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# Republic of the Philippines

Region 02
Department of Education
Division of Cagayan
BAYBAYOG HIGH SCHOOL
Baybayog, Alcala, Cagayan

## “ pq ” in front of the MIRROR

I. Objectives:
a. define mirror equation;
b. solve problems applying the mirror equation;
c. appreciate the importance of describing the image quantitatively using
mirror equation.

Describing the distance of the object and the image in front of the mirror is better
understood when done quantitatively. Mirror equation is used in expressing quantitatively
how far or how near an object/image in front of the mirror. It is defined mathematically as
the reciprocal of the focal length is equal to the sum of the reciprocal of the distance of the
object and the image distance.

## In symbols, 1/f = 1/p + 1/q where f = focal length

p= distance of the object
q= distance of the image
All the quantities are expressed in centimetres or metres.

Remember this!
Sign Conventions for Mirror
 f is + if it is concave mirror
 f is - if it is convex mirror
 q is + if it is real, and located in front of the mirror
 q is – if it is virtual, and located at the back of the mirror
 p is always + in both types of mirror

## Let’s try this for CONCAVE MIRROR

1. An object is located 30 cm in front of a concave mirror whose focal length is 6 cm. At
what distance will the image form?

Mirror: concave
p= 30 cm
f = 6 cm

q=?
Step 3. SOLUTION

## 1/f= 1/p + 1/q

q = p x f/p - f
= 30 cm x 6 cm/30 cm - 6 cm
= 180 cm2/24 cm
= 7.5 cm in front of the mirror, real, and inverted.

## 1. A magnified, inverted image is located at a distance of 25 cm from a concave mirror

with a focal length of 12 cm. What is the object distance?

## 2. A 5 cm tall birthday candle is placed at a distance of 20 cm from a concave mirror

with a focal length of 5 cm. Find for the image distance. Describe the image as to
position and type.

## This time, let’s have CONVEX MIRROR

1. Determine the focal length of a convex mirror that produces an image that
appears 25 cm behind the mirror when the object is 30 cm fr.om the mirror.

Mirror: convex
p= 30 cm
q = 25 cm

f=?

Step 3. SOLUTION

## 1/f= 1/p + 1/q

1/ f= p x + (-q) /p (- q )
= 30 cm + (- 25 cm)/30 cm (- 25 cm)
= 5 cm/-750 cm2
= -100 cm
The negative value for focal length confirms that the mirror used is a convex mirror.
Let’s try the…….

EASY LEVEL

2. What is the image distance of an object placed 40 cm from the convex mirror with
a focal length of 11 cm?

AVERAGE LEVEL

## 3. A 9 cm tall candle light is placed a distance of 38 cm from a convex mirror having a

focal length of - 13 cm. Find for the image distance.

Republic of the Philippines
Region 02
Department of Education
Division of Cagayan
BAYBAYOG HIGH SCHOOL
Baybayog, Alcala, Cagayan

## “pq” in front of a LENS

I. Objectives:
a. define lens;
b. solve problems applying the lens equation;
c. appreciate the importance of describing the image quantitatively using lens
equation.

Lenses are transparent materials made of glass or plastic that refract light rays and
focuses them at a point. There are two types of this, the concave and convex lens.
Convex lens is thicker at the center than the edges. It is called diverging lens
because the light that passes through it tends to converge at the focal point. It forms a real
and virtual images depending on the position of the object.
Concave on the other hand is called diverging lens because the light that passes
through it tends to diverge at the focal point. It always form an upright and reduced image. It
is thicker at the edges than at the center. Both lenses make use of mirror and magnification
equations, called the lens equation.

For mirror equation, the relationship of f, q, and p in concave and convex lenses can be
expressed as 1/f = 1/p + 1/q
where p = distance of the object
q = distance of the image

For magnification equation, the relationship of h, h’, p and q can be expressed as h/h’ = -q/p
where h = height of the object
h’ = height of the image

## Note: For virtual image, q is negative

For concave lenses, both f and q are negative
All are expressed in centimetres (cm)

Let’s do this!
1. Find the image distance and image size of a 6 cm candle light placed a distance of 20 cm
from a convex lens with a focal length of 10 cm.

## Step 1. Identify the GIVEN

Lens: convex
p= 20 cm
h = 6 cm
f = 10 cm
Step 2. Identify the UNKNOWN
q=?
h’= ?

Step 3. SOLUTION

## 1/f= 1/p - 1/p

1/ q= 1/f - 1 /p
= 1/10 cm – 1/20 cm
= 20 cm-10 cm/10cm x 20 cm
= 20 cm

h’/h =- q/p

## h’= 6 cm (-20 cm)/20 cm

h’= -6 cm
The negative value for image height indicates that the image is an inverted image.

## Try this challenge!

2. What is the image distance and image height for a 10 cm tall object placed 50 cm from a
convex lens having a focal length of 10 cm?

## For concave lens

1. Calculate the image distance and image size of a 5 cm tall candle light placed a distance of
4 cm from a concave lens with a focal length of 7 cm?

Lens: concave
p = 4 cm
h = 5 cm
f = -7 cm

q=?
h’= ?

Step 3. SOLUTION

## 1/f= 1/f - 1/p

1/ q= 1/-7 cm - 1 /4
= 4 cm + 7 cm/- 7 cm x 4 cm
= 11 cm/-28 cm2
= -2 56 cm
For image height,

h’/h = - q/p

h’ = h(-q)/p
= 5 cm (- 2,56 cm)/4 cm
= -3. 20 cm

## Try this challenge!

2. A 5.5 cm diameter coin is placed a distance of 30 cm from a concave lens that has
a focal length of -10 cm. What is the image distance and image height of the object?
Republic of the Philippines
Region 02
Department of Education
Division of Cagayan
BAYBAYOG HIGH SCHOOL
Baybayog, Alcala, Cagayan

## The Big 3 of EM Wave

I. Objective:
a. state the relationship among wave speed, frequency and wavelength;
b. solve problems applying the equation of frequency;
c. appreciate the importance of knowing the frequency, speed and wavelength
of the different types of EM wave.

Electromagnetic wave is a type of wave that can travel with or without a medium.
They travel in a vacuum at a speed of 300 000 000 m/s which is known as the speed of light.
Since all EM waves have the same speed and that is the speed of light, as
wavelength increases, the frequency of the wave decreases. The wave speed, frequency and
wavelength are related with each other as indicated by the equation,
V= 𝜆f where: v= speed of a wave expressed in m/s
f= frequency expressed in hertz or cycle/s or vib./s
𝜆 = wavelength expressed in metres (m)

f 𝝀

## Let’s try this problem!

1. Find the frequency of a radio wave with a wavelength of 30 cm?

𝜆 = 30 cm

## Step 2. Identify the UNKNOWN

f=?
Step 3. SOLUTION

f= v 𝝀
f = 300 000 000 m/s x 30 m
= 9 000 000 000 Hz

## 3. What is the wavelength of a light wave with a frequency of 0.000 02 Hz?

Activity 3. I and B
I. Objectives:
a. describe the direction of the magnetic field(B) and current (I);
b. draw the direction of the current (I) when the direction of the magnetic field is
counterclockwise;
c. draw the direction of the magnetic field when the direction of the current is upward.