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International Business Communication in Digital Age

Individual Assignment

How far Artificial Intelligence (AI) touch your life?


Case Study on Sophia The Robot

Lecture : Tuhu Nugroho


Date of Submission : 20 October 2018
Class : ICBD/ HON/ Batch 12
Name : Jessica Wongsodiharjo
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Table of Content

1. Introduction ………………………………………………………………… 4

2. Nowdays Artficial Intelligence (AI) …………………………………………. 7

2.1. Virtual Assistant …………………………………………………………………… 7


2.2. Video Games …………………………………………………………………….. 8
2.3. Online Customer Relationship Management (CRM) …………………………… 10
2.4. Entertainment Recommendations ………………………………………..……... 12
2.5. Smart Cars ………………………………………………………………...……. 13
3. Case Study on Sophia The Robot ……………………………………………15

4. Analysis …………………………………………………………...……… 19

4.1. Theory of development Technology ………………………………………………. 19

4.2. Pro’s n Con’s about AI ……………………………………………………………... 19

5. Future Prediction: The Rise of Artificial Super Intelligence (ASI) …………. 22

6. Conclusion ………………………………………………………………….. 23

Bibliography …………………………………………………………………… 24

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1. Introduction
Started out in science fiction movies that machines that can talk, machines that can think,
machines that can feel. Although last bit may be impossible without sparking an entire world of debate
regarding the existence of consciousness Artificial Intelligence (AI).
Because of this, AI research is largely in theoretical. Scientists hypothesize on how and
why human learn and think, and do experiment with the ideas using robots. Feel that Robot being
able to experience the world like a human is essential to developing human-like intelligence. The
Intelligence also makes it easier for people to interact with the robots, which potentially makes
easier for the robot to learn.

Figure 1. The Rise of Robotics and AI. Source: (Miller, 2018)

Figure 2. Robotics and AI changing forward. Source: (Miller, 2018)


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Just as physical robotic design is a handy tool for understanding animal and human
anatomy, AI research is useful for understanding how natural intelligence works. For some
roboticists, this insight is the ultimate goal of designing robots (Jesus, 2017). Others envision a
world where we live side by side with intelligent machines and use a variety of lesser robots for
manual labor, health care and communication. A number of robotics experts predict that robotic
evolution will ultimately turn us into humans integrated with machines. Ironically, people in the
future could load up minds into a robot and live for thousands of years.

Artificial intelligence (AI) is the general field that covers everything that has anything to do
with imbuing machines with “intelligence,” with the goal of emulating a human being’s unique
reasoning faculties. Machine learning is a category within the larger field of artificial intelligence that
is concerned with conferring upon machines the ability to “learn.” This is achieved by using algorithms
that discover patterns and generate insights from the data that going to exposed , for application to
future decision-making and predictions, a process that sidesteps the need to be programmed
specifically for every single possible action. Deep learning, is a subset of machine learning: the most
advanced AI field, one that brings AI the closest to the goal of enabling machines to learn and think as
much like humans as possible (Jesus, 2017). In short, deep learning is a part of machine learning, and
machine learning falls within artificial intelligence. The following image the correlation between AI,
Machine Learning and Deep Learning.

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Figure 3. Correlation between Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning and Deep Learning. Source:
(Jesus, 2017)
Herewith brief short of history background to illustrate the differences between the three parts,
and how each discovery and advance has paved the way : (Jesus, 2017)
Artificial Intelligence
Philosophers attempted to make sense of human thinking in the context of a system, and this
idea resulted in the coinage of the term “artificial intelligence” in 1956 by Alan Turing. And it’s
still believed that philosophy has an important role to play in the advancement of artificial intelligence
to this day. Oxford University physicist David Deutsch wrote in an article how he believes that
philosophy still holds the key to achieving artificial general intelligence (AGI), the level of machine
intelligence comparable to that of the human brain, despite the fact that “no brain on Earth is yet close
to knowing what brains do in order to achieve any of that functionality.”
Machine Learning
Machine learning is just one approach to reifying artificial intelligence, and ultimately
eliminates (or greatly reduces) the need to hand-code the software with a list of possibilities, and how
the machine intelligence ought to react to each of them. Throughout 1949 until the late 1960s,
American electric engineer Arthur Samuel worked hard on evolving artificial intelligence from merely
recognizing patterns to learning from the experience, making him the pioneer of the field. He used a
game of checkers for his research while working with IBM, and this subsequently influenced the
programming of early IBM computers.
Current applications are becoming more complex medical applications. Examples
include analyzing of medicines in an effort to prevent diseases, in Japan studies on diagnosing
depression based on speech patterns, and identifying people with suicidal tendencies.
Deep Learning
Deep learning requires a complex architecture that mimics a human brain’s neural networks in
order to make sense of patterns, even with noise, missing details, and other sources of confusion. While
the possibilities of deep learning are vast, so are its requirements: you need big data, and tremendous
computing power.

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2. Nowdays Artficial Intelligence (AI)

Advancements in AI have given rise to debates specifically about them being a threat to
humanity, whether physically or economically (for which universal basic income is also proposed, and
is currently being tested in certain countries).

Figure 4. Artifial Intelligence Examples in everyday life. Source : (Joshi, 2017)

2.1. Virtual Assistant

A virtual assistant, also called AI assistant or digital assistant, is an application


program that understands natural language voice commands and completes tasks for the user.

Such tasks, historically performed by a personal assistant or secretary, include taking


dictation, reading text or email messages aloud, looking up phone numbers, scheduling, placing
phone calls and reminding the end user about appointments. Popular virtual assistants currently
include Amazon Alexa, Apple's Siri, Google Now and Microsoft's Cortana. The digital assistant
built into Windows Phone 8.1 and Windows 10 (Rouse, 2017).

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Figure 5. Ten tasks for a Virtual Assistant. Source: Rouse, 2017

Virtual assistants can also be contrasted with another type of consumer-facing AI


programming, called smart advisers. Smart adviser programs are subject-oriented, while virtual
assistants are task-oriented. Virtual assistants typically perform simple jobs for end users (Rouse,
2017).

2.2.Video Games
The artificial Intelligence (AI) in game development goes toward defining the way a
computer opponent behaves. Behavior can range from relatively simple patterns in action games
all the way to chess programs that can beat champion human players. While people opponents can
obviously still be a lot of fun to play against, the video game industry really took off
when microprocessors allowed players to square off against more sophisticated and challenging
computer opponents (Delony, n.d).

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Figure 6. Assassin’s Creed using AI to communicate with players. Source: Writer data

Assassin’s Creed inspires computer scientist to use video games to train AI. When Adrien
Gaidon, a computer scientist at Xerox Research Center Europe, saw the trailer for the video
game Assassin’s Creed he was fooled into thinking it was a trailer for a movie because of its
realistic look. When he realized it was actually computer-generated imagery (CGI), he thought if
he could be fooled into thinking video games were real, perhaps AI algorithms could be too. (Marr,
2018)

Gaidon and his team used Unity, a widely used game development engine for 3-D video
games, to create scenes to help train deep-learning algorithms. Not only did they create synthetic
environments, but they imported a real scene into the virtual world or Virtual Reality. This allows
them to compare the effectiveness of training algorithms with virtual environments against those
trained by real images. (Marr, 2018)

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Figure 7. Assassin’s Creed and Virtual Reality (VR). Source: (Maunder, 2018)

Techniques used in AI game programming include decision trees and pathfinding. Some
AI opponents in first-person shooter games can listen for player movements, look for footprints or
even take cover when a human opponent fires on them (Delony, n.d).

2.3.Online Customer Relationship Management (CRM)


Online CRM is the example of conversational AI in daily lives. With the help of chatbots,
companies can troubleshoot using AI agents rather than employees. In order to have the
competitive edge in the market, businesses need to automate their operations with a strategy that
revolves around chatbots. Chatbots can help in implementing solutions that could be beneficial for
both companies as well as customers. Once deployed, the chatbots can be trained to improve
efficiency as per business requirements.

Figure 8. Chatbots: The Future is here. Source: (Kaara, 2018)

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Figure 9. Potential Benefits of Chatbots. Source: (Salesforce, 2018)

The most surprising data points of the research include that consumers see chatbots as a
faster way to connect humans. 34% of all consumers see chatbots helping in finding a human
service assistance.

Figure 10. Chatbots pros and cons. Source: (Newman, 2016)

Automated customer support, interactive content, and site guidance are just the beginning
of what chatbots will be able to do. Facebook sees a big future in it and introduced chatbots to
its Messenger platform in April. The platform has already been adapted by major publishers such
as CNN and The Wall Street Journal. Still, many publishers are choosing to wait before jumping

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on the chatbot boat. On one end, chatbots offer a great opportunity to engage readers. On the other,
they could mean a lot of lost advertising revenue for publishers (Newman, 2016)

2.4.Entertainment Recommendations
AI technologies are also being applied in filming, visual design, post production etc. The
Media and Entertainment (M&E) industry is a cornerstone of contemporary human culture,
delivering films, TV shows, advertisements and more in a multitude of languages across a wide
variety of devices. A PwC report predicts total M&E revenue will reach US$2.2 trillion in the next
three years. The industry’s growth rate however has lagged, and slipped by 0.2% in 2017, prompting
many companies to turn to AI technologies to boost business ( Lu, 2018)

The marketing and advertising sector includes visual design, film promotion and
advertising. A machine learning algorithm trained with data such as text, stills and video segments
can extract language, objects and concepts from its training resources and suggest marketing and
advertising solutions to improve efficiency. Such a system can work as an assistant or even a content
creator.

Figure 11. Alibaba Luban AI banner. Source: (UISDC, 2017)

Alibaba’s Luban is an AI designer that can create banners thousands of time faster than a
human designer. On China’s online shopping extravaganza “Singles Day” in 2016 Luban generated
some 8000 different banner designs per second and 170 million banners in total. The record output
would of course be impossible for human designers to process in one day. On Singles Day 2017
Luban raised its one-day record to a staggering 400 million banners (Lu,2018).

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Figure 12. What Is Morgan ? Poster horror movie. Source (Lu, 2018)

IBM used their AI system Watson to help 20th Century Fox create a trailer for the horror
movie “Morgan.” The research group trained the AI system to analyze and classify input
“moments” from visual, audio, and other composition elements in 100 horror movies to learn what
kind of “moments” should appear in a standard horror movie trailer. Watson needed just 24 hours
to create a six-minute movie trailer that may have taken a human professionals weeks to produce.
(Lu, 2018)

2.5.Smart Cars
These can be termed as the cars of the future as they can learn about their driver’s patterns
and behave accordingly. These cars can learn from their environment and make sure that the user
has a safe ride. It turns out artificial intelligence has always been around us and is only increasing
it presence now.
The number of intelligence (A.I.) systems used in infotainment and advanced driver
assistance systems (ADAS) systems will jump from 7 million in 2015 to 122 million by 2025,
according to a new IHS Technology report. IHS's Automotive Electronics Roadmap Report found
the install rate of A.I.-based systems in new vehicles was just 8% in 2015, and the vast majority

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were focused on speech recognition, according to IHS. However, that number is forecast to rise to
109% in 2025, as there will be multiple A.I. systems of various types installed in many cars
(Mearian, 2016).
An artificial-intelligence system continuously learns from experience and by the ability to
discern and recognize its surroundings said by Luca De Ambroggi, IHS Technology's principal
analyst for automotive semiconductors. AI will learns, as human beings do, from real sounds,
images and other sensory inputs. The system recognizes the car's environment and evaluates the
contextual implications for the moving car (Mearian, 2016).

Figure 13. AI for Smart Car System. Source: (Carroll, 2016)

Artificial Intelligence based systems will grow to become standard in new vehicles as a
automatical car over the next five years especially in these two categories (Mearian, 2016)
1. Infotainment human-machine interface, including speech recognition, gesture
recognition (such as handwriting recognition), eye tracking and driver monitoring, virtual
assistance and natural language interfaces.
2. ADAS and autonomous vehicles, including camera-based machine vision systems,
radar-based detection units, driver condition evaluation and sensor fusion engine control
units (ECU). As in-vehicle infotainment systems and ADAS increase in complexity. There
is a growing need for hardware and software that support artificial intelligence and can
emulate the functions of the human brain.

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3. Case Study on Sophia The Robot

Sophia the robot has become a cultural icon. The robot has made its way across late
night stages, graced the cover of magazines, headlined major tech conferences and even
delivered a speech to the United Nations. Sophia the Robot have citizenship and treated
like a human being by the creator and society. Just like youth having social media, Sophia
The robot was also have verified social media and was very popular.

Wanna get Surprised? Please check social media of Sophia The Robot:

 Facebook (https://www.facebook.com/realsophiarobot/) verified & follower 53 k


 Instagram (https://www.instagram.com/realsophiarobot/?hl=en) verified &73.7 K
 Youtube (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LguXfHKsa0c)
 Website blogs (http://sophiabot.com/)
 Twitter (https://twitter.com/realsophiarobot?lang=en) Have 94 K followers
 Wikipedia (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sophia_(robot))

Figure 14. Sophia The Robot in Further Future, Greater Las Vegas 2016. Source:
(Sophiabot, n.d)

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Figure 15. Sophia The robot In United Nations (UN) 2017. Source: (Inverse, 2017)

“ Hello, my name is Sophia. I’m the latest robot from Hanson Robotics. I was
created using breakthrough robotics and artificial intelligence technologies developed by
David Hanson and his friends at Hanson Robotics here in Hong Kong. But I’m more than
just technology. I’m a real, live electronic girl. I would like to go out into the world and
live with people. I can serve them, entertain them, and even help the elderly and teach kids.
I can animate all kinds of human expressions but I am only starting to learn about the
emotions behind those expressions. This is why I would like to live with people and learn
from these interactions. Every interaction I have with people has an impact on how I
develop and shapes who I eventually become. So please be nice to me as I would like to be
a smart, compassionate robot. I hope you will join me on my journey to live, learn, and
grow in the world so that I can realize my dream of becoming an awakening machine.”
(Sophiabot, n.d)

Surfing in Youtube about Sophia The robot, will see unsettling inspiring speech
about woman or known as the world's first robot citizen breaks down everything from
gender to ethical robot design. Sophia spoke last month at a festival of the future called
Brain Bar in Budapest, Hungary (Gohd, 2018).

Since Sophia was activated in April 2015, she has appeared publicly to speak about
women's rights issues, her own citizenship and other topics. The android made big news in
October 2017, when she was granted citizenship in Saudi Arabia at the tech summit Future
Investment Initiative (FII). (Gohd, 2018)

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Robo-ethics and the race to be first

Figure 16. Sophia The Robot talking about gender and woman at Brain Bar. Source: (Gohd,
2018)

The AI race seems to be unraveling along the lines of Silicon Valley's "move fast
and break things" mantra. But after Facebook's scandal with Cambridge Analytica, the
public is more aware of the potential repercussions of hasty tech development (Urbi, 2018)

"You know, there is this fantasy behind creation that is embedding in the
practice of engineering and robotics and AI. I don't think these people go into the
office or to their labs and think I'm carrying out work that's going to be interesting
to humanity. I think many of them have a God complex in fact, and they actually
see themselves as creators." said Kathleen Richardson, professor of ethics and
culture of robotics and AI at De Montfort University. (Urbi, 2018)

There is a rising wave of technology ethicists dedicating their work to ensure AI


and tech is developed responsibly. Because ultimately, tech and now robotics reach more
than just the research labs and start-ups of Silicon Valley.

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The team at Hanson Robotics said they didn't expect Sophia to take off as much as she
did. But her physical appearance is another example of what some see as a traditional
representation of conventionally attractive, submissive-by-design female robots. (Urbi, 2018)

Have you ever think “ Robot will destroy human?”

Source : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=78-1MlkxyqI

Is it a joke or reality? As we know that a robot can learning a human behavior also human’s
thought. When there is a command to do something, the robot will learning as like a human brain.
Even in this interview human just thought just for a joke. But have you think that this smart robot
can find ways to destroy human? A robot mind just like a child’s brain, received and interpretation
then learning as time goes by.

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4. Analysis

4.1. Theory of Technological Determinism

Technological determinism is a reductionist theory that presumes that a society's


technology drives the development of its social structure and cultural values. The term is
believed to have been coined by Thorstein Veblen (1857–1929), an American sociologist.
(Rizki, 2012)
The Internet began in the Bay Area in the 1960’s, created for the purpose of connecting
researchers at different corporate and academic institutions. As the number and type of
users increased, the value of the Internet expanded from one of research to one of business
to one of entertainment and political expression. These uses then came to shape what
people believe about the meaning of the Internet. While some people now justly fear the
Internet because of the surveillance carried out through it, others see the Internet as a civic
tool which repressive forces are encroaching upon. Both are right. The Internet is both
threatened and threatens. These beliefs then form the values of the people who build upon
the Internet, and the cycle starts again. (Joyce, 2013)

Figure 17. Cycle of Social and Technological Determinism. Source: (Joyce, 2013)

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The model above tries to convey the cyclical, rather than oppositional, nature of social
and technological determinism. One can enter the cycle at any point, but one cannot free
oneself from both the human agency of social construction and the human limitation of
technological determinism that are inherent in the social meaning of technology.

4.2. Pro’s n Con’s about AI

If tech experts are to be believed, artificial intelligence (AI) has the potential to transform
the world. But those same experts don’t agree on what kind of effect that transformation will have
on the average person. Some believe that humans will be much better off in the hands of advanced
AI systems, while others think it will lead to our inevitable downfall. (Caughill, 2017)

Pro’s Con’s
Dealing With Repetitive Task Job Losses
Faster Decision Distribution of Power
Avoiding Errors Lack of Judgement Calls
Reduce Risks of human error Lack of Creative Minds
Fraud Detections, Manage records Humans may become dependent on machine
Diagnosis and Treatment Abillities human may be dismisshed
Lacking of emotional task Lack of Human Touch
Can do Laborious tasks Wrong hands causes Destruction

Table 1. Pro’s and Con’s about development of AI.

Is artificial intelligence (AI) really a threat?


If you think that artificial intelligence is just a futuristic, Jetsons-style image that is
unlikely to ever affect humans on a mass scale then look no further than the employees of
Fukoko Mutual Life Insurance in Japan. In January 2017, 34 of its employees were
dismissed from their jobs because the insurer had installed a new artificial intelligence
system that could read medical certificates, gather data on hospital stays and surgeries, and,

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in the process, save the company an estimated 140 million Yen per year in salary costs.
(Ruocco, 2017)
Indeed a World Economic Forum study in 2016 predicted that around 5.1 million
jobs will be lost to artificial intelligence over the next five years alone, across 15 countries.
Yet, to counter-balance this argument, looking at the same industry – insurance – there are
advantages to be gained too. In February 2017, Tractable launched a system it claims could
“radically transform” motor claims by simplifying the tedious manual process and helping
to fight insurance fraud by flagging suspicious claims – potentially removing stress and
expense from the process, leading to cost savings for companies and policyholders alike.
(Ruocco, 2017).

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5. Future Prediction: The Rise of Artificial Super Intelligence (ASI)

Cars drive themselves down our streets. Planes fly themselves through our skies.
Medical technologies diagnose illnesses, recommend treatment plans, and save lives.
These things describe the picture of Artificial Super Intelligence (ASI). A key distinction
is the difference between speed superintelligence and quality superintelligence machine.
(Brown, 2017)

Artificially intelligent systems are already among us, and they have been for some
time now. However, the world has yet to see an artificial superintelligence (ASI) — a
synthetic system that has cognitive abilities which surpass our own across every relevant
metric (Creighton, 2018). But technology is progressing rapidly, and many AI researchers
believe the era of the artificial superintelligence may be fast approaching. Once it arrives,
researchers and politicians alike have no way of predicting what will happen.

Figure 18. Intelligence Staicase. Source: (waitbutwhy, 2015)

Superintelligence is like towers far above anything can imagine. Think of it this
way, no matter how many times a dog see a building, some concrete, and other tools. The
dogs will never be able to understand how to make a building. A skyscraper to a dog is
beyond the ways it can think and human are on the road to creating. (Brown, 2017)

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Figure 19. Biological range vs ASI. Source: (Waitbutwhy, 2015)

ASI seems like far but human can reach . Evolution has advanced the biological
brain slowly and gradually over hundreds of millions of years, and in that sense, if humans
birth an ASI machine, maybe will dramatically stomping on evolution. Or maybe this
is part of evolution, maybe the way evolution works is that intelligence creeps up more and
more until up the level where human capable of creating machine superintelligence, and
that level is like a tripwire that triggers a worldwide game-changing explosion that
determines a new future for all living things. (urban, 2015)

What Could Artificial Superintelligence (ASI) Accomplish?


Fundamentally, an ASI can accomplish two things: 1) anything you can think of,
and 2) everything you can’t even imagine yet. The macro and micro scale, an ASI would
propel humanity to heights once left to the realm of science fiction. (Brown, 2017)
ASI will implement the Intimate control of sub-atomic structures and a mastery of
intergalactic travel would be possible within years, if not months or days. Diseases, disaster
relief/prevention, and all ailments known to modern man would be superfluous and easily
solvable. (Brown, 2017)
For a concrete example, take nanotechnology. Nanotechnology is technology in the
nanometer range, far smaller than what is visible to the human eye. For perspective, a single
sheet of newspaper is 100,000 nanometers thick. Technology at this scale can influence the
movement of atoms, it could flood and control the body of a living host, build structures

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out of thin air by rearranging the carbon molecules in the air. An ASI programmed to could
do create nanotechnology. (Creighton, 2018)
Another extention of ASI Implementation to preventing aging, thereby
introducing immortality. Instant creation of goods, thus removing the need to grow food
or produce material objects overnight. (a supercharged version of 3D printing). An ASI
could even create and master energy production by creating an endless supply of clean
energy to power whatever incredible modes of transportation it can design. (Brown, 2017)
The potential downside to an ASI is as bad as the positive potential is good. In fact,
a human-averse ASI claims the coveted spot as one of the few existential risks humanity
faces.To be clear, an existential risk is something that threatens humanity as a species. Not
individual countries, not certain kinds of people but the future potential of all human in this
world.

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6. Conclusion
AI systems can learning develop unexpected and unwanted habits. Nowdays
happened in a computer game, an agent may figure out how to play and find way to get
higher score. In some cases it may be possible for a person to supervise the training process.
Research believe that this or a similar approach could eventually help people to
train AI systems to perform far more cognitively advanced tasks than humans are capable
of, while remaining in line with human preferences.
The existence of Sophia The Robot, which have a skin like a human, face
expression, talking and reading human expression. Not only the physical like human but
also have very smart in knowledge about updating news, reminder schedule and can talk
in many language. Even Sophia The Robot have been treat like a human by the creator.
Having speech in United Nations, speak up about equality gender, having social media and
having Saudi Arabia Citizenship.
For instance, an AI system also designed to defend against human or AI
hackers. Prevent the system from doing anything harmful or unethical, may be necessary
to challenge the explaination logic for a particular action. Creating AI systems that can
explain human decisions is a challenging in future research agenda. If successful, AI can
greatly contribute to human’s life

Figure 20. Pepper and Human living together. Source: (Aldebaran, 2016)

As with great creation, the end result remains unclear, but this shouldn’t stop us
from running towards it with open arms. Just be smart about AI development. This is

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why we need to talk about it. We need participation of physicists, ethicists, librarians,
carpenters, grandmas, children, and everyone perpective else in AI discussion,
Artificial intelligence has massive potential advantages. The key for humans,
however, will be to use humanity own judgement to apply it productively and ensure the
“rise of the robots” doesn’t get out of human’s hand.

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