Theory
THREE
COMPONENTS OF A
DYNAMIC DIRECT
CURRENT CIRCUIT
VOLTAGE
DIFFERENCE IN POTENTIAL OR
ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE THAT
CAUSES ELECTRONS TO MOVE
FROM ONE POINT TO ANOTHER
THE SYMBOL FOR VOLTAGE IS
"E"
UNIT OF MEASURE IS
"VOLT"
CURRENT
THE FLOW OF
ELECTRONS
THE SYMBOL FOR CURRENT IS
"I"
UNIT OF MEASURE IS
"AMPERE"
RESISTANCE
THE OPPOSITION TO
CURRENT FLOW
THE SYMBOL FOR RESISTANCE
"R"
UNIT OF MEASURE IS
"OHM"
Ohm’s Law
George S. Ohm (a German Physicist) in the early eighteen hundreds
discovered the basic relationship between Voltage, Current and Resistance.
E
I=
R
OHM’S LAW
E E
I R I R
VOLTAGE RESISTANCE
E=IXR R=E/I
THE CURRENT IS DIRECTLY PROPORTIONAL
TO THE VOLTAGE APPLIED TO A CIRCUIT
OR
AS THE VOLTAGE INCREASES OR DECREASES
THE CURRENT WILL INCREASE OR DECREASE
CURRENT
CURRENT
INCREASE
VOLTAGE
INCREASE
CURRENT VS. VOLTAGE
RESISTANCE CONSTANT AT 2000 OHMS
0.01
0.008
CURRENT
0.006
0.004
0.002
0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
DC VOLTS
THE CURRENT IS INVERSELY PROPORTIONAL
TO THE RESISTANCE IN A CIRCUIT
OR
AS THE RESISTANCE INCREASES THE CURRENT WILL
DECREASE
AND AS THE RESISTANCE DECREASES THE CURRENT
WILL INCREASE
DECREASES
t a nc e
Resis
ur r e nt
C INCREASES
FIXED
VOLTAGE
CURRENT vs. RESISTANCE
VOLTAGE CONSTANT AT 12 VDC
0.014
0.012
0.01
CURRENT
0.008
0.006
0.004
0.002
0
1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
RESISTANCE
SERIES CIRCUIT
A CIRCUIT THAT HAS ONLY ONE PATH
FOR CURRENT TO FLOW
TYPICAL SERIES CIRCUIT
FIRST LAW OF
SERIES CIRCUITS
INDIVIDUAL RESISTANCE IN
A SERIES CIRCUIT ADD UP TO
THE TOTAL CIRCUIT
RESISTANCE
RESISTANCE IN A SERIES
CIRCUIT
R2 = 3 Ohms RT = 18 Ohms
RESISTORS IN SERIES
R3 = 9 Ohms
The sum of all three resistors adds up to
the total circuit resistance
SECOND LAW OF
SERIES CIRCUITS
CURRENT HAS THE SAME
VALUE AT ANY POINT IN A
SERIES CIRCUIT
THIRD LAW OF
SERIES CIRCUITS
THE INDIVIDUAL VOLTAGE DROPS
ACROSS RESISTANCE ADD UP TO THE
TOTAL SYSTEM VOLTAGE
Parallel Circuits
+
12 VDC
_
Parallel Circuits
A circuit connected so that there is current in two or more
parallel branches. The branches are said to be in parallel when they
have common connections at each end and the same voltage across
the branches.
First Law of
Parallel Circuits
THE TOTAL RESISTANCE IN A
PARALLEL CIRCUIT IS ALWAYS
EQUAL TO OR LESS THAN THE
SMALLEST RESISTOR IN THE
CIRCUIT:
Parallel Circuit using
only two resistors
3 Ohms
+
6 Ohms
12 VDC
_
R1 x R2 3X6 = 18
R= = 2 Ohms
or 3+6 9
R1 + R2
2 Ohms
Parallel Circuits
with three or more +
resistors : 3 Ohms _
1 9 Ohms
= Total R
1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3
Step 1 Step 3 1
1
.9446
1/2 + 1/3 + 1/9
FLUKE 77 MULTIMETER
12 vdc
0 10 20 30
RANGE HOLD
mV Ω
+
V
V
A
12 VDC
OFF A
_
5r4r
300
mA VΩ
!
600V CAT
1000V CAT
10A COM
FUSED
3rd Law of Parallel
Circuits The total current in a Parallel circuit,
is equal to the sum of the current
flowing in the individual branches !
FLUKE 77 MULTIMETER
0 10 20 30
RANGE HOLD
mV Ω
V +
V A
OFF
5r4r A
_
300
mA VΩ
!
600V CAT
1000V CAT
10A COM
FUSED
All electrical circuits , no matter
how complicated , can be
broken down into one of three
different types !
1. Series
2. Parallel
3. Series/Parallel
COMPONENT DESCRIPTION
AND THEORY OF OPERATION
SOLENOID
OPERATION
SOLENOID OPERATION
CORE PLACEMENT
SINGLE
ACTING
DOUBLE ACTING
RELAY
OPERATION
AND CONSTRUCTION
MOVEABLE
CORE 
+
NONMOVABLE
CORE

RELAYS:
INSIDE A BOSCH 12V RELAY:
30 Spring
86
30
85
85 86
87A
87A
87 30
87A 87
87
30 = + OR COMMON 85
86
85 =  OR NEG. / GROUND
86 = + OR POSITIVE
K25
87 = N/O CONTACT
87A = N/C CONTACT
Arc Suppression
Diode
DIODE OPERATION
AND TESTING
ANODE CATHODE
Diode Testing
+
ANODE CATHODE
ANODE CATHODE
FLUKE 77 MULTIMETER
Multimeter
0
RANGE
10
HOLD
20 30
Basic Functions
Ω
V A
OFF
5r4r A
procedures
300
mA VΩ
!
600V CAT
1000V CAT
10A COM
FUSED
Resistance test
FLUKE 77 MULTIMETER
12.3 Ω
Resistance = Ω
0 10 20 30 Unit of measure = Ohms
RANGE HOLD
mV Ω
V
V A
red
OFF
5r4r A
300
mA VΩ
!
600V CAT
1000V CAT
10A COM
FUSED
black
mV Ω
Rev. or Fwd. bias = .000 =Bad (Shorted)
V
V A red
OFF
5r4r A
300
mA VΩ
!
600V CAT
1000V CAT
10A COM
FUSED
black
Continuity test
FLUKE 77 MULTIMETER
RANGE HOLD
mV Ω
Meter reads .OL = Open circuit
V
red
V A
OFF
5r4r A
51A
300
mA VΩ
!
600V CAT
1000V CAT
10A COM
FUSED
black