/1, tI 'one hundred'); v 'in' from lE ·en (Lat. in, Gk. w). Modem Czech
pat 'twisted': Lith. pintas, id. lE ·pintos. vtdina 'second', from a dialect variant of uterj 'second day, Tuesday',
jat 'taken': Lith. imlas, id.: Lat. emptus. lE ·rptos. illustrates the same principle « lE .anter·, cr. Lith. antras 'second':
desdtj 'tenth': Gk. 8€Ka'To!>, id.: Eng. tenth. lE ·delrptos. Ger. andere 'other').
juti 'to take',jltie 'taking': Lith. ifhti 'to take', et Lat. emptio.
·jlllti 'squeak': Lith. inksttti 'stammer'. 75. An important feature of Indo-European is the alternation of
Early loanwords behave similarly, cf. mala 'mint' from Lat. vowels to distinguish aspect, a principle which survives in the English
mmtha; ;:;tkvor 'ginger' from OHG (11th century) gingihero. strong verbs of type sing, sang, sung; drive, drove, driveTJ, etc. The same
principle is observable in Latin, where there is vowel alternation as A B C D
between pend6 and pondus, tego and toga, terra and lomo, fero and
forda, uertO and vortex. The principle is well established in Greek With added *i:
4; 4j
• i ,
where >.I.yw 'say' alternates with >.6yos 'word'. rrrJlIw 'groan' with With added *u: 4u a~ u ii
O'T ollOS', etc. That the vowel, denotes a durative aspect is clear from The modifications with added *j and added *u are very rare and
the present tense of verbs, and from nouns and other parts of speech. seem to be fully iUustrated in only three radicals: *dd;- 'divide',
Thus Y(IIOS': Lat. gmUJ 'race' is of durative aspect, whereas yovoS' *Ili- 'be silent', and ·stLd- 'glow'.
'offspring' is, like >'OyOS". pondus, and toga aoristic or 'resultant', cf.
77. The following distribution illustrates how the two gradation
S/fLW 'build': SOfWS' ' (resultant) building, house'. The members of
series, e/o and di d, affect Old Czech, Latin, and English. No series is
these alternating pairs are described as in '-grade and o-grade complete.
respectively. Related to '-grade and o-grade in an aspectual
relationship are radicals containing lE *-i- and *-0-, and these are
termed respectively long-'-grade and long-o-grade (or I-grade, bern vy-~' s-bor
o-grade). A third grade arises when the vowels, or 0 disappear,
cr. bear bier bare born
leaving a syllable said to be in zero-grade, i.e. a syllable without an (=bore)
sedlo ~dati saze
alternating vowel. Zero-grade is also found in a lengthened form,
when it is known as long-zero-grade. The alternating vowels, and 0 cr. settle seat ,at soot ne-st
and sedea sedire solium ni(*s)dus
are called mobile: residual vowels i and u with which the mobile
tece s-tiekati se tok (DeS,
vowels combine to form the lE diphthongs *,j and *oi, *tU and *ou
are called stable, since they persist in all vowel grades unchanged takati)
ld;c!ti pro-Iehati n-Ioh
except fGr occasional lengthening. The following scheme represents
all the known elements of t/o vowel gradation.
cr. lie lay
stiem- strom strmy
I la 2 2a 3 3a hlav
e-grade e-grade o-grade a-grade zero-grade long-zero-grade pletu, -pletati plot
t I 0 0 pl6ti
With added *, (becoming *i after a long vowel): hiebu, -biibati hrob hrabati hfbieti
ei li oi oj j i hf6ti
With added *u (becoming *", after a long vowel) : ileravy, Ur hoiiti Mrati hfieti
'u i1I DU 0", U
• feftvy (de)
76. Besides the '/0 gradation (apophonic) series there is in Indo- 78. e/ o GRADATION WITH METATHESIS
European a second series, in which the vowel *d alternates with *d. vftteno vrata vrt~ti
Traces of this alternation are found in Latin, where for instance we strehu, strUe!
find status beside slamen: in Greek where rrrBTOs- alternates with stfc!ci
;rrr'1UB: in English where take (with lE *a) alternates with look (lE c£ crrJpyw rrropy~
*d), grave with groove, and stand with stood; and in Old Czech (and vleku, ~vIekati vlak vlk
other Slavonic languages) where sto)u 'I stand' alternates with stdjl vIeci
'dwelling' . The d/a relationship is expressed in a formula as follows: dfe!vo z-drav

mtititi lav-are
(and hb-itj): hjbati; do-tek: tjkati se; nt1-sep: sypati. Latin represents the
first two tenns of the series *du/aIl as au (av) and ~ respectively, thus
~-men, ~s-men
, •
of. OE lape 'easy' iJtium
Go. sauil 'sun' ,6/ OCz. sln-iti Skt. sUms
80. e/o GRADATION WITH THE ADDITION OF -i- There are traces of a gradation series elf! represented by the Greek
Yid, vid~ti - ved, vede ved, vede prepositions and prefixes Ev(: &.va; brl: a."IT& and "lTEpl: ,"apt!.
cf. ElaoS' olaa laou
and visUS vim in-vidia VOWEL-PRONTINO
u-svit svet, stvie s~
svietiti 84. Vowel-fronting is a feature peculiar to Czech among the
m' kvet kvte,3 S. Slavonic languages (though a similar process is posited for ComSl.je
when it derives from lE *jo). It takes place in the OCz. vowel a,
81. e/o ORADA TION WITH THE ADDITION OP -u- whether it derives from a front nasal (ComSl. , ) or from initial ja
plovu plUti plavati pU plytva (lE *a, 0). The modification occurs before a syllable which contains
slovu, slUti, sl!va -slech sly!~ti,
or contained Slavonic e, /, i,j, or '. Of the two historical vowels thus
slovo sluch slychati modified only the reflex of the front nasal has survived consistently
duch, dech vz-dychati in modern Czech, while the reflex of lE *a/~ is subject to much
du!, fluctuation, and many words in their passage from old to modern
Czech have reverted to a prehistoric prototype.
An isolated series embodies the radical .tIlisk 'press' in the follow-
ing combinations: ·t§#:isk-, .t/lOisk-, ·tusk-, and .Wsk-: Consistently represented is the ComSl. vowel, which, because of
vowel-fronting and variation in vowel quantity, has produced the
tisk, t8Citi teskntiti, s-tjskati four reflexes given under Section 69 and repeated herewith:
tiskntiti ttid!
stoju staje fad fdd *flditel fiediti

A/a GRADATION WITH THE ADDITION OP -u- The radical ·rut- is vouched for by its cognates: Lith. rinda: Gk.
a.paaa. Compare also the following pairs:
um javo
trOVll, tr!viti (oes UNMOOIFIED MODIFIED
tniti tryjl;) 'rub') jat 'taken': Lith. imtas:{iltie 'act of taking': cc. Lat. empM.
naviti nyju, n-yti Lat. emptus. j uti 'to take': Lith. imti.
or again:
83. A small number of verbs shows nothing more than the alter_ patj 'fifth': Lith. penktas: Gk. "lTll-''TtTOt; beside (modified) pit 'five':
nation of the two vowels ·u and *11. Such are modern Czech o-heb Skt. pailktiQ.
The principle of vowel-fronting accounts also for the modifications
seen in SVQry 'holy': Lith. Iveiftas: Av. sptIiflo, id . beside (modified) IsOLATED INSTANCES OF VOWEL-FRONTINO
solll 'holily'. svltlj(I)1 'holier'. The last fann is still the current onc;
the first has reverted to svatlby analogy with the prototype adjective. 87. An isolated example of vowel fronting is found in the limited
Thus also llst/'often'. late OCz. lasio. class of nouns to which nehet 'fingernail' (contrast R. nogotb) belongs.
A number of once-nasalized verbs shows vowel modification, thus This may be an instance of two fill-vowels (see § go) occurring in
tied 'to grasp', with Present Tense salw, silt!; similarly miesti 'stir up', one word, cf. Macedonian denes 'today', Srb. danas. Another instance
present tense: motu, mltd. Old Czech alone shows the Cronting of of isolated vowel-franting is that of teneto 'net', plur. tenata, where
historical a as in najlvl,loc. sing. ofjavo; najH 'in spring' besidejaro; the singular form may have been induced by the analogy of the
jlsnl 'clearly' besidej4t7lj 'c1ear';jisen 'ashtree' besidejasan. commoner type of neuter noun ~vieFl 'animal', pIur. ~uiefata.


88. That semivowels existed in primitive Inde-European is accepted
85. A feature distinct from the above is the fronting of a to t (not I) by most linguists, but it is still denied by some. Analysis of two cog-
by the presence of i, whether preceding or following. This occun nates will serve to illustrate the presumed lE semivowel.
normally whenj is part of the syllable in which a occun; when this Lat. (vi-, con-) cordia 'heart' Gk. l(apSta 'heart'
is not so the vowel is unaffected. Thus tej-nl 'secretly' beside ta-JemnJ, Analysis: c is lE It or " Analysis: I( is lE It or lE
id. (note the division of the syllables). But the rule is inconsistently or is lE or or [ apislEaror[
applied; thus we find OCZ. kraJC£ 'tailor' beside mod. krejC£, Javo dis lE d or dh S is lE d
beside mod. ~-,jw; llwstajnj beside mod. llwstejnj, but OCz. and mod.
Old Czech (milo-)srdie 'mercy' supplies the clue to lE -lE, hence the
toJnj 'seeret'. For older teinl 'seeretly' the fourteenth-century
reconstruction is -lrdip (with semivowel -f). Or again
Alexandreid already has tajnl. This inconsistency is carried into
modern Czech where we find u-daj 'datum' beside pro-dej 'sale'. A Lith. pilnas 'full' Goth.fulls 'full'
confusion of causes is seen in the declension of plietel, mod. pfitel, Analysis: p is lE p Analysis: fis lE p
where the Old Czech internal vowels are due to a following [,J, il is lE il or I ul is lE uJ or I
the modem vowels to the working of 'dactylism' (the fixture of nislEn 11 is lE In
the primitive stress no further back than the penultimate Old Czechpln 'full' confirms the reconstruction -Plnos, and OIl'. Jan,
syllable). Skt. pa~(I 'full' supply the evidence of quantity (-pines) .


86. A feature related to vowel-fmnting by iotacism, the change from 89. At this point however the evidence for the lE semivowels must
-,ja to -1, is older, indeed there is no certain record of -ja in Old be reviewed in the light of their peculiar development in Slavonic,
Czeeh. Thus ComSl. -voija 'will' appears as vdle, -media as me~l. for here we find lE -I and -[ each represented in two ways. To
Traces of a ia-ending occur in Czech names found in eleventh- account for the duality it is usual to assume that -I and -[ each had
century Latin texts, but these may be due to deliberate archaizing. two vowel-colourings, referred to as i-basis and u-basis respectively.
Of the Slavonic languages only Polish distinguishes all four variants.
Czech distinguishes two types of -I; Russian two types of -[. Slovak
and OCS do not distinguish i-basis and u-basis.
olaVa 'osier'. The fill-vowel is commoner in modern Czech than in the
older language, thus bkeha 'flea', stiblo 'stubble, haulm', pestrj (OCz.
90. Old Czech represents lE *l and ·u uniformly bye, This vowel. pstry') 'gaily-coloured'. A useful observation on the position ofthe fill-
however, appears only in some monosyllables, in extensions, and in vowel in modern Czech is that it usually falls on the penultimate b/1>
some triliteral groups. Elsewhere lE ·1 and .u have disappeared. in terms of its ComSl. prototype, thus svee 'shoemaker' « ·SbV"'b),
This is especially true where the lE syllable contained a short vowel but gen. sing. Jevee « *sbvbCja). A similar rule applies to the pairs
*1/11 followed by a liquid (*1, r); here the vowels have disappeared, pastvu 'herdsman', gen. sing. pastevce; Mec 'actor', gen. sing. heru;
and their function has been taken over by the residual liquid, which lber 'vessel', gen. sing. lebra; snem 'parliament', gen. sing. senma.
has become a semivowel. Thus lE ·pluUs 'floating': Gk. 7TAVInS": Modern Czech inserts the fill-vowel after land l as in Eerl 'devil'
OCz. plf'raft', Residual glide-palatalization in Old Czech is often (OCz. Ert), lernj 'black' (OCz. Ernj), Eerpati 'draw' (OCz. Erpati),
due to a final lE i-stem inflection, and appears sporadicaUy in bases lert 'joke' (OCz. lrt), but retains the older vocalism in tui-lrt 'out·
ending in on, -t, and -d. Final·-n- becomes dentalized to f. line'. The vocalism of Old and Modern Czech llun 'boat' (loanword?
cf. Lat.u[onium'bucket'),kaldj 'each', and snacha 'daughter-in-law' is
91. Since Czech e represents lE *e as well as *1 and ·u it is necessary
of obscure origin.
to interpret the vowel with the help of an older Slavonic language
such as the Eastern-style language of the Ostromir Gospels (I056-7), VOWEL QUANTITY
where the three vowels are kept distinct. Further confirmation is
usually available from non-Slavonic languages. 93" Old Czech vowels possess two quantities, short and long. They
Thus IMt 'cunning', den 'day', len 'flax', vu 'village', kopec 'hill', are a and aj e and i j I and ie; i and t; 0 and 6; u and Ujy andj.
lep 'birdlime', men! 'less', and tfelt 'third' all display lE ·1 on the The vowels i and y are historical symbols only; they are written
evidence of Ger. List, Skt. dinab. Gk. 'AtVQV, OLat. mum, Lat. indiscriminately. The short vowels correspond to the slur-tone
eapitium, Lat. lippus, Lat. minus, and Gk. TptTOS respectively. That vowels of Serbian, and less systematically, to those of Lithuanian.
lE ·lhas disappeared from tma 'darkness', m{da 'pay', vdova 'widow', Occasionally Old Czech short vowels coincide with the circumflexed
and mhla 'fog' is clear from their respective cognates: OSax. thim vowels of Greek. But the underlying reasons for vowel quantity in
(,dark'), Gk. p,tu86s, Lat. vidua, and Gk. JP,tX)1'f7. Old Czech are not fully understood. Of the various theories three
In the same way tru t 'reed', sen 'sleep, dream', rei 'rye', lel'lie', are at least plausible. They are (a) that vowel quantity arose out of
meeh 'moss', and uhel 'corner, angle' display IE·u on the evidence of tonal distribution within the sentencej (b) that vowel quantity is
Ir. trost (,stick'), Gk. vrrvos, Lith. rugjs, German Liige, Eng. moss,and related to the historical Slavonic stress-position as it was when the
Lat. angulus respectively. That lE ·u has disappeared from b/cha stress was movable; (c) that vowel quantity is due to a mechanical
'flea', pU 'raft', and slblo 'straw' is clear from their respective cog- mora-distribution as in Greek, where the accentuation of a penulti-
nates: Lith. blusd, Gk. 1TMuts, and Eng. slubble. mate long vowel is determined respectively by the acute-formula
A similar history is observable in early loanwords, thus OCz. (2 morae + 2 morae) or by the circumflex-fonnula (3 morae +
mese, gen. sing. msta, and mstu 'new wine' derives from Lat. mustum. I mora). For convenience the three theories may be termed the

Met, gen. sing. mla 'bushel' derives from OHG multo, and this in turn trisyllabic, the dissyllabic and the monosyllabic theories respectively.
derives from Lat. modius.
92. Strictly speaking the term Fill-vowel is applied to OCz. e when THE TRISYLLABIC THEORY

it is without historical significance like the ~ -vowel heard in Eng. 94. It has been observed that with few exceptions trisyllables with-
prism [prizam]. Thus mrtev 'dead': Lat. mortuus; vl tev 'branch': Gk. out prefixes have short quantity in each syllable, thus vidina, mi{ina,
mm:leha, ltTanUl, pmna, Itwtina, lakota, ianitva, spasikl, etc. But and are roughly interpretable as follows: kraj 'act of cutting' dar
diminutives behave inconsistently, thus laMdka 'drug' beside Iwlomek 'act of giving', ka! 'act of clouding', uyk 'act of calling', plaJ ,a::t of
'servant'. Moreover the theory fails to explain the curiow fluctuation payment', Dlak 'act of drawing'. Are we then justified in tracing
in the quantity of -dIj -af in hospoddf, hospodafiti, etc. Czecl1 monosyllabic masculine nouns with short vowels to oxytonic
prototypes? Even 50, the short vowels of had 'snake' and nul 'barttl'
nouru without verbal connectioru, are enigmatic. '

95. It has been observed that some, though not all, dissyllables 97. The triliteral fOnD! hUuJ,ltTad, etc. as opposed to mrdJ:, prtlk have
which show length in the radical vowel reflect the stress-position or apparently had their vowel quantity determined by tonal distribu-
presumed Common Slavonic 8.8 displayed in modem Bulgarian or tion. This is reflected in the stressing of their Russian counterparts
Russian. Thus .IlIa: R. sUa; Ma: R. vlra; vdu: R. oolja. Contrast gIJW, glJrod and morlJr., jXlrlJg respectively. A possible formula for
.cima: R . .cimd and hJw;hj: R. glwc~j. But the exceptions are many, reconciling the second theory with the third has been put forward
thus krdsa: R. krasd; sW}: R. s16hyj (rustic s14hOj); hlmlkj: R. glddkij by Leskien and others, viz. that slur-tone occurs on the penultimate
(rustic gladklJj), etc. and the vowel relationships of muJca ' torture' syllable of oxytonic words. This entails among other things the
and "wka 'flour' compared to their Russian counterparts are assumption that I-participles of lE type -hhDMs. -pitOs, -sjilMs first
reversed, thus R. mUka 'torture' and mukd 'flour'. The same is true passed through a phase -b(/t}l1tOs, -PiMs, -sjQMs before reaching the
of ulno, pioo, contrast R. vi~, pWo. Some support to the diuyllabic .tage of OOZ. -hyt, pit, lit (Srb. htt, pit, HI). A prehistoric rising tone
theory of stress-position, however, is afforded by the fact that Old before the stress, similar to that heard in modem Swedish or German
Czech t-participles consistently show a short radical vowel. This 6}' jd, could easily account for thU development.
vowel is unstressed in both Greek and Sanskrit, 80 that the following
-byt (in compounds) Gk. ~"'Os Skt. hhDt~
98. The palatalization represented by Slavonic l, t, and 1 when
pit ' drunk' Skt. Pit~
followed by front vowels or by iotacism is held to be older than the
lil'sewn' SkI. 'Y"td/o palatalization represented by CornS!. e and r; (= dr.), and by 0Cz. e
and r.. This is because loanwords from Latin and Greek show no
THE MONOSYLLABIC THEORY trace of l, t, or 1. Thus Gk. ICVp'(1K~ appears as OOz. cierav 'church"
Lat. wu as OOZ. oeel 'steel'; Lat. a&liwn u DOz. oeet'vinega/
96. Neither of the above theories satisfactorily account3 for the
Hence the modification t. i, / is called the First PaJatalir.atiml the
quantity of monosyllables. Thus kraj 'region', dar 'gift', kal'mud, modification e. r; the Second Pa14taJization. '
cloudiness', hmyr. 'insect', uyk 'call', pial 'pay', v/aJc 'load of wood' are
short in quantity, whereas hdj 'copse', tllr 'glow', vdl 'roller', kHl 99. The Second Palatalization is observable not only in loanwordt
'cross', bjk 'bull', rjl 'spade', and mdk 'poppy' are long. Of some ~ut .in na~ve te~ where th~ lE clwters -.tai-, ·koi-, -qJl4i_, -qtJoi.,
significance here may be the semantic reason underlying oxytonic gaJ-, -gOI-, -ghat- and -glwi- occur. Thus elM 'price', on the evi-
and paroxytonic stressing in Indo-European as reflected in Greek. dence of Gk. 'ITOw1f 'ransom', derives from lE -~n4. CII'whole', on
Thus Gk. 'Top.6s-, adj. 'cutting, sharp' is semantically activt, while the evidence of Ger. Mil, derives from lE -kailM. Std 'path', on the
'T6p.o~ 'cut, piece' is semantically passivt. Now it is a striking fact that evidence of Ok. rrrtXfS and OE stige, derives from lE -stighai or
of the two set3 of Old Czech monosyllabic masculine nouns listed -stigMj. Since lE -vi in weak final position becomes OCz. (and
above, the first, with short vowels, are semantically a&tiVt and verbal, ComSI.) i, second palatalization takes place in the nom. plur. of
masculine nouns of type !,ok 'stream', nom. plur. roci; boh 'god', nom.
plur. bod. It also takes place in imperatives of type peri! 'bake' from
an optative second pen. sing . • pefllPJis. But the effect of the second
palatalization on ch is to produce s, hence eech, nom. plur. Cui
(modem CeJi). Second palatalization also arises in the dative and
locative singular offeminine a-stem nouns, in the locative singular of v
neuter o-stem nouns, and in the dual number nominative and
accusative of a_feminines and a-neuters, Thus ruel 'to the hand (in MORPHOLOGY
the hand, the two hands)': Lith. ranhli 'to the hand': Lat. branctu 'to
the paw'. Similarly notl'to the foot' . NOUNS
100. A Third Palatalization is postulated by some scholars to ac- lOt. The nouns of Old Czech, like those of Common Slavonic, are
count for the diminutive ending! observable in such words as 01«, m. of three genders: masculine, feminine, and neuter. Their declension
'father', ovcl, f. 'sheep', and srtk" n. 'heart' . A convenient name for is a pattern of six case inflections: nominative, accusative, genitive,
this principle is Induction, since it is assumed that in words of this dative, instrumental, and locative, and there are three numbers:
type a stem-vowel . j or ·f in the prototype is echoed, or induced, in a singular, dual, and plural. Some nouns possess a distinct form of
following syllable. Thus a prototype ·atikos 'little father' passes vocative singular.
through a phase .atikjos before reaching CornS!. otbCb, OCz. otec. Modern Czech has preserved most of the features of the Old
Similarly a prototype .ol.likii 'little sheep' (Skt. avika, id.) passes via Czech noun, but the dual number survives in only a few paired
.ol,likjd before reaching ComSl. OVbca, OCz. ovcl. In the same way names of parts of the body (eyes, ears, etc.), in the declension of the
lE • Itrdikom'little heart' passes via frdilrjo- to ComS!. sbrdbCe, OCz. words for 'two' and 'both', and in the word for 'two hundred' .
srd". The declension pattern of Old Czech, as of Slavonic generally,
This principle extends to loanwords, as is seen in OCz. krabicl somewhat resembles that of modern Lithuanian, though the latter is
'basket' (Lat. corbita 'bumboat'), A peculiarity of Old Czech is the more archaic. There are parallels to some of the case-endings in
representation ofLat. -la as -le in koIule 'shirt' from Lat. casula; kupole Latin, Greek, Hittite, Sanskrit, and the older Germanic languages,
'dome' from Lat. cupola;fabule 'fable' from Lat. fobula;feruk ' ferule' the last in particular refl«ting the plural inflections of the Slavonic
from Lat. ferula, but the reason for this is not clear. Still more dative and instrumental. The scantiness of Old Czech records, how-
puzzling is the apparent inconsistency with which induction has b~en ever, makes the reconstruction of complete paradigms for anyone
carried out in words of Slavonic origin, thus OCS has a masculine word difficult, if not impossible. A plan has therefore been followed
diminutive my1bCb 'little mouse': Skt. miliiMQ, id. but a feminine whereby a single word-base with lE connexions has been selected
diminutive my1Ma (not ·myIbCa): Skt. miliihr, id. and inflected on the evidence of other words in the same class. The
Glide Palatalization has not been considered in the above scheme. selection of a familiar lE word for inflection should help to identify
This is an assimilative modification which takes place in t, d, and it in tenus of general historical grammar.
n before i, before residual b, and before I . Hints of its early appear- Modern Czech forms are sometimes cited where documentation in
ance in Czech occur in the A1exandreid (circa 1306) where we find Old Czech is absent or uncertain. The main differences are:
radosc!i, doscy as alternative spellings to radosti, dosti. u
(I) OCz. U = Mod. CZ, OU, but initially; (2) OCz. ju,ju = Mod.
Cz, i,ji; (3) OCz. ie and lowcred I after I = Mod. Cz, I; (4) OCz. 0
and (finally) OD = Mod. Cz. d. The Old Czecb clusters cl, 1I,j/, fl, si,
1" r:l and II have lost their iotacism and have bei:ome ce, It, etc. nouns. The 'animate nouns' (names of living creatures) normally
Many Old Czech instance! of vowel-Cronting, palatalization, and form the acc. sing. in -a, but archaic survival! of the uninflected
iotacism have been levelled by analogy or have been disregarded. accusative are ehlap 'servant' and B6h 'God'. ru to the nom. plur.,
Analogical levelling within the paradigm is most marked in the the inflection -i is now reserved for nouns of 'animate' type; others
present tense of the modern Czech verb, thus beru, herl!; ptlu, /MId. are inflected like the acc. plur. The uninflected gen. plur. is unusual
The compounding participles of type drlal, mase. plur. drllli; sazal, even in the oldest Czech texts, but Stftny uses a cliche z tjl'from the
mase. plur. sadli have been levelled to the pattern of the masculine rear'. A survival of the uninflected gen. plur. in modern Czech is
plural, thw drill, sdttl, where the vowel-CraDting is not historical. to be found in some place-names (do Oslavan, do Uher) and in the
The paradignu c!.Uplay the oldest forms recorded in texts. declension of ktJlJwty 'trousers'. Nouns in ~ and -z continued to
Parallel variants are given alongside the main theme. form their loco plur. in -i«h (luieeh, hI4riuh, mradeeh), the inflec-
tion -leh being a variant occurring after I. Of this inflection only the
form ks!eh (for lAsiuh) survives in modern Czech.

tur 'bison': Lat. taurtIJ 'bull' hit 'gulp': Lat. glulUS, id.
Ulul'angle': Lat. angulus, id. up 'birdlime': Lat.lippw 'bleared'
veler 'evening': Lat. r;nper, id. swn 'groan': Gk. O"TovoS', id. 104. Already in the fourteenth century there were fluctuations in the
Stn 'sleep, dream': er. Lat. somnus d61 'valley, pit': Gk. 60Aos s.en. sing. and loco sing. of o-stem masculine nouru. This has given
'sleep' 'hollow': Eng. dale rue to an extraordinary multiplicity of paradigms in the later speech,
djm 'smoke': Lat.fimus, id. thus Stltnj has a gen. sing. liDOUJ 'of life' beside a loco sing. fivotu.
Here belong the loanwords osel 'donkey' (from Lat. 4fellus), kosul ~e exact causes of fluctuation are not certain. Where both the gen.
'church' (from Lat. e4fullum), koui 'cauldron' (from Lat. eatillus), smg. and the loco sing. end in -It the paradigm has taken on the
etc. characteristics of the masculine u-stems. See § IlI5. The gen. plur. in
Masculine o-stems include a large number of nouns denoting -110 is a u-stem inflection.
isolated creatures and things, acts, results of acts, etc. See § 11 . In the later language the following facton seem to determine the
choice of -a or -u for the gen. sing. -I or -u for the loco sing. The
'normal' o-stem pattern in modem Czech, according to which
NOM. tur, uhel, rok, roh, tury, uhIy tu';, uhli, rod, rozi, neologisms and new loanwords are declined, is that of the u-declen-
Ceeh Cui sion, Le. with the gen. sing. and the loco sing. in -U. Selection of this
ACC. tur(a), uhel, rok, roh, tury, uhly tury, Uhiy, 1oAy, rohy, norm is determined
Ceeh(a) Ceehy (a) by history, thw nwd 'honey', which historically belongs to the
GRN. tura, Uhiu, roka, rOM tUTU, Uhlu tur(6D), Uhtl (Uhl6p) u-stems.
DAT. turu, Uhlu turoma, UhlomiJ tur6m, Uhl6m (b) by phonology, thus the ending -u of the genitive and locative
INST. turem, Uhlem turoma, UhlomiJ tury, Uh{y singular is preferred after velars.
LOC. tull, Uhll, roel, rod, tuTU, uhLU tufieeh, UhUeh, rodeeh, (c) by semantics, thus collective terms seem to attract the loco sing.
Cui rozieeh, Cweh ending -u (as in paplru, souh/asu, hrachu, ndrodu), while distributive
VOCATIVE SlNOULAR: tufe, roku, rohu, eechu tenns tend to maintain the loco sing. in -I.
103. The archaic inflection of the DeS dual nom. and acc., pre- (d) by the need for syntactical clarity, a condition governing the
served in OOZ. doo 'two' and oba 'both', does not appear in the OOZ. now universal adoption of the 'animate' accusative singular in -4, the
reservation of the nom. plur. in -i for 'animate' nouns, the preference domu, loc. sing. domI), vik (vo~u, vo~), stl11 (stalu, stole), and tml (dolu,
for the dat. sing. and lac. sing. inflection -oui for nouns denoting dole). Nouns in -s hesitate between a loc. sing. in -u and a loc. sing.
persons, and the almost universal use of the inflection ":in the gen. in ~ (dopisu or dopist).
plur. Syntactical clarity may have dictated the need for a feminine Gen. sing. -0, locosing. -e/-I, the historical a-declension, is retained
inflection in the masculine loco plur. of sen 'dream', thus ve sndch 'in by a dwind1ing number of 'inanimate' masculine nouns. They
dreams'. include the following: ohld, thUb (gen. sing. thleba, loco sing. chiebl),
(e) by the need to differentiate homophones. This requires the lac. ,hU"" Ir.ostel, mljn, skl,P. ostroll, l,if)ot, hfhitov, venkov, svlt, and some
sing. of veler 'evening' to be veleru, since velefe, f. means 'evening place-names such as Lont/jn, lUm, BerUn, Mniclwv ('Munich'), Egypt,
meal'. But the lac. sing. ve stfedu 'in the middle' has persisted despite etc. The word les 'wood' retains an archaic loco plur. ltslch.
the fact that it coincides formally with the acc. sing. fern. ve stfedu Gen. sing. -a, loco sing. -u. A mixed class to which belong the
'on Wednesday'. names of the months [den. unor, bFezen, duben, kvlten, ltTven, srpen, and
(f) by the avoidance of root-modification for the sake of only one Fijtn. Here belong dobytelc. ;:;dkon, pondllek, utm k, {lvrlek,
inflection. This is the chief reason for the colIoquialloc. sing.jQ{)'ku dne1ek, and {.llfek. T ne last five form their loco plur. in -[ch, thus
beside the still current literary form ja{)'ce. Colloquial practice pondlkich, etc. Names of living beings all show the gen. sing. in -a.
eliminates the need for modifying to jfU,YC-. For a smilar reason the The dat. sing. and loco sing. are usually in -ooi for nouns denoting
colloquialloc. plur. isja{)'kdch, though the alternative formjll{)'C{ch persons, and in -u for names of creatures. The nom. plur. fluctuates
persists in writing. between the following types:
(g) by the force ofanalogy. The paired points of the compass have (a) Nom. plur. in -i with prepalatalization, the velars k, h, and ch
similar locative inflections, thus na severu 'in the north', najihu 'in becoming respectively c, z, and I (but Old Czech s). The preference
the south'. Contrast na vjchodl'in the east', na zdpadl 'in the west'. for a nom. plur. in -i is a fluctuating phenomenon but is usual with
velar bases such as kluk, nom. plur. kluci; bf1h, nom. plur. bozi, as well
as with the nouns bratr, nom. plur. braln,pose!, nom. plur.posli, orel,
nom. plur. orli, and many more.
(b) Nom. plur. in -I. This ending properly belongs to the i-
Gen. sing. -u, loc. sing. -u. These forms derive from the u-declension declension (§ 123) and is frequent in polysyllabic nouns denoting
(§ 125), and set the pattern for all 'inanimate' neologisms. Here human beings. These include names of nationals in -an, e.g. Slovan,
belong most loanwords and nearly all velar bases (Muk, roh, ruth, nom. plur. Slovani.
etc.). The last form their lac. plur. in -{ch with prepalatalization, (c) Nom. plur. in -ovl . This is the historical nom. plur. of the u-
thus hlucleh, rozich, ruJ{ch, etc. The words rok 'year' andjQ{)'k 'tongue' declension (§ 125). Here belong many nouns of foreign origin such
retain the historical gen. sing. in -a and the loco sing. in -t from _I, as kritik, nom. plur. kritikovl, monosyllabic and dissyllabic names of
thus roka-roce, jQ{)'ka-ja{)'ce, at least in literary usage. The gen. nationals such as Nor, nom. plur. Norovl. llai, nom. plur. ltalovl
sing. is preserved as a cliche in the phrase do roka 'within a year's
time'. Snlh 'snow' and vUr 'wind' display compensatory lengthening Foreign nouns in -iImus have their gen. sing. and dat. sing. in
in the nom. and acc. sing., otherwise the base is snlh-, vl tr_. -u, and the Latin inflection -us is dropped in declension. Cirkus,
Gen. sing. -u, loc. sing. -e/ -I. Here belong labial bases such as however, retains -us- throughout, thus the gen. sing. of ci,kus is
strop, strom, Uslav, hrob, all with the alternative loco sing. in -u. The cirkusu.
following also adhere to this type of declension: ztiklad, vjklad, In a series of names or titles only the last is declined with the
pfiklad, sklad, most, nos, hrad, vjchod, zdpad, vchod, ufad, dftm (gen. slng. inflection -olJi, thus panu doktoru KarJu Capkovi.
Of the Old Czech dual forms the following masculines survive in (na)jTvI is vowel-fronted by 'Umlaut', in Uto with dat. dual and inst.
poetry: rtoma 'to, with the lips', vakoma 'to, with the eyes'. dualletma, inst. plur. letmi, and in dfloo, nom. plur. drva.
The vocative singular normally ends in -e. Prepalatalization occurs
in worm of native origin (obfe!) but not in loanwords (majore!). If the
base is velar the voc. sing. ends in -u (kluku! Iwthu! soudruhu! fimlogu!)
but four archaic forms survive. They are Bob! llovlle! Jem! and 107. In the modern language the preposition po is employed
synu! The last form betrays the fact that .ryn belongs historically to exclusively with the locative case except in a few cliches deriving
the u-declension. from the CornS!. dative (see § 142). These are now felt to be
No feminine o-stems survive. Snacha 'daughter-in-law' is of the 'anomalous' locatives; such are po tllu 'all over the body', and the
a-declension, see § I l l . Contrast its Latin and Greek cognates adverbial cliches of type po tuku 'in Czech fashion'. The archaic
nurw, vv6s. The reason for the base-vowel of sruuha is obscure. dative after po may have given rise to some ofthe locative modifica-
tions not explainable by other means, thus jmino, loc. sing. jminu.
Elsewherenonnalizationofthe base seems to be the operative factor,
106. 2. NEUTER o-STEMS
especially with velar bases, thusjablko,loc. sing.jablku;jlw,loc. sing.
uno 'grain': Lat. granum, id. jlw 'yoke': Lat.jugum, id. jhu; uc/w, loco sing. uchu. Even so, bficlw, loco sing. Mile and rouclw,
Uslo 'adze': Lat. Ulum 'axe'. jdtra, plur. 'liver': Gk. WTE:pa 'entrails'. loco sing. roule follow the archaic pattern. The loco sing. mUu survives
unlo 'oar': Lat. vilum 'sail'. st~ 'hundred': Lat. centum, id. alongside mUku. Labial bases and others often form the loco sing. in
trdm 'flax-separator' (lE C): Lat. tribulum 'corn-separator' (lE i). -u, thus slovu or slovl, prdvu or p1'twl, hrdlu or hrdle. The following do so
Neuter o-stems are similar in origin to the o-stem masculines, but did invariably: nouns in -stvo and -duo, j e-tero, jmino, pho, pdsmo, bbro,
not occur prehistorically in the nom. sing., hence the nom. sing. of rdno, teplo, chladno, and semeno. Stftny uses a form 0 mistu boliem 'about
neuter o-stems had the form of the masculine accusative. The nom. the divine cl ty'.
and acc. plur. had collective force. Modern practice requires the loco plur. of velar bases to end in
-dch (jablktkh); this is yet another instance of paradigm normalization.
The requirement of an occasional short vowel in the gen. plur.-a

NOli. uno,jlw, Uto,javo, sto unl, (dol) sll .tma, (tfj)sta factor difficult to determine in Old Czech because of the ambiguous
ACC. uno <ml UM spelling-is not easy to account for, though the implied slur-tone may
GEN. UM .un, let, (pit) s61 point to the loss of a stressed inflection (cf. Gk.-wv). Short vowels
DAT. unu,jlwvi andjhu unoma,letmll unJm occur in the gen. plur. of the following: ~dda, gen. plur. ~ad; Uto, gen.
INST. Qnnn unoma, letma uny, kty and letmi plur. let; plro, gen. plur. per; jdtra, gen. plur. jater; jmino, gen. plur.
LOC. unJ,jlvl <nul .unUch, such jmen; prduo, gen. plur. prau; dlm (and delo), gen. plur. dll; but m(sto,
The isolated dat. sing. jlwui is due to the influence of masculine gen. plur. mist!
u-stems (§ 125) which, as we have seen, have become largely The forms of the neuter dual survive sporadically as follows: dvl
identified with velar-based o-stems. It does not survive in modern 'two', gen. dual and loco dual duou; dative and inst.
Czech. The following anomalous variants have also disappeared dolma. Cr. further dvl stl (Lat. du-centf) 'two nunarea', with plural
from the later language: uneto 'game-net', nom. plur. unata (cf. the forms in the remaining cases. Obl 'both' behaves like dui. The geni-
.tem of Lat. ar-mentum, -menta), the plural being formed on the tive and locative dual of ramena 'shoulders' and prsa 'breast' are
analogy of type ~viefe, ~viefata (see § 1 19). Further modifications, now respectively ramenhU and prsou; other cases are plural. The dual
ohsolete, are those occurring injauo 'manifestation', whose loc. sing. forms on and uJi are feminine (§ 124) despite the gender of oko and
",ho, and these retain the historical inflections except for the dative Stitnt has ,htie ~12 mul 'they wish to marry' and cnoditi za mu[ 'to
(oBm, ulim) and locative (o&h, ulkh) which are plural in form . An marry'. while the Alexandreid has piU krdl 'before the king' (motion)
archaism kfldloma 'with the wings' survives in poetry. and several examples oran acc. sing. kon 'hone', This survives in the
modern Czech cliche sedl na ktM 'he mounted' ,
108. 3. MASCULINE iO-STEMS The masculine io-declension has attracted nearly all the primary
e-stem nouns, of which, apart from den 'day', only traces survive in
sedldf 'saddler': Lat. sellarius, id.
Old Czech. Modern Czech tuJoottif 'innovator' (cf. Lat. Mvalbr),
Indf 'ftax-dealer': Lat. linarius, id.
piJJtjf 'herdsman' (ef. Lat. pdJror) and Old Czech psdf 'scribe'
vlnaf 'woolmerchant': Lat. lanarius, id.
originally belonged to the e-declension.
lemendf 'seedsman': Lat. slminarius, id.
A mixed type is that of nouns in -kl, such as sparitel 'saviour'. cf,
kopec 'hill', cf. Lat. capitium 'hood, peak' beside It. cappuuio 'headed
Lat. Viteliius,jilius, etc. Their nom. ace. and gen. plur. forms, like
cabbage' and Span. cahe.{.a 'head'.
those of psd', are of e-stcm origin. The isolated form prntel 'friend'
ratal' 'ploughman': Gr. apM'1S', id. Lith. IJrtojas is subject to fluctuation of the radical owing to vowel-frooting. In
olui£ 'fire', er. Lat. ignis, id.
modern Czech the declension has been simplified, regardless of
A declension of mixed origin including historical io-stems, which
'umlaut', to a singular base pHtel-, alternating with a plural base
are of adjectival derivation, cf. Lat. somn.ium ('thing of sleep') pfdtel-. Nephetel 'enemy' behaves as pfietel.
'dream' from somnus 'sleep', a number of former e-stems (§ 115 and Okei£ 'fire' was prehistorically an i-stem, cf. Lat. ignis, gen. plur.
§ 116), and one former i-stem (ohm: Lat. ign.is, see § 123).
ignium, Lith. ugnu, gen. plur. ugniq. A small group of nouns, related
SlNOULAR DUAL PLURAL historically to the active participle, is represented by mlsiee 'moon,
NOM. sedldf, otec, kopec, knl~, krdl sedldfl, penieze sedldfi, psdFe month' and tisjile 'thousand'. Only the last shows traces ofjts former
ACC. ledldf(l) sedldFl, penie{.e sedldFe adherence to the e-dedension, vi-t. nom. plur. tirjuu, cf. ORG
OEN. sedldf I , Old, kopel sed/diU sedldf(6u), psdr dilnml, id., and gen. plur. tisjile, cf. OHG dilsunto . This word appears
DAT. ledldiu, otcu, kopeu, krdlevi sedldfoma sedldf6m in modern Czech as lisfce. gen. plur. tw.
I NST. sedldfem sedldfoma ledldFi The type represented by IcflSlln£n, nom. plur. kfestlni, gen. plur.
LOC. led/dli stdldlu led/dFkh kftsftm 'Christian', and -temlnln, nom. p lur. -temlni, gen. plur. Qmjan
VOCATIVE SINGULAR sedldiu, oUe, kopu, knlb 'farmer' has not survived in modern Czech.
The isolated forms rot/ile 'parents' and konl 'horses' are held by
Here belong masculine nouns whose base or extension ends in -e, -l, some to be dual number extended into the plural, but the adjective
-tl, -i, -t, -F, -I, -f, -f, and some in -I, -I, -u, and -..c. Extended types inflection in the cliche wani konl dark horses' does not support this
with the fill-vowel, contract in declension, thw ottc and "opec con- view. Rodile is otherwise declined as an iQ-stem masculine, kM as an
tract to otd, kopel, etc. The 'animate' and 'inanimate' forms of the i-stem.
acc. sing. were formerly undifferentiated. The nom. plur. psdf, (cf. In modern Czech the ace. sing. ' animate' noun has the form of
Lat. picl6ris) and the gen. plur. psdr (cf. Lat. pictorum) are survivals the gen. sing., and the gen. plur. in -11 is universal. Such has been the
from the e-declension (§ 115). The genitive plural sedldF, on the practice ever since the fourteenth century.
other hand, implies by its iotacism an inflection cognate with that Czech knl~ 'priest' has remodelled its plural on the collective
of Latin jfuvium 'of rivers', from jfuuius 'river' . iia-stem, § 114. From a fern. sing. "nlBe 'priesthood' has evolved a
Even in the earliest texts the acc. sing. 'animate' form is that of the modern masc. plur. knlf! 'priests'.
genitive, a device for ensuring syntactical clarity (cf. § 103). But
Besides JuH there is one common noun of masculine gender belong-
109. 4. NEUTER iO-STEMS ing to this declension, viz. f,bH 'ladder'. Another group of masculines
lob 'bed': Gk. '\&xcov, adj. 'in childbed', and er. Lat. $olillm 'seat', closely resembles type Ju1i. The nouns of this group are sudl 'judge',
mof, 'sea', cf. Lat. Manum (a place-name). krajli 'tailor',lool! 'hunter', kall 'coachman', and bera'taxgatherer'.
Neuter io-stems are of adjectival origin and are related to the These are held by some to have had the feminine inflections of
o-stems. pan! (§ 114), by others to have been identical in declension with
NOW. t.!.. loli wtl To the neuter type QIlJmenu belong 14du 'ship' (beside 14dt, f., see
ACC . wb loli wO § J 14), a large group of collective nouns: lislie 'foliage', !amenu
GEN. wl/ wtu lot and wll 'stones', etc. (cf. Lat. tri-ruxtium, quinqu-mnium), and all verbal
DAT. wt. wt""" loliml and 1016m noun.s---j,denie 'eating', pitie 'drinking', jlti, 'taking', bylie 'life', etc.
INST. wtnn wbma wti NdsiU 'work' is a phonological variant with lowered -I after I.
LOC. lob lobI Ioli4ch In modem Czech only the neuters preserve this declension, and
Similarly declined are pole 'field', mice, gen. plur. mu, 'heart', only four of the twelve singular and plural inflections differ from the
ovoce 'fruit', rJajce. gen. plur. vaj" 'egg', It&e 'top, face', plUel, plur. nominative. These are the inst. sing., the dat. pluT., the inst. plur.,
'lungs', poler/M 'south, midday', dopokrl1l4 'forenoon', odpoudtu and the loc. plur. Masculine nouns formerly of this declension are
'afternoon'. For nib, 'sky' see es-stems, § 121. now declined as palatal adjectives of type tfetl 'third' (§ 131), thus
In modern Czech fIlhe is declined entirely like wie, with the usual Jift 'George', gen. sing. JiHho, dat. sing. Jiflmu, etc.
phonological adjustments. Vejce 'egg' retains the historic gen. plur. The once-collective, now plural, noun *nlll 'priests' has the
DOj" because of the law of syllabic division (see § 85). inflections of cuzmenl, but the singular is knll; with the (modem)
inflections of sedlaf. The modem Czech plural of .!lIJlet£ 'century' is
110. 5. MASCULINE AND NEUTER iio-STEMS staleti.
JvfI'George', from Lat. Georgius. 111. 6. FEMININE (AND MASCULINE) a-STEHS
.wlie (mod. wtf) 'river-mouth': Lat. 6stium, LLat. tlstium, OLat. vdova 'widow': Lat. vidua, id. DUna 'spring': Lat. lltr7Ul, adj .
plur. aush4. bradtJ 'chin, beard': Lat. barba paslva 'pasture': Lat. pascua, id.
vuzmenu 'sign': Lat. (i)gnamimum, usually f. ignominia. 'beard' mh1tJ 'mist': Gk. dJLlxA'1, id.
ni-14lU 'spouse', cr. Gk . .\oX(WV 'of child bed'. DIM 'wool': Lat. l4na., id. clna 'price': Gk. 1TOW"" 'bride-
bjU (with lowered -i after I) ·plant'. cf. Gk. 4>-J>..w" 'small tribe'.
UiiM 'strait': Lat. angiM price'
A class of abstract nouru, generalizations, group-terms, etc. of lUM 'moon': Lat. lUM, id. tdta 'daddy': Lat. tiita, id.
adjectival origin, probably related to the e-sterns or i-sterns. A type embodying historically oxytonic and historically barytonic
SINGULAR DUAL PLURAL feminine nouns of the following categories.
NOM . etamtme, n.; Jufl, m. vumunl ownunu J, Names of females (ltM 'woman', dlua 'girl'); names of things

ACC. cuztneme """"""I VUlmtnle without definite shape (voda 'water', mUka 'flour', skala 'rock', trarla
GEN. CUZtnem, QUJtnenf 'gras.cI',LUka 'meadow', mhla 'fog'); names of parts of the body (hlava
DAT. QUJrntniu, QWmenf (JIlltnIn{1TUl cuzmenlm, -urn 'head', ruka. 'hand', noka 'foot, leg', brada 'chin, beard'); names of
INST. C/amenfm cuzmenlma .cnamenl(mi) birds whicll are hunted, chased, or bred (sluka 'woodcock', lajka
LOC. I;namenl vuzmenkh 'plover' ; kavka 'jackdaw', urana 'crow', straJca 'magpie'; husa 'goose',

kachna 'duck'): names of fish ('Yba 'fish', ·Jlu/ca 'pike'): names of Owing to the scant documentation and ambiguous spelling of Old
insects (mz1cha 'Ay', vasa 'wasp', blcha 'Aea'): names of certain trees Czech some of the short vowels in the above list can only be inferred
(bfie~a 'birch', Upa 'lime-tree'): names of tools (pila 'file'): names of from modern usage. Nouns with the base-vowel d or £shorten also in
hollow objects and receptacles Udma 'hole'): names of substances the inst. singular in modern Czech (fravou, siwu), but the usage in
(sm61a 'pitch', hUna 'clay'); names of seasons (,oma 'winter'): names Old Czecn is uncertain.
of objects with passive function (luna 'moon') . Masculine nouns in ·a are held to be of collective origin, a type
2. Names of abstract qualities (Diera 'faith', krdsa 'beauty', mina which in modern Czech includes a number of pejoratives derived
'measure', sfla 'strength', bieda 'poverty'), many of which bore from adjectives (neposeda 'fidget'). Here also belong nouns of type
penultimate stress in ComSl. evandllista 'evangelist' (modern Czech evangelista) derived from
3. Collective and abstract nouns with extensions -ina, -ola, -oba, Greek nouns in -WT1JS. Modern practice inAects them in the dat.
etc. (~uHina 'game', vidina 'vision', slepota 'blindness', dludoba sing. and loco sing. and throughout the plural as if they were o-steIn!.
'poverty'). See § 11 . The nom. plur. ends in -I (eoangelisti).
4. A small number of 'vocational' masculine nouns (er. Lat. An important modification to feminine nouns with velar bases
agricola). Such are hrdina 'hero', vlddyka 'ruler', hospoda 'lord, master', occurs in the dat. sing. and the locosing. Here k changes to c: hand g
slaros/a 'elder, headman', sluha 'servant' , and vivoda 'duke'. change to .t:; and ch changes to s (in the later language to J). Thus
ruka 'hand', dat. and loco sing. ruel: noha 'leg, foot', dat. and loco
sing. nod: synagoga 'synagogue', dat. and loco sing. synagoQ; pjcha
NOM. vdova, ruka, nolw, pjclw, hfada vdovl, ruel, nohy vdovy 'pride', dat. and loco sing. pjsl (mod. pjJe). Cf. Prazl, loco sing. as
Ace. vdov" vdovl, rue/, nohy rJdovy L. Romae.
OEN. vdovy vdovU vdov The fill-vowel arises in the gen. plur. of monosyllabic bases,
OAT. vdovl, ruel, no(.l, pjsl, hfldl l1dovama l1dovam thUll 1TQ;da 'pay', gen. plur. me(.d; jhra 'game', gen. plur. jlur,
INST. vdovU vdovama vdooami but late loanwords are unaffected, thus banka 'bank', gen. plur.
LOC. vdovl, ruel, fWd, pjsl, hfldi vdovU vdovtkh bank.
VOCATIVE SINGULAR vdorJO Modern Czech dura 'daughter' has been remodelled as an a·stem
feminine, but the historical inAections of the er-stems remain in the
112. Some noum display a short vowel in the gen. plur., dat. plur., dat. sing. and the loco sing. Vowel-franting of nasal bases is now
imt. plur., and loc. plur. which alternates with a long vowel in the ignored, thus hFada, dat. and loco sing. hftull. The dual survives in
remaining cases. The chief of these are ruee 'hands'.
NOM. SING. GEN. OAT. INST . AND LOC. PLUR. Two feminine noum have an occasional nom. and acc. plur. of
huba 'fungus, sponge' hub, hubam, hubami, huMch neuter type in -a. They are luka 'meadows' and doba 'time' in the
luka 'meadow' luk, iukam, etc. phrase v fa doba 'at that time'.
krdva 'cow' krav, Mavam, etc.
skala 'rock' skal, skalam, etc.
sila 'strength' sil, sildm, etc.
diera 'hole' dlr, dlrdm, etc. med 'baulk': Lat. media 'middle' brnl'trapping!': Gath. brunjo, id.
mlr, mlram, etc. r(.I'rust': Lat. rubia 'redMdye obcl'community', cf. Lat. ambitia
miera 'measure'
knieha 'book' knlh, knlMm, etc. plant' v61e 'will': Osc. velliam, acc. id.,
rana, 'blow' ran, randm, etc. MU'storm'; cf. Lat.furia It. voglia
A declension of adjectival origin related to the a-stems. The collectives Matfie, knlIie are nowadays regarded as masculine
plural nouns with the inflections ofznamenE (cf. § 110). In Old Czech
they display a declension identical with that of panl except for the
NOM. rmzl, koll
ACC. meziu, MIu
rn"" ",,<I
nom. sing. The reason for the duality offonns in the nom. sing. is not

GEN. med """

nuziu mtZ, zem(i), kot and koll
clear, but the distinction had disappeared even in early texts.
Like panl are Ivadl£ 'seamstress', pfldU and pradlt 'washerwoman',
DAT. rn,,, mezlma mtzum roU 'field', lodl 'boat' (beside lodit, n.), Mafl 'Mary', and loanwords
INST. medu, kolu mtdma nudmi of the type of konfen 'confession' ,proce.si 'procession', kgacl'legation',
LOC. mez1 meziu meziech relacl 'relation', etc. Like bratfie are knliie 'priesthood', kduit, f. and
VOCATIVE SINGULAR -I neut. 'entrails', and Biblie 'Bible'.
The Slavonic diphthongja does not occur within the period of Czech Evidence of a feminine-type of declension for the masculine nouns
texts, but Cosmas (before I B~5) records a Czech name 'Lubussa' rudE, krajll, lovll, koll, and berll is inconclusive. See § 110.
The urunflected fonn of the gen. plur. survives in modern Czech
in nouns of the following types: (a) nouns in -ice (uliu, krabiu);
(b) nouns in -ynl (bohynl'goddess', cf. OIcel. ds-ynja 'goddess'); and U5. The source and subsequent history of this lE category is not
(c) Latin loanwords of type ponce, tradice. Note however that Latin easy to trace. That some relationship exists between the e-stem (or
loanwords in -ace maintain the inflection, thus relate 'relation', gen. 'consonant-stem', called 'athematic' by Meillet) and the poly-
plur. relad. syllabic nature of many of its representatives is suggested by the
The truncation of some nouns of this class in the nom. and ace. Latin rule that polysyllabic bases (Lat. capit-, etc.) require the
sing. (from med to mez, ztml'earth' to Ztm) is a tendency present in inflection of the 'consonantal' declension, hence the genitive plural
Old Czech. In the later language this has caused a shifting of capitum, etc. Moreover it may be justifiable to regard Latin nouns
declension, so that modern Czech re" 'rust', po.sul 'bed', mez 'baulk', with a long base (lig-, rig-, vac-) as being equivalent in duration to
obec 'parish', and ztm 'ground' (at least in the phrase no "em 'to the dissyllables, but this does not explain the 'i-declension' of Latin
ground') have taken on the characteristics of the e-dec1ension (see plih.s, nfiblJ, civir, finis, and many more. Benveniste distinguishes
§§ 115 and 116) . ie-stems, whose representatives, having a full-grade vowel (e or 0)
within the base must accordingly have had a reduced vowel in the
114. 8. FEMININE ija-sTEMS stem. This interesting theory is contradicted, however, by the evi-
(a) MaH, from Lat. Maria. (b) bra/fie 'brotherhood': Lat. dence of Latin verrlJ, gen.plur. verrium; me.ssis, gen. plur. nu.ssium, etc.,
panl 'lady'. ftattria, id. while many· 'consonant-stems' display a base-vowel a, i, 1'2, etc.
SINGULAR DUAL PLURAL Much confusion has taken place between the e-stems and the
i-stems, and no lE language maintains the distinction on the basis of
NOM. pant, bratfU pant panie
purely mechanistic phonology. Thus Latin generalizes all nouns in
ACC. panu pan! panu
-tir (vectis, mtis, ho.stir, po.stis, u.sti.s) to the i-stem form of dtm, gtM,
GEN. panie paM. panl
jom, mem, pom, and lac. The nom. sing. alone indicates their diverse
DAT. pan! paniema paniem
origin. Greek on the other hand differentiates between t-extended
INST. panu paniema panumi
monosyllabic bases, which are of 'consonant-stem' (VU" gen. pluT.
LOC. pan! panu panitth
VVK7wv) from dissyllabic t-bases, which are of i-stem (O"n:w~S", gen.
plur. aTcW£wv). Barytonic nouns with base vowel () (7T6"\~~, 1100'S', 75
/5r/JtS', opX,s) are true i-stems. A mixed type is Greek ots, which has
a partly 'consonant-stem' inflection in the nom. plur. (otcs"). but an
i-stem inflection in the gen. plur. (OlWIf, cf. Lat. gen. pluT. ouium, kdmen 'stone': Gk. rlKf.l.WV 'anvil': Lith. akmuiJ, gen. plur. akmenq 'stone'.
Lith. aviQ, OHG ewio, Skt. dvinam). The lE word for 'night' koren 'root', whatever its origin, agrees in form and declension with
hesitates between e-stem and i-stem, thus OCz. nod 'nights', gen. Lat. caro, gen . plur. camum 'flesh': Umbrian karu, dat. and ab!.
plur, noc£is reflected in Latin noctes, gen. plur. noctium, and in Latvian sing. karm 'part, piece, flesh',
naklis 'nights', gen. pluT. nakCu, whereas OCz. Veliko-nou. plur. A group of nouns denoting 'part, derivative, associate', cc. Lat.
'Easter', gen. plur. Veliko-noc is reflected in OHG naht 'nights', gen. vermen ('derivative of vermis') 'vermin'; OCz. prsten ('associate of
pluT. nahto, in Lith. ndkrys 'nights', gen. plur. naktq, and in Gk. PTSt') 'ring'. Cc. also Lith. kirmens, pI. 'vermin' (derivative of kirmir
VVKT£S',gen. plur. VVK'TWV. 'worm'), singularized in kirmuiJ, efLr 'single worm'.
Traces of monosyllabic e-stems occur in Old Czech, but the
majority are dissyllables extended by the consonants n, nt, r, s, and t
respectively. NOM. "amen, kolen kameny kamenje, kameni
Ace. kamen "ameny kameny
116. g. SIMPLE e·STEMS ('CONSONANT -STEMS') GEN. kamene kamen(-l, 01), kolen
DAT. Icameni kamenom
den 'day', cc. Skt. dina~, id., Lat. nun-dinae 'ninth-day market', Olr.
INST. kamenem kameny
tWin-den 'nine-day period', OHG kngi-;:.in, OE kng-ten (,lengthen-
LOC. Icameni kamenech
ing of days') 'Lent, spring'.
fen or lri'i 'harvest', a zero-grade radical Contaminated forms are the nom. sing., derived from the acc. sing.
A limited class with primary inflections maintained chiefly in in contrast to OCS nom. sing. kamy; the nom. and acc. dual; the loco
extended dissyllables. sing.; and both forms of the nom. plur. which are those of the i-stems.
Other nouns of this class are kfernen and .lkfemen 'flint', plamen 'flame',
jltmtn 'barley', pr.llen 'finger-ring', hlehen 'comb' and kmen 'tribe'.
NOM. Jm dne, dni, dnie, dni, dnODe Modern Czech inflects these nouns throughout the plural with the
ACC. d" dny endings of the o-stems. Nouns in ·an, such as hltan 'throat': Lat.
GEN, d", <1nl glutiin 'glutton', whatever the origin of the stem, are indistinguishable
OAT. dni dnom from o-stems. 'Animate' nouns of type zeman have an alternative
INST . d_ dny nom, sing. (~mlnln, nom. plur. ;:.emlni). Similar to zemlnln 'farmer'
LOC. dne, dni dnech are mlllan and mlillnln 'citizen', nom. plur. mlIllni; Kle.lfan and
This declension is contaminated with inflections from the i-stems Kle.stlnln, nom. plur. Kfe.ltlni . .lelen 'stag', historically an e-stem, is
declined like an o-stem.
(§ 123) and the u-stems (§ 125) . Velikonoce, plur. 'Easter', gen. plur.
VelikoTlbc maintains an e-stem in the nom. plur. and the gen. plur.,
whereas noc 'night', nom. plur. non, gen. plur. noel is an i-stem. The archaic gen. plur.
Similarly tisiuc 'thousand', nom. plur. tisjUce, gen. plur. tisjuc (cf. survives in the phrase od "olen (SHtny: z kolen) 'utterly', and in the
§ 173). ten or tdi 'harvest', nom. plur. i.nl is of uncertain declension. modem dialectal expression, now standard, do koldn 'wide open',
Sle;:.en (or sle;:.ri'i), rnasc. or fern. 'spleen' (Lat. lien: Gk. O'1TA~v) is of
uncertain declension.
are Tl.paS, gen. sing. Tf.paTOS 'sign', cf. OCZ. ldfU 'sorcery' (Stftny).
118. tt . NEUTER en-STEMS Kf.pOS 'horn', Kpl.as 'flesh', alMS 'brilliance', and 7Tl.pas 'end'.
Latin has normalized the type either as an en-stem (impedimen),
sieml 'seed': Lat. slmen, id. sUml'roof-ridge': Lith. Ie/muo, id. or as an o-stem (jummtum), with coinciding forms in the plural
bfieml'burden': Ok. ~PJJ-Q, id. (impedimenta, hence sing. impedimentum by analogy) . The isolated
A group of nouns of verbal origin. By the addition of the zero-grade word tendo 'hunting-net', with its nom. acc. plur. tmata, is of this
of v-men- ' remain, be' a given verbal radical, iftraruitive, became a type. Its near cognate in Greek Tf.IIWII 'sinew', nom. plur. Tf.voVTES
verbal noun with passive force (thus Gk. r/np- 'bear' > 4Ip-J.W. 'what suggests that there is some relationship between nt-stem neuten
is borne'). If the verbal radical was intransitive, the corresponding and the active participle (see § 173) .
verbal noun was active, thus Gk. pEW 'flow' > pEV-p.a 'what flows' , SINGULAR. DUAL PLURAL
cc. Lat.jfuD 'flow' > jfa-mm 'what Bows'. Nouns ofthi! class have lost
NOM. zuiefl uidltJ zviefata
all trace of their verbal connexions within the framework of Slavonic
ACC. zuiefl zvidltl zuiefata
grammar; such connexions can only be deduced from non-Slavonic
GEN. zviefete zviefatu zviefat
DAT. zvieflti t:.viefatma t:.viefatdm
INST. zviefltem zviefatma zviefary
NOM . sieml semeni sewf1Q LOC. t:.vieflti zviefatu zviefltech
ACC. mm; slmmi si""""
The stem-vowel descends from a nasal (l E -tt) and is therefore
GEN. SlWM slmenll slmen
subject to vowel-fronting before e, I, and i, a feature maintained in
DAT. slmmi sbrunonuJ slmen4m
s/wnomtJ slwny the modem language. The e-stem features are borne by the singular
INST. ,i"""""
,/mnri slmenu and dual, and by the loco plural. The rest are those of the neuter
LOC. slmmi"h
Similarly declined are rdml'shoulder', gen. sing. rawlIl; tieml 'crown Of similar type are vole 'crop, maw', lcufl 'chick', IwtJ 'kitten',
of head', gen. sing. Ilmene; I!ftnl 'udder', gen. sing. vtWM; pUml prasl 'sow', holubl'young dove', diDll 'girl', pupl'bud', koIl! 'broom',
'tribe', gen. sing. p1emeM; jml 'name', gen. sing. jmme. Modem unUll 'grandchild'. Here also belong chldpe 'yokel', kniet.! 'reigning
Czech has recast neuter en-stems on the model of the neuter o-stenu, prince' and hrabl 'baron', but these have become masculine in
thus semeno, ram.eno, etc., but the older forms persist in poetry. The modem Czech. Dl)()jlata 'twins' has plural forms.
dialect of South Bohemia preserves an interesting variant of the DietJ 'child' has the gender as well as the singular and dual forms
neuter en-stem. Here the oblique forms coincide with those of the of zuiefl; the plural gender and forms are those of feminine i-stems,
nt-extensions to form a paradigm which is paralleled in Greek. Thus thus dlti, gen. plur. diU.
nom. acc. sing. bHml = Gk. t/>Epp.a; gen. sing. bflmlte = Gk. TeTUto 'hunting-net', with its nom. and acc. plur. tenata, has dis-
""pp.aTOS; nom. acc. plur. bflmata = Gk. 4I.pp.aTa. appeared from the modern language where it has been levelled as an
o-stem. Its history is similar to that of Latin tegumen > tegu17Ulntum,
12. NEUTER nt-sTEMS plur. tegumenta.
119. Nouns oflhis type are historically collective, and many of them 120. 13. FEMININE er-STEMS
denote young animals. No exact cognates occur outside Slavonic,
but t:.uiefl 'animal' is closely related in form to Ck. 9~paJJ-a 'game', mdti and mdtl, gen. sing. malefe 'mother': Lat. miiter: Gk. JJ-tfr'1P'
gen. sing. 9~pll.TOS', which is a verbal noun. Typical nt-stems in Greek dei, gen. sing. dcefe 'daughter': Oscanfutlr: Gk. (Jvya.T1jp.
nel, gen. sing. ntitft 'niece': Lat. neptis 'granddaughter' beside Skt. SJNGULAR DUAL PLURAL
TUJPtrib, id. NOM. Mbe, kolo - , kolesl nebesa, kolesa
A limited group of nouns denoting family relationship. Ace. Mbe, kola - , Irolesl nebesa, kolesa
GEN. Mbl, koUz ",hu
NOW. mlfti and mdtl, dei matdi, dem mate1e, detft INST. Mbtm, koltm "'huy
ACC. matd, ded maim, dedi mate1e Loe. nebju rubtrlech
GEN. malde "",In' The singular of nebua has been recast in the earliest records on the
OAT. matefi matdem and malerdm pattern of the neuter ia-stems (see § Jog), while that ofkolesa has been
INST. matehi. mattfmi and materami remodelled on the pattern of the neuter o·stems (see § 106) . Derived
LOC. malefi maldeeh and matmuh forms in modern Czech testify to the former existence of other
VOCATIVE SINGULAR mati, dei es-stems. Such are tlleso 'unit, fixture' beside tllo 'body', and sloueso
'verb' beside slouo 'word' (Gk. KAlos 'rumour, fame').
The alternative a-stem forms of the dat. inst. and loco plur. are
actually recorded earlier than the traditional ones, but this may be 15. MASCULINE te·sTEMs
an accidental occurrence. Stltny uses the forms ma/tram, mattrami.
122. This small group lacks cognates outside Slavonic. Of similar
Former masculine nouns of the above declension disappeared
before the period of recorded Old Czech, thus devef 'brother-in-law' type is Lat. salas, gen. sing. saliUis, which is of the 'consonantal'
declension. Most nouns of te-stem have already passed into the
(Lat. levir) forms its genitive deuefe according to the io-stems, while
o-declension by the time O ld Czech records begin, but sporadic
bratr 'brother' (Lat. frdter) forms its genitive brafTa according to the
a -stems. In a similar way hUstr 'gander' (OLat. lumstr) forms its instances of te-stems occur. The following are held to be of this
genitive hUsera. Stltny however maintains a collective form of bratr declension: deml 'tar' (Lith. degutas, id.), gen. sing. deMe; loket 'elbow'
(usually fem .); drobet 'fragment'; krapel 'drop'; and nellet 'fingernail'.
as a plural, thus we find a gen. plur. od bratfl 'from the brethren'.
Modem Czech has replaced the archaic mdti, mdtl, and dei by A solitary instance of this declension survives in the modem Czech
cliche wet lokel PWTUl 'ten ells of canvas-cloth'. Oset 'prickle, sow-
a-stem modifications: matka and dura, but the historical ending of
the dat. sing. and loco sing. !km is maintained. Mati 'mother' in thistle' and Diemt 'wisp' have passed into theu-declension (see § 125) .
modem poetry is a deliberate archaism, while nel'niece' is alleged by
some to be spurious. The current word is netef.
Junt 'stranger, guest': Lat. hostU, gen. pIur. hostium 'stranger, enemy':
121. 14. NEUTER eS-STEMS
OHG gast, gen. plur. gestio 'guest'.
nebesa, plur. 'sky, skies, heaven': Gk. vlt/>Eo.: Skt. nabhasd, cr. Hitt. .;:U'son-in-law': Lat. g'ns, gen. plur. gentium 'tribe'.
nepisa",a 'sky'. pul, rnase. and fern . 'journey, pilgrimage': Lat. pons, gen. plur.
A limited class which has almost disappeared from Old Czech, and pontium 'bridge' (lit. 'passage') .
of durative or permanent aspect. Contrast the notions implied in ;;Dlf 'game-animal': Lith.lulris, gen. plur.lvbill., id.: Gk. 8~p, id.
Gk. ylvos, nom. pIur. ylv£o.: Lat. genus, nom. pIuI'. genera 'race' (udie, plur. 'people': Latv. laudis, plur., gen. plur. Jauzu, id.: ORG
(permanent aspect) and Gk. y6vos 'begotten child' (with base-vowel liuti, plur., gen. plur. liutio, liutiu, id.
0, and ofo-stem, displaying resultant aspect). Hus (proper name): OHG gans, gen. plur. ganso and gensio 'goose'.

tUf, gen. sing. /Uti (but. mod. Iou!, gen. sing. loult ) 'torch, pine1og': NOM. host, m .; kost, f. hosti; oli, uli, f. hostie. tfie. m.;
kosti, dfui, tfi, f.
Lat. lax, gen. pluT. liicium'light' ,er. ORG loug, gen. plur. iougiu, id.
lest 'ruse, cunning': OHG list, rnase. and fern., gen. plur. listio, id. ACC. ,"", hosti; oEi, uli hosti
myJ'mousc': Lat. mUSt gen. plur. milnum, id. (but Gk. ,.,.fk, nom. plur. GEN . hosti hosfu; olU, uJU hosll
hosti hostmtJj ol(i)mtJ, uJ(i)ma hostem
P.V€S', gen. plur. !-'vun', id.) . DAT.
s-mrt, u-mrt 'death': Lat. mors, gen. pIUT. ·mortium: Lith. mirtis, gen. INST. hostemj kostU hostma; ol(i)ma, uJ(i)ma hostmi
hosti hosM; olU, uJU hosuch
pluT. *mirCiii.. id. LOC.
0$ 'axle': Lat. axis, gen. plur. axium: Lith. aJis, gen. plur. aIiq, id. VOCATIVE SINGULAR hosti J. J·mrti
moc 'power': OHG moht, gen. plur. mthtio, id. 124. The dative and instr. dual forms olma, olima. and uJma, ulima are
rwc 'night': Lat. nox, gen. plur. noctium: Latv. nakts, gen. pluT. naklu. of equally early occurrence. DEi shows lengthen~ng of ~~ base-vow~l
For Velikonoce, pluT. 'Easter' and Vdnoce, plur. 'Christmas', see in the locative after v 'in' (cf. Stltny: jako hflb£ci v uoU hke thorns 10
§ 115 and § 116. the eyes'), a practice maintained in the pre~si,tio~al cli;he of
dfui, dvefi, plur. 'door': Lat.foris, gen. plur. forium, id. (but OHG modem Czech tp-8Ci 'in face of'. cf. R. V()-OC1.JI~ eVIdently. The
turi, gen. plur. luro, and Lith. duTYs, gen. plur. dur4., id. are of the modem locative dual is otherwise o&h.
'consonantal'declension). In modern Czech the pattern of masculine nouns of i-stem origin
vu 'village': OLat. viccm, id. has completely changed, and only one noun, a plu~allidl 'p~ople',
Un 'laziness': Lat. linis, gen. plur. linium 'gentle'. maintains i-stem inflections. For the rest the archaIC declensiOn of
sol 'salt', er. Latv. siils, gen. plur. siiJu, id. (but Lat. siil, gen. plur. host is sometimes used as a literary device, thus Zeyer writes miljmi
salurn is 'consonantal'). hostmi 'by the dear guests' (1888), but the normal decl.ensi~n o~t~i8
pa-mU'memory': Lat. mins, gen. plur. 11U!ntium 'mind': Lith. mintis, word is that of an o-stem, its plural hostl alone betraYing Its onglO.
gen. plur. minEiq 'thought'. Pouf 'pilgrimage' and zvlf 'game-animal' are now feminine. The
A large group of nouns representing (a) a primitive common gender process of break-down in masculine i-stems is of early date, and even
which became differentiated by usage and association and (b) a Old Czech leLud 'acorn', medvld 'bear' and Iwlub 'dove' are of
verbal noun of lE type .-t1s related to the lE passive participle in o-declension while ohm 'fire' and uhtl 'coal' are of io-stem pattern.
·-16s. Thus lE ··tis is represented by Lat. dos, gen. sing.dotis(·'giving, In Old Cze~h the following masculines maintained for a time the
gift' hence) 'dowry', while lE ·-tds is represented by Lat. ddlus inflections of the i_declension: zlf 'son-in-Iaw', test. gen. sing. tsti
'given'. Compare further Gk. KA{(nS, gen. sing. KAwEws'slope': 'father-in-law', Juf and fif, nom. plur. Iifje (Stitny: Knieha Iestcrd)
Olce.1. hUb, nom. plur. hlibir, id.: Lith. Jlitis, e-en. sing. JlitilJ 'pile,
rump': Skt. Jrili~ 'approach' as against Skt. fritdIJ. Contrast
, .
'wife's brother' lrv 'worm', strlnl 'pith', ndv 'death', zvlf 'animal',
, ('
two loanwords k11U!t 'peasant' (from Lat. comitem) and tal part Irom
OCz. byt 'being': Gk. tPvat~, f:W~ 'nature' with OCz. -byt, passive Ger. Teil). and the surname Hus. .'
part.: Gk. 1>lJTtk. For feminine nouns the modem Czech pattern 15 essennally that
Here also belong many abstract nouns in -st such as Uf.lst 'horror': of Old Czech, differing only by the absence of all dual forms except
Ger. Angst 'fear'. Many of these are derived from adjectives, thus those of oEi u.Ji and the representation of iu by I. Intolerant of
mladost from mladj. They are similar in origin to English rust, dust, triliteral ciuste~ modern Czech substitutes the inst. plur. tftmi
lust, mist, blast, harVl!st, etc. for OOz. tfmi, likewise zedmi 'by walls' for DOz. zdmi. DVI!f, 'door'
Of common gender are chof'spouse', andpuf'journey, pilgrimage'. has now a mixed declension with forms derived from the e-stems

and the ia-stems. Sdi 'salt' loses length in declension, thus gen. Nouns with d in the nom. and acc. sing. shorten to 0 throughout
sing. soli. declension.
The list of feminine j·stem nouns in Old Czech is fairly large and Though the u-sterns are no longer regarded as a distinct declension
includes nit, 'thread', lUst, gen. plur. list! 'part', lest, gen. sing. lsri their influence on other stems has been so powerful that nowadays all
.. .
. vie 'thing'. llwt 'quarter'. plst 'fist', rukojlf ' handle' trest,
gen. Sing. trsll cane, rush', lopot 'sorrow', etc.
singular forms of 'animate' a-stems with the exception of the gen.
sing. are of u-stem origin. Moreover neologisms of 'inanimate'
, ~e t~'e, m., ,In, f. are ttyf¥. m. 'four', l4Yfi. f. The numeral pit o-stem are also given u-stem inflections (see § 105). The Old Czech
fiv~ IS smgular m type and has the oblique form plti in all cases but vocative of type sedldf (sedldrol) testifies to the influence of the u-stem
the Instrumental, which is p1lj';. Thus also lest, sedm, etc. whence it is derived. The u-stem inflection -dv of the gen. plur. has
The dual number of the i-sterns is reflected in OPec. aB 'two become that of the 0- and jo-stems.
eyes', and in OPer. uJi 'two ears'. Old Czech prri, f. 'breasts' is There are no records of a dual gen. and loc. of the u-declension.
declined as a plural (inst. prsm;). Modem Czech has replaced this by The modem Czech family designate in -oui (Naodkovi 'the Novili')
a neuter plural of o-stem. viz. prsa, dat. prAm, inst. prsy. But the gen. is of adjectival origin.
and loco preserve an o-stem dual (prsou) .

125. 17. MASCULINE U-STEMS svekrev and svekr".. 'mother-in-law': Lat. saCTUS, id., cf. Ger. Schwieger-
.ryn 'son': Lith. siinw, id .: Skt. siinub, id.: Goth. SUn/M, id.
ddm 'house': Lat. domus, id. The aspect of feminine u-stems, like that of the masculines, is
functional, cf. krakev 'roof-truss', ostrev 'drying-stick for hay', vrSUD
wd 'honey': Lith. medw, id.: Skt. mddhu, id.: Gk. p./8" 'wine': OE
medu 'mead' . 'layer', rakeD 'coffin', etc.
The lE masculine nouns in -us denote function. Neuters in -u
NOY . sDCkreu, svekrvy suekrvi svekrve
some~mes d~note function (cf. Lat. veru 'javelin', cornu 'horn'),
Ace. svekrcu svckrui svekrvc
sometimes flUId substances (cf. Lat. bitu-mtn, bttu-mtn from Gaulish,
further Skt.jdtu 'resin', cognate with OE cwcadu
GEN. suckrve svekrvf
DAT. svekrui svekrvem
'resin'). Cr. also Ok. Sa.KPV 'teardrop': OE titJr, id. U-stem neuter
nouns have become masculine in Slavonic and Lithuanian.
INST. svekru svekrvemi
LOC. svekrvi suekrvcch
NOY. .ryn, d6m (,ba)poly .rynovc, S)'TIDDl The evidence ofOes shows that the nom. sing. inflection offeminine
ACC. .ryn, d6m (,ba)poly ,-,'"y u-sterns was long (lE *-rls), cr. OCS svekry and the parallel Skt. form
GEN. .ryna, domu
'ynb' IvaJrilb, id. The Old Czech nom. sing. forms are contaminated with
DAT. J)'l'IU and synoui, domu and domovi ",,6m
"rn>ma those of the oblique cases. Cinluv 'church' fonns its gen. sing.
INST. .rynnn, domcm {YMma "ay elrckDe. In later Czech many u-stem feminines passed into the
LOC. .rynu, damu .ryniech a-declension, thus poehev 'sheath' > poehva, vrslcv 'layer' > vrslrJtJ.
Indeed this process dates back to Old Czech where we find obrva
To the u-declension belong I:rch 'top' (Lith. vjrIus, id.) led 'ice', dor 'eyebrow' (contrast Gk. &rppVr, r. id.) and lelva 'tortoise' (contrast
'gift', sUd 'judgment', slon 'tent', pol 'half', v6i 'ox' and many more. Gk. XE'.\vS", f. id.).


(a) bro2trov 'brother's', cf. Lat. patruus, adj . 'uncle's'; the cognate
127. Czech adjectives are of two kinds, Primary and Extended. form is seen in Lat.frtUru-ilis 'brother's son'.
With one exception the primary adjectives are related to the o-stem (b) sestfin 'sister's: Lat. sobrinus, sobrina 'cousin-german'.
and a-stem nouns, but for reasons of syntactical clarity they have tnatefin 'mother's'; cf. Lat. mtiJemus.
assumed some of the inflections of the extended adjectives. The latter SINGULAR DUAL PLURAL
arose out of a fusion of the simple noun-like form with a following
NO~. bro2trov, 0.6002, 0.600; bro2troM, m· bratrooi, m ., 0.69'. C.,
demonstrative pronounj,jl,je, cognate with Latin is, ea, and with
sestfin, a, 0 0.6v1. f. n -OM, n.
Lithuanian jis, ji (see § 138, Demonstrative Pronouns) . Thus the
Ace. bratrov, -oW, -000; bro2trovo2, m. braITo9'. m.f.• o.6M, n.
predicative formula [una jest nova displays an Old Czech primary
sestfin(a), u, 0 -ovl, f.n
adjective with noun-inflection; the attributive formula on the other
GEN. bratrolla, m.n., bratrow. bro2trol!fch
hand would be novd luna (R. nova-ja iuna: Lat. ·nolla ea lana), uit.
bratro9', f.
an adjective extended prehistorically by a demonstrative enclitic
OAT. bratrow, m .n., bro2b'orrym
pronoun and subsequently fused into one word. In Lithuanian the
bratrovl, f.
so-called 'definite' formula as in Naujds-iJ Testameiftas 'the New
INST. bratroojm, m.n., bro2trovjmi
Testament' is nowadays applied to notions in which there is an idea
bratrovU, f.
of permanence, and is compounded, more transparently than in
LOC. bro2trovl, m.f.n. bratroojch
Czech, of the inflected adjective (e.g. naujas 'new') and the pronoun
jis 'he, this'. Apart from the length of 0 in the nom. and acc. sing. rnase., the
Old Czech, unlike the modern language, occasionally displays the inflections of b'atrov and sestFin are identical. The gen. sing. rnasc. is
primary adjective used attributively, thus MlI mime 'the new moon'. the normal form of the accusative when used with 'animate' nouns',
The rarity of such fonnulae, however, makes the construction of a this usage now being universal. There is little trace in Old Czech of
complete paradigm for this type of adjective impossible, and the the vowel-franting, characteristic of other Slavonic languages, which
inflections must be deemed identical with those of nouns. There are, occurs when primary adjectives are fonned from nouns of i-stem. or
however, two types of primary adjective known for convenience as io-stem, thus ote60 is nonnal, while ·otclv is unrecorded, but the
Personal Adjectives. Alexandreid (circa 1300) has both krdloo and kTalev.
The Penonal Adjective is the only adjective in old or modern Modern Czech preserves all the inflections of the Old Czech
Czech to retain the remnants of a primary declension. Primary Personal Adjective acept for those of the dual. The inflections -ov
inflections appear in the nom., ace., gen., dat., and loco sing., and -u are of course modified to -Bv and -ou respectively. The nom.
throughout the dual, and in the nom. and ace. plur. The other plur. rnase. is nowadays differentiated into an 'animate' form for use
inflections are derived from the extended declension. The penonal with the names of living beings, thus bratroui, sesth'ni, and an 'inani-
adjective is of two types, (a) derived from names of males, (b) mate' form bratro9', ustfiny. Families are nowadays designated by
derived from names of females. The prototype nouns are commonly the rnase. plur., thus Novdkooi 'the Novaks'.
names of kinship, thus otIC > OtcOll, bratr > bratrov, sestra > sestFin, Relics of primary adjectives other than the personal adjectives listed
mall> malmn, terms of permanent relationship, thus sUrId > stltlddo, above survive in a number of modern stereotypes sueh as vnovl, awva
and proper names and titles, thus Permenio > Perwnioo, krdl > kraiev 'anew', doceia'quite', {daleka 'from afar', {bl{Q;o2 'from close at hand',
and krdldo. Z listajasna 'out of the blue', tplna hrdla 'at the top of one's voice', etc.
Adjectives derived from participles all belong to type notj. thus
129. EXTENDED ADJECTIVES: O-STEM AND a-STEM jat} 'taken' (Lat. emptus), lit} 'sewn' (Lat. sutw) , vlntJtj 'woolly' (Lat.
lamitus), zrnatj 'grained' (Lat. griinatus), bradatj 'bearded, chinned'
novj 'new'! Lat. novus, id. snlhovj 'snowy': Lat. niveu.r. (Lat. barbatus), u1i1f (- svldek, mod.) 'eared' (Lat. auritus), as well as
tivj 'alive': Lat. vivus, id. dTlj 'quick, fresh': Gk. 9puAAos n-extended participles of type vedenj 'led', vidlnj 'seen' (cf. Gk.
mrtvj 'dead': Lat. mortuus, id. 'rush'. lo«v6S' 'beautiful' Hes.), and the m-extended participles of type
kvj 'left-hand': Lat. iaevus, id. pIny 'full': Lith. pilTUlS, id.: Eng. uidomj 'visible'. etc.
rudj 'red': Lat. rufus'red-haired'. full. Here too belong adjectives in -ni, an extension denoting possession
blbj 'stupid': Lat. balbus 'stam- tub} 'dear': Ger. lith, id.: Eng. or content. Such are vim} ('possessing loyalty' hence) 'loyal', silnj
mering'. lie]. 'strong', tulnj 'fatty', mulnj 'farinaceous', and many more.
lestj 'sixth': Lat. sextus, id. divnj 'strange, wonderful': Lat. Former adjectives of u-declension have passed into the o-/a-
olurovj 'fiery': Lat. igneus, id. divinus 'divine'. declension by the addition of an extension -k as in Greek 1TAa.TVI(Os-
SINQULAR DUAL PLURAL from ?TAan:s and in Sanskrit laghuka/.l from laghUf/. Cr. also Lith.
saldokas 'sweetish' from saldUs 'sweet'. Examples in Old Czech
NOM. novj m., nova f., nove n. nova m.n., novl m ., novl f., include ItMj 'light', sladkj 'sweet', hFidkj 'sharp, repulsive', and
novitj f. nova n. many more.
ACC. nooj m., novu r., novl n. nova m.n., novl m.f., nova n.
GEN. novlho m.n., novl f. novu novjth OF ADJECTIVES
DAT. novlmu m.n., now} r. novjma novjm
INST. novjm m.n., novU f. novjma novjmi 130. The Old Czech paradigm is complicated by internal vowel-
LOC. novitm m.n., novie} r. novu novjch fronting, a phenomenon which is sporadic and inconsistent, occur-
ring for the most part in feminine forms. The adjectives affected are
An alternative to the loco sing. masc. novum is the form novem, those which once contained a nasal vowel, e.g. svatj 'holy': Lith.
which is also the modern form. The dat. and loco sing. fern. has lventas, id. Examples ofvowe1-fronting are 0 svltie} L'udmile 'about 5t
several alternative spellings to nOllu}, of which the commonest is Ludmila' and 0 sv/tiem Vaclav/'about St Wenccslas'. The nom. plur.
nove}. The modern form is TU)1l1. masc. form is sv/tt. From nellastnj 'unhappy' derives the nom. plur.
Like novj are declined the possessive adjectives mo}, ma, mi'my', form neIllstn!. Though vowel-franting in adjectives of this type
tvo}, Iva, tvi 'thy', gen. sing. miho, tvlho, and svo}, .wli, svl 'own', gen. has disappeared from modern Czech, prepalatalization persists in
sing. svlho. The adjectives dvo}, oM} 'twofold' and trd} 'threefold' are the nom. plur. masc. 'animate' form. The principal modifica-
oftenuncontracted and have the oblique foons of}.}l,}e (see § 138, tions are is follows (with modern Czech -Itl, -ltl for Old Czech
Demonstrative Pronouns). But the gen. sing. masc. and neut. is .m, -£8),
dvlho, etc., the dat. sing. rnasC. and neut. dvlmu, etc., and the loc.
sing. mase. and neut. dvlm, etc. The inst. sing. is dvjm, etc., the inst. dobTj 'good'; nom. plur. masc. dobf!
dual dvjma, etc., and the inst. plur. dvjmi, etc. [eskj 'Czech'; nom. plur. rnasc. ltlll
The adjective kj 'what, what kind of' (Gk. ?TOWS: 5kt. kayaM was ubohj 'poor'; nom. plur. rnasc. uboz.l
an a rchaism even in Old Czech, but the word survives in the modern vtlikj 'big'; nom. plur. masc. velicl
cliches kj div! 'what a wonder', Irjho lerta! (for .kiho ltrta) (a mild angliekj 'English'; nom. plur. rnasc. anglilll
oath), and klt! 'would that .. .'. Muchj 'cleaf'; nom. plur. masc. hlusi (mod. hlull)
Old Czech carries prepalatalization further, and the dat. sing. and
loco sing. offeminine adjectives in -kj are affected in the same way, 132. EXTENDED ADJECTIVE: i-STEM (?)
thus kjeho velimj proshl 'to his great demand', ves, ueI 'aU': Lith. visas, id.

131. EXTENDED ADJECTIVES: io-/ia-STEM AND iio-jiia-sTEM NOM. ves, velm.; vIlf.; vIe n. vii m.; vIif.; vII n.
Ace. ves, ve! m.; vlu f.; vIe n. ,11
(a) tfetl 'third': Lat. tertius, id. GEN. vlelw m.n.; vIlf. vUch
mauH 'mother's': Gk. IJ:r)'Tfp'Of;, id. OAT. vlemum.n.;vIif. vllm
divi 'wonderful': Gk. oWS' 'great, godlike': Skt. diuyd~ 'godlike'. INST. oIiemm.n.; vlUf. vllmi
(b) -/ul£ 'bison's': Gk. 'T!lVP€oS' and 'J"avpoos 'hull's', LOC. vlem m.n.; vII vllch
SINGULAR DUAL PLURAL The only example of its kind, the adjective ues/veS affords no clue as
NOM. Ilea rn.; 1ft /it f.; tfetie n. tfelie m.; tfetl f.n. Hell m.; Ifttit f. n. to its true grammatical category, especially as it lacks a primary fonn.
Ace. tfeti; tfeti6; tfetit Ifttit m.; IfetE r.n. Ifetit A possible Old Czech ves beside vel is implied in the words vez-drJIi
GEN. tfetieho m.n.; tfetie f. t1ttiu tft Uch 'daily' and (modem) ves-mlr 'universe'. SUtny uses an isolated nom.
DAT. tfetiemu m.n.; tfetl f. tfetlma tfet£m sing. mase. oeIhn 'each, every'.
INST. tfetlm m.n.; tfeliu tfetlma tfetlmi
LOC. lfetiem m.n,; tfeti tleM tlet/ch NOTE ON U-STEM ADJECTIVES

The only known primary adjectives with io-/ ia-stems are plJ (f. 133. Indo-European u-stems in Slavonic have acquired an extension
plJl, n.plIe) 'pedestrian', nU 'quick' ,pdii 'Iord.ly', nic '~,"??e, incl.ined', -k- (cf. Gk. 7TAa.TVs- > 7TAa.TUI(Os", § 129: lehkj, etc.), and have thus
sic 'such a', Uii 'lazy' (in the phrase: Jest mt lbl co bmft, and In the passed into the o-/ a-declension. DeS OXVY 'gay' (Hitt. assus 'good')
adverb of neuter origin linl) , and place-names of adjectival type and neplod;y ste rile' are the sole survivors from the u-stems.
such as Boleslav. They are declined like the corresponding nouns The first word occurs in Luneburg Wendish as wachwy 'robust', and
(type sedldf, mezi, lob, §§ 108, 109, liS)· A survival in modern Czech an extended form of the word occurs in SUtn)"s Besednl feCi (page 57)
occurs in the formula Uta pdnl 'anrn domini, years and years', and as ochevnj 'wanton, gay'.
there is an echo of a primary io-stem neuter in the adverb sice 'it is
I t is held that a primary adjective of iio-/ iia-type formerly 134. Comparison is shown in one of two ways. The Long Form of
existed, but the evidence is limited to an isolated gen. sing. masc. comparison applies to the greater number of adjectives, the Short
bolie for the usual boiielw. Form to about fifty. The Long Form of comparison consists of adding
To the extended io-jia-stems belong adjectives denoting relation the suffixes -ljt m., -IJli f., and -ljle n. to the adjective base. which is
or derivation; such are vodn£ (,relating to or deriving from water' then prepalatalized. The Short Form of comparison consists of
hence) 'aqueous', mieslnl 'local', and many more. Here belong also adding the suffixes -I m., -Ii f., and -I n. to the adjective base. which is
adjectives derived from active participles (type veduC£ 'leading', see then prepalatalized. The Superlative degree is formed by prefixing
§ '73)' naJ- to the Comparative.

plnj 'full' (Skt. piirT}alJ.); pimjl 'fuller' (Skt. piimiydn); najpinljt 'fullest'.
chucfj 'poor'; thud 'poorer'; najchutl 'poorest'.
135. The comparative and superlative forms of the adjective have a
distinctive, though imperfectly recorded declension which, like ia I ('I, we')
Sanskrit counterpart, displays sigmatism (~1-) in all cases but the SINOULAR DUAL PLURAL
nom. and acc. sing. of the masculine and neuter. In the later NOM. jdz,jd ,I my
language sigmatism spread to all cases, and in this way the compara~ Ace. ml. mM ny, nds
tive and superlative adjective became indistinguishable from the GEN. mM naju aar
extended io~stems of type tf~tI (see § I3I). Stftny already has menll DAT. mi, mn! ndma adm
skuuk 'a smaller deed' where the older language has menJ ... The INST. mnu ndma ndmi
Alexandreid displays a nom. sing. rnasc. l~hlli!l 'lighter' beside an LOC . mnl naju n4r
asigmatic kpl 'better'. The generalized sigmatism of modern Czech
~ ('thou, you') 3 (,,,,If')
resembles that of Gothic, thus menl!, m.f.n. 'smaller': Goth.
minnivz, minnhei, minni,o. Even in the oldest records comparison SINOULAR DUAL PLURAL
without sigmatism is sporadic, and a complete register of asigmatic NOM. ty 'Y
fonns is impossible. Modern adverbial comparatives without Ace. II l!,Y, vd! ,/
sigmatism are not a reliable guide for deducing the historical foI'IIl5 OEN. ,,6, vaju oar ub,
of the comparative adjective. OAT. ti, tab! vdma ,dm si, sobl
INST. tobu, teM vdma vdmi sobU, s~bu
136. Prepalatalization modifies the adjective base in the following LOC. tob! vaju 'ar sob!
ways: There is no certain record of a dual equivalent for 'ye two'. The
k to c: krdtkj 'short'; kratel h to i: drahj'dear'; draB
oblique inflections of the third person pronoun on, ona, ono are
ch to 1: suchj 'dry'; su1l t to c: boha!y'rich'; bohacl
indistinguishable from those of the demonstratives (see § 13 8).
d to ,: tvrdj 'hard'; tvrd
Modifications in modern Czech are the adjustment of u to ou and
Some adjectives with extensions -kj or -okj omit the extension in the the disappearance of jd~, tabu, sobU and all the dual fonns . The
comparative form. The same rules ofprepalatalization apply. Thus instrumental forms ndma and vama survive in dialect as plurals.
vysokj 'high': l!)IIi; Madkj 'smooth': Mad; brzkj 'soon': brii, etc.
The following forms are anomalous; those marked with an asterisk 138. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS: MASCULINE AND NEUTER

are presumed to have existed: (Distinct neuter forms bracketed)

dobrj 'good'; upi vel{ and velikj 'big'; v!llI (Alex.) SINGULAR DUAL
dlUhj 'long'; deli. ~ry 'bad'; $lwfi NOM. j,jen Ue) s, sen (se) I, ten (to) j' ta (/I)
mary little; men! biery 'white'; *bluji Ace. j,jen,jej (j~) s, sen (se) t, ten (to) jl la (/I)
svaty 'holy'; $svl tlj! las!y 'frequent'; lIstlil j~ho,jho sehQ, slho I,,",
GEN. ju
It is uncertain whether a comparative of spUnj 'quick' ever existed
in the form $ splH, a reconstruction suggested by the adverb spie1~
til m
'quickly' (mod. spl!~ 'rather'). LOC. um I,m
J"" ju
PLURAL Lith. ji. The pronoun t survives with a fill-vowel in Slovak te-ra{.
NOM. j; (j/) n (-) ,; (ta) 'now' and fonns part of the Old Czech adverb De-t..fas 'at this time' .
Ace. jl -(-) 11 (ta) It is cognate with Gk. "TOl'.
GEN. jick ri<h tl<h
INST. pml nm, tlmi
For mdj, tvdj, svdj, see § 129. NM, naIl, naIe 'our' and vM, rmII,
LOC. jick ri<h tI,h
vale 'your' are inflected likej (jrn), § 138.
The pronoun and numeral jeden, jedna, jedno is inflected like
DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS: FEMININE ten, ta, to. The pronoun sdm, sama, samo 'self' show!! traces of a primary
declension, but the extended declension of type no'!J is far more usual
thus gen. sing. masc. samJho, dat. sing. masc. samimu, etc. '
NOM. jl ta jl tl j. 11 The pronouns oha, ohl 'both', like the numerals dva, dDl'two',
Ace. )U,jl .qu, .n tu jl tI j' 11 resemble the dual forms of ten, ta, to.
GEN. J" n, U ja tu jick tI,h An archaic compound pronoun occurs sporadically in the Alexan-
jitj tq' rima tlma J,m tlm
ju,it siu tu, toJu
)Iml -
juh -
dreid. It is sicf 'this, any', fern. sicl {gen. sing. fern. sine}, neut.
After prepositions the pronouns i, jtn, jl, je acquire a palatalized
The pronoun mnoho 'much, many' is followed in the first three
cases by the genitive. It was fonnerly declined as a neuter o-stem but
in the later language from Stftny onward the oblique fonn' was
nasal (11'). thus ot nl/w 'from him', le nlmu 'to him', s nlm 'with him',
o nlm 'about him',.{ ni, 'from her', le nit} 'to her', le nim 'to them', mnoha in all cases. Traces of an o-stem declension survive in the
s nimi 'with them', 0 nich 'about them', In the ace. sing. rnase. only the adverbial cliches mnohem ' greatly', namno{., 'often'. It is an interesting
palatalized nasal remains; this combines with the foregoing fact that Stitny does not always decline mnoho, cf. his construction
preposition, thus plld,,r 'before him' (motion), naden 'over him' o mnoho jinem 'about much else'. The word mnohj 'many a . . .' is an
(motion). The nominative forms of this pronoun have now been extended adjective of type nord. Old Czech mdlo 'little', like mnoho,
replaced by the more explicit on, ona, ono, which, when attributive, was a neuter o-stem, but was not declined in the later language.
are declined like Un, ta, to, thus gen. sing. masc. onoho, dat. That malo was nevertheless once declined is clear from the modem
sing. mase. onomu, etc. The oblique forms persist in modern adverbs btvndla 'nearly', pomalu 'slowly', and namd[, 'all but (gone)'.
speech. For vtS, vtI, see Adjectives, § 132.
The nom. and acc. sing. mase. fonn , first degenerated into an Koliko 'how much, how many' and toliko 'so much, 50 many' were
enclitic, then disappeared, giving place to the fonn ttn. The whole fonnerly neuter o-stems, but were later inflected like mTllJho with a
declension of s, sen, se has disappeared. It lingers on as an archaism single oblique fonn kolika, tolika. The forms of the nom. and acc.
in Stftny (slho i onoho 'of this and that') and there are fragmentary have been replaced in modem speech by koliJc, tolik, which are still
survivals in the modem Czech adverbs of time dne-s 'today' (OCz. neuter in gender.
also den-s, id.) and ltlo-s 'this year'. Old Czech has also velero-s 'this
evening' and s ndei 'tonight' (Lith. Io-nakt: OHG hi-naht: A1b. so-nte,
The pronounj is cognate with Lat. is, Lith.jis;jl with Lat. ea,


'who?' 'what?' 'nobody' 'nothing' 142. The prepositions of Old Czech govern the following cases:
W lsD, CO
&0, co
nil.u, nitt, nU:
nits" nite. nit
THE ACCUSATIVE: na 'on to, for' (purpose, use, time); pfls, pfl;:, 'over,
across, despite'; pro 'for' (penons, part! of body, ideas);.ca 'for'
GEN. lsD, [eho nikoho nih,. nite (in exchange); 'in' (time); 'behind, beyond' (motion); minw 'past,
"/W besides'; skr;:"skr{./'through';pod, pod, 'under' (motion, direction);
DAT. .lam" (""" nikomu nilnnu
ruul, mule 'over, above' (motion); pfld, pflde 'before' (motion) j T714.o
INST. kjm (lm nikjm nilfm
LOC. nikom nilem 'between, into the midst of' (motion); 0 'in the matter of, to the
"m (""
tune of'; po 'during' (long periods); v, vt 'into, to; at' (time);
Kw, fonnerly ·kk on the evidence of niku, derives from an lE type vz 'against'; ob 'beyond'.
·wos.to..r, the e of nikte having the force of a fiII·vowel. Modem kdo is THE GENITIVE: od, ode 'from, away from'; do 'to, till'; z, ze 'from, out
believed to have been influenced by the adverbs kde 'where' and kdy of, (made) of'; s, se 'off'; u 'at, near, (living) with'; bez, beo'with.
'when', since the d of kdo has no historical foundation. Cso < lE out'; ko[em, oko10 'round, about'; podil 'along, alongside'; podli,
·f[¥lSOS is historically a genitive which has been extended to the podle 'alongside, according to'; die (postposition) 'according to';
nominative and accusative and subsequently (after (400) discarded vedle 'alongside, next to'; uvtfutl, ulmitl 'inside'; miesto 'instead of';
in favour of co, which is the modern fonn of the word. As a genitive krom/, krom 'besides, except';.to 'during' (period, reign, regime);
it survived until about 1300. In composition with certain prepositions uprostlld 'amid'; bUzko 'near'; mdaleko 'near'; QJod 'from under';
the accusative fonn is an enclitic ·l (Lat. quid), thus na-l'on to what', tubjti 'but for'.
pro-l'for what, why', po.! 'during what', o-l'concerning what'. The THE DAnvE: k, ke, ku 'towards, to; for' (meaa);proti,protivu 'against';
fi.ll·vowel arises in nall·l'whereupon'. nIlproti 'opposite'; vdlu, v4li 'in face of, in view of, towards' (feel.
The final vowel of ni/sI may be due to vowel·fronting by the i ings); k ooli 'for the sake of; vzdor'despite' .
of the preceding syllable. THE INSTRUME.NTAL: nod, node ' above' (rest); pod,pode 'below, under';
Like modem Russian, Old Czech sometimes separates the corn· pFld, pflde 'before, in front of'; za 'behind, beyond'; wo 'between,
ponents of the negative pronoun to insert a preposition, thw among'; s, SI ·with'.
rU-.J·lcjm 'with nobody', ni.a.lITTl-Z 'in nothing'. THE LoCATIVE: 0 'about, concerning'; v, w'in, inside'; 1UJ 'on, on top
The Interrogative Adjective 8, fern. and neut. lie 'whose?' is of of'; po 'after' (time and place); 'all over, round, along, by the
pronominal origin and is declined like tfetl (§ 131). For Icj 'what kind hand of'; pfi 'at, in the presence of'.
of?' sec § 1:1:9. Modern Czech usage is essentially similar to that of Old Czech. The
variants with fill·vowel (SI, 0, VI, etc.) occur when the following
RELATIVE PRONOUNS noun begins with a similar consonant or cluster of consonants, but the
141. Jel and jenl, fern. jll, neut. jet 'who, which' is declined like usage, both in old and modern Czech, is inconsistent. The fonn kl
ien,i',il,Kt"j, klerd, kterl 'who, which' is declined like nol!i. An in· occurs before k but not before h and ch. Ku occurs sometimes before
variable relative pronouniel orieJto (composed ofi + l with the fill~ p and b, thus Stftny writes ku pjIl. The forms pfldl, pode, and nade
vowel) is a frequent feature of Old Czech. After prepositions a glide occur before labials followed by another consonant, thus pode mnU,
consonant" arises, thus do nhol (mod. do mhol) 'into whom', nIldenl nod, vJ,.
'above whom', etc. After the verb ' to be' the relative pronoun is ktol. In the sense of'according to' Old Czech po governs the dative. The
same preposition with the accusative sometimes has the sense of pro. there are eight comparative adverbs of anomalous formation. They
V;::: 'against' (Lith. ut 'for') is obsolete except as an intensive prefix. are as follows:
S with the accusative means 'to the amount of, according to', The
daleko 'far'; ddle. zle 'badly'; hOfe.
prefixes pFl- 'over', ~- 'out, up' and roz· 'apart' have no independent
dluM, na-dllkl 'long'; diu. lJeUm, lJelml, lJelmi 'much'; vie".
br;:o 'soon'; hr.te, bri, dflue, dfieoe. mdlo 'little'; mini.
Postpositions are dk 'according to' and Iibo 'on account of'
doMI 'well'; lipe.
(Sdtny: Bmdnl feCi). The former survives in a modem cliche medle
('as for me') 'then'. and the isolated comparative spieIe more readily',
The SUPERLATIVE is formed from the Comparative by prefixing naj-.
ADVERBS Unfortunately the Long and the Short Fonns of the comparative
adjective afford little clue as to the shape of the corresponding
143. PRIMARY ADVERBS are relatively few in number. The most adverb. Thus thudlji 'more poorly' does not reflect the short form of
archaic are those which derive from lE sentence-links or rudimen_ thud 'poorer'.
tary conjunctions showing temporal relationship between sentences
or parts of a sentence. These are commonly found combined with VERBS
pronouns, but in Hittite, Sanskrit, and Greek they have an indepen-
dent existence. Primary adverbs in Old Czech include kde 'where', 145. Verbs are subject to an extraordinary degree of mutation;
kda, kdy 'when', kady 'whither', tdy 'then', uMa, teMy ' then', zde 'here' indeed the multiplicity of fonns assumed by anyone verb makes
(Go. hita: Swed. hit), kak 'how', lJf'fut, vnil (a disguised compound) identification difficult, if not impossible, without the aid of Historical
-like', etc. Phonology (see §§ 1-100) . In the sections that follow an attempt has
DERIVED ADVERBS. These are adverbs which are related to nouns been made to reduce the essential parts of recorded verbs to a system
or adjectives. They are distinguished by (a) the ending -I as in of classification by criteria, but some verbs have been more fully
velml'very', rUll 'quickly' (cC. -a~ in Gk. xal1-al, 1Td'\a~, and 1Tapat), recorded than others, and the picture is incomplete.
(b) the ending -0, the neuter form of the adjective as in {asto 'often' By contrast, the system of conjugation is simple, and consists of a
(cC. -um, -ov in Lat. virum, Horn. J"ov), (c) the ending-mo as in kradmo present tense, an imperfect, and two aorists. The future tense is
'by stealth', poJepmo 'in a whisper', an archaic inflection similar to differentiated from the present by a modification of the base; the
that of Lat. illim, islim, interim, Ok. 1Tp{V, mL\w, and occasionally (d) inflections are those of the present tense. Anomalous verbs display
by a form of the genitive, instrumental, or other case-inflection. Ad- archaic inflections, and there are traces of an optative.
verbs are frequently formed by merging a preposition and a pro- The ambiguity of meaning caused by the breakdown of sounds has
noun, or a preposition and an adjective, as in po-malu 'slowly', led to the early abandonment of the historic tenses in favour of a
z-krdtka 'in short'. Such adverbs sometimes afford clues to otherwise single compound past tense which is differentiated only by aspect.
lost inflections. Differentiation was achieved by changes in the base of the verb or by
the addition of prefixes. This has led to the setting up of the well-
144. The COMPARATIVE FORM of the adverb is that of the neuter known verb-pairs which are as much a feature of Czech as of other
singular of the corresponding comparative adjective (e.g. menl) but Slavonic languages. See § 183.
-with added vowel-length (mini). In modern Czech adverbs of this Records of Czech as a connected language date back to A.D. 1250
type are reduced to eight in number, and are frequently contracted at the earliest. This has meant that the historic tenses were recap-
by the loss of the final vowel (mill", drM, etc.). In Old Czech adverbs tured only about one hundred and fifty years before their disappear-
of this type are plentiful, thus MIle 'more densely'. Besides these ance. Even so Chelcicky, writing about the years 1440-3. retains the
imperfect, and Stftny, whose writings fall mainly between the years
1375-1400, uses the aorist to translate the Latin perfect in narrative, TYPES Ik AND 11. IOTACIZED PRESENTS

and the imperfect to represent the Latin imperfect. Elsewhere Ik. J-presents with Open Radical. Aorist with ch. Siju,ll1i.
Sdtny uses compound tenses, but the pluperfect is still fonned as a 11. J-presents with Closed Radical. Infinitive in -ali, -dti. Two verbs
compound with the imperfect of the verb ' to be', thus 'lkl biech 'I in -ieti/ -lti. Labial bases, i.e. bases in p, b, and m, lose iotacism
had said', before e. Tew, tesatij tnu, lieli, and melu, mUtij hjbju, hjbati.
A complete paradigm cannot be constructed for anyone verb;
that ofvl.sti 'to lead, bring' affords at once the fullest and least modi- TYPES 2a TO 2d. N-EXTENDED PRESENTS
fied pattern. This verb serves therefore as a model for the majority of 2a. N-stems with n throughout. Base ends in any consonant but a
those that follow. Adjustments consist of modifications to the base velar (k, h, and ch). Minu, minuti.
or stem. 2b. N-stems in Present and Infinitive. Base ends in a velar: k, h, or ch.
Stihnu, stihnUti.
146. THE SEVEN CLASSl!.S OF VERBS: GENERAL 'c. N-stems with lost Labial. Labial appears sporadically in aorist.
2d. N-stems with Historical Nasal Vowel. Vadnu, vadnuti.
la. Primary Presents with Athematic Infinitive and constant base- TYPES 3 TO 6. VOWEL-STEMS
vowel. Base ends in any consonant other than m, n, and r. 3a . E-stems. Present in !, Infinitive in -It or -ieti representing Com-
Aorist with or without ch. Va;u, vlsti (vl{,ti). mon Slavonic ·.!ti, and ··ljati. Hovlju, hov/ti; rdlJu s!. rdieti s/j
lb. Primary Presents with Athematic Infinitive in _ali. Base-vowel e mipJu, rnlJ/li.
in present,as. aorist, imperative and active participle. 'Base- 3b • I-E.stems. Present in i, Infinitive in ·Iti or ·ieti. Vhu, vidltij botu•
vowel a in s. aorist, pass. pt., past pt. abs., inL and camp. pt. hdieti.
Btru, brati.
IC. Primary Presents with Metathesis. Stflhu, stneci.
4· I.stems. Present in i, Infinitive in ·iti. Voiu, vo{.ili.
5· A-stems. Present in aJ, Infinitive in ·ali. If derived from Corn·
Id. Primary Presents with Historical Nasal Vowd . Vowel-fronting mon Slavonic ·-jaj·, ·.jan present tense in IJ, infinitive in ·Iti.
of a to ! or ie. Sahu, suci. DIlaju, dllati; sadJu, stkl ti.
le. Primary Presents without Base-vowel. Base ends in any con- 6a. U.V·stems. Present in uJ, Infinitive in -ovati. Kupuju, kupovati.
sonant other than m, n, and r. Infinitive with long vowel and 6b. U.V.stems. Present in iJ, Infinitive in ·evati. KraliJu, kralevati.
assimilated consonants. Aorist usually without ch. Rku, fieci.
If. Primary Presents without Base-vowel. One verb with base-
vowel D. Athematic infinitive in -ati. tdu, ldatij {,ovu, {'vali.
Ig. Primary Presents without Base-vowel. Base ends in rn or 11. 147. THE lE ASPECTUAL CHARACTER OF
Aorist with ch. Jmu,jietij pnu, pieti. OLD CZECH VERBS (Cf. § J6)
lh. Primary Presents without Base-vowel. Base ends in r. Aorist with
Ve{.u, vl{,tij btru, brati. Verbs with base-vowel e are durative·pro.
ch. T ru, tneti.
gressive, occasionally also descriptive.
li. Primary Labial Presents. Infinitive in -an. T epu, upati.
Ij. Primary V-presents, with loss of v elsewhere. Aorist with ch.
2ivu, 8ti.
mu, Fieri; jmu, jilti; tro, tfitti. The loss of base·vowel is due to the Jsem, bjti; ddm, ddti;jiem,jiesti; vitm and vldl, vldlti; diem, ditti;jmdm,
forward displacement of stress from root to stem, a feature of lE jmieti. These are the only verbs with the inflection -m consistently
mi-verl» and of the lE future exemplified in Greek -'wo Whatever maintained in the first sing. of the present tense. Historically
the origin of the Czech fann! they arc of instantaneow aspect. verbs with base-vowel e and with the athematic inftectiOIl5 (lE
Such verbs formerly displayed a long vowel in the aomt; ODe such ·-mi, -si, .ti) underwent stress displacement in the dual and plural,
vowel is retained in Old Czech flch 'I said' . a practice limited to one Old Czech verb, viz. jl.lt 'is', contrast
2nu, litti; ttfu, wati. Iotacism indicates intennittent aspect. With jskl 'they both are', and jm 'they are'. Verbs without a base·
base-vowel t the verb is both intermittent and durative-progres- vowel e and with the m·inflection of the first person singular are of
sive. various origins. Ddm 'will give' has cognate forms in Lithuanian,
tiDU.liti; kryju, krjti; Iiju, Uti. The base-vowel is in long-zero grade, a Greek, Sanskrit, and Armenian; jm4m 'I have' is an intensive
feature indicating either permanent aspect or lack of time-aspect. fonn of the verb jmu, jieti 'take'; jiem 'I eat' and ditm 'I say' are
This is also true of some Germanic strong verbs of class 11 with from lE ·1dmi (OLith. ldmi) and ·dhl-mi (Hitt. tlmi) respectively;
base-vowel Q. viem '1 know' is from a perfect tense of lE type ·llOid1p(Gk. olBa,
Minu, minuti; stihnu, stihnuti; ronu, ronuti. lE nu-verbs denote acts Skt. veda, Eng. wot); the parallel form vUI is cognate with Lat.
of sudden change, and may be called 'instant-mutative' . vidi 'I saw'.
Schnu, schnutij moknu, moknUti. Derived from adjectives, of which a vICe. An isolated aorist ('quoth he') is related to Gk. El7TE, but the
limited number in lE displayed rin the nom. sing., n in the oblique vocalism is obscure.
cases. The verb took its stem from the oblique cases, thus Gk.
~,a.pos beside ,""all/w, Aurapas- beside AI.1Tall/w, OIce!. vakr beside 148. Vedu, vlsti ' lead, bring'
vakna, OCz. mokrj beside moktw, kyprj beside kynu, with Iou of p. ASIGHATIC StOMATIC
Rdlju si, rdieti si. Verbs of this type are called by A. Meillet 'verbs of PRESEN"T lMPElU'ECT AOIUST AORIST
state'. The base is in zero-grade, and the verb lacks time-aspect.
SING. ~du wduch "d vede,k
Dllo,ju, dllati. A-stems fall into two categories (see § 16). That of
0 ~d.J uedie1e ",u ~,u
dllati is denominative, or derived from a noun.
3 ",u veduIe ",d, ",u
Volaju, uolali; repcu, reptati. A large group of 'ejaculative' or onoma-
DUAL I ",,uol rMdiuhovl "dool rMdahoDl
topoeic verbs, many of which display iotacism (intennittent
aspect) in the present tense. 0 ",uta rMdie1ta ",uta tJldeJta
Vku, uidlti, bzu, Midi. A small group with 'static' or 'sensory' aspect. 3 ",uta vedie1ta ",,uta ~d<sta
PLUR. I vedem (-e, :1) vediedUJm wdom (-<.:1) wdalwm
Volu, voditi; hoscu, hostiti; stllu, stUiti; -wlu, -lolili; (mod.) lvitoFiti.
Though identical in fonn, verbs of this type embody four 0 ",,uk uedieIte ",uk ",d<sk
3 otdu veduchu vedu vtdechu
categories: (I) iterative; (2) denominative; (3) factitive, and (4),
mainly in the modem language, onomatopoeic.
Sklju, sklti; -vdllju, -vdllli. Here belong long-grade factitives of
progressive aspect with analogues in Sanskrit. The final consonant SING. 0 otdi, vet!
of the Old Czech base is iotacized. DUAL I vet/vi, vetlua (idlvl,jdlva)
Kupuju, kupovati; kraliju, kralevatij (mod.) meduju, medovati. A type of 0 ",ata (id/ta)
verb with threefold aspect: (I) habitual, (2) functional, and (3) PLUR. I vedlm, vetlnu, ut/my (idlm, At, :y)
denominative. 0 "ak (id/k)
ACTIVE PARTICIPLE: rnase. and neut. ueda; fern. vtduci; plur. vedtkl,
PASSIVE PARTICIPLE: mase. veden, fern. tJtdena, neut. vtdt1l1J; rnase. plur.
vtdtni, fern. plur. vedeT!)l. neut. plur. vedtna. bledu 'twaddle'; inf. bUsti. peku 'care'; 2nd sing. peW; iof.
PAST PARTICIPLE A8S0LUTE: mase. and neut. ved; fern. ved1i; plur.
bodu 'stab'; as. aor. hod (Alex. plci.
vedI,. 3rd dual bodela); inf. b6sti. slku 'cut'; 2nd sing. sllel; inf.
hlebu 'bury'; inf. hllsti. sied.
COMPOUNDING PARTlCIPLF.: vedl, oedla, vedlOj plur. vedli, uedry, rledla.
hudu 'play on instrument'; inf. skubu 'pluck'; inf. skUrti.
hUsh. stFihu 'shear'; ~nd sing. stfileJ; as.
Verbs whose base e nds in a velar arc subject to the first palatalization kladu 'put'; inf. kids/i. aor. stfih; inf. stfld.
(see § gS), hence Ptku. 'I bake'. second pen. sing. puel, third pers. molw 'can'; 2nd sing. mlSle!; 3rd vtdu 'lead'; as. aor. ved; s. aor.
sing. pile, etc. Under similar conditioru r is dentalized. thus bnu 'I sing. "wt, mAle; imper. (po_) vtduh; inf. vbti.
take'. second sing. blfe1, etc. mod 'hdp'; inf. mcci. ve~u 'convey'; as. aor. ve~; inf.
The sigmatism of the past tenses (ch, ! and $) is held to derive
from lE .s.though the details of evolution are not clear. The sig-
matic aorist of Old Czech is historically equivalent to that of Greek
nesu 'carry'; as. aor. ntf; s. aor.
nesech; inf. nisti.
vlsti, vI~ti.
vladu 'rule'; jnf. vLdsti.
padu 'fall'; as. aor. pad; in£. ptisti. vleku 'drag'; 2nd sing. vieW; as.
(thus piuch 'I sailed' = Gk. €7TAEvua), and is reflected in the Latin pietu 'weave'; inf. pUsti. aor. vieA:; jnf. vUd. Similarly
sigmatic perfects of type vixi, rlxi, vixi,jfiixr, and in Sanskrit d-viik/am. peku 'bake'; 2nd sing. peleI; inf. obieku 'don'.
But the Indo-European durative aspect of the sigmatic aorist (OCz. plci.
vtdech) and the instant aspect of the asigmatic aorist (OCz. Dtd) is a
distinction without validity in Old Czech, and the two forms of the :150. lb. PRIMARY PRESENTS, TYPE bem, brdJi
aorist, if they survive, are interchangeable.
beru 'take'; Lat.fero 'bear': Eng. deru 'flay': Gk. S'pw, id.: Eng.
The Asigmatic Aorist, or aorist without s-like extensions, once
bear. kM.
denoted instant aspect (cf. Gk. €fJaAolI). The base vowel was for-
lenl'devour': Lat. ooro, id. ltnu 'drive', cf. Gk. 8EWW 'kiU':
merly long in all forms except the second and third pers. sing.; this
Eng. win.
is clear from the evidence ofOCS and other lE languages. Hence the
fevu 'rage': Lat. ruo 'roar'.
short vowd (e) of the Old Czech aorist must be accounted non-
historical and due to analogy. ANALYSIS
It is convenient to classify Old Czech verbs under seven maio beru 'take'; 2nd sing. bUd; impf. deru 'flay, pluck, plunder'; in£:
headings according to the forms assumed by the Present Tense and hefiech, hrdch; s. aor. brach; drdti.
the Infinitive. imper. befi, ba; act. part. bera; peru 'beat, wash'; inf. prdti.
pass. part. brdn; ab!. brav; inf. few 'roar, rage'; inf. fvdti.
149. la. PRIMARY PRESENTS, TYPE ve~u, ulsti brdti; cpd. part. hral. ienu 'drive'; inf. Imdti.
,(eru 'devour; io£ ,(rdti.
ve~u 'convey'; Lat. vehO, id. hodu 'stab', cf. Lat.fodio 'dig'.
pasu 'tend': Lat. pa.sco, id. plttu 'weave': Lat. piecM, id.
peku 'bake': Lat. coquo, id.: Gk. padu 'fall', cf. Gk. Tr'IJ8&.w'leap' :15:1. IC . PRIMARY PRESENTS, TYPE stflhu, stfilCl'
7T'7T"rW (with iotacism), id. (an a-stem like mod. Cz. stflhu 'watch, protect': Gk. crdpyw 'cherish'.
slku 'cut, mow', cf. Lat. seco, id. paddm). ANALY SIS
mohu 'can': Eog. may.
stflhu 'watch, protect'; 2nd sing. stflleI; inf. slfied.
lhu 'burn'; 2nd sing.tbl; as. aor. ·leh, srd plur. (se-)lhU; act. part.
152. Id. PRIMARY PRESENTS, TYPE sahu, sUd lM; pass part. (se-)aen; inf.llei.
matu 'stir, fester': Skt. mdntluimi 'stir, beat up': Lith. menliu 'beat up'.
-zabu 'freeze, chill': Skt. jambluimi 'snap at, rend', cf. DE dmb-ing 154. If. PRIMARY PRESENTS, TYPES [du, lddti; "ovu, .tvtUi
'clamping' .
"ouu 'call': Skt. Mve 'hail'. sleu 'twist': Lith. suK.U, id.
-lahu 'lie down'; 2nd sing. hld; as. aor. 3rd dual hleta; imper. le.t;
abs. hh; inf. lid. sku 'twist'; 2nd sing. Jee!, llef; inf. skdti.
matu 'stir, fester'; 2nd sing. mite!; inf. mUsti. SSll 'suck'; inf. ssdti.
pladu 'spin'; 2nd sing. pIUe!; inf. pliesti. tku (2) 'weave'; 2nd sing. tld ; inf. tkdti.
sadu 'sit down'; 2nd sing. side!; as. aor. grd sing. v-sede; act. part. -l;OVU 'call'; 2nd sing. .tdvel; impf. "oviech and zvdth; imper. .tvi; act.
SaM; inf. siuti. part. .tovl and .tdva (mod. -l;va); pass. part . .tvdl'l; inf. .tvdtij cpd. part.
sahu 'grab'; 2nd sing. slle!; inf. sied. "val.
s-pfahu 'harness'; 2nd sing. s-pllle!; pass. part. s-plllen; inf. s-plled. idu 'wait'; impf.ldiech and lddch; imper.[di; act. part.lda; abs.ldav;
tahu 'pull'; 2nd sing. tile!; as. aor. 3rd sing. tile, grd plur. taM (inf. inf. lddti.
IdhnUti, tieWti). Modem Czech lhu 'tell lies'. inf. lMti is a dialectical usage not
tfasu 'shake'; 2nd sing. tFlse!j inf. tliuti. reflected in the older language (see Iotacized Presents, type I).
I74tU 'tie'; 2nd sing. vhe!; inf. viesti, vin;ti.
-.tabu 'freeze, chill'; 2nd sing. dbd; inf. .tUbsti.
155. Ig. PRIMARY PRESENTS, TYPES jmu, juti; pnu, pieti

153. le. PRIMARY PRESENTS, TYPE fleu, IUci jmu 'take': Lith. imu, id.: Lat. emo 'take, buy'.
[mu 'squeeze', cf. Gk. Y€fl-W 'am full', Horn. yb7"o 'he grasped'.
brdu 'wade'. cf. Lith. bridimas 'fording', bristi 'to wade'. tnu 'cut'; Gk. fut. T€fl-W (inf. 'J"afl-€tll) beside 'T€P-IIW, id.
-tku 'touch', er. Gk. 'TVl(ttw 'chip (stone)'. mnu 'squeeze': Gk'IJ.IIMp..a, 'press, sue for': Lith. minu 'trample'.
pnu 'wind': Lith. pinu 'twist'.
dmu 'swell', cf. Lith. dumiu, dumti 'blow'.
brdu 'wade'; as. aor. bnd; inf. bRsti; cpd. part. rnasc. bfedl, fern. brdkJ.
etu 'read'; as. aor. lit; imper. etlj act. part. eta; in£ &ti; cpd. part. ANALYSIS

cell, masc. plur. etU. dmu 'swell'; impf. tJmiech; s. aor. duch; act. part. dma; pass. part. dut;
"vu, ktve 'blossoms' (Srd sing.); impf. srd plur. kwuchu; as. aor. /evit; abs. dem; inf. duti; cpd. part. dui.
inf. kufsli; cpd. part. kuetl, /evlll. jmu 'take'; impf.jiech; s. aor.jich; imper. ·jmi; act. part.jma; pass.
lieu 'say'; 2nd sing. Ilef, as. aor. grd sing. fele, grd plur. leleu; s. aor. part. jat, masc. plur. j lti; ab!. jem; inf. jieti; cpd. part. jaI, masc.
Ilch and fdechj imper. rei; act. part. flea; pass. part. leen; abs. Fek; plur.jlli.
inf. flei, fieei; cpd. part. fekl, fern. fkla. kInu 'curse'; s. aor. khch; pass. part. klat; inf. kUti.
Jleytu 'offer'; inf. skysti. mnu 'squeeze'; inf. mieti.
-tleu (Gebauer tlu!) 'touch'; 2nd sing. tee!; inf. tlieti. ot-mu (cpd. ofjmu) 'take off'; inf. ot·ien.
vrhu 'throw'; 2nd sing. vrlef; as. aor. srd plur. vrhu; inf. vrei . pnu 'wind'; impf. pniech; s. aor. plch; imper. pnij act. part. pnaj pass.


part. piat, rnase. plur. plti; abs. pen; inf. Pidi; epd. part. pial, pal, 151. li. PRIMARY PRESENTS, TYPE tepu, tepah
rnase. plur. pili.
po-bw 'begin'; irnpf. po-lniech; s. aor. po-llch; irnper. po-lni; act. part . tepu, tepah 'beat': Gk. fut. zohu, <;ohati 'eat': Skt.jahhe 'snap
• po-ll; pass. part. po-lat, rnase. plur. pollti; abs. po-len, po-lem, (St.) 'rV'1T'T1}O'w, id. at': Jr. gohaim 'peck'.
po-leu; inf. po-aeti; cpd. part. po-cal, mase. plur. po-llli. djmu, djmah 'smoke': Lat. flmo, "jlJU, kjvati 'nod': Latv. kDvlju
plijmu (cpd. ofjmu) 'receive'; inf. pnjieti. lire, id.; Skt. dhilmdyami, id., cf. 'caper'.
srjmu, senmu (epd. of jmu) 'take down'; impf. sniech; s. aor. sn/ch; Gk. Oup.w.w.
imper. .sqmi, .senmi; act. part. ·sejma, ·senma; pass. part. sr£at, These are believed to be the only primary labial presents in Old
rnasc. plur. mlti; abs. snem; inf. midi; cpd. part. snal. masc. plur. Czech. In the modem language the primary form of the present
snlli. tense is normal for a large number of bases ending in a labial (p, h,
Inu 'cut'; irnpf. tniech; s. aor. tlch; pass. part. (at; abs. ten; inf. tien; D, m). Chief of these are drhu, cMpu, chovu, klapu, kopu, kovu, kjvu,
cpd. part. (ai, rnasc. plur. Illi. klamu, Mmu, plavu, sdpu, sypu, skFfpu, Hapu, !"rahu, tapu, and zohu, all
ve<;mu (cpd. ofjmu) 'take'; impf. v.{;iuh; s. aor. vdch; imper. ·vevni; with infinitive in -ati.
act. part. l7e<;ma; pass. part. v<;at; abs. v<;em; inf. v.{;idi; cpd. part.
vUlI, masc. plur. vdU. 158. Ij. PRIMARY V-PRESENTS, TYPE lilJU, llti
lmu 'squeeze'; inf. lieti. livu 'live': Lat. viviJ, id. s[ovu 'am called': Lat. clueo, id.:
For tnu, [ieti 'harvest' see Iotacized Presents 11. plovu 'sail' ; Lat. pluiJ 'rain': Gk. Gk. l('Al.w 'glorify'.
'TrAI.w 'sail, float'.
plevu 'weed'; s. aor. plech; act. part. pleva (St.); pass. part. plen, plet;
dru 'rend, torment': Gk. fut. S~pw SiTU'scatter', cf. Lat. stralli beside ab!. plev; inf. pllti; cpd. part. pIel.
'tear'. sterna, id. plovu 'sail'; 2nd sing. plOve!, plove!; s. aor. pluth; inf. plun; cpd. part.
tru 'rub', cf. Lat. trivi beside uriJ mru 'die': Lat. morior. pM.
id.: Gk. npl.w 'bore'. slovu 'am called'; 2nd sing. slQve!, slove!; impf. slovieth; inf. stun; cpd.
ANALYSIS part. slul.
lru 'draw (water),; 2nd sing. UtI; inf. CFieti. CIJU 'live'; s. aor. 3rd sing. live; act. part. liva; pass. part. (in com-
dru 'rend, torment'; 2nd sing. dfd; impf. dfiech; S. aor. dflch; imper. pounds) -lit; inf. ltti; cpd. part. lil.
dfi; act. part. dra; pass. part. dUn; abs. dflv; inf. dneti; cpd. part. dfll. Here belongs the isolated spu 'scatter, pour'; impf. spiech; S. aor.
mru 'die'; 2nd sing. mfe! (as dru, dYe!, q.v.); inf. mfieti; cpd. part. such; act. part. spa; pass. part. sut; abs. suv; inf. sUti, which, though
u-mYIl, u-mrl. not a v-present, has all the features of [ivu, ltn. The fonn feIJU 'roar',
pru si 'fight'; 2nd sing. pfe! si (as dru, dfe!, q.v.); inf. pfieti si. inf. fvdti has an alternative infinitive !Uti.
o-pru 'prop'; 2nd sing. o-pfeJ (as dru, dfe!, q.v.)j inf. o-plieti.
stru 'scatter'; 2nd sing. slfe! (as dru, dfe!, q. v.); pass. part. (pro-)strt; 159. Ik. j-PRESENTS WITH OPEN RADICAL, TYPE Iiju, Jln
inf. stneti.
tru 'rub'; 2nd sing. Ife! (as dru, dfe!, q.v.); inf. tfieti. Adjective: trtj. haju 'tell': Lat. inf. fori 'speak, pi}u, piu 'drink': Gk. fut. 7Tlop.a.t.,
vru 'boil'; 2nd sing. life! (as dm, die!, q.v.); inf. ufieti. tell'. id.
-!ltU (in compounds) 'open, close'; 2nd sing. -life! (as dru, dfe!, q.v.) : riju 'sow': Eng. sow. -t-uju 'take off' (shoes): Lat. ex-uo
inf. -meti. ziju 'yawn': Lat. hia, id. 'doff'.

lIJW~ 11~, tu 'p?ur'; 2nd sing: lijel, lid. teI; s. aOT. liell; pass. part. (mod.)
Id; 1nf. Uht cpd. part. Id (alternative to le}u, q.v.).
Second Person Singular -ajel piju. piu 'drink~; 2nd sing. pijeJ, pi4/; pass. part. (mod.) pit; in£. petit
baju 'tell'; ~nd sing. baje!; inf. bdti; cpd. part. bdl. cpd. part. pol.
jhraju 'play'; 2nd sing.jhrajd; inf.jhrdti; cpd. part.jhrdl. Ii}u, 1;ju 'sew'; 2nd sing. Jijel, Jj4I; pass. part. (mod.) lit; inf.llti; cpd.
laju 'scold'; ~nd sing. laje!; impf. lajiech; s. aor. l(Uh; imper. laj; act. part. fil.
part. lajl; inf. ldti; cpd. part. ldl. viju, r:iu ·weave. pl~it'; 2nd sing. m]e!, ujtJ; pass. part. (mod.) vi'; inf.
vlh; cpd. part. VII.
Second Penon Singular -Ijd
dlje si, Srd sing. 'happens'; impf. die!e si; inf. diet; si; cpd. ddlo si (cf.
Second Penon Singular -f"jd
modern Czech z-ddti se komu 'to seem'). kluju 'peck'; 2nd sing. k{ujd; pass. part. kludn; inf. kludli; cpd. part.
hllju 'warm'; ~nd sing. hfljel; s. aor. hllch; pass. part. hlln (mod. Idual.
hldt); abs. hflf!; inf. hlieti (mod. hfdl, hldti); cpd. part. MII (mod. btu}u 'vomit'; 2nd sing. hlujeJ; in£. blvtfti.
h140· Second Person Singular -ujd
dulju (si) 'tremble'; 2nd sing. chrJIjd (si); inf. chuieti (si) (mod. cholt se) .
Zuju 'sense'; 2nd sing. lujd; impf. lujiech; s. aor. [ucA; int. hiti.
kju 'pour'; ~nd sing.lrJe!; impf. lejiech; pass. part. (mod.) lit; inf. Uti.
ob-wju 'put on (shoes)'; 2nd sing. ob-uje1; in£. ob-uti.
o-kflju 'recuperate'; 2nd sing. o-kfljd; inf. o-kfieti (mod. o-kf41).
fuju 'roar' (variant offtvu, tb).
plju 'sing'; 2nd sing. plje!; inf. pieti (mod. poetic Plti).
.t-u)u 'take off' (shoes)'; 2nd sing. ~-ujel; inf. -tout;.
pflju 'wish'; 2nd sing.pfljd; imper. pflj; act. part. pfljl; inf. pReti luju 'chew'; inf. lodti.
(mod. pfdt); cpd. part. *1'11, and (Alex.) 1'41.
slju 'sow'; ~nd sing. sljd; s. aor. slch; imper. slj; pass. part. (mod.) Second Penon Singular -yjel
set; inf. sieti (mod. sit, sfti); cpd. part. sll, sie!. kryju 'cover'; ~nd sing. kryjd; s. aor. kryd; imper. tryj; pass. part.
smlju si 'laugh'; ~nd sing. smJjel si; inf. !mitti si (mod. smdt se); cpd. kryt; abs. kry!!; inf. !Tjt;.
part. smdl si, mase. plur. smlli si. myju 'wash'; ~nd sing. myjd; pass. part. myt; inf. mjti.
splju 'prosper'; ~nd sing. spljel; impf. spljiech; s. aor. splch; imper. nyju 'languish'; ~nd sing. nyjd; inf. njti.
sp/j; inf. spUn (mod. spit) . ryju 'dig'; ~nd sing. ryjd; inf. rjti.
vlje, srd sing. 'blows'; pass. part. (mod.) .ca-vtH; inf. men. tyju 'get fat'; 2nd sing. tyjd; inf. ryti.
dju 'yawn'; 2nd sing. ·djd; inf. zuti. vyju 'howl'; ~nd sing. vyje1; inf. vjti.
There is considerable fluctuation in the forms of the compounding
participle, a factor which is reflected in the modem dialects (!mU St 160. xl. j-PRESENTS WITH CLOSED RADICAL
TYPE ttlu, Usati

for !mal se, etc.-see Appendix C). Note however the apparent
correspondence between !mal si and R. oxytonic smljdlsa on the one lelu (si) 'comb (hair)': Hitt. ofu 'plough': Lat. ar6, id.
hand, and between sll, siel and R. barytonic slJal on the other. Iwaimi, id. fehcu 'neigh': Lat. ncto'howl' .
jlkcu 'howl', cf. Lat. jacto 'boast'. stefu 'prepare, spread': Gk.
Second Person Singular -ijd, -jU krdkofu 'croak': Gk. KapKatpw u-rl),),w 'prepare, equip'.
-biju, -biu 'beat'; ~nd sing. -bijd, -bie!; s. aor. bich; pass. part. (mod.) 'resound'. lem 'shape, carve' : Lat. ud
bit; inf. -btti; cpd. part. -bil. Iflu 'lick': Lith. lieb'iJ, id. 'build, weave'.
hniju, Mu 'rot'; ~nd sing. hniJe!, hik!; inf. hniti; cpd. part. hnil. Ifu 'tell lies' : Eng. lie.


lUll 'comb (hair), ; inf.lesati. pUu 'write'; inr. psati. TYPE minu, min,ui
tfjlu 'breathe'; inf. djelwti. pldlu 'weep'; inf. plakati.
mlllu 'pass': Skt. mioomi 'stray' ronu 'tumble, crash': Gk. OPVUfU
hrylu 'gnaw'; inf. luyzati. pldpo!u 'flame'; inr. pldpolati.
(short base-vowel). 'stir, dash'_
jlk&u 'howl'; inf.jlktati. po!u 'burn'; act. part. plajl (St.) ;
kalllI 'cough'; 2nd sing. kaIldj inf. pl4ti, pouti. ANALYSIS
inf. "aI/an. pylu 'atone'; inf. pykati. minu 'pass'; impf. minuch; s. aor. minuch; inf. minuti.
kaIu 'subdue'; inf. kasati. fehcu 'neigh'; inf. fehtati. otpotinu 'rest': s. aor. otpoCinuch; act. part. olpotina; inf. otpoCinuli.
kdiu 'show, order, punish'; inr. rlu 'neigh'; inf. r.tati.
kkati, fUu 'cut'; inf. fl{.ati.
-"lutu 'slip'; inf. klrltati. sktilu 'jump'; inf. sWati. 162. 2b. n-STI!.M S IN PRESENT AND INFINITIVE . MAINLY
kofu 'stab'; 2nd sing. kdld; in[ stelu 'prepare, spread'; 2nd sing. VELAR BASES, TYPE stihnu, stihnuti
kUti. steleJ; inf. stUti.
stihnu 'catch, reach': Skt. stighnomi 'step up, mount' (short base-
krdJcofu 'croak'; inf. kTlfkorati. stOnu 'groan'; act. part. sMnl; inf.
vowel) .
kfeIu 'strike fire'; inf. "f,sali. stonali.
fieVlu 'cut': Gk. PWIJup., 'break'.
litu 'lick'; s. aOf. hachj act. part. po-stTUlu 'slice'; inf. po-str&ti.
liO; inf. ll.cati; cpd. part. kal. !elu, !lu 'send'; 2nd sing. !le!; ANALYSIS

Uu (late Ihu, Che1~.) 'lie'; ioC. inf. slati. stihnu 'catch, reach'; as. aor. 3rd sing. stile; inf. stihnuti.
lhdti. te1u. 'shape, carve'; inf. tuati. moknu 'get wet'; inf. mokruiti.
matu 'sme:u '; inr. mazati. titiu (si) 'ask'; s. aor. tt!tilCh (si); tisknu 'press'; impf. tiskniech; as. aor. tisk; s. aor. tilledl, tisknuch; pass.
mtCU 'throw'; inf. 17Iltati. imper. o-tlt (si); inf. ttkati (si). part. tilltn; ab!. tisk; inf. tisknuti; cpd. part. tiskl.
milu 'waste away'; inf. milan. treskcu 'punish'; inf. tresktati. kknu si 'start, jump; break (of dawn)'; as. aor. lek si (3rd plur. kku
ofu 'plough'; inr. orati. vietu 'tie'; imper. vU; inf. ua{.ati. si, Alex.); s. aor.lelechsl; inf.leknuti si; cpd. kkl si. A fonner nasal-
pafu 'root up'; inf. parati, based verb with vowel-fronting generalized by analogy. The
expected forms would be ·l4knu si, kkmI si in the present tense.
mknu 'lock'; s. aor. mlech; inf. mkruiti; cpd. part. wki, fern. mkla.
lftu 'harvest'; pass. part. lat; abs.len; inf. luti. schnu 'wither'; as. or s. aor. sech, 3rd plur. seM; inf. sehnuti.
melu 'grind'; 2nd sing. mekI; inf. mUti. uvlvihnu si 'rise'; abs. v.tdvih si (St.); inf. u.tduihnuti.
vdu 'command'; 3rd sing. vele, and veil; s. aor. IItleehj inf. veleti. tknu 'touch'; s. aor. tfeeh; inf. tknuti (and tluti; see le); cpd. part.
polu 'bum'; inf. poleh (3b) besidepUti. ukl, fern. tkla.
",biu 'move'; 2nd sing. hjbt1; inf. hjbati. trhnu 'tear'; s. aor. utech; inf. Irknuli,
Sporadic iotacism in labial bases is limited to the first person singular. vniknu 'enter'; as. aor. vnik; s. aor. lJnilech; io£ lJnikruiti.
For the rest verbs of this type are indistinguishable from the primary kfiknu 'shout'; as. aor. kfik; inf. kflknuti.
labial presents (d.). J-tuknu 'am sad'; as. aor. s-tuk; inf. s-tuknuti.
vyknu 'get accustomed'; as. aor. vyk, 2nd and 3rd sing. vyle; pass.
part. v)'len; inf. !!>,knuti.
Non-velar bases (mVlUti) display no unusual features.

163. 2C. n-STEMS WITH LOST LABIAL, TYPE ~nu, hynuti 165. sa. e-STEMs, TYPE (I) MvljU, Mvlti:
rdliu si, rduti si. (2) mijliu, mijlti
hnu si 'move'; as. aor. heb si, 3rd sing. hbe si; s. aor. /much si: inf.
hnuti si; cpd. part. hnul si. (1) hovliu (komu) 'favour': Lat. lIkiu'regret': Gk. 8'Tj'l\iop.a,
hynu 'perish'; as. aor. hyb; s. aor. hynuch; inf. hynuti. javeo, id. 'harm'.
kynu 'swell, rise'; s. aor. kynuchj inf. kynuti. Loss of p implied by a rdliu si 'blush' : Lat. rubeo, id. (2) mijlju 'pass': Lat. meD, meare
parallel verb kyplti 'effervesce'. 'go'.
tonu 'drown'; as. aor. top: s. aor. «much; inf. tonuti. The distinguishing feature of e-stems as opposed to j-presents with
u-snu 'fall asleep'; as. aor. u-sep: s. aor. u-snluhj inf. u-muti. open radical (Ik) is in the remaining persons of the present tense,
.t-trnu 'stiffen: suffer; am taken aback'; inf. .t-tmu.ti. Loss of p implied which are:
by a parallel verbal-noun trplnie 'rigor'. Sing. hovid, hovie: Dual hovievl, hovieta, hovieta; Plur. hoviem, Mviete,
164. 2d. n-STEMS WITH HISTORICAL NASAL VOWEL, Contrast the open radical present in:
TYPE vadnu, vadnUij Sing. pfliel, pflje; Dual pfljevl, pfljeta, pfljeta; Plur. pfljem, pfljeu,
chfadnu 'wither'; 2nd sing. chfldneI (3rd sing. cMldM in St. ttNS): This contrast is maintained in the modem language where we find
inf. cMadnuti. hoviJ in contrast to pfeieI. The only other distinguishing feature is that
lahnu 'lie down': 2nd sing. lehneI; as. aor. 3rd plur, laM; inf, lahnuti in j-presents with ComSI. infinitive in "-Jati the compounding
(beside lici, see Id). participle ends in -cll, thus pfcll in contrast to hovll.
sadnu 'sit down'; 2nd sing. sldnel: inf. sadnuti.
tcllmu 'pull': 2nd sing. tiehne!; impf. tielmiech; as. aor. tah, 2nd and 3rd ANALYSIS
sing. tUe; s. aor. tl1.echj imper. tiehni: act. part, tdhna; pass. part. blltju 'get white'; 2nd sing. mijlju 'pass'; 2nd sing. mliul; inf.
tUen; abs. tdh, fern. tieh.fi: inf. tclhnuti; cpd. part. Mhl, masc. plur. blliel; inf. blkti. mijlti.
tiehli. clltju 'get whole': 2nd sing. rdlju si 'blush'; 2nd sing. rdie! si;
vadnu 'wither': 2nd sing. vldne!; inf. vadnuli. clliel; inf. clkti. inf, rdieti si.
vknu 'get stuck'; 2nd sing. viezne1: as. aor.va,z, 2nd and srd sing. vhe; hovlju 'favour': 2nd sing. hoviel: smliu 'dare'; 2nd sing. smies; inf.
inf. vcl.tnuti. inf. Mvlti, smieti, smlti.
rJ.tpoT1UJnu 'remember'; 2nd sing, v<./Jamlnel; inf, v<./Jomanuti, h,dlju 'get brave'; 2nd sing, umliu 'am able': 2nd sing. umie!:
.tapoT1UJnu 'forget'; 2nd sing. ;:apomlneIj s. aor. .tapvmanuchj inf. h,dul; in[ hrdlti. inf, umlti.
;:apoT1UJnuti and .tapomnieti: cpd. part . .taporlUlnul and .tapomnll. Imliu 'get lazy'; 2nd sing. [mu!; lIleiu 'mourn, regret'; 2nd sing.
.tamane, 3rd sing. 'strikes; occurs'; inf. ;:amanuti. inf. knlti, lllid; inf, tllieti.
la.mu si 'am amazed'; 2nd sing.llsntl si; s. aor, las si, 2nd and 3rd mdltju 'get faint': 2nd sing,
sing. llse si; inf. lasnuti si. mdlieI: inf. mdliti.
Strict historical phonology requires Common Slavonic I to appear as
a after 1 (see Phonology: lE i). This factor has given rise to sporadic
variants in the conjugation of sluIlti and similar words, which are
otherwise like Iwulti. Thus the past part. abs. is sluJau, fern . sluJluli; absolute, infinitive, and compounding participle have acquired the
the cpd. part. is sluJal, masc. plur. sluJlli. Similarly slyllti 'to hear'. vowel a by historical contraction. They are stoju, stdti 'stand'. hoju si,
NOTE ON dun 'TO SAY' bati le 'fear', and spju, spat; 'sleep'.
By the rule which requires Slavonic 1 to a ppear as a after l, I, and l
Dieti has an archaic present tense 1St person sing. diem; otherwise it is
certain modifications take place in i-e-stems whose base ends in these
like Multi.
phonemes. Thus past part. abs. Icfilau, sIylao, hlbw, compounding
participle kfilal, sly/aI, hUal. Contrast the forms of trplli, viz. trplv,
Historically this verb, with other long-grade factitives of similar type "pll.
(wadt; 'to return', etc. ), belongs among the a-stems (5a) where it is
usually placed by grammarians. Its sole distinguishing features are: ANALYSIS
pass. part. slkdn (contrast umln); mase. plur. sadni. bElu 'run'; 2nd sing. bEllI; impf. bUied; s. aor. hit/ch; abs. b/tau, fern.
abs. slkau (contrast urnlv); fern. sddvIi. bllJvIi; inf. bUlti; cpd. part. bUal, rnasc. plur. blllli.
cpd. part. sdzal (contrast umll); rnasc. plur. slklli. bzu 'watch, lie awake'; 2nd sing. bdlI; inr. Mieti.
Otherwise this type follows the conjugation of the e-stems. drlu 'hold'; 2nd sing. drlLJ; abs. drlav, fern. drOvE; inf. dr1.1ti; cpd.
part. drlal, masc. plur. dr1.1li.
166. 3b. j-e-ST£MS. PRESENT TENSE IN -i-; Iwfu 'bum'; 2nd sing. 1w1lJ; act. part. hoFl, fern. he'i" i (contrast the
INFINITIVE IN M~ti, ~ieti, TYPE vizu, mdlti; bzu, Milti mod. adj. Iwroud); inf. hoflt;.
kfitu 'shout'; 2nd sing. kfilU; abs. kfilau, fern. kfillvli; inf. kfillti; cpd.
vieu 'see': Lat. IlideD, id. trpiu 'endure; oblige': Skt. trPyiimi part. Wal, rnasc. plur. /cfillli.
se~u 'sit': Lat. sedeD, id. 'experience, enjoy'. lecu 'fly'; 2nd sing. htlI; inf.letlli.
lelu 'lie': Eng. lie. bzu 'watch, am awake': Skt. lelu 'lie'; 2nd sing. le1.U; abs.leiao, fern. lellvIi; inf. leU/i; cpd. part.
bUdhyami, id. lelal, rnasc. plur. leUli.
The i-e-stems are intermediate between the e-stems and the i-stems mllu 'am silent'; 2nd sing. mlllJ; abs. mllau, fern . mlllvJi; inf. mlllti;
(type 4). The forms which resemble those of the i-stems are as cpd. part. mlla!, rnase. plur. mill/i.
follows: mnu 'hold the view, think'; 2nd sing. mnU; inf. mnieti.
The Present Tense: nlu 'wane'; 2nd sing. nzi1; inf. nzieti.
SlNOULAR DUAL PLURAL sezu 'sit'; 2nd sing. sediJ; inf. sedlli.
trPiu trplol, trpilHl trplm (-e.-y) sipju 'hiss'; 2nd sing. SlpLJ; inf. sip/li.
trplI trplto trplle sfy1u 'hear'; 2nd sing. sfyJU; abs. slylav, fern . sfyIloli; inf. sfyllh; cpd.
trpl "pita trpie part. sfylal, rnase. plur. sfyIlli.
s!>'zu si 'am ashamed'; 2nd sing. stydl1 si; inf. stydlti.
The Imperative: trpi, trp; the active participle: trpl, fern. trpieei; the tltu 'work, exploit'; 2nd sing. tltl1; inf. tll,lti; cpd. part. tltal, mase.
past part. absolute: trpio. The remaining forms are those of houlti, plur. tltl/i.
type 3a. trPiu 'endure; oblige'; 2nd sing. trpU; inr. trplti.
Vidlti 'to see' has the following unusual forms: imper. viz; act. part. lliJu 'hang', intr.; 2nd sing. visIJ; inf. uislti.
vida, fern. vidUci. Contrast the corresponding analysis of sedlti: imper. vizu 'see'; 2nd sing. vidiJ; impf. vidi"h; imper. viZ (late via); act. part.
stdi; act. part. sedl, fern. sedieei. Three isolated verbs in -dei have the vida (compounds -vidl); pass. part. vidln; abs. oidlv; inf. llidlh; cpd.
present tense of type 3b though their sigmatic aorist, past participle part. vidli.
or," 'surround'; 2nd sing. ort!!; inf. twllt;.
tv..ru 'resound, ring'; 2nd sing. .eMU; inf. .tflfllti. 168. 5. PRESENT IN -a}, INfiNITIVE IN -ati, TYPE

tfu 'espy'; 2nd sing. dI1; inf. dUti. dlllJju, dlllJtj, VARIANT skl}u, siLtlli
vltaju 'welcome': Lat. in-viM po-spUchDju 'hasten': Lat. sperD 'hope',
ANOMALOUS PORMS IN -ati 'entertain, invite', s/daju 'fight': Lat. sldO 'quell, allay'.
ba)u sl'fear'j ~:znd sing. bojU si; impf. "oju",. si; s. ao •• blkh si; impel".
boj si; act. part. bo}1 si; ab5. bdo si; inf. bdti si; cpd. btfl si. ANALYstS
spju, IPiu 'sleep'; 2nd sing. spU; impf. splkh, srd sing. spd!, (Alex.); Present tense:
s. aor. Sptu"; imper. spit act. part. spl; inf. spdti; cpd. part. spal. SINGULAR DUAL PLURAL
staju 'stand'; :md sing. swjlJ; impf. stojiuh and sttkh; s. aor. slikh; dllaju dlMd dlldm (-', ,,)
imper. std}; act. part. swjl; pass. part. impersonal stdnoj inf. stdti; dll41 diU.. dlldu
cpd. part. stdl. dlld diU.. dllaju
Imperfect dllajiech and dlldchj sigmatk aomt dllach, 2nd and srd
167. 4. i-STEMS. PRESENT TENSE IN -i-, INJlINITIVE IN sing. dllaj imper. dllajj act. part. dllaj/j pass. part. dlldn; abs. dllavj
-iti, TYPE /Jolu, oodti inf. dllatij cpd. part. dllal. Thus QUlju, .tndti 'know' and many
slllu 'bring, lead': Gk. G'TO'X'W o-lenu si 'get lazy': Lat. llni6
The variant of type sWju, sd.tlti is usually included within the
'proceed in fonnation', 0'r0'- 'soften'.
a-stem! because of its derivation from the Common Slavonic type
X',w 'plant in rows'. po-hku 'gulp down': Lat. gluriD,
in ·-jati. Nevertheless the only a-stem fonns of type stklti are the
ua.tU 'egg on'; Gk. w8l.w, clJ8i,w, id.
passive participle stkdn, mase. plur. stk'imi, the past participle
id. po-hoscu 'entertain': Lat. MsnD
absolute sik;ao, fern. stLd/JJi, and the compounding participle .rdzal,
po-lolu 'set,lay': Eng.lay. 'treat as a stranger'.
rnase. plur. stklli. All other fonns are identical with those of the
M. 'm..' (St. Bit 66), QI,d. skoFu 'hasten': Gk. CTKatpw,
e-stems (type sa). Here belong bljlti 'to thrash', luklti 'to throw',
btrja 'strike'.
ot-ndllri 'to carry off', oy-cluklti 'to walk', fl,J-fJrdvlti 'to relate', o-tdllti
DOlu 'cart, convey': Gk. &X1w, id.
'to turn', and other verbs of similar vocalism and aspect.
The present tel1!e is identical with that of the i-e-stems. The group
includes historical factitives, frequentatives, denominatives, and a
few onomatopoeic formations, and the base-vowel ftequendy reflects
-ovati, TYPE kupuju, kupooaJi, V ARJANT kuju, kovati
ANALYSIS ·suhuju 'stitch': Gk. ·CT'T'YEVW ·u-bytuju, 'lodge': Gk. tPlJff.VW
'tattoo' (G'TtyEVs- 'tattooer'). 'cultivate'.
urdcu 'return'; 2nd sing. urdtl1j impf. urdtiechj s. aor. urdtieh, 2nd and
Srd sing. urdti; imper. uratij act. part. urdtlj pass. part. urddn; abs. ANALYSIS
urdtiv; inf. urdtitij cpd. part. urdtil. Prrsent Tense:
mylfu 'think'; 2nd sing. mysll1; impf. mysllch; s. aor. myslith; imper. SINGULAR DUAL PLURAL
tlrysli; act. part. mysle; inf. mysliti. kupuju kupujeol kupujem (-e,:y)
b'lu si 'grin' ; 2nd sing. {yd.! si; act. part. {yd si; inf. lyeti si. kupuje! kupujela kupujete
kupuje kupujeta kupuju
Imperfect kupovdch, s. aorist kupovach; impeL kupu}; act. part. hpuj/; DUAL sfJl,jsvi, biuhove MeMoI, bwkol bdel
pass. part. kupovdnj inf. kupovatij cpd. part. kupocal.
The types kuju, kovati 'forge', srwju, SMaati 'twist', and suju, sovari
". bye/Will
sta,jsla biella hlsta, byskJ
budeta but/la
'move' (with the historical vocalism of Gk. KCUW 'move') differ from sta,jsta bulla hlsta, bysta bwkta
type kupovali in the imperfect only. Thus kujiech stands in contrast to PLUR. sme.jS1lU bi,chom blchom, budem bud/m,
kupovdch, but the parallel form kovdch is frequent . This has the effect bychom (-<, -y) bw/=
of making type kovati identical with type kupavati. slt,j!te bie!tt bhte, byste Iwk~ bulte
sri,jm bitchu blchU, bychU budu budieehu
Active participlejsaj future active participle buda; passive part. (in
-~vati, -evati, TYPE kraliju, kraievati
compounds) ~byt; past participle absolute byvj inf. bjti; cpd. part. byl.
*nociju, noclvati 'spend the night" cf. Gk. lIVKTEpnJw, id. Relative 2nd sing. les 'that thou art'.
stanu 'stand'j impf. stanUch, stach; s. aor. stach; imper. stani; active
part. SlaM; abs. stav; inf. stdu; cpd. part. stal. Compounds similarly.
kraliju'rule' (cf. Gk.{1aoLA€VW, id.); 2nd sing. kralijdj impf. krakf!dch; ddm, ddti (perfective) 'give'; 2nd sing. dM, 3rd. sing. dd; dual ddvl,
sig. aor. krakvach; imper. kralij; act. part. kralijl; pass. part. ddta; 3rd. plur. dadu ; impf. daduch; s. aor. dach; imper. daj; act. part.
(praclvdn); inf. kralevati; cpd. part. kraleval. daM; pass. part. ddn; abs. dav; cpd. part. daJ. Compounds similarly.
jiem,jiesti 'eat'; 2nd sing. j ul; 2nd plur .jieste and jute; 3rd. plur.jUie;
171. 7. ANOMALOUS VERBS impf.jUiech; s. aor. j lch; imper. jlz; 2nd plur.jlZle; act. part.jldo
and jUl; pass. part. jlden; abs. jld; cpd. part. jldl. Compounds
sem,jsem, inf. bjti 'am; be'; Lat. sum, perf.foE: OLith. esmi, inf. Mti. similarly.
stanu, stdti 'stand', er (with short vowel) Gk. iO'Tavw 'place', and mem, vUl'1 know'; 2nd sing. viel; 2nd plur. vieste and viete; 3rd plur.
Latin compounds de-stino, prae-stino, etc. vUie; impf. vldiech;s. aor.lJldlch; imper. vlz; 2nd p lur. vl;:;te; act. part.
ddm, ddti 'give': Lat. do, dare: OLith. duomi, id. vUa; pass. part. vldln; abs. vldl v; inf. vidlti; cpd. vldll. Compounds
jiem,justi 'eat': Lat. edo, id.: OLith. tfmi, id. similarly.
vUm, vldl'! know', er Gk. otoa 'I know' beside Lat. vidi 'I have seen', chcu and c!wcu, chtiel; 'wish'; 2nd sing. ehed; 3rd. sing. chee, chOu; ISt
veee 'quoth': Gk. Et'm:, id. dual ehevl , cheevl , chelJ(J, cheevaj 1St plur. chcmy, cheemy, etc.; 2nd
jdu,jtti 'go': Lith. judu, juditi 'move', cf. Skt.yUdhylimi 'go, fight'. plur. chete, cheete; 3rd plur. chtie; impf. ehtiech; s. aor. chUeh, dwtJch;
ANALYSIS imper. chtlj; act. part. chU; pass. part. chtJn; abs. chtJv; cpd. part.
The verb bjti
jdu, jiti 'go'; 2nd sing. jdeJ; impf. jdiech, diech; as. aor. jid; s. aor.
FU- HYPo~ IM- jidech; imper.jd;j act. part.jda; abs. led; cpd. part.lel, masc. plur.
SING. sem,jsem biech bech, hycft budu budiech jmdm, jmieti 'have'; 2nd sing. jmd1; impf. jmljiech, mljuch, jmiuh,
si,jsi bid(,) bl , by budel budi, but! miech; s. aor.jmlch; imper.jm{;; act. part.jmajl; pass. part. jmien;
jest,je,j, bul(e) bl,by lude budiele budi~l abs.jmlv; cpd. part.jmll. Alternative forms are milm, muti, etc.
neg. ueu 'quoth' is, like its English counterpart, of indistinct tense and
neme isolated.

pro-bu.du., pro.bjti 'shall thrive, to thrive'; act. part. pro-bwla, the rest Traces of a declension are isolated, Dalimil has an ace. sing, rnasc,
as bjti. Other compounds similarly. jlduc 'going', and a dat. sing. rnasc. in .ricu.,
diem, dieti 'say' has the fornu of the e-stems, type haulti, except for the
archaic first person singular in -rn. 114, The Present Passive Participle is nothing more than an
archaism, Such are vidom 'being seen', vldom 'being aware', a pre·
sumed *pitom 'being reared' implied from the derived adjective
PARTICIPLES AND COMPOUND TENSES pitomj 'tame', and a presumed *drtim 'being held' implied from the
172. The participles of Old Czech derive from prototypes reflected adjective drlimj 'held'. Modem Czech treats these survivals as
in the cognate lE languages. They are (I) the present active, (2) the predicative adjectives, thus vUom 'aware', la/com 'greedy'. If B.
present passive, (3) the past passive, (4) the past participle absolute, Havranek is right in supposing the present pa,ssiveparticiple to be
(5) the gerund or future infinitive, and (6) the compounding par- adjectival in origin we may further compare Latin patrimus 'having
ticiple. Of these the present passive is sporadic and is no longer the father still alive',
current even in the oldest Czech. With the decay of the aorist and the 115, The Past Passive Participle is historically related to the transi·
imperfect tenses about the middle of the fifteenth century the com- tive verbs. The older lE languages maintained a distinction between
pounding participle becomes frequent. t-participles, which are purely passive with an implied agent, and
n-participles, which are middle voice and without an implied agent,
173. The Present Active Participle. Old Czech jUa 'eating', fem.
This distinction is still echoed in the English pairs shaved and shaven,
jUUd, neut.jUa, plur.jldztce, a typical present active participle, dis·
rolted and rotUn,
plays in its stem the reflex of a historical nasal of lE type *.fm/·on
The t~participle, or true passive participle, ended in *-tOs as is
(or *-on/-,n). The cognate forms are:
seen from Skt, riktd", 'left, empty, poor': Lith. lUctas 'left': Lat, re-
MASCULINE PEMINlNE NEUTER lulus 'abandoned': Arm. lik' 'left'; lE *liWtds. In Greek the true
OLD CZECH jUa jldUci jUa passive participle became either adjectival, as in A€KTOS' 'spoken',
GREEK -"" -ovO'a. -o, fJVTOS' 'fluid', or nominal, as in UTpo.TOs 'camp, anny', In Germanic
SANSKRIT add. adanti oddi the prehistoric distinction of usage between t-participles (as in the
LITHUANIAN Id", Idanti Idq (adverb: idant) 'weak' verbs) and n·participles (as in the 'strong' verbs) has dis·
GOTHIC i""",, itanrki itando appeared. In Lithuanian all passive participles end in unstressed -!as,
and the n.participle has disappeared. In Old Czech the t-participle
Latin edens, gen. sing. elientis, are forms which has been appropriated exclusively to the n-presents (2a, 2C, and 2d),
have been generalized to all genders. The present active participle the open radicals (rk), the primary v-presents (Ij), and the vowelless
fonn has given rise to a limited number of nouns represented in primary nasal bases (Ig) . An isolated t·participle occurs among the
OCz. by mhiu 'month', tisjuc 'thousand', in Gothic by jijands 'enemy' verbs of type th. This is the form prQ-strl 'strewn': Lat. pro-stratum,
(Eng. .'fiend') , jrijonds 'friend' (cf. OCz, pm-le!), in Greek by rlpwv The verb tfieti 'rub' has an occasional t-participle tilt 'rubbed', and
'old man', in Skt, by brluit 'height', etc, It is the basis of adjectives of mliti 'grind' has a late t-participle mkt 'ground'.
type vedUci 'leading', vle·mohztc! 'all-powerful' (see § '3': tfetl),
Iotacism produces a present active participle with the reflex of the 116, The Past Participle Absolute (,having done') is 'absolute' only
Common Slavonic front nasal as in sedl 'sitting', fem. sedieci. Two in the sense that it never stands in the cia us"e embodying the
verbs, vidlti and uldl ti, display a present active participle unaffected related noun or pronoun, but is isolated from it. Old Czech displays
by iotacism, thus vida, fem. viduci and vlda, fem. vldUci respectively. two types of past participle absolute, the first without v, the second
with v. The base or stem is that of the aorist. The feminine form has 180. Compound Tenses.
an analogue in Lithuanian, Sanskrit, and Greek. Pluperfect: IJldl byck, beside wdl blck, and byljsem vedl'I had led', etc.
MASCUUN8 FEMININE NEUTER PLURAL Future: budu Dlsti, beside du:u visti andjm4m Dlsti 'I shall lead', etc.
Future Perfect: budu Dl!dl 'I shall have led'.
OLD CZECH (I) ved 'having led' ",d]i "d "dJ, Progressive Present: vtdajstm 'I am leading'. Conditional: Vldl bych 'I
(2) byv 'having been' byvIi by, byvJe
should lead'.
LITHUANIAN bu~,gen.sg.bu~o buvusi (adv. biwus)
Perfect: vedl Jsem 'I have led'. Hypothetical: budiuh Dedi 'I should
SANSIUUT Didvdn, acc. sg. uid,qam Didu.,£ uidvdt
have led',
OREEX l&.k lSu'o. [SOS
Future Progressive: budu vtda 'I shall be leading'.
Of type (t) are nes,pek, tek, moh, tisk, tdh,jem (tojieti), and Jed (tojlti) .
Of type (2) are brali, vidlv, minuv, dllali, etc. 181. A late development is the formation of iterative verbs of type
The past participle absolute can be formed only from a radical cfwdlvati, dlldfllltitoproduce iterative tenses ('I used to go',etc.). Verbs
verb, not from an extended or iterative verb, thus prosio 'having of this type are rare in the oldest documents. The Alexandreid has
begged', which though imperfective in aspect is radical. Hypo- jmierJati' to have', bjooti'to be wont',and ddvati'to give', which,though
thetical forms such as ·ddvav and ·kupof)(JV are impossible. iterative in form, are strictly imperfective in meaning. The dicho-
tomy of Old Czech verbal notions into the aspectual categories
177. The Gerund, or Future Infinitive, has the fonn of the infinitive specific (or perfective) and general (or imperfective) was a formal
except for the absenceoffinal-i, thus infinitive dllati 'to do', future in- necessity a t the disappearance of the inflected past tenses-the
finitive dllo,t. Afurther distinction is the absence of vowd-fronting, and imperfect and the aorist. The distinction was made in one of three
the base vowel is short, thusspdti 'to sleep', future infinitive spat, a fonn ways: (I) the specific aspect was formed from the general aspect by
still in use. An illustration of its usage occurs in SHtny: ;:.ove dllo,t, the addition of a prefix, t hus na-psali from psdti, pfl-flsti from flsti;
prat:olial 'he summons to do, to work'. A modem survival is chcj spat 'I (2) the specific and general aspects were shown by the association of
wish to sleep',jdu spat 'I am going to bed'. The future infinitive dat 'in two distinct verbs such as Ii.{ieti: brdti, and pokJlih': kldsti; (3) the
order to give' is still sometimes used in this way. This word is cognate general aspect was derived, at least in the later language, from the
with Lith. duolu: Latv. dotu (an invariable conditional 'would give'), specific by lengthening, thus dODOloliati from dovoliti, naplnovati from
cf. Skt. datum 'to give'. naplniti, pfeddliati from pfedati. The last method seems to have grown
out of the practice which existed in the older language of associating
178. The Compounding Participle derives from an adjective of
a simple verb of specific aspect, such as ddti, kupiti, with an iterative
l-extension similar to Latin bib-ulus, quer-ulus. With the verb 'to be'
type of verb such as ddvati, lcupovati of general aspect. This rational-
the compounding participle forms the past tense and the conditional
ized process is now applied to a very large number of verbs. The
mood of all verbs since about the middle of the fifteenth century.
following pairs existed in the older language:
179. The Infinitive is held on the evidence of Sanskrit and early j£ti: clwditi vtsti (vC;:.ti): tJO{.iti utili: Utatt
Latin, as well as on semantic grounds, to derive from the dative bUlli: blluzti IJ/sti: DOditi hOOti: Iwniti
singular of the ti-stem feminine noun. This is a type of action-noun nisti: nositi jlti: jluJiti
familiar in Sanskrit (bhutlb), Greek (q,Vats), Lithuanian (batis), and
Old Czech itself (byl, fern. 'being'). This mearu that an infinitive 182. Definition by means of prefixes gave rise to a number of general
such as {,1!dti 'to know' is the exact equivalent of Gk. yvwu€t, dat. (or imperfective) forms which have no currency as simple verbs.
sing. 'to knowing'. Chief of these are -ndIlti, -vdllti, -IiMlti, ..dui.{lti, -jie;:.diti, -hllllti,
VER.BS 12 5
-klltJti, -klddati, -tUrati, -vierati, -mierati, -bierati, -huMti, -st/Jati,
-.tierati, -lierati, -liuati, -:jumati, and -sherati. Thus the Alexandreid 9· By prefixing u-
has the pair .ca-stUrati: VJ-sllUti. u-pid. 'b~e'; ,u-le.sa~ .'c.omb'; u-dJlali, u-finiti 'do'; u-sfyIlti 'hear';
u-md/tl see; U-dUtl descry'; u-pUsti 'knit, weave'; u-Moiti 'kill,
18.'5. The aspectual pairing of verbs was achieved in a variety of wayI
destroy'; u-stUti 'spread, prepare'; u-tiliti 'console'; u-Hti 'sew',
and at different periods of evolution, a fact which has added enor- etc.
mously to the complexity of Czech grammar. It was never an
entirely mechanical process. The following scheme displays the 10. By prefixing vy_
manner in which a large number of verbs acquired an aspectual I!1-piti 'drink'; f!)I-mlniti 'exchange'; '!]-btJsti 'spur on'; f!)I-kfuditi
double. 'clear'; lIY"'stflliti 'fire', etc.
I. By alternating a-stems with n-stems
11.By prefixing V'Z-
swt; 'grab': sdhnuti (Alex.).
vz-buditi 'awaken'; Dz-ploditi 'increase'; vz-slraIi/i 'scare'; DZ-Ddzati
tahati 'pull': tdhnuti (Alex.: pIi-). 'tie', etc.
vtkiJti 'tie': vdznuti.
I~. By prefixing z-
~. By alternating a-stems with i-stems
'J't~ y-lIro,th,h" 'sp-ad',"
'accept',' "'I' ""-a',"'," 'ose;
...... t · I' z-truulh
' 1 ' • 'tire',
chvdkJli 'seize': chvdtiti (si). etc.
3. By prefixing na- 13. By prefixing za-
M-rodili si 'be born'; na-plnili 'fill'; M-utili 'teach'; M-ma.tIlli 'smear' za-volati 'eaU', za-stfieti 'cover up'; ZiJ-bLUditi 'go astray'; za-platiti
M-psati 'write', etc. 'pay', etc.
4. By prefixing 0-
o-hldriti 'announce'; o-klamati 'cheat'; o-chuditi 'make poor'; o-mrtzliti
'darken', etc.
5. By prefixing po-
po-raditi 'advise'; po-blUditi 'go wrong'; po-listi 'count'; po-mluoiti
'speak'; po-pluti 'flow'; po-kaziti 'spoil'; po-Icrmiti 'feed'; po.SkJoiti
'set up', etc.
6. By prefixing pM-, pri-, pro-
pll-&ti 'read, count'; pIi-blUiti si 'approach'; pro-raditi 'betray';
pro-splti 'succeed', etc.
7. By prefixing roz-
ro~-dlliti 'divide'; roz-lu«ti si 'part'; roz-tdti 'thaw', etc.

8. By prefixing s- (sn- before vowels, after loss of j-)

sn-jesti Uiesti) 'eat'; s-konlili 'finish'; s-krjli 'cover up, hide'; s-ludil.
'seduce'; s-rubie; si komu 'please'; s-pfitci 'harness', etc.

yill by, sye krzsta przichopiece,

byli sw-ych modi odstupiece.
I to by sye stati mohlo---
acz by to co yuz pomohlo?-
VI :ie Nyemci, yiz su zde hostie.
chtie dozdati, by na mostye
Prazye-yehoz Boh snad necha!-
LITERARY EXTRACTS nebylo widyeti Czecha.
I mohlo by sye br:i stati,
by yich bylo newidati! '5
From BudlJovukj z/umtk, lines 2\1<>--44.
The Greek!! honour their leader-and the moral
As prawem sye ymu to dalo 2. THE ALEXANDREID
coi: sye ymu yest czsti kde staID, Budljorm:kj munjn{ <.femek, lint'S I-52; the treachery of
ie sye wYbraw s malem Ijuda BessIU and Narbaso. This extract contains a large
number of dual forms
i poymyew mnoho nekliuda
swu wyecyu tak snainye pilil, , W tu dobu ta dwa proradcye,
newyerneho skutka skladcye,
ai sye ymu wes swyet pochyliL
By Boh uslysyeti raczii, radidta sye neyednako,
newyeduce ydcze kako
swe Krzestyenstwo i to zraczil,
by takyi: byl czeskym kralem. bylo yima sweho krale ,
Upfal bych w to, tby za malem yieti, u mnozye czi u male;
(lecz bud Litwa, lecz Taterzi, " neb ke w~yem tu neupfa~ta,
kaki: su menowani kterzi, pronydto sye welmi baSta,
Besermene nebo Prusi
16 pfichopiti si (with gen.), 'embrace'; kfnt 'baptism'.
lecz nepotwr'zeni Rusi) 21 ,htie 'they wish'; doldati 'live to see'.
przisli by k takey prziprzietie '5 22 'which God forbid'.
•• 24 brl 'sooner'.
I siimu le daw • has happened to him'.
11'what (of) honour had anywhere accrued to him', Ipr(midd'traitor'.
3 si '!lbrav 'having set out'. skutek 'deed'; sklddd, 'plotter'.
5 s7Udn.l'diligently'; pllili si (with the inst.) 'carry out'. 3 rrejrdnako 'in various ways'.
6 pothjlili si 'submit' . 4 kako 'how'.
7 Bdh, accusative. 5 byiojima 'they were to' (dual).
8 ualiti 'display, make evident'. 6 jieti 'take, capture'; u mnc{l!i u mdk 'in a big way or a small one' (Le. 'by
9 takj 'such a one'. a mass attack or with a small party'). For usage of u (= 11), cr. mod.
10 upfati 'expect, hope'; lby = l e by. upHlelirosti ... , u pfipojen{ . .. In prosodic usage u for 11 is used to supply
I1 le!, le! bud, 'whether ... or ... ' an extra syllable.
13 Bnermen, cf. Pol. bisurman 'infidel, Moslem'. 7 lipfali (with k ... ), 'trust'.
14 nepotlJr<.tTlj 'unconfirmed (by the Church), heathen'. a prQll/lro 'wherefore'; bdli .fl 'be afraid' (here impf. third dual to rhyme
15 pfipflta 'fear, reverence'. with nnipftilta).

acz by yho kak myetnye yala,

by sama w tom neostala.
Till 0 tom mluwiw!e mnoho.
. Tdy ID 0 ezsti ni 0 Bozye
tbayuce ta mufye zradna,
sen i on przyed wozem padna,
postawu smutneho licye
Bessw wece: "Co do toho,
acz bychwye myslila i dele? lei:eta przyed wozem nieye, "
Rano, kdyzt wstane z postele, mluwiece k nyemu hlawu wzhoru,
rzkuce: "Kraiiu! nayu wina
poydwye przyederi, w$a.1d ne sbomye.
postawiece syc pokornye,
rcyeme~t: ,K.raliu! co swye sdyela,
w tom sye swye lepse domnyela,
·s yest welika, wtakZ yu mina,
wez-zrzi z twe milosti na to
ze, doriadz swye ziwa, za to
mniece, z'by { sye to sliubilo, tiem te winy pokupiwye,
a kdyz { to protiwno bylo yakZ tebe wiee podstupiwye
toho srdecznye zye1ewye.' s postatiu na1eho redu,
A meri tiem nikte newie s tobu na zisk i na !kodu
co syc stati moci bude s milostiu ostati ehtieee,
yaId: nayu obacz nezbude." tebe wiee neod.stupieee."
Yut bye liud dnem sye uyistil, Tdy wida vie w tey pokorzye,
's stdcze sobye, slz unorzye.
a swyct ohacz syt nezczistil
ote wAit mraky tmy nocnie. Tui: yima inhed uwyerzi, ,0
Tehdy obacz nepomocnye tuzye sye s nima i smierzi.
rano uzrzyew zorniu hwyezdu, g2 tdy 'then, now'.
kral Darius, nahlu yiezdu ,0 34 ltn i on 'thu and the other', 'both of them' (the active part. is sing.).
chtye precz, sedieAe na wozye. S5 posuwU 'with the-aspect'; ltu 'face, expression'.
S6 nUl 'face downward' (prob. an adv. but beld by some to be an adj. /lid.)
9 "b.1'.mce they might'; ka! mltnl'so ineptly (b] .• " as to ... )' (OCt. S9 vIaktju mina 'yet overlooking it'.
mltJ _ mod. miJln/). 41 donadl'as long as'.
10 ostdJi'succeed'. 42 pokUpiti'redeem'.
HI ut" 'quath'; CD rh toho 'how would it be', 43 podslUpiJi 'support'.
15 pfldd (fusion of prep. and pron.) 'before him' (ace.); nllhomI'not in a 44 postal 'main body, mass'.
body' (i.e. 'individually). 45 'with thee for better or worse'.
17 sduti'do', 49 ltukmiti lobi 'feel compassion'; wwfiti (with gen.) 'shed'.
18 tkmt!ilti si 'bethink oneself'; uPk, adv. for lipt. 50 tu-! 'there and then'; inlIld 'at once'.
'9 'it would be pleasing to thee'. 5' tud'firmly' (or tu-Lt 'there and then').
protiUM 'dutasteful'.
IU UUli 'regret'.
!:I4 An obscure line, perh. 'since, at any rate (oMl), he will not elude us'.
!:IS 19istiti si (&rn) 'be aware of'.
!:I6 ohd/'yet'; disliti si ot . .. 'be rid of'.
!:I7 'of all the murk of nocturnal darkness'.
118 ntJxmwcnl'involuntarily'.
!:I9 (om" hulvJa 'the morning star'.
go ndhlu ..., irutr.
gl prtf'away, forth'.
Zayitra u prawe zorzye
3. DALlMIL (chapters 2, 3 and 4) by Czech sam sedmy na tey horzye, 0,
o jJo&{.atcye naje/w:J4(jka w CQCluuh s ni-et wticku zenU ohleda
a dale yim yiti neda,
W srbskem yazyku Vest zemye, rzka: "Ymamy zemi po swey woli
ydto Charwary yest ymye. a budu nam z te plni stoli-
W tey zemi bide lech, zwyeni, ptakuow, ryb, wad dosti. ,0
yemuz to ymye bide Czech. Ot neprzatel twrda dosti,
Ten muzohoystwa sye doczini 5 yako by na pu!czi stalo,
pronyei swu zenU prowini. kdei by nie neprzyekazalo,
Ten Czech myeyicie moc i czest S te hol)' na zemi zrz iechu-
a ot nich mnoho czeledi, proto tey horzye "Rzip" przyewzdi echu,
yut yedne noei Czech osledi
i wrbra sye se wSim z zemye 10
Prwe chleba nemyeyiechu;
maso a ryhy yediechu,
yeyt diechu Charwaty ymye Prwe leto laz wzkopachu,
i bra sye lesem do lesa,
dielky swe na pleei nesa;
a kdyz dluho lesem vide
k welikemu hwozdu przide. 15
a druhe Ieto radlem zorachu.
Ale ze yich starostye Czech diechu,
pron zemi Czechy wzdiechu.
Ti lidye welmi wyemi biechu;
Tu sye steste czeledi yeho. wie sbozie obecno ymyeyiechu.
Wece Czech: "Ach, byeda yest skutka meho, Komu sye co nedostanie$e
ze pro mye yste w teyto nuzi w druha yako swe ymyeyide.
a ysu pro mye waSi domowe Yeden obyczey zly ymyeyiechu:
hwti luzi." 1 wece Czech k swemu shoru: ~o ie manzelstwa nedrticchu.
"Podeydyem pod tuto horu. Tehdy i yedna zena muzem vista nebide,
Dyetem skotu odpoczinem yeden mut ten mooho ymicie.
a snad sye tu stuhu minem." Prawye skotsky bYdliechu.
I jO(Jk (here) 'state'.
kd! 'chieftain'.
przyebywachu na wtak weczer
noweho manielstwa hledachu.
~ mulobojstuo 'murder'; dalini si (aor. with gen.) 'committed'. Sudcye i yednoho nemyeyiechu,
6 prouini, aor. 'discredited'.
8 «lttl 'household'; plur. 'children'. neho sabye nekradiechu.
9 osltdi, aor. fr. 'assembled'.
:t4 .r.ajitTa 'tomorrow'; VJfI, fern. 'dawn'.
13 piKe 'shoulder'. 25 sedmj 'sealed' (cf, mod. skJjtrW, ltlmo).
14 jidt, aor. Srd sing. 'went'. 31 turdj 'strong',
15 huocd 'wood'. 35 Hp (sole instance ofthi.a; word) ' tor'.
16 stdll si, aor. Srd sing. of stesknutis". dat. 'pity'. 38 la;:, 'clearing'.
17 skultk 'action, plight'. 40 slfJrQstl, dat, sing, of starosta 'leader',
!:IO lull, plur. lu.d 'wilderness'; sbor 'band'.
45 v drvho, a metrical adjw trnent for 11 druJro,
!:I:.z odpotinuli, with cl:!:t. Ir. 'rest'. , ., . " . . 50 skotsky, adv. 'like beasts',
!:I3 mimUi si ((Ill 'survive, overcome; sll/ho hardship (lOst, tu stuhu). 51 pllbjuali 'cohabit'.
Pakli sye kdy stala ktera swada, yehoz ya ne<::hci mluwiti. a,
u starzyeysieho byla rada, " Lihusye to uslysyewsi,
aby prawo uczinili nemudremu przyehowyewsi,
prawemu skody polepsili. nie yemu neodpowyedye;
Minu let tomu we1mi mnoho, walny tu snem zapowyedye.
ze sye driye ten lid obyezeYie 60 Kdyz sye na snem wSickni snyedu go
toho ot Libusina oteye. a przyed Libusi prziyiedu
Kdyz tomu mudreho mnohy minu rok. (tehdy te w~ie zemye mati),
wsta w zemi muz, yemuz dieehu Krok. ye swe banby zalowati.
Ten zemi wsicku sudieSe. Zemane to uslysyewse
a mudro si ye uezieSe. 65 swey hospodye sye nasmyewse
Potom Krok yide do naw}'.
Trzi mudre dcer}' ostawi:
yako z patra sye wzpodyem.!ie,
rady i yedne newzem.!ie,
Kazu. Tetku a Libusl. krziku wsickni yednim hlasem:
o trzetiey mluwiti musi.
Kazye sediese na Kazynye
A Tetka na Tetynye.
,. "Newyplatimy toho yedniem wlasem.
Prawdu-l mluwi czlowyek taky,
nebel ye wila mui: wsaky

Libusye prorokyni biei;ej YeStof sye przyed zenu sudi,

ta wsieku zemi sudiese. yehoz k tomu nuzye neprzipudi.
Stase, ze omezi dwa sye swadista
a sobye dobrzye przibista.
Libwye ye sye yu suditi
Yuz dele necheem meskati;
cheem muiye za hospodu ymieti.
Yednoho-f na tobye prosimy:
a winneho drbi smutiti. Powyez nam wyestbami Sw}'mi
Winny ye sye Libusye hanyeti, z kterei nam zemye radiS knyezye wzieti,
rzka: "Neehci tebe za sudci ymieti, neb w swey zemi nemozem podobneho mieti.
neh zena umie lepe yehlu siti 80
nei: w sudye muzye suditi.
o Lihuiinu proroctwi
Aeh, kako to mye we1mi rudi,
ze nas muzye zena sudi."
1 yeehu sye wsickni pani haniti,
Vim Libusye odpowyedye, rzkuc:
"To wam beze lsti powyedye,
59 minu, aor. grd sing.'passed'i drY sI, aor. 3rd sing. with gen. 'main-
tained'. 87 pllhovlti (with dat.) 'ignore, disregard'.
65 'he disciplined them wisely'. 88 ~POvldlti 'summon'.
66 jitk tM n~ 'died'. 90 snLdu si (for midu s1), aor. grd plur. 'they came together'.
6g muIi, mwu 'I must'. 91 pfijldu, aor. gm plur. (for pfijidu) 'they came'.
75 plib{ji, with dat. 'fight, punch'. 96 patro 'floor'.
76 jlsl, aor. grd sing. ofjietisl'began'i sUiitiju (dual) 'to judge them'. 99 l!Yplatiti (with gen.) 'surrender, redeem'.
77 drhi, aor. grd sing. 'had to' (d,biti "'" musili); smutiti 'rebuff'. 100 takj 'such a'.
80 jthlu, inst. sing. 101 lIila 'foot'; vIaJ;} 'any'.
82 ruditi 'annoy, enrage'. 84 hanili, intr. 'be abusive'. 110 /KIvldl ( = PO/JimI) 'I will tell'. See § 171.
kakkoli ste mye uhanili na was lid bude hledati winy
kdyz ste mye tak potupili. a swym rozdyeli waSe dyediny.
Zly czlowyek tu drbi byti.
kteryz pro swe dobre da
obci zlym toho uziti.
., Cze!te swe! Acz i krastawo
neday we swe, czeska hlawo,

Obec yest kaZdeho ohrada.

Ktot yu tupi minula-f yey rada. o Lihuiinu koni, yeito Pr:r:;emyslowj
Ztratye abci, neufay do hrada. Opyet Libusye powyedye:
Bez obcye pohyne wselika snada. "Nebof yaz to dobrzye wyedye
Ale yaz warn swe skody nedam zlym uzitij
chci warn beze lsti raditi.
yemuz byti waiyu hospodu.
Y dyetei czstnyeySi po meho konye wodu.
Radyey~i byste mohli moy sud trpyeti Kamoz-f yedno on potecze
nei: sye drbite za knyez silneho mUiye ymieti. a komuz ti on przitecze,
Lehczyeye-f tepe diewczie ruka; n, toho na tento kuon wsadiece,
ot mufske rant b:Ywa welika muka. wedtei yim syem sye neswarziece. .,0
Tu moye tehdy uwyerzite, Budete-li sye swarziti
kdyz sweho knyezye za zeleznym po tisic let bude-f zemi skoditi."
stolcem yjeduc uzrzite. Libu~ye sye na swe wyestby wzpusti;
Bude-li nad wami cizozemec wlasti ,,0 kuon osedlany bez uzdy pusti.
nemoci bude dluho waS yazyk trwati.
Ot Pr~emjsloweho nalezenie knyeqe
Tuha-l yest kazdeho mezi smutnymi cizimi,
a smutny utydJi sye mezi znam}'mi. Pani po konyu poyjedu '55
Kaidy kraliye przyeteli swymi! a.:i Byeliny rzyeky doyjedu.
Ni yeden mudry nerad'sye s cizimi. 135 Podle te rzyeky kuon potecze;
Poymyey sobye lid yazyka sweho! na yednu ulehl przitecze,
Bude-l widy hledati wa!eho zleho- na nyeyz oraSe muz weliky,
112 kaJcJroli 'since, as'. obinuw swe nohy lyky. .60
116 t,;/jm ul{ti (with gen.) 'endure, suffer for'.
117 ohrada 'bastion, bulwark'. 138 hkdati viny 'find fault with'.
118 minulafjej rada 'his senses have left him', 139 dldina 'heritage'.
119 An obscure line, perhaps 'When destroying the community do not put 140 (eIM sui (·vlary) 'comb your own (hair),; kraslavo 'scurvy'.
your trust in defence'. 141 tie sui (·vlary) 'into your own (hair)'.
120 mada (amended from suada) 'harmony' (cf. mod. 114 snadI and OCZ. 145 vaJu hlJSjmlu, inst. '(as) your master',
nemadili si 'bicker'), 146 tsin(j!i, as adv. 'assiduously, dutifully'; vod'track'.
125 tepati 'strike'. 147, 148 loUd 'go'; pfitki 'come',
128--g t,;a le!eQljm swlam ... jldw; 'following the plough' U'drlc for jdw;, cf. 149 114 lento k61i (archaic accusative animate).
lines go and 91). 150 slm 'hither'.
130 uLbti, mtr. 'rule'. 153 vzpusli si na 'committed herself to'.
131 trvdli (with gen.) 'endure'. 155,156 pojldu., dojldu, aor. 3rd plur.
132 tu.hafjest kaldlho 'sorrow is the lot of everyone'. 157 pou«, aor. 3rd sing. 'ran'.
135 nmu/ sI 'let him not deal'. 158 u!ehl, f. 'field'.
137 cit,;oqmec 'outsider, stranger' is here understood. 160 vbinuv 'having wrapped'; ljk() 'bast, strip of bark'.
K tomu muzyu kuon prziskocziw, przyernysI yim tak odpowyedye :
i sta u nyeho sye wztocziw, "Yak warn Libusye powyedyela
stoyi~e yako yat w uzdici. te! [i yaz] wam powyedye:
Proto tey wsi wzdiechu Stadici. Kdyz ste 0 dyewczye nerodiJi tbati .go
Pani na chIapye wzwyediechu bude was moy rod :ieleznu metlu kazati.
yeho ymye, :ie ymu przyemysl diechu. '" 01 w~tle otkj PrqemyJlowj
poczyet::hu sye druh k druhu smieti,
i chtyechu yey inhed wzieti; Kdyt tu przyernysl snieda.se,
a yakot sye yeho dotku yeden pan na otku hledaSe,
przyemysl wdruti w zemi otku, .'0 ze otka w'fpustila z sebe pyet pram enow,
rzka: "Zyel mi yest, xe ste tak rano
przisli; byste byll teprw od Libu!ye wysli
a z nich prokwete pyet orzyechow.
Czty"rzye uschu po rnaley chwili;
bych-f mohl tuto ulehl wzuorati; patj by :tiw, ten sye w~yem smili.
wiec bylo by nelzye oraczyu chleba kupowati.
o Pn,ynnyJloll!Y' 4wol,ni
Ale zle ste uchwatili
a mnye w roll przyekazill.
." Kdyt sobye ten diw ukazachu,
Muot to katdy slysyeti rad; na Przyemyslu potazachu
bude w zemi tizen a czasto hlad." ktere by bylo znamenie '00
Posah Przyemysl k llczyeniey kabeli, te suche oOry w zektwyeni.
wynye syr a rzeSetni peczen well. 180 Vim tak przyemysl odpowyedye,
Poczye, na radlici poloziw, yiesti. aka: "To yaz warn me powyedye.
Panow poczye prositi podle sebe siesti. Otka sucha yest znamenie
Pani poczyechu sye shIedati meho chlapieho urozenie, >0,
a na Libu!inu rzyecz wzporninati. ale ze-f yest br'zo wzkwetla,
Yiechu sye yeho tazati 185 yak warn Libusye byla rzekla,
procz by yemu bylo milo na ielezye sniedati. moy rod z chlapieho poroda
doyde kraloweho rzada.
ILtditl 'bridle'.
,hldpl, n. 'villager, rustic'; v~V£dlti 'get to know'. Pyetyu prarnenow budu kwisti- ,,,
167 ~tl,hU, aor. Srd plur. 'began'. to budu na knizye czisti-
169 dollk, aor. 3rd sing., dotku, aor. srd plur.-.I"/'met'. ze rnne bude knYeZstwo patero,
'70 vdnditi, aor. vdndi 'thrust'; ot/ctJ 'goad' (cf. tknuti, t&ti). ale br'zo zhyne cztwero.
'73 v(,6rtJti 'finish ploughing'.
174 'the ploughmao would not have to buy more bread' (a prophetic Pate wzkwetne welmi krasnye
17.5 ~ Ul/w(Jtiti ( _ understood) 'catch at an awkward moment, forestall'. 190 room 'wish', cf. rdd.
179 /fond ktJ/Jel 'bark .atcbel'. 191 ItleQld melld 'with a rod of iron'; ktktJti. tr. 'discipline'.
180 f!Y1I/, aor. Srd sing. 'took out' (inf. ll)'rIuti); ftlem{ jKtnf 'loaf ofbohed '96 mull, aor. 3rd sing., U.l"CIW, Srd plur. 'dried up' (in£. mthmUi).
flour'. 197 smf/i .1"1, aor. srd sing. (with dat.) 'favoured'.
182 sitsti 'sit down'. 19B ukdzati .l"obl'point out to each other'.
186 lrU.(.O (here) 'the plough', cf. lines 128-q. The reference i5 prophetic, 2 10 budu, 1St sing.
see line '9" 211 budu, 3rd plur.
a wYPusti swoy plod yasnye.
Acz t sye yim kdy podeyde,
kdyby rzekl yedine slowo .
Czili nemohl ymieti konye,

w~koz czasa toho doyde, yenz by poSe! uzduu zwonye 20

ze wnuk pomsti sweho dyeda ana zlatymi cetkami
i yeho wrahom na pokon bude byeda." zprolozena i gemmami?
Rzka to, wsta z chlapieho sboru; Czili nemohl ymieti sedla,
Yi,ede do Libusina dworu.
'" na nyernZ by sye ta drahost swedla,
z nyeZ: bywa lidem znamenie :15
4. 0 KWYETNEY NEDYELl sbozie z draheho kamenie,
From Stitny: Aea ~dlln{ a svdtdni kdez s pochwami prsosiny
I muSi w kratochwili dne tohoto yednoho stareho skladacze rymem podle swe drahe przicziny
knih czeskych rzyecz 0 dni tomto powyedyeti. Ten takto die:- dawayij yako posoku
Iijbosti lidskemu oku? 30
Wiz, czlowyecze bohoboyny, Czili nemohl tee moei ymieti,
bozie milosti dostoyny by byl chtyel zastupnye yieti,
welikeho milosrdie, mayie mnoho lida s sebu
kakt yest syn boiij nehrdye se w~ij kralowsku ozdobu,
bral sye dnes k Yeruzalemi 5 pod nachem, w zlatey koronye, 35
wladna nebem, morzem, zemij; driye sceptrum sedl na tronye,
kakt sye yest welmi pokorzil, podle mocnych kralow nrawa,
yenz, co kde yest, wsecko stworzill yaH sye pro swyetsku czest stawa,
Ymayie we wsem wsi moc staluu ez ni strziebro ani zlato
nie netbal na swyetsku chwalu, •• bywa draho wloZiti na to?
ysa kra! nade \\/Semi krali, Ale ry, nas tworcze mily,
yehoz wse stworzenie chwalij, mayje wsemohueie sily
yehoz sye w~e moc neskryla, netbals na drahe ostrohy
by w czem yemu potrzyebna byla,
lidmi, koiuni, drahym ruchem, ., na twe, Raze, swate nohy.
yimiz by konye pobadal! 45
coz by yedno chtyel, posluchem
wse by bylo ymu hotowo, 19 !ili (wltranslatable) introduces a question.
21 ana 'and indeed, or indeed'.
:116 at'if" , = kn (i.e. 'the fruit'); podifti s[ 'fail'. 22 J;jJfolotenj'studded'.
21 7 v1akDi 'then, indeed'; (osa roIw 'at that time'; diJjrk 'it will come to pw', 26 sbolil 'wealth'.
219 najxJkon'inthe end'. 27 jxJdwy, fern. plur. 'horse-trappings'; !JTJosiny, fern. plW'. 'breast-straps'.
220 shoT '.environment ~ 28 podU 'by reason of'; pHlina 'quality'.
29 posoka Ubosli 'a feast of charm'.
.4 nehrd[ 'meekly'. 32 ~dstupnl'in procession, in formation'.
13 'whose whole power was not obscured' . 36 sedl ( - sedlj) 'seated',
14 jxJtflhnj 'useful'. 37 nrav'custom'.
16 posluchnn 'in acquiescence'. 39 el = l e.
17 Iwrovo '3Iv.ailable ' 40 dTahj 'extravagant'.
Sboiny, kto sye i tomu nadal,
zes, wSe moha, nechtyel moei. 5. THE PARALYTIC OF ROME

Chtye nam sprostenstw)rm pomoci From Stitny's ,translation of Pope Gregory's 'Homily
yiezdils na osleti licheem addressed to the Congregation in the Basilica of St Paul
W obyczyeyi prostye ticheem.
the Apostle on Sexagesima Sunday'. St. :RNs, page 215
0, Bozie milosti twrdnaa, Stalo i sye w tey uliei w Rzimye, skr'ze nit chodije do kostela
a twrdnostij milosrdnaa swateho Klimenta, byI yeden, yehot mnozij znali ysu se mnu; chudy
rozprostrzyelas SWll moc diwnye! byl na sbotij , ale bohaty w slechctnosti. Toho i byla dluha nemoe
I musijrn to rzieci pilnye: zhubila, neb od prwnieho wyeku at do konce iiwota yeho ustawnye
Sam-lis milost czis milostiw, lezal, ysa dnuu zlaman. Nikdy wstati nemoh! ani sedyeti; nikdy swe
ezs sye milosti nezhostiw, " mky nemohl k ustom przinesti, ani sye mohl na druhy bok sam swu
i rzku bri, eis milost sama, siluu obratiti. Materz a bratra ymyeyicie k swey sluzbye, a cot yemu
poSlaa z naywysieho chrama almuznuu przislo, to yich rukama yinym chudym rozdawaSe. Nie
k nam, z sieni swate troyicye czisti na knihach neumyel, awSak sam sobye knihy Swateha Pijsma
porodem cziste dyewicye. 60 bicie kupil a do sweho domku w hospodu prziyimaye nyetere
A ysa tak ctny • tak weliky, duchownye pocestnee, wtdy yim przed sebu we1cie ezisti. A kdyz
chtyel ysi mal byti wseliky; padle sweho pochopu dobrze sye Pijsmu nauczi rozumyeti, a yakoz
prziyal ysi twarz tweho stwora. sem rzekl, na knihach i abeeedy neurnyeye znati, snaznost wsecka
Kaka i, Boie twa pokora! yeho bi cie Bohu w bolesti wzdawati dieku a we dne i w noei w
Ktert-li to bye s nami zwyczyey.
ezs wzal sluhy sweho obliczyey, " imnach, w talmiech chwalu Bohu wzdawati ustawnye. A kdyt ezas
prziyide, aby yeho pokora tak welika ymyela yiz odplatu wzieti,
hledayie swych owec zbylych, bolest z swrchnich udow we wnitrznie udy, w nicht tyelesna tiwost
z dawnych czasow zabludilych? zalezij, sye obrati. A kdyz uzrze, ze yit tahne k smrti, tY mute, YeS10
46 'wealthy indeed who gave himself up to the fact'. ye biese w sway dom prziyal po hastinu [napamenul] ,aby wstali a
¥J sproskrulvU ·simplicity'. s nim zalmy k yeho prowodu na onen swyet zpiewali. A kdyz tak s
49 lichj 'lowly'. nimi i sam chtye umrzieti ialmy zpiewase, br'zo krzik[e]m na nye,
51 turdnj'strong',
ydto s nim zpiewaehu, kaza yim mlczyeti welikym hlasem a rzka:
53 diunl'marvdlously'. . ..' . S
54 pilnl 'fervently' (but piln! and pin! are mdlStlngUlshable ID tftny). ..Mlczte, mlczte, i zdali neslysite kakal chwala w nebesiech zwuezij?"
56 ,dzostiei si (with gen.) 'reject'. A kdyz k tey chwale, YeSto ysa na zemi ycitye w nebesiech slyside,
57 brl'rather'. powzdwihl bieSe mrsl srdce sweho, ta swata duse by wyprostyena z
58 poll} 'come, arrived'.
60 dluicl'virgin'. tyela.
62 mnl 'almost'; vItlikj 'ordinary'.
63 tvdf'image'.
64 kak'! 'what, what kind of'. nauli, pfijide, obrdti si, uVt, (hll, kka, aorist forms trarulating the Latin
" manner 0 f custom was It
65 'what . Wlu~
',,,, l.lS • • ••?' perfect.
67 .{byl} 'lost'.


From Rifi ntdllnie a slItiU!nie

Vest przislowie latinye obecne, ez yazyk, nemayie kosti. lama kosti.
A Czechowe rziekayij: Yazyk hlawye neprzey,ie. A owsem yest to VII
przediwne, cl mnozi tak radi serednye miuwie. Ale snad to yest
znamenie ancikrzistowo. aneb at rzku dyablowo, YeSto i dal swYro TEXTUAL SOURCES OF OLD CZECH
to heslo, yeno slweyij k kralowstwij yeho, ab)' potom znali sye spolu,
ano po rzeczi yest znati, kto i z Rakus, kto z Czech, kto z Marawy. THE oldest Czech literary documents date from the fourteenth cen-
tury. All records of earlier date consist of fragments. phrases, in-
scriptions, glosses, words embedded in Latin texts, and lists of words,
proper names, and plant-names. These fragmentary records are of
scant value because they are written in a variety of un phonetic and
ambiguous spellings; they are in many cases late fourteenth-century
or even fifteenth-century copies of originals now lost; their meaning
is sometimes doubtful; their dating is uncertain and only approxi-
mate; they display forms which are no more archaic than those
known from fourteenth-century texts; lastly, they are devoid of
literary interest since the longer fragments are translations, the
shorter ones are uninspired scraps. For these reasons Old Czech
grammar is based on the oldest forms found in the connected
writings offourteenth-century authors, whose work is partly original
but mainly translated.


Moravianisms in the two Cyrillian fragments-the Fragm4nt of Prague

and the Fragment of Kiev--are the first hint of a separate Western
Slavonic language of Czech-Moravian type. Thus the word pice
('food') corresponds to the usual OCS word pilee. Evidence of a
separate Czech language are the proper names found in the OCS
Legend of St Methodius, in the Legend of St Ludmila, and in the
Prologues to the Legend ofSt Wenccslas. By far the greater number
of Czech names in foreign contexts occur in Latin settings. Par-
ticularly rich are those lo be found in the AnTUlles Fuldenses, the
Annals ofThietmar, Vidukind, Adelbold, Einhard, and others. Czech
names are to be found in the writings of Christianus, Gumpold,
Canapariw, Laurentius, and Bruno, in sundry Imperial Writs and ( = vUek), Drstk. etc., sometimes as Vliuk, Drist!':, etc .. T~e names
Papal Bulls, and on coins from Boleslav onward. Br{on and Grdon further illustrate the semivowel. Nasal~ty. 19 absent
Most interesting are the colloquial glosses that adorn the racy, if (cf. Vac{iau = Vdclav ), and Western Slavonic metatheslS IS. already
inaccurate, Latin chronicle of the Czech Cosmas (1045- 1125), a an accomplished fact (as in Podgrad, MraltW7' ), Vo--:-el-fronun g ~er
Dean of Prague. The third part of his Chronicle is an eyewitness iotacism occurs in Mileysi ( = miujIi) , and an archruc present p~lve
account of current events between 1092 and 1125. Czech proper names participle survives in J{ectom (= ne-ltom 'not being read~, cf.. lI1~m
in Latin context are expressed by him in the appropriate case with and Dldom). The ju~phoneme is represented variously as m Ltudmt14.
their Czech phonological modifications, thus Coiatha (nom. sing.), and Lubomir. A record compiled between the years 1217 and 12 36
Coietlw (dat. sing.). In this way Cosmas has recorded a total of some and called the Munich Rtgisln' contains fourteen names, They are of
four hundred place-names and personal names (see CCM, 18g2, no linguistic interest. .
267--81, and 1B94, 114- 17). The Czech common nouns thus in- Foundation Records of monasteries were compiled too late to be of
cidentally put on record betray no exceptionally archaic features, linguistic value; those of Bfevnov, Boleslav, Opatovice, and VyJe-
thus ktTkssu (= krkJu, acc. sing. fern. 'Kyrie eleison'), llUa (= iuka hrad are the oldest and these can hardly be dated before 1200.
'meadow'), o«el (= ouI 'donkey'), hurtlSltn (chVTtlStm 'shrubby'), etc. Secular Records inc'tude the Formulae of the Przemyslid~ and the
More important is the skeleton grammar of eleventh-century Czech Vaclavs, legal formulae in town and court registers.' and ~sts of ~he
that can be reconstructed out of the glosses where they are inflected. names of noblemen. The Records oJ Liloml1ice contam an mterestJ.ng
The work of Cosmas's successors is of small linguistic value. gloss held to represent the first complete sentence of contemp?rary
The Monastic Obituary Lists provide evidence of personal names, Czech. Done by the hand of an early thirteenth-century scnbe l~
but few of them are earlier in form than those known from literary runs: Pa~l dal gest Ploscouicih {emu. Wlah dol gist DoltlS amu B~gu I
sources of a later period. Most important of these lists is the Register suiatemu Scepanu se duima dusnicoma Bogucia a Sedlatu (:aul has gIve~
of Podlo..lice, bound in a large volume housed at the Royal Museum, the land of the Plmek family. Vlach, with two clencs [?] BohuMJ
Stockholm, The Register was copied by Dobrovskj in 1792 and was and Sedlata, has given .. , land to the Lord and to St Stephen). The
published by him in The History of tM Czech lAnguage and Older apparent archaisms in this passage (-ja~ in suiat-; -g- in Bog-) do not
Literature ( IBIB). The original Register was first closed at about the necessarily represent current speech, for generally speaking the
year 1227. but was reopened to include further names. These end at latinized glosses are written in a more archaic style than are the
the year 1249. There are some 750 names altogether. As many of independent glosses and fragments. Thus the apparent archaisms
these coincide with Old Czech common nouru they constitute an ialouica (= jaIovicl 'barren cow') and toM (= tOM 'water-hole')
early vocabulary, but in the process of latinization they have lost occur only in Latin setting!.
phonetic precision, and are of less linguistic value than the con- Later in the thirteenth century names and glosses become more
secutive texts ofa century later. It is not certain, for instance, how to plentiful, but the more these approach in date the beginning! of
interpret a transeription which represents historical Czech h by g literary activity, the smaller their linguistic value.
(thus Podgrad, Glupa, Gostik, etc.), since this representation may be no Extratextual Glosses and Glossaries are found as early as the
more than a device for avoiding confusion with the transcription h, beginning of the twelfth century, Most abundant a~e the five
which is used to represent Czech ch_ Vowel length is not represented. glossaries known respectively as the Prague Chapltr Glossarus I, I!, and
Iotacism and palatalization are seldom indicated, but names like Ill, the Glossary oJ Vienna, and the Glossary oJ Olomouc. So archaiC are
Dum (= duI/) show that Slavonic ja had already changed, The the Chapter Glosses of Prague-they run into several hundreds, and
phonemic pairs {and l. sand 1, c and t, u and v are not distinguished. are to be found in a MS. of the Latin d ialogues of St Gregory dated
The semivowels are variously represented, sometimes as Vlct!': before 115o--that their genuineness has been doubted, indeed
Gebauer said they somewhat resembled the forged fragment of St
John's Gospel, and that caution was needed in assessing them. Their
PERIOD ( 1253-1306)
mixed language suggests deliberate contamination with Old Church
Slavonic. The second half of the thirteenth century nearly coincides with the
The Czech Museum copy of a medieval Latin encyclopedia is eked reigns of Otakar 11 (1253-78) and Vaclav 11 (1278-1305)' The
out by a glossary of 193 sheets known as the Mater Verborum. A fur- murder of the latter's successor Vaclav III in 1306 brought the line
ther glossary of fifty sheets was added at a later date. of the Pnemyslides to an end and marked the beginning of an era
The Olomouc Glosses consist of seven words in Moravian. They are in Czech literary activity.
credica (= tfieditl 'alley'), pokal 'he confessed', z;itele (= lltell'in- Words shaped to the Christian religion had long enriched Czech
habitants'), padena 'ruins', pokazachom 'we corrected', mimo-pustichom diction, and accessions from the Greek and Latin liturgies had
'we have passed by', and zawistiwych 'of the envious'. Their date is already blended with the Germanized vocabulary of the western
about 1270. ritual and the time-honoured Slavonic of Cyrillian orthodoxy. But
Two undated comments on friars, the CkmentiT14 Fragments, under the last of the przemyslides the tradition of the Church had
scrawled on the back pages of a hymnbook, and a few private notes receded somewhat in favour of secular minstreisy in the German
by one Albert Czech, an ardent Papist (the so-called Munich Glosses) tongue. The Church's ban on translation from the Scriptures found
are without special interest. but one exception in the Psalms, and the chanting of these, and the
The Museum Psalter Fragment and the Munich Fragment (a transla- old remembered hymns, maintained the spiritual tradition stronger
tion from St Bonaventure's 'Wanderer') are of little interest. The than the secular. Cultural life centred in Prague favoured the
Nibelungen Fragment, held to be a marginal rendering from the emergence of this city's dialect as the literary medium. The un-
Medieval German saga, is in Moravian dialect, and may be an learned Czech clergy in the newly-founded monasteries were little
independent piece of scurrility. It runs as follows: versed in Latin and required translation aids for much of their
Pasluc!w.yte iwakj narod; chcu wam diwno zpewati; du:u swam . .. a . .• ritual.
nmuv witali; ten bude dworstWQ znati; un swu chwilu se mnu ... wece The Breviaries of Strahov and Petrohrad with their collections of
pytati. Kto chee znali ktere radasti Tl4bo ktere wmk bdi [tu?) !de su .•. psalms, canticles, and prayers are certainly of early date, but
The age of the text is unknown, and its chief interest lies in the fourteenth-century copyists have spoilt their linguistic value as
characteristic Moravian lowered -e- of zpeuati (= zpievati), vice archaic writings. The two Psalters-the Glossed and the Wiltenberg-
(= vieet), and the unusual speUings Ivakj (= vIakj) are both copies of older translations, but the second was checked for
and un (= on?). error against the Latin version, though the Glossed version is the
The Herbarium is a list of plant-names of about 1260. Its chief better rendering. Even so, the Glossed Psalter is a copy, and a frag-
interest is etymological. mentary one, of a once complete version. ~ny passages in it are
The Hymns known by their opening words: HospodiT14 pomiluj ny; nothing more than unconnected word-glosses by a careless and
Svatj Vdclavej SloVQ do su/ta stV<lfeniej Vltaj kralju; Vltaj, milj Je;:.u ignorant scribe. The confusion of i and ie testify to the lateness of the
Kriste; BtJh vIemohud; and J ezu Krute IlIdrj knlle are certainly archaic copy and the near-identity of these phonemes. About twenty
from their style. All are recorded in late copies and lack especial examples occur, and some are repeated in the Wittenberg version.
linguistic value. But the Glossed Psalter, despite its shortcomings, is the first copy of
a lost Czech translation made between about 1250 and 1300. A third
Psalter-the Museum Psalter-is conjecturally dated about '300, but
it is difficult to read, fragmentary and not consecutive. It agrees in
the main with the Glossed Psalter, a fact which puts the fonner works may have formed a single volume. Both exist in copies. The
existence of a complete Psalter, or even Breviary, beyond reasonable Passion is known from a version copied by DobrovskY, and from an
doubt. extract in SUtny's Discourses for Surulays and Holy Days (see Appendix:
But it is otherwise with the rest ofthe Scriptures. The oldest frag. Texts). The two versions do not agree, and both may derive from a
ments of these are of the late fourteenth century and are mostly lost thirteenth-century version. The apocryphal Legends of Judas 4nd
translations of the Books of the Prophets. There may have once been Pilate, the Descent of the Holy Spirit, and the Legend of the Passion can·
a complete version of the Old Testament, but this is speculation, and not be dated with certainty. But an approximate date is possible for
nothing in the fragments points to a date earlier than 1250. The the famous series of fragments known as the Alex4rulreid.
versified Decalogue may date from about 1300, since theju·phoneme The Auxandreid is remarkable for the following reasons. It repre·
is represented inyeiiut ('vanity'), cuzelw (= cidlw), and the dat. sing. sents a sharp break with Church tradition, indeed, it is the first
of kazanie is kllzaniu. On the other hand the dat. sing. mlluye ('to the known secular composition in the Czech language. It is at least in
mother') is a late feature. Of the New Testament, parts ofSt Matthew part an original composition. Though considered to be a work of the
and St John belong to the second half of the fourteenth century. fourteenth century, it embodies all the linguistic archaisms of a
Their existence implies a New Testament translation done from century earlier. Made up ofeight fragments it is of sufficient total
Latin in the time of Charles IV or earlier, but which is, of course, lost. length to rank as an independent, if incomplete, work of literature.
The Munich Calendar is typical of a medieval device for remem· The unknown author of the Czech Alexandreid was at one time
being dates by allotting a hexametric couplet to each month. It believed to have found his model in a Gennan version by Ulrich von
was written probably during the bishopric of John IV (1258-78), Eschenbach some time after 1287. The Eschenbach version in its
since all the bishops up to his time are recorded in it. The Prague turn embodies the material of a version made by one Bruno von
Calerular is of similar or slightly later date since a Bishop Tobias of Schonbeck which is dated 1276. This derives from the epic of
Bechyn~ (1279-96) is mentioned. The linguistic value of both IS Gualterius de Castillione, a Latin poet of Lille, who wove together
lessened by the contractions imposed by scansion. the many stories of Alexander's campaign and the moral teaching! of
the Middle Ages into a poem dated 1172. It is now known that the
THE DAWN: LEGENDS AND EpICS Czech poet worked from this, or a later Latin version, and not from
The year 1300 is accepted by grammarians as a landmark in the a German translation of it, and that by interpolating fragments of
evolution of the Czech language. But it is only an approximate date, contemporary Czech history and adding an original introduction, he
and nothing written within fifty years of it can be dated with made the work his own. The Czech version can hardly be dated
certainty. much earlier than 1300. Flaj~hans put it at about 1310; A. Pra!ak
Of the Legends there is no certainty as to whether they are of the more recently dated it some time after 1290.
thirteenth or fourteenth century. The Apostolic Legend is represen· The versified history known as 'Dalimil's Chronicle' (better the
ted by three fragments, known after the names of their discoverers Chronicle of Bouslav) is of disputed date. Based in part on the Chronicle
SafaNk, Durich, and Patera. They are disconnected passages from a of Cosmas it is an apologia for the excellence of Czech customs above
once complete work of over 1,200 lines which closely followed its foreign modes and influences. In the words of its anonymous author
model, the Golden Legend of James of Voragine (I 23o--gB) , a it is 'a chronicle of the ancient Monastery of Boleslav', a statement
Dominican Archbishop of Genoa. The original work is dated circa which· has led to its erroneous attribution to Dalimil because of a
1270; the Czech version is therefore later, and is put by some at reference to him in the Chronicle of Vaclav Hajek (who died in
about 1306. The Life of Mary is believed to have been composed by 1553). Guesses by later scholars about its authorship are no more
the same author in or about the same year, and indeed the two probable than those of earlier ones. True, the Chronicle of Boleslav
treats the period between the reigns of Otakar 11 and John of vlctch kluillnskjch.). His 'Conversational Talks' (Buldnie fiE), dated
Bohemia (1314) in great detail, and four additional chapters cover about 1390, are a catechism written for the instruction of his child-
the years 1315-18. But a casual reference to gipsies in Bohemia ren. 'Discourses for Sundays and Holy Days' (Alli rudllnie a svdulnie).
would make at least part of the work later than the period it records, dated 1392, are an exegesis of the Gospel based on the writings of the
perhaps mid-fourteenth century. Theju-phoneme is already i, and Fathers of the Church. Sundry treatises supplement StitnY's writings,
the style is rather less archaic than that of the AIexandreid. The and there is an unfinished work entitled 'Books on the Christian
venified Nou on Vilem Zajitc is certainly an appendage by a later Doctrine' (Knihy naulenie kfuillns"'ho ), said to have been destined for
hand. the instruction of his daughter Andka.
Fragments of mystery plays, chief of which is that of a comedy
Mastilkdf ('The Quackdoctor'), testify to dramatic activity, though
the religious motive is uppermost. Smil FlaJka (1349-1403) of
Pardubice is the author of a didactic and allegorical poem 'The New
Counsel' (Novd &da) , resembling Chaucer's 'Parlement ofFoules' in
substance rather than in motive. The 'Advice ofa Father to his Son'
(Ott(; mudrj SvlmU .rynu radl) is a sermon in verse by the same author.
A collection of proverbs is also attributed to him.
Toma! ofStitny (df(;a 1333-1405) was a contemporary ofWilliam
Langland, author of Pitrs Plowman, who lived approximately
between the years 1332 and 1400. Both writers were concerned with
the accepted doctrines of the Church; both expatiated on the seven
deadly sins. But here their resemblance ends. Stitny reproduced in
prose the writings of the Fathers of the Church, and there is little
original matter. Langland wrote in allegorical verse, and his work is
original. Slitny was a moralist; Langland a yeoman and a reformer
closer in spirit to Chelocky (circa Iggo-I460), who Wa! also a farmer
and reformer, anti-clerical and opposed to aristocratic materialism.
StitnY's works are distinguished more by their titles than by their
content, and later scholars have sought in vain for a common thread
or 'philosophy' by which his work might be characterized. Enjoying
the rank of a country squire with a castle in Southern Bohemia he
was one of the first students to attend the newly founded University
of Prague (1348), but made little use of his studies. On returning to
his estate he bent himself to the task of making the Church's doctrines
accessible to a new middle class of folk who, unlearned in Latin,
could nevertheless read Czech. The sheer volume of his work makes
it a valuable record of the language as it was in the last quarter of the
fourteenth century. 1376 is the date given by St. Sou~ek for his 'Six
Books on General Christian Matters' (Knielky Itstny 0 obtcnjch
(d) KRAr.1CE BmLE STYLE (1550-1620) . Hooked modifiers replace
Hussite dots; vowel-length is consistently represented. The hook is
now used for I, and for n unless it appears before 1 or i. The u·
phoneme now appears as a diphthong, represented unphonetically
au (= ou). The doubling of s is retained before t. The spelling 11
replaces 00.
(e) ETYMOLOClCAL STYLE (1780-1840). The historical phonemes i
APPENDIX andy are strictly distinguished according to their etymology, though
the distinction is without relevance to pronunciation. This reform is
attributed to DobrovskY. Phonemes sand z are followed by i, noty.
(a) MONOGRAPHIC STYLE (to about 1250). Czech words and names (f) SAFARfK'S STYLE (1840-50). To the Czech Philological Section
in Latin contexts are roughly represented by the twenty-five letters of the Royal Society of Sciences Safafik, a Slovak, proposed on
of the Latin alphabet. Vowels are written without diacritics, and June 2nd 1842 the abolition of g andy as representing thej-phoneme.
consonants are unmodified, thus dele (= dietl ). and ofj as representing {(though the symbol t had been used in the
(b) DIGRAPHIC STYLE (1250-1400). This is the typical spelling of Mala Strana Hymnbook as early as 1572). These overdue changes
the fourteenth century. Until the appearance of Jan Hus's writings had been anticipated by the Publications Committee of the Academy
vowel and consonant modifications are shown-ambiguously and when it published Vfehrd, a first volume of Old Czech texts. The
inconsistently-by means of two characters or by doubling. An writing of initial uor au was left an open question. In 1844 Moravian
arbitrary practice, it differs somewhat from writer to writer. No con- writers adopted the spellings ou (for au) and v (for w), but these
sistent distinction is made between the phonemes i,y, andjj c and lj changes were opposed by SafaHk, Palacky, and others.
! and 1; ~ and t, but the last pairs are sometimes distinguished by
(g) MODERN STYLE (1850 onward) . Despite opposition from the
doubling, thus ss = 1; u = t. The phoneme j is commonly older writers the spellings ou and u came to stay. The Journal of the
represented by g before e and i (gest, giny = j est,jinj), but by y else· Czech Museum for January 1850 opens with the word 'Vstoupiu . . .',
where (y~, yako, teynye = jtiz, jako, /ejnl ). Late fourteenth.century introducing an article by F. L. CelakovskY. Czech spelling is hence·
spelling is distinguishable from that of the earlier period by (1) forward phonemic. At the turn ofthe present century an attempt was
representation oftheju-phoneme asji and i; (2) sporadic indication made to suppress double consonants in loanwords, and to represent
of vowel length by doubling (aa, uu, ij); (3) the rejection of the ph and th byfand I respectively. Of these reforms all but the last have
symbol -t to represent s; (4) the increasing use of diphthongal 110 taken root, thus hallada is now written halada. koncesse is written
(Buoh, ·moozz); and (5) the frequent representation of ie as i. koncese. phowgraphie is written fotografie. Modern practice hesitates
(c) DIACRITIC or HUSSITE STYLE (1400-1550). Dots as consonant between the spellings these and tese (with occasional tlze). Slovak has
modifiers J formerly sporadic, are adopted systematically by Hus and gone further and writes li.taJ while tcbl is proposed spelling for
his followers. Two qualities of I are indicated for the first time. Glide- both Slovak. and present Czech, text. Czech diagnosa displays all
palatalization (t, a, 11") is not consistently represented. Vowel-length the limitations of etymological spelling; in phonemic spelling this
is shown by an acute accent, but long i is representedj. Some writers would be dyjagnoza. Positional variants (glide-palatalizations) are
use hooks, whether with digraphs (c"z) or single characters ~c' or l). still unrepresented before i (thus kos/iJ htuii J oni for kosti, haai, oni),
Digraphs continue throughout the fifteenth century, rz beside f, c-t and the spelling ch contradicts phonetic principle. Thc sound of ch
beside l. is represented phonetically in one word of Spanish origin J Mexiko
(mtehiko). Long 0 (written 0) is optional in loanwords. thus f1I(Ida. marked where geographical barriers are absent. Nor are common
tona or m6da, tOna. dialect features necessarily contiguous; similar features may be
(h) liAvRANEK-Tu vNfl:EK STYLE. Reforms proposed in 1956 would found in widely separated areas. The nonnalizing influence of
replace s by.c where so pronounced, thus tiQ.fi1o.coj, prt.tidnJl, ko~ul. education has blurred distinctive dialect speech, and some of the
criteria given below have disappeared. Writers in dialect can express
B. CHANGES IN PHONOLOGY BETWEEN 1100 AND 1600 non-standard phonemes only in terms of standard spelling; less
The ambiguity of early Czech spelling and the uncertainty as to how concemed with linguistic facts than with the telling of a story their
long old spellinp outlived changes in pronunciation make it impos- rustic dialogues do not ne<:essarily record the speech of anyone per-
sible to establish phonological milestones with accuracy. The chief son living at any particular time. Such writings must be assessed with
modifications are to vowels and vowel clusters; these took place caution.
approximately in the following order:ja toje (before 1200); aj to 9 Traditional dialect areas are the following:
when prepalatalized (before 12oo);jU toji, i (before 1350); 6 to uo
1. Western Czech. North ofa line joining Plsek with the juncture
(after 1375. but there are earlier traces); si to se. pfls to pfes, ellj to Sumava-Cesky w. Chief town: Plzel't.
eelj (before 1400); naj- to fIlIj-, U to ou, uo to tl, u to I (about 1500.
2. Southern Czech. South of a line Pisek-Jihlavske Vrchy. Chief
Chelcick'j's Si" Viery, 1440-3, and The Trojan Chronicle. 1468, still town: Ceske Bud~jov!ce.
have ntJj, u, uo, ie; B1ahoslav, Musika, 155B, has 9, au,d, I).
3. Central Czech. East ofa line K.1adno-Pribram-Plsek. North ofa
Of the consonants the change from (alleged) g to h is prior to line Plsek-Jihlavske Vrchy. West of the line Mlad! Boleslav-
1100; f to f dates from about 1200, and the merging of I and I is
Pod~brady-Kutna Hora-Jihlava. Chief town: Praha.
later than 1415.
4. N.B. Czech. East of the line Mlad! Boleslav-Jihlava. West of
C. MODERN CZECH DIALECTS the Czecho-Moravian frontier. Eastern Czech subdialect: frontier
pocket enclosing Litom}'!1 and Policka. Chief towns: Hradec KraJove
and Pardubice.
5. Czecho-Moravian. Frontier heights round Jihlava, especially
to the S.W. Chief town: Jihlava. Subdialect round and N.E. of
Uar Heights.
6. Moravian (Hanak) . South of a line Jihlava-Olomouc, and
west of the Morava River. Subdialect spoken at Bmo.
7. Moravian Slovak. East of the Chnby Range, west of the White
Carpathians. Includes the lower basin of the Morava River. Chief
towns: Uherske Hradi!tt":, Kyjov.
B. Moravian Silesian. Area bounded by the rivers Opava, Odra.
and BeCva and the Slovak frontier. Chief town: Moravska Ostrava.
Chief criteria are the vowels and phonemic clusters. Twenty-six
of these have been selected; they are as follows:
Dialect geography can be little more than approximate. Dialectal I. d in krdsnd. 4. e in naIe dule.
regions arc seldom bounded by sharply definl':c1 frontiers eVl':n when 2. din smdl se, pfdl. 5. e, I in 0 nlm. 0 naInn, 0 vJem
rivers and mountain ranges intervenl':j the definition is even less 3. aj£ in mtlji, daja. 6. I, e in uidlL, slyId.
,. 'in nou/ho, diu, mUko. 17. pi, etc. in pil, bil, vii, trefll. 18 dobR, EtItl; Igskovat; 20 tIll; 21 ddt; 22 dum, .rynum; 23 dlkuju, dllrujou;
8. tj in dei, ne}-. lB. H, It£ in dohft, ldll. 24 prauda, etc.; 25 novej, bejvd.
g. 1ft in mJdtl:i£. Ig. s&h in schood. Onn:R FEATURES: poudd = pouidd; tlOtJ1e = dlvlt; 11 zejml = v riml;

10. tin mln, fki. 20. III in jut!. tadykk = tadyhle; seuIim, vtIJIem = se vltm, VI vIem; tldl = dllal; molu,
11. j in jstm, jri. '21. ti in d4ti. mo[e1 = mollu, muttI: pomol! = pomoz!; s masllj =s mast!; tdtl)j = tdtl)ui.
HI. j injdu. 22 . d in dum, .rynum. (From Jirisek, U nds. Native dialect writer.)
13. M in Me, Mo. 23- uji, ujt in dJkuji, ilku}!. N.E. CZECH (BYSTR.t); 11 Stm, si; 15 oon.
14. mlin ml. 24. vd, un in pravda, q-OIlIlO. dirml. OtHER FEATUlU'.S: duk = dole; hil, z/tra = byl, zltra; kde = (also) Mm.
15. "in on, od, okM. '25. j in tWf!J. m{jn, bjud. E. CZECH (LrroMYh., PoutKA): 2 pfdlj 3 11Ulj, daj; 5 fI() ,rom, 00 nalom,
16. Oil injsou, moukou. '26. tfl in dwH. oou/om (T. Nova.kova.); 6 vidll, s!JIel; 7 notdho, djltj, mUko; 8 tkj, nej.;
WESTERN CZECH (CHaD STYLE): '2 smU se; pFll; 3 dail; 5 DO nom, naIom, 9 mldtlj; 10 mlf, fitt; 11 sem, si; 12 du and Mu (Novakova.); 13 de, do and
uIomj 6 mdll, sbIll; 7 ntJI!)'M, djl; B dej, ne}-; 9 mldti; 10 rnlI, feet; 11 jum, glk, gdo; 15 fl()n, DOd, vokno; 16 sou, moukou; Ig .skovat; 20 eIIl; 21 ddt;
jsij n dUi J31uU, Mo; 14 mland mi; 15 van, vod, vokno; 16jm, mUkuj 23 dlkuJu, dlkujou; 24 prauda, etc.; 25 novej, bejvd. According to Nova·
I7 pjii, bjit, etc.; 18 dobfi,le!l£j 20 elle; 21 adt; 22 dum, .rynom; 23 dlkuju, kova: 22 dum, .rynom; 18 leski.
dlkuju; 24 pravda and prauda, zrouna; 25 TllJfJej, mlejn, bejud. OTHER FEATURES: drwkom, hTltdkom = dnts, h~d; potomej, jenomej =

OTHER FEATURES: ltkdl. hukrdd, polkal, adl, pltil se = ltko.l, ukradl, potom, jenom; dokonca, ukOtlea = dokonce, ukonee; pfijdout, najdout =
potJcaI, dllal, pial se; u-{el, -{alel, teky = u-{al, -{alal, taM; habysnu = aby- pfijft, najlt; k nlm,.s nlma,.s naIema, v nlch = k nim, s nimi, s naIimi, v nich;
thom; laite, prdl = lauiee, prauil; llal = lefl; dije se, smije SI = dlJt St, vldlt, ehllt = vldlt, ehttl;jdit =jlt; rej!, repi = radlii; tatoj = Idtoui; na
smlJt St; fibtt, tepfiua = Mbtt, teprve; uiZlUlI = huizlUlI; eh/esll = Illsti; nu, s nou = no ni, s nl; knlh = knih. (N.B. The above evidence is taken
eMdll, sedit, -{auffn, my!Unka = ehodil, stlllt, ,zauftn, my!knka; ehoudnut, from T. Novakova.'s Draiar. A native of Prague, married to a Southern
louJc """ ehladnouI, llofJlk; slUd' = sktt; mutu = mohu; !tyry = lryfi; Czech, the writer lived in the Poli~ka area for nineteen years. There i!
wmu = wenu: bJel = bil: wdll = vldlt; ndIe, nd1i = nalt, naJi; poskeh~ evidence of uncertainty in her dialect records, thus abyehme and
nite, diflk4 = posleelutlte, dlwlka; tim = tlm: muIlm = mw/m; Men, Ma, abysnu, ktk and 1uU.)
lutl) c::: Jentl), ttJtI), toto; ~dvld = medvld; tuJik = tl)tik; dym = domu; bul = CzECHo..MoRAVlAN: As E. Czech with occasional Moravianism!:
byl. 9 midtyou for midll,i, etc.; I I sem, stI; Ig skcvot; 20 tIlt; 24 pravtia.
SoUTHERN CzECH: 3 maJI; 7 mIlleo; 8 deJ; 10 mll: 11 som, siI; 131uU, Mo; 0nuR FEATURES: no nu, s nou = na ni, s nl; dMska, luudka = tltw,
15 Oil and VDn; 16 mouJcou; 17 pJjl; 21 ddJ; 23 dlkujl; 25 nowj. !md.
OrnER FEATURES: Hpa, ~jllp = fepa, nejlipe; Ime, IkpeJ, Itdrnout MORAVIAN (HANh): I krdmd; 2 smll St, pill; 3 maio, dajo; 4 nala du/a
(sporadically for) jsnu, skpj, stdrnout; Jane! = Jnu!;fldla = vlela; (and ... doIa)5vo nhn, ... naiem, ... vIem6uidR and uid'il; 7 fII.Jtdho.
Iltek = uukl. djl, mlikoj 8 dJ, ni·; 9 mldlfjo; 10 mlf, fief; 11 su, si; 12 dUi 13 de, do and
CENTRAL CZECH: 7 notdho, djl, mUkc; 9 midtljl. I I mn, stI; 12 dUi 14 mnl; Me, Mo; mire; 15 fl()n, fl()d, vokno; 16 so, moko; 17 pil, etc.; 18 dobfl (dobri) ,
15 fl()n, etc.; 18 dobrl; 19 sehovd; 20 eIll; 21 ddt; 23 dlkujll, dlkujou; ltIll; Ig.skovaf; 20elle; 21 daf; 22 dum, .rynom; 23 dlkuju, dlkujo; 24pravda,
25 1I0Wj, etc.; 26 sehofi. etc.; 25 nol!Y, mgn (and nove, mUn, with a 'closed' e) ; 26 z~hofi.
OTHER fEATURES:ji, s n!: dole; Iltek (= utekC) . OUtER FEATURES: eheu prdeu = thci prdci, but lidi = lidl; na no, s no =

N.E. CZECH (NACHOD); 3 maj(f), lUlj{,); 6 lJit!al, s!JIal; 7 novyho and na ni, s nt; dule = dolej skala = skdla; leho, temu, stern, 0 tern = toho,
novjho, djl, mliko; 8 dej, ~j.; 9 mldtIJ{!); 10 mil, fict; 11 jsem,jseJ; 12jdu; tomu, .s tim, 0 tom; ~iilra = z'tra; padllile = padnlu; !ll = Id; vitt = vUe;
13 de, do, and gde, gdo; 14 ml; 15 fl()n and on, vokno and okno; 16 moukou; kde (gde, Me) = Me and kam (but dyt = kdyt); svajbd = svatbajpordEdm
(occasionally) = poroullm; obd = oha; moiu = mohu; lUre = try";
lom}, sodldk, votpolodne (occasionally) = lern}, sedldle, odpokdnej olIal; O. THE COMPOSITION OF CZECH VOCABULARY
= IJlJeZ; vizu (occasionally) = vidlm. (All items are given in their modern form in order to include recent
MORAVIAN SLOVAK: a loosely defined borderland of South-eastern borrowings.)
Moravia on the Slovak frontier broadly divisible into (I) ~i-ou-di alecu Words common to Slavonic and other Indo-European languages:
and (2) iou-dialects of west and east respectively. Sometimes referred I. oli, uli, srdce (-srdl); 2. mdf, bratr, sestra, ,ry'n, dcera, neW; 3. dva, In,
to as 'Dolskf, this dialect-area is given western vowels by F. M. Bar- lryfi ... slo, Mc; 4. not, veetr, zernl, more, nehe, snlh, m/ha, djm; 5. zvife,
to§ in Diakktologie moravskd, part I, and eastern vowels by Niederle in jtlen, bobr, vik, tur, myI, le/IJa,jef.ek, prase, los, owe, losos, slimak; 6. dum,
Ndrodopis, Part I, Moravian Slovak, and by Josef Soukup, who dutfe, hrad; 7. oiJe, vies, dfevo, zeU, mdle; f!mow:luJ, uosa, UDsk, rMdj g. semeno,
describes the dialect ofVala!sky Ktekov. The evidence is incomplete zmo, rel, Pir; 10. r&dlo, /lUz, osa, kow; I I. tesla, pila, seJ;yra, srp, !i'd/o,
and lacks consistency. Thus 2 smejl se (and ... sa), pfejl; 3 maju, daju; stftla; 12. rnaso, sui, t!sto; 13. rudj, ;:elm}. Simple verbs, pronouns,
4 naIa dula; 6 sb'Ial (Soukup); 7 nox:jM, mllko and mliilw; 8 dy, ny-, dej, some prepositions.
nej- and (Soukup) daj, naj-; 9 mlatija (at Babice), mldtijou (Barto§), Common Slavonic, including Balto·Slavonic words: I. hlava, ruJca,
mldtiju (Niederle); 10 fief; 12 idu andjidu; 13 de, do; 14 mk and ne; 15 noha, vias, etc.; 2. otee, llTIuk, did; 3. den, jitro, vzdueh, voda, feka, plsek,
on,okno; 16 moukou (Bartoo), mUkU (Niederle, Soukup); 18 dobf£,ltI8; 20 skdla, Iwra, jezero, etc.; 4. kuif, krdva, pes, medvld, liIka, zmije, ryba, oreZ,
elle; 21 ddfand daf; 25 nOIJej, mkjn (Bartoo), nox:j, m{jn (Niederle). sokol, vrdna, etc.; 5. okno, prdh, stlna, zea, bfevno, most, ulice, etc.; 6. dub,
DTHERFEATURES: dneskaj = dtles; mna (emphatic for mne); miwd = mild; lipa, llska, ofech, jablko, hruJka, etc.; 7. ODes, plenice,;'elmen, mouka, mriuo,
biw = byl; dulo (vac. sing.); moju = mou (inst. sing.); potomd = potom; etc.; 8. pluh, brdzda, brdny, mIat, pole, etc.; 9. felt/o, sit, sito, brdo, palice,
padnite = padnlU; nafim = nalemu; prdcu = prdci. Eastern features fdU, metla, etc.; 10. blij, lernj, ledj, etc.; I I. Buh, lcrt, peklo, bls, rdj, dul"
(Kfekov) are tnern = jenom; katdim = katdimu; in} = jinj; oM = oha; duch, hfich, etc. Most verbs and prepositions.
prdcu (acc. sing.) = prdci;potern = potom; najednUc = najednou; oea = olii
Common Slav words of Eastern origin: kniha (Assyr.-Bab.), klobouk
po ryeh slovoeh = po t!eh sloveeh; doifho = do n!ho; hotfa, chyfn., invariable (Turk.), lraMt (Ar. via Per.), klobdsa (Ar.), papule (Per.), bohatjr (Per.
act. part. = hod!, hodle, hodfce, etc.; hanba = hanba. Historical semi-
via Ukr.).
vowels in tlUlka beside tllka, slup, charpa, brlaf( = brulet), and slnilko.
Common Slav words of Germanic origin: loa, mjlo (fr. Lat.), ch/ib,
MORAVIAN SILESIAN: characterized by short vowels and iotacism of e: mUko, chI um, buk,jilm, ehjIe, vith, kn/z, penl{., neb(u;ez.
I krasna; 2 snial se, mol se, srnll se; pfal se, pfol se, phi se; 3 maju, daju;
Common Slav and Western Slav words of Greek origin (the majority
4 nafa dula; 6 vidtel and vidfil; sb'Iel and stylil; 7 noveho, mlako and mlikoj
via Latin): drkev, almuina, kftiti, Kfestan, andll, d'dbel, biskup, varhany,
8 ~j and dojo nej- and noj·; 9 mlafa and mlofo; 10 mlt, fie; 11 sern and.rym,
BiM, apoltol, sobota (Heb .),jepliJka, abatyle .
.ry; 12 idu; 13 kaj (= k~), gdo and Mo; 14 ml and mm (acc. and dat.)j
15, on, od; 16 su, muku; 17 flil, Hil; 18 dobfi; 20 tIle; 21 dM; 22 dum, Common and Western Slav words of Latin origin: (a) Religious
.rynum; 23 dtekuju, 3rd plur. id.; 25 nol?)'. terms: pohan, mle, hostie, kostel, oIMf, sakristie, paJie, dlkan, pedeI, pdttr.
OnmR FEATURES: dnlskaj and dniskaj; zautra and {Ytra; polo, mofo = (b) Secular terms: kopule, komora, osel, mezek (fr. Ck.); krahice, kapsa,
pok, mofe; teho, temu and rymu, 0 tern; s ifu = s nt; mojilw = miho; eud lepice, kolile, hounl; kmet, kmotr; mdta (fr. Gk.). angrtIt, locika, latvlj,
tudi = cid lidl. Historical semivowel: dluho, butC£ variantssha,.ryha, ribi.{., vino, ottt; mramor, otel.
and slu.t,a 'teardrop'. Note vrana, skala, etc. as against Oz. vrdna, skdla, Western Slav words via German: (a) kW/er (Lat.), opal (Gk.),jdh.m
but stolof, sedWf = slolaf, sedldf. Historically contracted d of Oz. (Gk.),jara (Gk.), Vdnote, kfil. (Lat.), l.ehnati (Lat.) , kalieh (Gk.), ialm
pfdtel, dobrd appears as 0 in pfotel, dobro. (Gk.), DOz. pelhFim (Lat.), oplatek (Lat.); (b) zdzvor, bluma, petrlel
(Gk.), rjle (Ok.), lemlt (Gk.), c,dute (Gk. via Lat.), koul (Gk. via Lat.), especially in the position of main verbs in subordinate clauses. The
bedna (Gk. via Lat.) , /CbtU". balant (Gk. via Lat.), kuchyi (Lat.); palliD, following illustrations are taken from StftnY's 'DiscountS for Sundays
kofllk, /c01l40, poh4r (all Lat.); told, kartdl, kamaIe, marr.tttka (all Fr.). and Holy Days' (1tNS), ,a.
Western Slav words of German origin; oarua, bouda, br-tUk, dlk, drtU. 'that', and Accusative with Infinitive
flrt~h. JUra, IuUlf, llaifa, hejtmall, Iwbllk, !wId, jarmark, kejkllf, !Mdll",
}ulDfiik, "rejcdT, mandle (Gk.). mmtltl. 11IOTtk, m!Meti, penile, plec", punloeM, slyIlli jsle, el. ., 'you have heard that ... '
rele, ffmsa, FUt, rotmiltr, roura, rjluJ, rytif,ldkk, lelnuJ, 1illuzti, Jlcoda.lp£t"
,h/ie, by Bdh so/Ial 'they want God to hear',
IpulI/, tallf, truhla, .cazvor,lert, lid/t.lolc, iumpa, ivantc, 'if'
Loanword5 from French: admiral, major, baterie, kasdrna, arstrnU. stop-/i , , , -VJttl~il jut 'if he stands .•. he has triumphed',
barikdda (It.); !ulita, re[isb, lOb; auto, gartil. Mole, kmtroiek, lVIuna, &htll-li by, el by mohl . , . 'if he wanted to be able ... '
inltnjrj hilidr, karry, marid1; batist, brokdt (It.), fMpelin. mulelin, etc.; jest-li, el ' .. ldd4w 'if we desire',
krtdmc, almdra, leoblr"; bi.t:drnl, piluJntnl,JMnl, vdgnl, go/antnI, /w..{ardnl;
blamd.t (via Ger.), pakd!. (via Ger.), kurd!.. 'though .• , neverthelw'
Loanwords from English: sport,fo/hal, etc.; oftet, amplion, klaJc.son, etc.; al ry uelWho daru dostojen mjsi, au dostOjMjest md velebnru' 'though thou
juta (Hind.), glot, mo"'r, theviot, manthesteT; luJueiok, montgomerdk; kaul. art not worthy of a great gift, nevertheless my greatness is worthy',
al ddn jest jtmU utlikj dar, vIak sdm sebU nit mni, 'though a great gift has
Loanwords from Spanish: armdda, limondda, papowek.
been given him, he is nothing in himself'.
Loanwords from Polish: kofalka, karte. kaUkoli lUtI, tuporuIenl panny majl.{vldItl [sic] kOfUllku v tubesieth . , ,vIaIe
Loanwords from Russian: mys, majdk, hodry. Some naval terms and Plsmo i ry ntl{jrHi ... 'though the chaste inviolate virgiru have a
animal names. distinctive crown in heaven, .. yet the Scripture calls even those
The above lists do not include the many hundreds of technical and virgins (who, etc.)'.
abstract loanwords that are common to most European languages. 'even though'
Religiow Calques (literal translations, such as sou-tit = sym-pathia = al by i to bylD .ca toI hliahy 'even though it be for thy sins',
&om-passio): milost, milosrd{, pomilouati, blo.hoslDviti,prorok, spasiul,
stvafiul, po~ati, ktkati, zpovidati, !VItiti, mitost. Plsmo, 'lest'
Folk-etymologies (words rationalized by being made to resemble al tu inked umrlui nJkolw MU,h smrulnj 'lest mortal sin strike anyone
native terms): hTO{'inJca, sekjTovat, hfbitofJ, Iunoldif, whiM, hrubidn, dead',
[isliM, havlM, pokrytet, paifdca, utlbloud, utlryha. 'without'
ani k taJcimu skutku , , ,povoUm4 'without our yielding to such an act',
Much of fourteenth-century Czech literature is translated, and the
word-order tends to follow that of the original model. In the Alexan-
at by si v Kristu Toenohli 'until they grow strong in Christ',
mtbdme, aljim i budtm obvdtdni 'we heed not until we are bound by it' ,
dreid adjectives precede nouns (this is normal practice) with the
frequent intercalation of a genitive, dative, or instrumental case. By 'before'
the third quarter of the fourteenth century word-order in prose df/ve tul by si rovnohla 'before it gains power',
writing had assumed some of the characteristics of German syntax, donidll rollmoprchm 'before the rose withers'.

'that, , , might , , .' 'because'

jelil by pfemohii sv! fIlpfduly 'that they might overcome their enemies', p,oto ttj.ru si vzdvihiy dctry sionski 'because the daughters of Zion have
risen up',
'that, , ' not, , .'
'as if'
tapovltill, aby i lddnj fIljtdl 'he ordered that none should eat',
jako by bylo flleno 'as if it had been said',
'as , , , so ' , .'
jtlikl si jtdna 'O{11lot, stoUk mdll druM 'as the one increases, so the other 'even then'
wanes', jelt! i tthdy fIlpFlstdvai 'even then do not desist',
'let', 'let not', Cr. Jussive construction
al fit skondm 'let me finish my speech',
kdtt by si k ndm pfivinul Krist 'wherever Christ may join us.'
filCh/ fku, cot mohU 'let them say what they can',
filch I nnninu i jtdni lUky 'let me not pass a single meadow', 'what, , , that, , .'
'is to be' to, cot vduhnt B6h v nale mkt, to ndm povie fIl skrze uIi 'what God breathes
ka! hi jest potkati 'how he is to be met', into our heart He does not tell us through the ean',

'cause to do' 'when'

mdada jim klopotati 'not causing them to stumble', copak, kdyt lobi mut s fenu neshoviela, arub lobi om,zntta? 'what (of it)
a on ktkalJtmu ddti mlsto 'and he ordered him to surrender the town', when man and wife shall not agree or when they bore each other?'

'how long' 'there, , , where, • "

dokudl bude [akali, nenuljut! . , , 'how long he will wait is not certain', tamje uvede dar boBt milostijamljsu byli, , ,upflli umysl'there does the
gift of God's grace lead them where they had fixed their intention',
'so long as'
tknidll B6k laJcd , , , 'so long as God waits, . " 'whether'
donidl kto chtt pfitltl bjli tolwto svlta, dottJd bof.lm bude fIlpFitUiem 'as long kto by chjbal, an (= a on) tolik svltIa , , ' pfintsl 'who would doubt
as anyone wishes to be the friend of this world, so long will he be whether he had brought, , , so much light',
God's enemy',
'nor' Purposive construction
ani my m6bm co dobrlho ulinili 'nor can we do any good', torjest vdlt bofit, aby svati byli 'such is the will of God, that they may be
'neither , , , nor, , .' ehci jen aby Iwfal'l merely want it to burn' ,
fIlbude mod ani !Upili ani prodati 'will be able neither to buy nor to sell', abych vds !I jedni (fiE) rudrlal dlUho 'that I should not keep you long in
one discourse',
'unless' vivnlt, byclwm v tlmt ndsltdovali $Vat/ho Pav/a a aby byl jinjm ku pflkladu
ltl si svu v6U podddmt, fIlmdtjinak zultlziti 'unless we submit of our own 'let us see that we follow St Paul in the same, and that he should be
free will we cannot otherwise triumph', an example for others',
Hypothetical construction Participle constructions
kdyby byl pfi!el do svaM {em/'if he had come into the holy land'. ta toJci pfiIedJi pole chvdliti Hospodina 'who having also come began to
kdybyclwm u vlrnim mm vIi lMostl volali k Nlmu 'if we had called unto praise the Lord'.
Him, trusting in heart and with utmost desire' . tlksrrfm lddostem umflv,tiv jest duclwvnl 'having died for bodily desires
kdyl bychom podk tlksnjch f.ddostt poddali si Illu 'if we had submitted to is spiritually alive'.
the body by reason of bodily desires'. f!Y!el jest, sijl, ro;:,slvat, semene svllw 'there went forth a sower, sowing his
reed' . (BR)
Question construction Wikufovl. chtUce z tlto flli l?Yniknuti pravie, le to fllerw knltlm jest 'The
.{daJi tiv bude? 'will he be alive?' Wycliffians, wishing to avoid the issue, declare it was said to the
priests'. (Appendix to ttNs, not by the hand of SUtny.)
Auxiliary verb with infinitive lddajlce, at i hudu ndm dflvn! hfuIi odpuJtlni 'desiring, until our former
sins are forgiven also'.
mol si sdm milovati 'can love himself'.
malnu sl,jelikl. TTWhrlt ... 'let us strive as much as we can',
smll vlfiti 'dared believe'.
hudem cot mohUc odklddati ... 'we will delay as much as we can'.
jeIto i umfieti chill 'who even wanted to die' (but chtll, by tomu rO.cMmJli
'wanted them to understand it').
majl mluviti 'are to speak'; md drOn bolu pfikd.{dnu 'is to keep God',
commandments' . The numerals tfi!, ltyfie have plural inflections; the numerals Pit,
ntrodte duchu pohaIovati 'seek not to quench the spirit'. lest, sedm, osm, devlt, and deslt have the singular inflections of type kost.
The singular inflections were later appropriated by the 'tens' above
Supine construction fifty on the analogy of those below, thus modern Czech has padesdt,
.{OVl dllat, pracovat do svI vinnicl 'he summons to work, to labour in his inflectedpade.rdti (where the inflection is not historical) on the analogy
vineyard'. of dvacet-dvaceti, tficet---tficeti. St1tny inflects numerals as follows :
I1 (dat.) kjtdnddcti; 12th (instr.) druhjmnadcet; 13 (Ioc.) v tfuhTllJdcet
Jussive construction (cf. 'let, let not') utech; 20 (gen.) do duUdcal ut; 21 (gen.) do jedenme~cietnw.; 22nd
pros BOM, a( si smiluje nad teM 'call upon God to have mercy upon dvamezcietmj; 30 tfidelt; 40 (gen.) 19fdcat dnl; 60 Iestdesdt; 70 (loc.) po
thee' . sedmidcat letech.
fUchOkU, col moM 'let them say what they can',
ndsledujrru 'let us follow',

Passive and Reflexive construction

lfastnj, v kterllkoli .{ tlch kto .{IlSlrUl v.{at bjn 'happy he who deserves to
be taken in any of them'.
lte si 'it is read. one reads'.
kdylf ddno bude 'when it will be given'.
hjti napomlndn, hjli napomenut 'to be reminded'.
tolik jut flleno 'so much has been said, is said'.


Numbers refer to paragraphs. Paragraphs I to 100 deal with Phooo--

logy, the remainder with Morphology. Numbers in italic refer to
paradigms. Ch follows h.
a,45 blabtati, lita
anglicky, 130 blbotati, 28
af, 142 blby, 44; 129
bledu, blbti, '49
baju, bati, 28; 159 bleeha (mod.). 9:1
banka (mod.), 112 bl6ti, str bledu
bati, se, baju blcha, 91 j 11 I
bati ~ , Ut boju s! blltka, z- (mDd.), 1:18
baviti, 16, bllzko (prep.), 14:<1
bdieti, Set btu bluju, blvati, 159
bertl, I 10, 1I4 bociu, b6sti, 149
beru, bri!.ti, 13. 26, 28, 40. 77; 101, '47. BOh, b6h,plur.: bozi, 118, 99; 103
148. 150 bohaty, 136
befi,511 boju st, bati st, 166
be:z, beze, '42 BolesIav, 131
bezm.aJa (mod.), 139 bofu, botiti, 167
Mhati, 181 hOOti, ' " bodu
bkh, '7' bozi, ,"Mh
beejl, 136 Bote, 105
Mleju, beleti, 165 boHe, 131
bMu, bef~ti. 166, 181 brada,67; I11
Biblie, 114- bradaty, 129
bieda, I11 brati, $U beruj inf.: ISI
-biehati, 182 bratr, 45j lOS, 120
biech,17' bratr6v, 127, 1118
bidy, 'oinJNuaji~.,: 136 brattie, 114
-bierati,58, 182 bray, brawi, 176
blj~ju. b!jt ti, 168 brdu, btisti, 33; 153
-biju, -hlti, 159 bm~, 113
hili, m -biju bnkj,136
168 INDEX INDEX 16 9
brzo, tomparatill4; 144 tirj,47 diet~, 119 duti, s" dmu
brf, hne, 144 cistajasna, z- (mod.), 128 dieti, s" diem. dva, dv~, 26, 118, 4B, 50; 103, 107, 139
bfezen (mod.). 105 lfsti, set tlu; inf: 181 dieti st, see d~je !~ dvefi, 1113
bf~zie, 33 &t1,36 dJlo (mDd.), 107 dv~ II~, 107
bfidkj. 1:t9 tiovo!;te, 105 divi, 47; 131 dv6j, 1119
bfiem~. 118 clun,92 divny, 129 dvojtata, 119
bficho (mod.), 107 trieti. Sit lru dIe, 142 dychati, SII dylu
bfisti, see btdu trot. 36, 92 dlieti, 89 dym,49; 102
bubel, 73 trpati,g2 dluh, 23, 114, 89 dyme tmd dyroa, djmati, 13; 14B
budu, budieclJ, Ife., 171 crt, 92 dlUho, cDmpa1'aliw: 144 dylu, dychati, 160
Buh, hUh (mod.). 105 eru, meti, 156 dhlhY,89 (twice); =pa1'alw.r: 136
but~, 113 m, 11I4 dmu, duti, 155
dna , 138
evandeIista, 1111
byk, g6 tso,14O
b'9If, 110 ttu, tisti, 33; 153 dnc:iek (mod.), 105 fabuIe, 100
.byt,95 ftvrt, 124 dno, 311 ferule, 100
btti, Sit jSetnj itif.: 16, ftvrtek, 105 do, 1411 filolog (mod.), 10.5
by tie, 110 ftytie, 124 doba, IHI
byv, byv§i, '76 fuju, l:uti, 159 dobry, 130, (;{/fllpa1'alw.r: 136 haj, g6
bjvati, 181 dobf~, cDmplUatir!l: 144 Mrati, 77
bzu, bdieti, 147. 1411. 166 d;1.le, l44 dobytek, 105 havM. 118
daleka, z- (t7Wd.), 128 docela (mod.), 1118 haz~ju, Mz~ti, 168
cB, ceIY. 27. 50, 99 daleko, cDmpa1'atWe: 144 dojka,511 hbity (mod.), 83
c8eju, cHeti, 165 d;1.m, diti, 171 d6l, 28; lOll hlava, I11
cma, 27. 52, gB; I11 dar, 48, g6; 125 d6m, 17,411; III5 hlad,97
ciediti, 36 dareba (mod.). 117 dopis, 105 hladky, 95; 136
cierkev, g8; 1116 dat (glJ1llld), 177 dopoledne, 109 hiM, 103
cirkua (mod.), 105 dati, s" dam; inf.: 181 doati, 100 ·hla~ti, 1811
co, l~O d;1.vati,181 dotek (mod.), 83 hllna, I11
cud,33 d;1.vno,45 dovoliti, dovolovati (mod.), 181 hit, lOll
-f, 140 dcera (mod.), 112, 120 drahy, 136 hltan, 117
fajlta, II1 dci, uo drati,57 hluchy, 95; 130
t!r,46 d ehet, 122 drafe, 144 hluk, 105
weo, 84. '43 do::ch,81 drbu, drbat (mod.), 157 hmyz. g6
~tf, comparative: 136 dBe, 144 drly, 129 hn;1.ti, Sll !enu; iI!/.: 181
fber,92 dell,136 drobet, Hl2 hniju tmd hdu, hnJti, 159
Cech, 99; lQt/ den, 91; loB, 116 dru, dfieti, 57; 156 hnu st, hmlti se, 163
telo, 27 dellll, 138 drva, 106 hil.u, sa hniju
femelice (mod.). '.1.7 drvoli';~p, 78 hoch (mod.), 105
deru, drati, 57; 150
ferny (mod.), 92 dmty, 28, 71 drlimy, 174 holomek,94
terpati (mod.), 9:<1 devef, 120 drlu, drl~ti, 101, 166 holub, 124
cert (mod.), 92 d~je st, dieti st, 159 dUve,l44 holliM,119
terven (mod.), 105 d~laju, d~lati, 147, 14B, 168 dftvo, 78; 106 honiti, 181
tesati, see feiu d~lat (gmmd), 177 dfieti, Jll dru h6f~, '44
leaky, 130 d~lati, su deIaju dfieve, 144 hot~ti,77
test, 124 d~lav, d~lav!i, 176 dfvi, 116, 118; lIlj (twice) hotl (=pafatiw q!dy), 136
tau, tesati, 160 d~lavati (mod.), 181 duben, 105 hofu, hof~ti, 166
tot!,84 d~ti, 119 duch,81 hoacu, hoatiti, 148. Sll also pohoatiti
tbt~jl. 136 dtva,IIl dui (mod.), 105 hoapoda, I III
cl, 27; '40 dtvl:e, 119 dum (mod.), 105 hospodaf, 94
tiest, 124 diera, 112 dU§~, 24, 81 hospodatiti, 94
• 70 INDEX
host, .,. lI6, 4', 51; Uj, 124 ehapiti.35
hostiti, 4U hoseu chot, 123 jb;!., 52 kanuti, 32
hov~ju, haved, '3. liB; '47. 165 chovu, chovati, 35; 151 jb;!.a, jb;!.uci, 173 kapati,32
hrabati, 7, chram,38 jbiu, j~ti, 171 li.asati, su kallJ.
hrabe, 119 ehtadnu, cb1adouti, 36; 164 jekc::u, jEktati, 160 WIu, ka!lati, 160
brad, 23. 118, 97; 105 chtieti, .tll cheu jH, 24, B4 ka!u, kasati, ISo
hr.i.ch, 104 chudeji, 144 j&n~, 24, B4 kavka, I11
hranic::e,9i cbudoba, 11 J j~ti, lujMu; iJif.: 181 kazati, se, Wu
htdtju, hrdeti, 165 cbudY. ~alw,: 134 j~tie, 69, 71, B4; 110 kaidy, 92
hrdiDa, IIIi chut, 35 jfvt, :it4, B4; 106 Utu, kallati, 160
hrdlo. 23. B9i 107, IlIB chuzl, 144 j~zditi, IBI kda, 143
brdY.89 cbvatati. chvatiti, 183 jho ('hint'), 57 kde, 143
hmec,lIJ chvEju ~, chvieti ~, 35; 159 jbo ('yoke'), 26, 30, 43, 59; 106, 107 kdo (mod'.), 140
bmek,89 c::hvoj,3 6 jhra, 112 kdy, 143
hrob, 77; 105 chvrasten, 38 jhraju, jhn1.ti, 159 k6 (mod.), 129
hryfu, hryzati, 160 c::hybati,35 jiem,jiesti, 46; 171 -Wdati, 182
hlada, Ill, Ill! -jiemati, IB2 kIadu, klisti, 149
htbieti, 77 j,jE,je, 127, Ij8 jiesti, IU jiem kIamu, k.lamati, 157
hlbitov, 105 ja, 137 jieti ('to take'), Gg, 71, B4 k.lapu, kIapati (17Wd.), 157
hfeben, 11, jablko, 107 jiezva,52 kIMti, Sll k.ladlJ.; iJif.: IBI
htebu, hfbti, 77. 149 jalOVY,45 -jidd~ti, 182 kI"ter, t8
hfec, 92 jama,IIJ jib (mod.), 104 kIati, III koIu
Mali, III hfebu jam, 24 jlcha, III juc::ha kI~ti, s" ldnu
.hfebati, 77 juan, 4B, B4 jO,51 -k.lahi, I B2
hMju, hrieti, 159 jamy. 24, B4 Jiff (1Md.), 110 kInu, kl~ti, 155
hfieti, 77. 159.111 hfeju jat,jaty, 69, 71, B4; 129 jlskaci, 50 kIllb, 73
huba, I11 jatra, 69, 70; 106, 107 jlti, see jdu kIubko (mod.), 73
hudu, hdsti, 149 javo, 24, B2, B4, BSi 106 jmim,jmieti,I71 Huju, klvi!.ti, 159
HWI, u3. 124 jb,137 jmtno (17Wd.), 107 (Iwit', ) kluk (mod.), 105
hW3, III jazyk, 104, 105 jmE, liB klU!u, kluzati, 160
hUser. IlIO jdu, jlti, 171 jmieti, Stl jmam klvati, lee kluju
hdsti, III hudu jeden, 39; 139 jmievati, IBI lunen, 117
hWltina,94 jedenie. 110 jla, 60 kmet, 124
hUlee, 144- jeho, 57 jmu ('to him'), 57 Ir.nb:,I08, 110
hvb:da,23 jelen, 39; 117 jmu ('I take'),jieti, 147, ItB, 155,lIIaUo knMI (mod.), 110
hybju, hybati, 83; 14'. 160 jem, jemli, 176 jieti knMie, 114
hynu, hynuti, 147. 163 jemu,57 jsem, byti, 13; 171 knieha, 112
jen (/JroNJUII), 138 jlu, 72 knid!, 119
eMpu, eMparl (lIUId.). 157 J ene, 105 ju, 73 Ir.otl, 11 0, 114
·chaztti, 182 jen!, 141 jueha,jlcba, 31, 49 Ir.olem, 142
chcu and chocu, chtieti, 23; 1,1 jenb,3B JutI, HO Ir.olenou (17Wd.), 107
chladno. 107 jeptilka, 39 ju!,~ lr.olC$8., 121
chlap, 103 jes, jesen, tB, 84 koliko, 139
chla~, 1(9 jeseii, 39 It, Ite, ku, 14!! kolu, klati, 160
chUb, 105 jeskynE (1tWd.), 113 kady, 143 kolo,59
chl~. 10,5 j est, 40 kachna, III komoly (mod.), 44-
chllld. 36 jdlo, 141 kak, 143 konec,23
(hocu, Set cbeu je!et'O, 23, 39; 107 kal, 45, g6 Ir.onfesl, 1'4
choditi, 181 jd: (rel. jlrONJUtI), 141 kalhoty (mod.), 103 k6ii, 24; lOB
chodlvat (mod.), ,81 jEemen, 117 ki!.men, 117 kopec::, 27, 4', 91; 108
Ir.amenie, I 10 kopu, kopad, 2'. 157
kofan, do - , 117 kynu, kynuti, 163 loket, !l3; I!I!I
kahn, 1f7 kyvu, kyvati, 157 10ni,68 m!n, m~, 15, 52
kOllt, Il(] lopot, 124 mbicc, loB, 173
kostd, 1011, 105 lahnu,lahnuti. 164 mBtblln, I 17
losos, 44-
m~td, SlI matu
koUi!,119 lah6dka,94 lovtl, 110, 114
ko!ule, 100 lahu, l&:i, 152 loie, 4!1; 109, 121 mhla, 91; I I I
tOld, 10:! laju, Uti, 159 -Ioiu, _loiiti, 1«.8; set pololu, polonti mi,5 2
kotl, 119 Iakota,94- miera, I l l , I n
lubiti, 54
limu, Iamati (mod.), 157 _mierati, 182
kovati, 157, 169 ruby, 54; 1!l9
Ir.ovu, lr.ovati (mod.), 157 lan.itva, 94 miesti, SII matu
I11t, 123
Jr.6.te, 113 Ib:.i, III lahu ludie, 51, 54; 1!l3 miestru, 131
krabic!, 67. 100; (uabice) 113 lecu, Ict~ti, 166 iun, 112 miesto (prep.), I~
kradmo, 143 led, us l\lka, Ill, 112 mieti, ue mnu
mJj~ju, mlj~ti, 147, 165, 168
kraj,96 leden, 105 luna, 29, 55; I11
kraj~l, 85. 110, 114- ledvie, 114- lyiu s~, Iyziti S!, 167 milosrdie, 27, 88, 89
Wkohl, krikorati, 6,; 160 legacl, 114 Hu, ihati, 160 mimo,142
kral, 108, 127 lebt~j!1, 135
minu, minuti, 147, 1«.8, 161
ImUev, 127. IllS lehkt, 129 mad:cha,94 minuv, minuwi, 176
kraliju, kralevati, 13; 147, 148. 170 leju, I~ti, 159 major, 11«. sing.: majore, 105 mli'l (mod.), 144-
kril6v, 127. 1:18 leknu S!, leknllti S!, 162 mak, g6 miuti, SII milu
krapet, 122 len, 23, 41, 91 maIo, '39, rom/JMatioe: 144- mbto (mod.), 107
krisa, 95; I1I len~ju, len~ti, 165 malt, comparlltiw: 136 milu, mi.sali, 160
kratk1. 136 IUI, 46; 1!.I3, 131 MaH,114 mil;ina, 94
kriV8, 112 Icp, 91; 102 m;Wo, 38 mknu, mknuti, 16!1
krejli (mod.). 8s I~pe, 144-
mitu, mltl/;ti, 166
ml~ko, 107
mm, mm!, 142 Icpl, 135, 136 mast, 34
krpec.44- les, 103, 105 mau, 7' mlet, 175
mI~ti, SII mel'u
Juyju, kryti, 14/3, 159 lest, 41, 9 1; u3 matcH, 131
kfemen, 117 Mtati, 181 matelin, 1!l7, 1!l8 mlolr., 67
kfesati, see !dau letcctvo (mod.), 107 mati, mat~, 45; uo mlyu, 105
liest!nin, loS, 117 let~ti, stllccu; in/: 181 matka (mod.), uo mne, 60
kfdu. ldesati, 160 liti, Set leju matu, miesti, 79, 84; 152 mnl/;, 59, 60
kfit':u, kfiteti, 166 I~to, 106, 107 mazati, 34, 38. tOO rnnich,43
kfldloma (mod.). 107 letos, 138 mAzdra,38 mnohem (mod.), 139
kfiknu, kfikndti. 1611 levy, 50; 1!l9 mdu, mazati, 160; Sll mazati rnnoho, 59; 139
kflf:,96 Id, 41, 43, 91 mdleju, mdleti, 165 mnohy, 59; 139
lr.tery, :17; '41 Idu,ld~ti, 16, 77; 166 mccu, metati, 160 mnu, mieti, 155
mnu, mnieti, 166
kto,14O lhati, see l!u tmd Ihu med, 40; 1°4, 125
ktQ!, 14' ihostajny, mod.: ihostcjny, 85 meduju, medovati (mod.), 1«.8 moc, 35; 123
kuju, kovati, 169 Ihu, !hati (mod.), 154 medvM. I!l4 moh, mohli, 176
Ir:upiti, 181 libo, 14!1 mech, 43, 91 mohu, mod, 35; 149
kupole, 100 !fee, 109 mel'u, ml~ti, 13. 147, 160, 175 moo, see mohu
lr.upuju, lr.upovati, 147, 148, 16g, 181 lid~ (rruJd.), 1!l4 m~ne, J44- m6j, mojl/;, moje, 24; 1!l9
hIR,I19 liju tmd lu,llti, 159 mem, 41, 91; 135, 136 moknu, moknuti, 13; 1«.8
!r.dl,73 listie, 110 mest, 43, 9 1 mofe, 29, 39, 42; log
Ir.vi!t, 23, 80 llti, see liju moro, Illofiti, 44-
met, 91
Ir.vtten, 105 l.I!u, llzati, 160 metati, J t, mccu most, 105
hil,80 loaf, 108 mez (mod.) , 113 mom, 36
lr.vte, ltvisti. Bo; 153 locika, 35 meze, 17, 33, 86; 113 mramor, 67
kt. 52; l!Zg. 140 lodl, lodie. 68; 110, "4 mezi, 142 (twice) mm, 97; 103
mrcev, mrtvj, 911:; 129
nesu, n~ti, 15; '49, 181 Permenio, Penneni6v, 1!OI7
mrt (mod.), 41 okolo, 142
neltaslnt, 130 pero, 32; (mod. pb'o), 107 (twiu)
mru, mfieti, 57; 156 oidfju,oldieli, 159
net, netet, 32; 120 (Iwiu) olenu S!, oleniti sf, 167 peru, pn!.ti, 150
mfieti, see mru nC!kde, '43
mAic!,35 omraliti, IB3 pelina, 94
ni,5 I
rnulnt, 111:9 nie, IJt, 110 on, ona. ono, 137, 13B peatrf (mod.), 92
mucha, II1 opru, opfieli, 156 pfju, pieri, 159
nice, 110
mUD,95 opfieti, JU opru pbt, 124
nilse, I/O
muka, 95; III orati, JII oru pB,13 1
nilte, '40
mutiti, 79 nU, 124- orel, 105 pfl, ::14, 70,84; 1::14
mubtvo,107 oru,orati, 13; 160 pieti, III (I) pnu, (2) pfju
Doe, 23, 29, 35, 42; 115, 116, 123 piju and piu, plti, 47; 159
my, 137 nodvati, Jtt nociju os, 34. 39; 123
myju, mjti. 159 osel, 10::1 pila, III
n6ci, a - , 138 plla, III
mysliti, SII myllu aset, 122
nociju, nocfvati, 13; 148, 170 asika (mod.), 32 pau, p$1ti, 160
myl, 31, 49; 123 noha, I l l , 112
mylru, m y.liti, 167 O!Itrov, 105 pit, 95
nos, 105
mzda, 36, 38, 91; 112 olt~fju, otli.~fti. 168 plti, In piju, piu
n05u, n03iti, 13; inf.; IBI pitie, 110
otc6v, 127, 128
nov, novy, 52. 54; 129 otee, lOO, 108 pitomy. 174
na, 142 (twiu) novfjl,24
oat, 140 otevru, otevfieti, 57; 156 piu, It, piju
novoltf (mod.), loB otieti, Jt, otmu platu, piakati, 160
na&f, 140 nozf, 99; 112
natrt, 92 otmu,otieti, 154 plakati, In platu
nr, 60; 137 otnaifju, otnMfti, 168 plamen, I 17
nad, nade, '411: (twia) nyju. nyti, B2; 159, 167
nadace, 113 otpOCinu, otpolinuti, 46; 161 piapolu, plapolati, 160
n!u. m:ieti, 166
naden!, 141 otvieraju, otvierati, 58 plat,96
naden, 138 ovcf, 100 plati, JlI polu
0, 142 (twic#) plav, plavy, 64
Dadluz~, 144 ovoce, 109
oba, oM, 103, 139 plavu, plavati, 81; 157
namaie (mod.). 139 ObU,I13
namazati, 183 padu, pasti, 149 pl~mf, liB
obe<: (mod.), 113 plbti, Stl pletll
namno~ e (mod.), 139 pamH, 41; 1!OI3
ob&i, 105
naplniti, napinovati, 181, 183 pan, w<. sing.: pane, 105 .pl~tati, 77
obleku, obl~ci, 149 pl~ti, In pievu
naproti, '42 ob6j, 129 panl, Il~
nap$3ti, 181, 183 panuju, panovati, 13; 148 pletu, plbti, 35, 77; 149
obr, DOt:. sing.: oble, 105 plevu, p[~ti, 158
narod. 104 obrva, 126 pUl,13 1
naroditi st, 18) pap!r, 104 pin, plny, 24, 88, Bg; 129, 134 «(om-
obuju, obuti, 159 pilu, parati, 160 parotillt)
nautili, I83 ocel, gB
mu,¥! p:l..smo (mod.), 107 plna hrdla, z - (mod.), uB
ocel, 9EI
nmp (mod.), 83 puti, m (I) padu, (2) P&u plot, 77
<It,I40 PlUtva, I11 plovu, pluti, tlI)f.: pluch, 13,40, BI; 158
rutsil~, 110 <lti, 107, I!J3
nO, naJ~, oale, 139 p&tvee,9::1 pIt, 81, go, 91
od, ode, 142
-rulJC!ti, 182 pastyt. 60; loB plucf, log
odonud. 143 pluch, 13, 146, SeI plovu
m1v, U4 pasu, pisti, 13, 34; 149
odpoledne, log
naviti, 82; 167 pat, 71 pluti, III ploVll
oheb (mod.), 83
nebe, log, UT pity, 24, B4 plytva,81
ohen, 44; loB, 124
nebesa, 120 pec,35 pnu, pieti, 147, 155
ohlisiti, 183
nebYI, 142 peci (imjHrlltillt), 99 po, 21: 107, '42 (thrll timu)
ohi\ovy, 129
nedaleko (prep.). 142 p&:i, see peku; inf.: 35; 146 pobluditi, IB3
ochevny, 133 petu (mod.) , 101 pocu, potiti, 13
nebet, 87; 111:2 ochuditi, 183
nepfietel, 108 pek, peldi, 176 pot, 140
oje, 52
nes, nes§i, I 76 peku, ~ci, 146, 149 pol:ieti, set pOCnu
oklamali, IB3
penieze, 108 pOClsti, 183
pOCnu, potieti, 155 prosptju, pros~ti, 36; 183 rd~ju s!, relicti d, 13,43; 147, ,,.s, 165 filii, SlI fcvu and f'uju
pod, pode, '42 (twic.) prostrt, 17.5 relate (mod.), 113 tva ti, III tcvu
podtl, '42 prost? 36 relacl, "4
podl~, '42 prod, '411 rcpcu, rcptati, 148 I,se (prep.), 142 (twiu)
podzim, 105 pna,12. rez (mod.), 113 I,acn (prOIlOlDl), IJ8
pohlcu. pohltiti, '3; 16, pm, 124 ref, 4', 43, 9 1 aaditi, 167
pohQICu, pohostiti, 13; 167 pnou (mod.), 107 robe,68 lAd1o,II3
poehcv, 126 ~u,~uti, 164
pnt, '5. 117 rod,33
pochva (mod.), 126 prsten, 117 rodiCc, 108 aadu, siesti, 152
powiti, ,83 pm:w:, pfieti~. IS6 roh, plur.: roti, 118; 10~, 105 sihati, 183
pokrmiti, 183 pruint.36 rok, 102, 105 sahnuti, 183
p61,11I5 pfadu, ptiesti, 15~ role, 68 tahu, sad, licci, 14; 147, 1511
pole, log pfahu, pfied, 36; 1511 roll, 114 $Am, sama, ~o, 139
poledne, 109 pfcdati, pfcdavati (mod), 181 ronlm, roniti (mad.), 44 tApu, $Apati, 157
poled, Uf poru pfedscda (mod.), 1111 ronu, ronuti, 13; l,.s, 161 aad;, 77
poloba, liB pf~-, 1411 tA:r.fju, sAdti, 24; 101, 14', l,.a, 168
r6st, 33
polozl;, tU poJoha pfUisti, 181, 183 tOIItu, r6sti, 33 Ibicraju, sbierati, 58
polofu. poloiiti, '3; ,6,; bI/.: 18, ptM, pf&:ic, 14~ (Iwi&,) roucho (mod.), 107 lbor, 77
poru, plAti, aIId paled. 160 ptedel'l, 136 rot·, 23; 1411 sedl', scd.ied, 173
pomalu, '39. '43 pfMII, "4 sedl'ti, su sczu
ro1fiti, 183
pomluviti, 183 pUju, pfieti, 159, 165 ~l id s!, 183 ledl jscm, 171
pondl!:lek (mod.), 10,5 ptes, pt!.:, 1411 rot ti, 183 sedlAf, It)O, 110
pop]uti, 183 pfi, 1411 rot;, III roh acdlo, 119, 77
poraditi, 183 pfiblliiti S!:, 183 rofcn, rote", 66 sejmu aM scumu, tnieti, 155
posel, 105 pfied, I" pfahu rtoma, 105 scmemif, 108
posice (mod.). 113 pfiesti, IN pfadu rod, 117, 99; 112 ICIIlcno (mod.), 107
pospieehaju, poapiechati, 168 pfietcl, 85; 108 rot, 131 $CJI (,dream' ), 1I3, 311, 43, 91; 102
postaviti, 183 pfieti, I" pf~ju rW!~, 143 scn (pronoun), 138
postel (mod.), 113 pficti ~, III pro st rodj, 29, 55; 129 $CJImu, Jee scjmu
postrl1iu, postrUhati, 160 pfijmu, plijieti, '!is roch, 105 $CSttin, 1117.128
polIepmo, '43 ptiklad (mod.), 105 roka, 37; 111, 1111 &ever (mod.), 104
pot, 35 pHtcl (mod.), III pfictd rukoj~t, 1114 sczu, sedhi, 13; 166
potid, IU potu pHtclkyn~ (mod.), 113 <i~ g6 .Maju, sMati, 13. 77; 168
poul (mod.), 124 pd.f, 108 ryju, Jjti, ' !i9 -s&llj, 1119
povlaka,64 pd.ti, III pOu; it{.: 181 nl', 23, 43; 113 KjU, dcti, 159
pozd!, 38 PStrt,911 riu, mti, 160 Kku, ded, 149
pracovat (zmmd). 177 pu~, 119 fad, Gg, 14 sMd, sa sahu
pradlf, 114 put, 711; 123 (Iwiu) f:i.d, Gg, 84 .clinu, schnuti, l,.a, 1611
pd.h,97 pytu, pykati, 160 fcbfl, 110 lie, 131
pta3!, 65; 119 pYcha, Ill, 112 fcbro,38 . ice, 143
prati, peru
IU pykati, su pytu fchcu, fehtati, 13; 160 liel, 139
prl.VQ, 107 (twiu) fcfh'Y, 38, 77 l icci, JU (I) sahu, (11) ~ku
pro, 117; 142 ri.dlo,68 few, lvati, and Nti, 150 lieml', 46; 118
probudu, prob9ti. '7' radon, radOlti, 100 nditel, Gg, 14 licsti, III sadu; it{.: 167
proeesl, 114 rakcv, 1116 utu, fbati, 160 lieti, su KjU
prOC, 140 ramcnou (PMd.), 107 ficci, lee fku sUa, 95; Ill, 112
prodej,8s ram~, 113; 118 ficditi, Gg, 84 .Unj, U9
proithati, 77 r:i.na, 1111 fljen (mad.), 105 sipju, si~ti. 166
prOTaditi, 183 rano, 107 fku, fiw, (lful feci, 147, 148, 153 .kifu, skAkati, 160
pl'OIIiv, pl"OIIivli, '76 rataj, 108 fuju, 159 skakati, It' sklil'u

.Ula, 1If, 1111 snieh, 28, 52 .traka, I 11 Imbu, lmbati (m"".), 157
.uti, lit nu .mesti, 183 striU, 78 ilapu, lIapati (mod.), 157
.k1ad, 105 .nicti, su aejmu .trm:9, 77 l ie, 35
illep, 105 sruh (mod.), 105 Itrom, 77; 105 Uu, '" leru
1lt61a. s6 SIlovati, IN snuju strop, 105 Ipiu, IN spiu
uon~iti, 183 muju, movari, IGg stru, stfieti, 57; 15 6 luf, 124
uop, 36 sOl. 1113 .I:r'!W, 124 Ivadll, 11 4
.kofu, tkofiti, 44; 167 soudtuh (mod.), 105 sttemen (!Md.), su lUmen Ivec, 9'2
akryti, 183 souhlas (mod.), 104- .tfemhlav, 77 lvitofiti (mod.), 13
dn, Une, '4!'/ sovati, u, luj u stfenb (!Md.), lU denb
illebtati, 36 spasitd, 94. 108 .tftd (!Md.: stfed), 23; 104 lib, tihli, I 76
Utemen, 1 1 7 spat (ztnmd), 177 ,lfbia (mod.: stfcda), 104- lAbati, 183
.ktIpu, Ikfipati (mod.) , 151 spati, sn spju slUhu, sdtci, tJNi sdieci, 78 i 147, 1,5 1 ~u, lAhnliti, 164, 183
nu, 'Uli, 154 specb,3 1 sdeJa, 4fi tabu, lAhnliti, 152, 183
ilkubu, RUsti, 31t; ' 49 sptju, spieti, 159 slficl, SlI stfihu u,jemne,8s
skWti, lit skubu sp8n:9, cfmlJuull.livt: 136 sttieti, lU stru tajne,8s
.kytu, u9sti, 33; 153 spid,l44 stfibu, stHcl, 149 taj nt,85
.labj,95 spide, spidf, 136 still (mod.), 105 lAl, 124
, lad, 23. 66 spieli, SlI spCju ItP.U st, stydeti st, 166 lapu, tapati (mod.) , 1,57
Iladkj.66; 1119 spiu II.tId ipiu, spati, 166 IUe, 28, 99 ta ta, I11
.lima,64 spfahu, spfieci, SlI prabu, pried; Uif.. lud, 125 lAnti se, s" tidu se
.lut,33 s"
(tieti, tku
"Ali, sa leru
dBva, 81
spu, .Uti,
100; l og
I UjU, sovati, 16g
such:9, 31, 53; 136
s-o.std, 127
tdy, 143
..lech,8 1 srp, 44, 8g Jlbtd6v, 127 ttci,s" tau
IIi!m!, 11 6 srpen, 105 tIlti, '" spu tehda, tebdy, 143
l i epola, I I1 ssu, ssati, '54 Ivate (mod.), 84 tejn~, 85
Ilczeft, 36; 117 staje, 36, ?6 Ivalt,84' 130, """ptulltiol: 136 tek, teldi , 176
dimtk (mod'),!i! staletl (!Md.), 110 wet, So; 105 teku, teci
aioveao, 121 stan, ' 25 wete, tJdu. , 84 ten, ta, to, ,j8, 139
alovo, 5-4. 59. 81; 10,. 1111 ,!aDU, stAti, 171 wttejl, svelej1f, 84; 136 teneto, plllT: ten.ata, 87; 106
liovu, ,lull, 40. 81; 158 starosta, I 12 avietiti, So tepati, s" tepu
aIllbiti~. 183 slAti, lU stoju II.tId s!anu; ilIf.: 167 sv6j, M, wt, 129 teplo, 107
dUditi, 183 stblo, 91 ,tvie st, So tepu, tepati, 147, 157
duh., lilt IItblo (!Md.), 9!1 sudf, 110, "4 teraz (Slovak), 138
lluch,61 Itehuju,ltehovati, 13; 16g .Ulofie, 110 taati, S" tdu
dub,lll -It8ati, 182 lVeUev, svarvy, u6 teslo, 38; 106
aluUju, tluUli, 16,5 sldu, stlati, 160 ayn, 49; 11.5 tat, 124
.hlti, IN slovu stalmu, staknuti, 162 synagoga, I 12 tdu, tesati, 13, 38; 147, 1..,8, 160
altchati,8 1 stMu, stMiti, 13,28; 1408, 16? synu, lIOC. sing., 105 tekaju, I~kati, 13
llylu. , lyUti, 81; ,66 stiekati K, 77 IYPU, sypati (mad.), 83; 157 Itleso (mod.), 121
am~ju. unieti, aM amlti, 165 stidl·,36 ituka, II1 tMu, tMeti, 166
am!ju K, ,mieti.e, 1.59 --suerati, IS2 led, k<l!i, 1 76 ti,5 2
amieti sE, Jlf sm~ju stihnu, stihnliti, 147, 1..,8, 162 Idu II.tId Uu, siati, 160 tiehnuti, m tabu
am6la, III stIati, SN .tdu kst:9, 129 tieme, 118
Imrl, 41,89; 123 110, 27, 74; /06 lclfiti, 35 _tierati, 182
In'ch, vc - (mod.), 104 slOju, stati, ,6, 82; 166 liju II.IIl.I !iu, Uti, 49. '47, 148, '59 tieti, SII tnu
Inacha, 9!1j 105 lif, 124 tie~u se, tazati K, 160
stoletl, plur.: stalet! (nwd.), 110
lIlcm, 92 ston, 42; 102 lit, !it:9, 95. 129 tich9, 33
In~hory. 118, .54; 1119 st6iiu, stonati, 13; 160 Jiu, see Jiju tis, 33
INDEX .0 •
• 80 INDEX
tUi~c. 108, 116, 173 uboh1. 130 vu, -tBi 137 vhva, 52
risk, 81 ubytuju, ubytovati, 13; 16g vU, vue, vale, 139 vchod, 105
tUk, tiaUi, 176 utesati, 183 vtzati, 183 vid, 51, 60
tisknu, ti$knuti,81; 16~ uliniti, 183 v.i.znu, vaznuti, 164, 183 vid_, vidua, 173
tknu, tknuti, 162 Odaj (1)NId.), 85 vazu (I), vaditi, -tBi 167 vid&lt, 129
tku (I), Itieti, 153 ud!lati, 183 vazu (2), viesti tItId viati, 1511 vidl:ti, IN vizu
tku (2). tkiti, 154 uhd,I24 _WUti, 1811 vidh', vid!vli, 1']6
tlupa. B9 dhd, 23. 43. 73. 91; IO~ wova, 17, 30, 41, 50 (twiu), 91; III vidin_, 94; III
_9' Uhry, 103 ve<:e, '7 1
vidom1, 129
Inu, lieu, 32, 57; 155 ucho, 31; 107 vcter, lOll, 104
tobl,60 ulice (mH.), 113 veten (mCId'.: vetefe), 104 viece, 144
tok, 77, 99 vettrO$, 138 viem, ved~ti, 511; 171, 173
Ulob, "
lolilr.o,139 um,811 ved, vedJi, 1']6 viera, 46, 95; III
tonu, tonuti, 32; 163 umo!;ju, umo!;ti, 165 ved', vedo!;, 80 -vierati, 182
lopiti, :ill umieraju, umierati, 58 ved.nj, 1119 vieste, 33
tradicc: (mod.), 113 Umrt, 89; 1113 ved1e, 1411 viesti, viezti, IN VllZU
trava, I11 umrtviti, 13 vedu, vbti, 15, 33; lpj, 149, 180 vieti, IN vlje
traviti,82 unaviti, 183 (ana{l>sis) vielu, vhat;, 160
treUo, 106 .mor, 105 vejce (mod.), log viju tmd viu, vlti, 46; 159
treskcu, tresktati, 160 uptci, 163 yell, 136 viJu, vis!ti, 166
tresl, 9' j 1:14 uplt3ti, 183 Velikonoce, 115, 116 vitaju, vitati, 168
Irhaju, Irhati t 44 uprostted. 1411 velikj, 130 vhr (mDd.), 105
trhnu, trhnuti, 162 utad, 105 velim, 144 viu, IN viju
1rn,8g uslyio!;ti, 183 vizu, vid~ti, 13,80; 147, 1-tB, 166
vdm~, 143
tr6j, 129 Wlnu, usnuti, 163 vdmi,l44 vladu, vluti, 149
trovu, tnlti, 82 Wltav, 105 vdu, veleti, 160 vlAdyka, 112
Irpju, trpeti. '3: 166 o.stie, 110 ven, 33 vlak, 64, 78, g6
tru, tfieti, 57; '47. 1411. '56, '75 ustU.ti, 183 venkov, 105 vlUti, III vladu
trull, 117 Usvit,6o ves ('village'), 91; 1113 vitci, St, vldr.u
Wti t III trovu u!i (m ucho), 31, 53; 107, lU ves, vd (,all'), 13~ -vl&ati, 78
tfasu, tfiati, 152 ullti, 183 vc:slo, sS; 106 vldr.u, vlta, 611, ,8; 149
IteU, 91 j 131 ulitj (IVMdr.), 1119 vcsna, I1I vlk, ,8, 8g
ttfmcn,63 uterdr. (mod.), 105 vbti.suveduandvexu;Uif.: 181 vina, 23, 8g; I t I
ttmka,63 ulerj, ?4 vettas, 138 vlnaf, 108
tltp.23 utBiti, 183 vtvoda, 112 vinatj, 1119
tift, 175 utidr.aju, utidr.ati, sS vezmu, V1ieti, 155 vniblu, vniknuti, 1611
tfie, tfi t 27. 51; u,J. 124 utieraju, utierati, sS vezu, v&.ti, 13, 118, 38, 40; 147. 1-tB, vnii, 143
tfiesti, ut tfasu uvid~ti, 183 149; Uif.: 181 vnovl: (mod.), 1118
Ilieti, IU tru uvnitf (mCId'.), 1411 vb:. 124 vnutt, 119
00, 3B, 43 w:fieti, 163 v~I, 136 vflu!, 143
tutny, 129 U!bt, 1113 vb::l,80 v6ti, 14\1
tur, 52, 53. 59; IOZ uiina,47; III vb::la, vb::luci, 173 voda, III
tuHt 131 vMl, 80; 171 vodnl,13'
tv6j, lva, tv~, 129 v, ve, 1411 (Iwic,) vb::l~ti, IN viem v61,1115
Imy. 136 v;l.bju, vabiti, 116 vb::lom, 174 volaju, volati, 13; 148
Iy ('thou'). 27. 49 -v;l.do!;ti, 1811 vkhet, 11111 vole, 119
tyju, 'yli t 159 vaditi, Ul va:w vo!;je, vieti, 159 v6le, 86, 95; 113
tykati si! (mod.: - se), 63 vadnu, vadnuti, 147, 164 vo!;nO,33 v6li, k -,1411
vajce,.s; log ,,~rny, 1119
VOIla, 311; III
v;l.l, g6 vo!;tev,911
1I6:t, 24 za, 14,2 (Uuu times) zuuditi, 183 feru, friti, 1,50
1Iofu, V():titi, 13; 147, 148, 167; iItf.: 181 zablUditi, 183 :tub, 711, 79 f9,46
1Iracu, vni..titi, 13, 33; 167 zabu, ziebsti, 79; 152 :tuju, zuti, 1,59 t~leju, Uleti, 13,28,46; 165
1Irana, I I I zada, 107 :tufivr, 53 thu, Uci, 153
vnUka, 6,5 zaklad, 105 :tviti, '" Z()VU ticti, su (I) filu, (2) tmu
vrata, 65, 78 zaiI:on, 105 :tvH, 46; 123, 124 (twiu) fOa, 28
vratiti, su vni..cu zamane, third sint·, ~l1ti, itif., 164 zvHina, I11 flli,,u tivu
vrci, UI vrhu zamietaju, umietati, 58 :tvict!, 87; lOO, T1g liv, tivt, 47; 1:<19
vrcu, mfti, 166 zapad, 1041 105 zvnu, :tvn!ti, 166 _flvati, 182
1Irl!fti, 8g zaplatiti, 183 w,n.g6 fivot, 44; 104, 105
vrhu, vrci, 153 p,pomanu, zapomandti, 164 lamu K,lamUti K, 164 fivu, tlti, 147, l,.s, 15
1Ircb, 1115 zasedaju, :taSb:Iati, 58 fdu, fditi, 147, 154 flab, lU lltb
,,"Iev, 126 zastierati, 182 febro (mod.) , I " febro; 107 lLiza, I " U&a
vntvl, 126 zastficti, 1811, 183 feci, see thu lltb, flab, 23, 62
vnfti, 78 :tavieraju, u.vierati, ,58 idud,11I4 II&a,4 1
vru, vtieti, 1,56 :tavolati, 183 fclva, 126 lmu, ficti, 15,5
vf~leno, 23, 63, 78 :tavru, :tavtieti, 156 fen,:f:di, 116 li'lu, fieri, 13, 57; 147, 1411, 160
vfieti, SII vru zazvor,7 1 fena, I I I lri.ti, UI fcru
vldina (1Md.), 74- zde, 143 fenu, hnati, 57; 150 ltt, 92
viI:t (mod.), 105 zdrav, zdrlry, 78 fcravt, 77 lviti, IU luju
vy, 60; 137 zed, 1114 fert (mod.), 92 luju, tV>1ti, 28; 1,59
vy-, 142 zcm (mod.), 113
vti>!r, 77 zcm~nln, 108, 117
vybo.ti, 183 dbcl, see zabu
vydra,4-9 ;dju, :tieti, 116; 159
vychiz!ju,vychaz~ti, 168 ;dC, 28, 70; 1113, 1114
vtchod, 104-, 105 z.iebsti, I" :tabu
vyju, vjti, 159 -zicrati, 182
vyk, g6 z.ieti, see ~ju
1Iyklad, 105 rima, 118, 95; I11
rykl\1diti, 183 zltfek (mod.), 105
ryknu, ryknuti, 162 zjcv (mod.), 85
vtm~, 33; 118 zbatka, 143
vym~niti, 183 dc, Ulm/NUtllioe: 144
vyplti, 183 zly, umjHutltiw; 136
vypravtju, vypriv~, 168 znaju, znAti, 168; inj.: 179
vysokt, 136 z:namcnie, 110, 114
V)"tlfliti, 183 z.ru1ti, itif.; 179, su znaju
n,I42 znova (mod.) , 1118
nbuditi, 183 :l:obu, :tObati, 157
vuior, 142 :l:ovu,:t",ati, 147, 154
vuivihnu K, ...m.vihnl1ti ,~, 162 zpod, 142
ndychati,81 zplijieti, 183
nicti, III vt:l:mu; inj.: 181 zprmtfieti, 183
nplodili, 183 uakoma, 105
npomanu, vzpomanuti, 164 :z:rnaty, 129
vnlraiiti, 183 zmo, 23, 26, 28, 59, 89; 106
vzV>1zati, 183 zfu, zneli, 166
ztratiti, 183
:t, ze, 1411 :ttmu, zlmuli, 311; 163